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Sample records for quadriceps strengthening exercises

  1. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  2. A new isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise using EMG-biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin

    2014-01-01

    A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: “pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds”. Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries. PMID:25356122

  3. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and immediately following the program. Secondary outcomes include the external knee adduction moment angular impulse, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, knee and hip muscle strength, balance, functional ability, and quality-of-life. Discussion The findings will help determine whether neuromuscular exercise is superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening regarding effects on knee load, pain and physical function in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12610000660088 PMID:22141334

  4. Core strengthening exercises for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Baerga-Varela, Luis; Abréu Ramos, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    Core strengthening concepts have gained increased popularity in low back rehabilitation. Traditional low back pain rehabilitation is based on a static spine stability model and is composed mostly of modalities, stretching and strengthening exercises. More recent theories, however, include newer concepts of dynamic spinal stability, coordination and neuromuscular control. Core strengthening exercises incorporate these new concepts. Although more research is necessary, the best available evidence suggests that a core strengthening program may be beneficial in reducing pain scores, functional disability and recurrences of acute low back pain episodes. This article reviews "core" anatomy, physiologic models of spinal stability, effects, of low back pain on spinal stability, evidence-based reasoning behind core strengthening and the basic concepts involved in designing a core strengthening program. PMID:19610550

  5. Heliox increases quadriceps muscle oxygen delivery during exercise in COPD patients with and without dynamic hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Louvaris, Zafeiris; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Aliverti, Andrea; Habazettl, Helmut; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Wagner, Harrieth; Wagner, Peter; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2012-10-01

    Some reports suggest that heliox breathing during exercise may improve peripheral muscle oxygen availability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Besides COPD patients who dynamically hyperinflate during exercise (hyperinflators), there are patients who do not hyperinflate (non-hyperinflators). As heliox breathing may differently affect cardiac output in hyperinflators (by increasing preload and decreasing afterload of both ventricles) and non-hyperinflators (by increasing venous return) during exercise, it was reasoned that heliox administration would improve peripheral muscle oxygen delivery possibly by different mechanisms in those two COPD categories. Chest wall volume and respiratory muscle activity were determined during constant-load exercise at 75% peak capacity to exhaustion, while breathing room air or normoxic heliox in 17 COPD patients: 9 hyperinflators (forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 39 ± 5% predicted), and 8 non-hyperinflators (forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 48 ± 5% predicted). Quadriceps muscle blood flow was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye. Hyperinflators and non-hyperinflators demonstrated comparable improvements in endurance time during heliox (231 ± 23 and 257 ± 28 s, respectively). At exhaustion in room air, expiratory muscle activity (expressed by peak-expiratory gastric pressure) was lower in hyperinflators than in non-hyperinflators. In hyperinflators, heliox reduced end-expiratory chest wall volume and diaphragmatic activity, and increased arterial oxygen content (by 17.8 ± 2.5 ml/l), whereas, in non-hyperinflators, heliox reduced peak-expiratory gastric pressure and increased systemic vascular conductance (by 11.0 ± 2.8 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)). Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery significantly improved during heliox compared with room air by a comparable magnitude (in hyperinflators by 6.1 ± 1.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) and 1.3 ± 0.3 ml O(2)·min(-1)·100 g(-1), and in non-hyperinflators by 7.2 ± 1.6 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) and 1.6 ± 0.3 ml O(2)·min(-1)·100 g(-1), respectively). Despite similar increase in locomotor muscle oxygen delivery with heliox in both groups, the mechanisms of such improvements were different: 1) in hyperinflators, heliox increased arterial oxygen content and quadriceps blood flow at similar cardiac output, whereas 2) in non-hyperinflators, heliox improved central hemodynamics and increased systemic vascular conductance and quadriceps blood flow at similar arterial oxygen content. PMID:22879534

  6. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ? 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the combination of dynamic exercises and WBV could be used as a potential warm-up procedure before resistance exercise. PMID:25268289

  7. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Exercise in Men and Women With a History of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kuenze, Christopher M.; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sex differences in lower extremity neuromuscular function have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Research evidence supports different levels of fatigability in men and women and between patients with ACLR and healthy controls. The influence of sex on the response to continuous exercise in patients with ACLR is not clear. Objective: To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function after exercise between men and women with ACLR. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-six active volunteers (13 men [50%]: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years, height = 179.1 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 80.1 ± 9.4 kg, months since surgery = 43.5 ± 37.0; 13 women [50%]: age = 24.2 ± 5.6 years, height = 163.0 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 62.3 ± 8.3 kg, months since surgery = 45.8 ± 42.7) with a history of unilateral primary ACLR at least 6 months earlier. Intervention(s): Thirty minutes of continuous exercise comprising 5 separate 6-minute cycles, including 5 minutes of uphill walking and 1 minute of body-weight squatting and step-ups. Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, quadriceps superimposed-burst torque, and quadriceps central activation ratio before and after exercise. We performed separate 2 (sex: men, women) × 2 (time: preexercise, postexercise) repeated-measures analyses of variance for the 3 variables. Separate, independent-samples t tests were calculated to compare preexercise with postexercise change in all dependent variables between sexes. Results: A significant group-by-time interaction was present for knee-extension torque (P = .04). The percentage reduction in knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (men = 1.94%, women = ?10.32%; P = .02) and quadriceps central activation ratio (men = ?1.45%, women = ?8.69%; P = .03) experienced by men was less than that observed in women. Conclusions: In the presence of quadriceps dysfunction, female participants experienced greater-magnitude reductions in quadriceps function after 30 minutes of exercise than male participants. This indicates a reduced ability to absorb knee-joint loads, which may have significant implications for reinjury and joint osteoarthritis in women after ACLR. PMID:25243735

  8. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  9. Interactive resistance chair to promote strengthening exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We developed a strengthening exercise support system which can be remotely managed and clinically supervised via internet. Older adults may potentially benefit from such an exercise system however functionality of this system requires validation before commencement of field studies in older adults. The aim of this study was to introduce and assess validity of a prototype telerehabilitation system supporting computer-assisted home-based strengthening exercise. The system included a resistance chair with a set of movement and physiologic sensors. Real-time feedback on exercise performance was displayed on a touch screen dashboard. Personalized exercise parameters were managed by a rehabilitation team via a designated telerehabilitation site. Assessment of the system demonstrated sufficient validity in real-time identification of exercise performance and cardiovascular parameters. We concluded that the interactive resistance chair has a potential in promoting strengthening exercise and it is warranted for further evaluation in community dwelling older adults. PMID:25991131

  10. The effect of iyengar yoga and strengthening exercises for people living with osteoarthritis of the knee: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Elaine L; Conway, Allison; Glentz, Laura A; Kurland, Kristy; Galantino, Mary Lou

    This case series describes the impact of various forms of exercise on symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A group of 15 women and men performed one of the following: traditional stretching and strengthening exercises, Iyengar yoga, or no structured group exercise. Low back and hamstring flexibility and quadriceps strength and function were monitored before and after the program. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to assess subjective change after the six-week intervention period. A global assessment questionnaire was also completed by each participant and each instructor at the exit sessions to measure perceived changes in improvements since the initiation of the intervention. This study found functional changes and improvement in quality of life in traditional exercise and a yoga based approach that should encourage further comprehensive and carefully designed studies of yoga in osteoarthritis. PMID:17827096

  11. Nitric oxide and voluntary exercise together promote quadriceps hypertrophy and increase vascular density in female 18-mo-old mice.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R S; Upadhaya, Ritika; Anderson, Judy E

    2012-05-01

    Age-related sarcopenia reduces the size, strength, and function of muscle, and the diameter of muscle fibers. It also disrupts the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, dislocating nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS-1) and reducing sarcolemmal integrity. This study of quadriceps muscle in 18-mo-old mice showed that NO-donor treatment with isosorbide dinitrate (I) for 6 wk, in combination with voluntary exercise for 3 wk, increased muscle mass by 25% and stimulated cell proliferation. The resulting fiber hypertrophy was accompanied by a lower ratio of protein:DNA, consistent with myogenic-cell hyperplasia. Treatment enhanced the ratio of NOS-1:?-dystroglycan in correlation with fiber diameter, improved sarcolemmal integrity, and increased vascular density after an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor protein at 3 wk. Results demonstrate that age-related muscle refractoriness to exercise can be overcome with NO-donor treatment. Since activation of muscle stem cells and vascular perfusion are limiting factors in the maintenance, regeneration, and growth of aged muscle, results suggest the feasibility of using NO-donor drugs to combat atrophy and muscle ischemia. Improved function and quality of life from the NO-amplified effects of exercise may be useful in aging and other conditions such as disuse, insulin resistance, or microgravity. PMID:22322971

  12. Quadriceps Contusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... quadriceps contusion can sometimes lead to other problems: Myositis ossificans is a serious condition that happens when ... swelling and may be a contributing cause to myositis ossificans. Make careful use of massage. Having a ...

  13. Reliability of arterial spin labelling measurements of perfusion within the quadriceps during steady-state exercise.

    PubMed

    Fulford, Jonathan; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2016-02-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) provides a potential method to non-invasively determine muscle blood flow and examine the impact of interventions such as supplementation and training. However, it's a method with intrinsically low signal, leading to limitations in accuracy and temporal resolution. To examine these limitations, the current study measured perfusion via ASL on three occasions in the rectus femoris of 10 healthy adults, during light and moderate exercise, over three different exercise durations. For data sampled over 9 min, light intensity exercise gave an average perfusion of 35.0 ± 5.1 ml/min.100g(-1) with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 16% and single intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.67. For the moderate bout, perfusion was 51.3 ± 5.6 ml/min.100g(-1) (COV 10%, ICC 0.82). When the same data were analyzed over 5 min 24 s, perfusion was 37.8 ± 11.13 (COV 30%, ICC 0.13) during light and 49.5 ± 8.8 ml/min.100g(-1) (COV 18%, ICC 0.52) during moderate exercise. When sampling was reduced to 1 min 48 s, perfusion was 41.2 ± 13.7 (COV 33%, ICC 0.26) during light and 49.5 ± 13.6 ml/min.100g(-1) (COV 28%, ICC 0.04) during moderate exercise. For 9 min a significant perfusion difference was found between the exercise intensities; however, this was not the case for sampling over 5 min 24 s or 1 min 48 s. Such findings illustrate the potential of ASL to non-invasively monitor muscle perfusion under steady-state conditions, but highlight that extended exercise protocols are necessary in order to generate date of sufficient reliability to be able to discriminate intervention dependent perfusion differences. PMID:25587883

  14. Influence of exercise intensity on atrophied quadriceps muscle in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shoji; Obatake, Taishi; Hoshino, Koichi; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy. PMID:26696716

  15. Effect of Lumbar Stabilization and Dynamic Lumbar Strengthening Exercises in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Ha; Kim, Ha Jeong; Cho, Young Ki; Lee, Kwang Hee; Kim, Jung Hoo; Choi, Yoo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises and lumbar dynamic strengthening exercises on the maximal isometric strength of the lumbar extensors, pain severity and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Methods Patients suffering nonspecific LBP for more than 3 months were included prospectively and randomized into lumbar stabilization exercise group (n=11) or lumbar dynamic strengthening exercise group (n=10). Exercises were performed for 1 hour, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. The strength of the lumbar extensors was measured at various angles ranging from 0° to 72° at intervals of 12°, using a MedX. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) were used to measure the severity of LBP and functional disability before and after the exercise. Results Compared with the baseline, lumbar extension strength at all angles improved significantly in both groups after 8 weeks. The improvements were significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group at 0° and 12° of lumbar flexion. VAS decreased significantly after treatment; however, the changes were not significantly different between the groups. ODQ scores improved significantly in the stabilization exercise group only. Conclusion Both lumbar stabilization and dynamic strengthening exercise strengthened the lumbar extensors and reduced LBP. However, the lumbar stabilization exercise was more effective in lumbar extensor strengthening and functional improvement in patients with nonspecific chronic LBP. PMID:23525973

  16. Exercise and Quality of Life: Strengthening the Connections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed. PMID:19193547

  17. Effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the muscle strength in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of muscle strengthening exercises on the muscle strength in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, and to determine whether the beneficial effects of the exercises on the muscles strength, if any, would be maintained over the long-term. Twenty-six patients (mean: 62.8 years) with mild-to-moderate OA of the knee were instructed to perform the exercises, which consisted of once-weekly facility-based strengthening exercises of the knee extensor and flexor muscles with a Medx knee machine at the intensity of 50% of the maximum peak torque (MPT) measured at the baseline (20 timesx3 sets per week), together with daily home-based isometric strengthening exercises (setting and straight leg raising) of the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee (30 times per day). The beneficial effects of the exercises on the MPT values of both the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee that began to be observed from 3 to 6 months after the start of the exercise regimen, regardless of the gender, age, body mass index, or baseline MPT values of the muscles, were maintained for up to 1-3 years, but tended to be no longer observed at 5 years. The present study showed the short-term efficacy of combined facility- and home-based muscle strengthening exercises for the muscle strength in patients with mild-to-moderate OA of the knee, as well as the loss of the beneficial effect of the exercise regimen on the muscle strength over the long-term. PMID:17395467

  18. Exercise for patients with osteoporosis: management of vertebral compression fractures and trunk strengthening for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed

    2012-11-01

    Maintenance of bone health and quality requires mechanical strain, but the mechanical force needs to be within the bone's biomechanical competence. In osteoporosis, compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious. Therefore, absence of pain does not necessarily indicate absence of vertebral microfracture and deformity. Further, patients with previous vertebral fractures are at risk for further vertebral fractures and their associated morbidity. Exercise is a part of the comprehensive management of patients with osteoporosis and has been associated with improvement of quality of life and lowered risk of future fracture. The exercise prescription needs to match the needs of the patient. If exercise is not prescribed properly, then it may have negative consequences. In general, an exercise program, therapeutic or recreational, needs to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness. As with pharmacotherapy, therapeutic exercises need to be individualized on the basis of musculoskeletal status and an individual's exercise interest. In osteoporosis, axial strength and stability are of primary importance. In particular, a spinal extensor strengthening program should be performed with progressive measured resistance as tolerated. To address falls and fractures, an exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strength training. Proper dosing of oral cholecalciferol and calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strengthening exercises. Finally, a coordinated approach, such as the Spinal Proprioception Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program, can improve back extensor strength, the level of physical activity, and locomotion, and reduce back pain and fear and risk of falls. PMID:23174554

  19. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  20. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening.

    PubMed

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y H; Blazek, A D; Kim, D G; Tee, B C; Sun, Z; Eubank, T D; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, N L; Lee, B S; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, A L; Agarwal, S

    2015-09-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), a member of follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health. Here, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3-/-) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by ?CT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identify FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  1. The effects of respiratory muscle strengthening exercise using a sling on the amount of respiration

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to present aerobic exercise that can be performed together with respiratory muscle strength training and examine whether the vital capacity of individuals can be enhanced when respiratory muscle strength training is conducted together with aerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 male students and 8 female students. The sling exercise method was used to conduct three types of training to strengthen the muscles around the shoulder joints. A maximal respiratory quotient measurement device was used to measure the vital capacity of the subjects five times. [Results] There was a significant difference in each respiratory training time point compared with before the performance of respiratory training. [Conclusion] This study presented respiratory muscle strength training using a sling as a training method for respiratory training. PMID:26311937

  2. A new silver robot platform for the elderly and the handicapped: Spiderbot TM-posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, Aslam; Farahani, Hossein S.; Jeong, Seung-Gweon; Kim, Hyunho; Ryu, Jeha

    2005-12-01

    By using a new type of silver robot called SpiderBot TM, posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises were presented. Unlike mobile robots on a floor, SpiderBot TM is conceptualized to generate full mobility in a room and to have higher payload while generating six degrees-of-freedom for assisting daily lives of the elderly and the handicapped. A preliminary prototype of SpiderBot TM has been constructed by using incompletely restrained wire mechanism and simple control algorithms were implemented for two types of exercises for elderly people's health improvement. One is a posture balancing exercise that prevents from falling to any directions. And the other is muscle strengthening exercise that uses the SpiderBot TM as a weight lifting mechanism. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed new silver robot platform is used for such exercises.

  3. Quadriceps strength in women with a previous hip fracture: relationships to physical ability and bone mass.

    PubMed

    Madsen, O R; Lauridsen, U B; Sørensen, O H

    2000-03-01

    Associations between physical ability, level of current physical activity and bone mass were examined in 47 elderly women (mean age 80 years) who had suffered from a hip fracture 3-36 months (mean 17 months) previously. Measures of physical ability included isokinetic quadriceps strength of both the non-fractured and fractured leg, and walking and stair climbing speed. An estimate of current physical activity was made using the Northwick Park activity index questionnaire specifically designed for hip fracture patients. Bone mineral density of the spine and hip (Ward's triangle, femoral neck and trochanter) was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relationships between the measured parameters were analysed using multiple regression analyses, taking into account the confounding effects of age, height, weight and months since fracture. Quadriceps strength of the fractured leg was on average 18% lower than that of the contralateral leg (p < 0.001). Quadriceps strength of the fractured leg proved to be the most robust predictor of walking speed (Rpartial = 0.69, p < 0.0001), stair climbing speed (Rpartial = 0.46, p < 0.001) and the activity index (Rpartial = 0.56, p < 0.0001). Bone mineral density was independently predicted only by body weight (Rpartial range: 0.45-0.72, p < 0.001), not by any of the parameters of physical ability or by the Northwick Park activity index. In conclusion, quadriceps strength is markedly affected in women with a previous hip fracture and is associated with walking ability and level of physical activity. This study showed that bone mass is linked to body weight, not to physical ability and activity. Thus, the main benefit of muscle strengthening exercises in these women may be to promote mobility. PMID:10782940

  4. Strengthening Exercises Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life but Do Not Change Autonomic Modulation in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gavi, Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira; Vassalo, Dalton Valentin; Amaral, Fabian Tadeu; Macedo, Danielle Constância Felício; Gava, Pablo Lúcio; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Valim, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL) of FM patients. Methods Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990) were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX) exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon’s Bench), maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE), a short-form health survey (SF-36). Results The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). The FLEX group showed higher improvements in anxiety (p<0.05). Both groups showed improvements in the QOL, and there was no significant difference observed between the groups. There was no change in the HRV of the STRE and FLEX groups. Conclusions Strengthening exercises show greater and more rapid improvements in pain and strength than flexibility exercises. Despite the benefits in fitness, pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004405 PMID:24651512

  5. The Effect of NeuroMuscular Electrical Stimulation on Quadriceps Strength and Knee Function in Professional Soccer Players: Return to Sport after ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Taradaj, J.; Halski, T.; Kucharzewski, M.; Walewicz, K.; Smykla, A.; Ozon, M.; Slupska, L.; Dymarek, R.; Ptaszkowski, K.; Rajfur, J.; Pasternok, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction) on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40) received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500?Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50?Hz) three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments), 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months) were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment) is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741. PMID:24381943

  6. Effects of consecutive application of stretching, Schroth, and strengthening exercises on Cobb's angle and the rib hump in an adult with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] To report the effects of consecutive application of stretching, Schroth, and strengthening exercises in an adult with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subject] A 26-year-old woman with idiopathic scoliosis, Cobb's angle of 20.51°, and back pain. [Methods] The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions: 10 minutes of stretching exercises, 20 minutes of Schroth exercises, and 10 minutes of strengthening exercises. This program was implemented 3 times a week, for 8 weeks. [Results] The thoracic Cobb's angle decreased from 20.51° to 16.35°, and the rib hump decreased from 15° to 9°. [Conclusion] Consecutive application of stretching, Schroth, and strengthening exercises may help reduce Cobb's angle and the rib hump in adults with idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26355577

  7. Effects of consecutive application of stretching, Schroth, and strengthening exercises on Cobb’s angle and the rib hump in an adult with idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To report the effects of consecutive application of stretching, Schroth, and strengthening exercises in an adult with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subject] A 26-year-old woman with idiopathic scoliosis, Cobb’s angle of 20.51°, and back pain. [Methods] The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions: 10 minutes of stretching exercises, 20 minutes of Schroth exercises, and 10 minutes of strengthening exercises. This program was implemented 3 times a week, for 8 weeks. [Results] The thoracic Cobb’s angle decreased from 20.51° to 16.35°, and the rib hump decreased from 15° to 9°. [Conclusion] Consecutive application of stretching, Schroth, and strengthening exercises may help reduce Cobb’s angle and the rib hump in adults with idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26355577

  8. The effects of a community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Seong-A

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on changes in the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 46 elderly people (8 males, 38 females) aged 65 or older, who lived in a rural area and managed their daily lives independently. [Methods] The study’s exercise program was conducted 16 times for 80 minutes each session over an eight-week period. This program consisted of several exercises to strengthen muscular endurance and improve balance ability based on exercises using Thera-bands. The physical abilities of the subjects were divided into muscular endurance, upper-extremity flexibility, balance, and low-extremity agility. Each ability was measured to compare the effects of the exercise program. In addition, the Korean version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire was used to examine changes in the subjects’ quality of life. [Results] The subjects showed improvements in muscular endurance, balance, and low-extremity agility. They also exhibited an overall statistically significant improvement in quality of life scores after the exercise program. In terms of the main items, changes were observed in the areas of psychological relations, social relations, and environment. [Conclusion] The community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using the elastic band was found to improve muscular endurance, balance, agility, and quality of life of rural elderly subjects. PMID:26311926

  9. Effects of ankle strengthening exercises combined with motor imagery training on the timed up and go test score and weight bearing ratio in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Shin; Lee, Hyung Jin; You, Young Youl

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of ankle strengthening exercises combined with motor imagery training and those of ankle strengthening exercises alone in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: experimental group (15 patients) and control group (15 patients). The experimental group underwent motor imagery training for 15 minutes and ankle joint strengthening exercises for 15 minutes, while the control group underwent only ankle joint strengthening exercises for 30 minutes. Each session and training program was implemented four times a week for 4 weeks. The timed up and go (TUG) test score, affected-side weight bearing ratio, and affected-side front/rear weight bearing ratio were assessed. [Results] Both groups demonstrated improvement on the TUG test, and in the affected-side weight bearing ratios, affected-side front/rear weight bearing ratios, and balance errors. The experimental group demonstrated greater improvement than the control group in all variables. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training is an effective treatment method for improving static balance ability in stroke patients. PMID:26311971

  10. Prevalence of quadriceps muscle weakness in patients with COPD and its association with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Sidharth; Ramakrishna, Anand; Krishnan, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction COPD presents with an array of extra-pulmonary symptoms of which skeletal muscle dysfunction, particularly of the quadriceps, is well recognized. This contributes to impaired quality of life and increased health care utilization. Work on the quadriceps originated from the observation that a good proportion of COPD patients stop exercise due to the feeling of leg fatigue rather than breathlessness. This study was carried out with the aim of finding the prevalence of quadriceps weakness in a population set and correlate it with severity of COPD. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 subjects suffering from COPD aged 45 years or above. COPD severity in the subjects was graded based on the GOLD staging system. A digital hand held dynamometer (HHD) was used to measure quadriceps muscle strength. Descriptive statistics were done, and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA analysis was used for expressing the results. Results Ninety two percent of subjects were suffering from quadriceps muscle weakness. Quadriceps weakness was present in significantly high proportions even in those suffering from mild disease and belonging to a younger age group. The mean quadriceps muscle force value decreased with disease severity and this relation was found to be significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Majority of the COPD patients were found to be suffering from quadriceps weakness, which was also present in significant proportions in subjects belonging to younger age groups and suffering from mild disease. These findings indicate that onset of muscle weakness in COPD may precede the onset of symptoms. These findings suggest need for early remedial measure to prevent occurrence of associated systemic diseases. PMID:26366065

  11. Skeletal muscle alterations in chronic heart failure: differential effects on quadriceps and diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Mangner, Norman; Weikert, Bettina; Bowen, T Scott; Sandri, Marcus; Höllriegel, Robert; Erbs, Sandra; Hambrecht, Rainer; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Gielen, Stephan; Adams, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) results in limb and respiratory muscle weakness, which contributes to exercise intolerance and increased morbidity and mortality, yet the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to compare parameters of antioxidative capacity, energy metabolism, and catabolic/anabolic balance in diaphragm and quadriceps muscle in an animal model of CHF. Methods Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (n?=?13) or sham operation (n?=?11) was performed on Wistar Kyoto rats. After 12?weeks, echocardiography and invasive determination of maximal rates of left ventricular (LV) pressure change were performed. Antioxidative and metabolic enzyme activities and expression of catabolic/anabolic markers were assessed in quadriceps and diaphragm muscle. Results Ligated rats developed CHF (i.e. severe LV dilatation, reduced LV ejection fraction, and impaired maximal rates of LV pressure change; P?quadriceps in CHF rats, with glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase activity increased in the diaphragm but reduced in the quadriceps relative to shams (P?quadriceps of CHF animals. Protein expression of the E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 and proteasome activity were increased (P?quadriceps in CHF rats compared with shams. Conclusion Chronic heart failure induced divergent antioxidative and metabolic but similar catabolic responses between the diaphragm and quadriceps. Despite the quadriceps demonstrating significant impairments in CHF, apparent beneficial adaptations of an increased antioxidative capacity were induced in the diaphragm. Nevertheless, muscle ring finger 1 and proteasome activity (markers of protein degradation) were elevated and oxidative enzyme activity failed to increase in the diaphragm of CHF rats, which suggest that a myopathy is likely present in respiratory muscle in CHF, despite its constant activation. PMID:26674018

  12. Biomechanics of the knee joint in flexion under various quadriceps forces.

    PubMed

    Mesfar, W; Shirazi-Adl, A

    2005-12-01

    Bioemchanics of the entire knee joint including tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints were investigated at different flexion angles (0 degrees to 90 degrees ) and quadriceps forces (3, 137, and 411 N). In particular, the effect of changes in location and magnitude of restraining force that counterbalances the isometric extensor moment on predictions was investigated. The model consisted of three bony structures and their articular cartilage layers, menisci, principal ligaments, patellar tendon, and quadriceps muscle. Quadriceps forces significantly increased the anterior cruciate ligament, patellar tendon, and contact forces/areas as well as the joint resistant moment. Joint flexion, however, substantially diminished them all with the exception of the patellofemoral contact force/area that markedly increased in flexion. When resisting extensor moment by a force applied on the tibia, the force in cruciate ligaments and tibial translation significantly altered as a function of magnitude and location of the restraining force. Quadriceps activation generated large ACL forces at full extension suggesting that post ACL reconstruction exercises should avoid large quadriceps exertions at near full extension angles. In isometric extension exercises against a force on the tibia, larger restraining force and its more proximal location to the joint substantially decreased forces in the anterior cruciate ligament at small flexion angles whereas they significantly increased forces in the posterior cruciate ligament at larger flexion angles. PMID:15939592

  13. Effects of Stretching and Strengthening Exercises, With and Without Manual Therapy, on Scapular Kinematics, Function, and Pain in Individuals With Shoulder Impingement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Paula R; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Avila, Mariana A; Haik, Melina N; Vieira, Amilton; Salvini, Tania F

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective To evaluate the effects of an exercise protocol, with and without manual therapy, on scapular kinematics, function, pain, and mechanical sensitivity in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. Background Stretching and strengthening exercises have been shown to effectively decrease pain and disability in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. There is still conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of adding manual therapy to an exercise therapy regimen. Methods Forty-six patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups, one of which received a 4-week intervention of stretching and strengthening exercises (exercise alone) and the other the same intervention, supplemented by manual therapy targeting the shoulder and cervical spine (exercise plus manual therapy). All outcomes were measured preintervention and postintervention at 4 weeks. Outcome measures were scapular kinematics in the scapular and sagittal planes during arm elevation, function as determined through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, pain as assessed with a visual analog scale, and mechanical sensitivity as assessed with pressure pain threshold. Results Independent of the intervention group, small, clinically irrelevant changes in scapular kinematics were observed postintervention. A significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = .001) was found for scapular anterior tilt during elevation in the sagittal plane, with a 3.0° increase (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.5°, 7.5°) relative to baseline in the exercise-plus-manual therapy group compared to a decrease of 0.3° (95% CI: -4.2°, 4.8°) in the exercise-alone group. Pain, mechanical sensitivity, and the DASH score improved similarly for both groups by the end of the intervention period. Conclusion Adding manual therapy to an exercise protocol did not enhance improvements in scapular kinematics, function, and pain in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. The noted improvements in pain and function are not likely explained by changes in scapular kinematics. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02035618). Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(12):984-997. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5939. PMID:26471852

  14. Correction of camptocormia using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension brace and back extensor strengthening exercise in a patient with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byung Kook; Kim, Hyoung-Seop; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by cardinal motor features including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, freezing gait, and fatigue. Of these, postural instability in the form of hyperflexion of the thoracolumbar spine upon standing and walking that disappears on recumbent positioning is called camptocormia. Many different trials have been conducted on the treatment of camptocormia, including physiotherapy, corsets, medications, and deep brain stimulation. However, there is insufficient evidence as to which treatment modality is the most valid in terms of effectiveness, cost, safety, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we present a patient whose symptom of camptocormia was effectively resolved using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension (CASH) brace and back extensor strengthening exercise which was modified through follow-ups based on a short-term outpatient setting for proper application with minimal discomfort. The patient was satisfied with the amount of correction provided by the brace and exercise. PMID:25750882

  15. Kegel Exercises for Your Pelvic Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... strengthen the pelvic muscles, just like it takes time to improve the muscles in your arms, legs or abdomen. ... exercises can strengthen pelvic muscles. These exercises often improve bladder ... ______ times daily. I spent _____ minutes exercising. At each exercise ...

  16. Gait Biomechanics and Patient-Reported Function as Predictors of Response to a Hip Strengthening Exercise Intervention in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kobsar, Dylan; Osis, Sean T.; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Ferber, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscle strengthening exercises have been shown to improve pain and function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, but individual response rates can vary greatly. Predicting individuals who respond and those who do not is important in developing a more efficient and effective model of care for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use pre-intervention gait kinematics and patient-reported outcome measures to predict post-intervention response to a 6-week hip strengthening exercise intervention in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Methods Thirty-nine patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis completed a 6-week hip-strengthening program and were subgrouped as Non-Responders, Low-Responders, or High-Responders following the intervention based on their change in Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Predictors of responder subgroups were retrospectively determined from baseline patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic gait parameters in a discriminant analysis of principal components. A 3–4 year follow-up on 16 of the patients with knee OA was also done to examine long-term changes in these parameters. Results A unique combination of patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic factors was able to successfully subgroup patients with knee osteoarthritis with a cross-validated classification accuracy of 85.4%. Lower patient-reported function in daily living (ADL) scores and hip frontal plane kinematics during the loading response were most important in classifying High-Responders from other sub-groups, while a combination of hip, knee, ankle kinematics were used to classify Non-Responders from Low-Responders. Conclusion Patient-reported outcome measures and objective biomechanical gait data can be an effective method of predicting individual treatment success to an exercise intervention. Measuring gait kinematics, along with patient-reported outcome measures in a clinical setting can be useful in helping make evidence-based decisions regarding optimal treatment for patients with knee OA. PMID:26444426

  17. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sack, MS, PT Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for ...

  18. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  19. Quadriceps and Respiratory Muscle Fatigue Following High-Intensity Cycling in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bachasson, Damien; Wuyam, Bernard; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Tamisier, Renaud; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Exercise intolerance in COPD seems to combine abnormal ventilatory mechanics, impaired O2 transport and skeletal muscle dysfunction. However their relatie contribution and their influence on symptoms reported by patients remain to be clarified. In order to clarify the complex interaction between ventilatory and neuromuscular exercise limiting factors and symptoms, we evaluated respiratory muscles and quadriceps contractile fatigue, dynamic hyperinflation and symptoms induced by exhaustive high-intensity cycling in COPD patients. Fifteen gold II-III COPD patients (age = 67±6 yr; BMI = 26.6±4.2 kg.m-2) performed constant-load cycling test at 80% of their peak workload until exhaustion (9.3±2.4 min). Before exercise and at exhaustion, potentiated twitch quadriceps strength (Qtw), transdiaphragmatic (Pdi,tw) and gastric (Pga,tw) pressures were evoked by femoral nerve, cervical and thoracic magnetic stimulation, respectively. Changes in operational lung volumes during exercise were assessed via repetitive inspiratory capacity (IC) measurements. Dyspnoea and leg discomfort were measured on visual analog scale. At exhaustion, Qtw (-33±15%, >15% reduction observed in all patients but two) and Pdi,tw (-20±15%, >15% reduction in 6 patients) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) but not Pga,tw (-6±10%, >15% reduction in 3 patients). Percentage reduction in Qtw correlated with the percentage reduction in Pdi,tw (r=0.66; P<0.05). Percentage reductions in Pdi,tw and Pga,tw negatively correlated with the reduction in IC at exhaustion (r=-0.56 and r=-0.62, respectively; P<0.05). Neither dyspnea nor leg discomfort correlated with the amount of muscle fatigue. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise induces quadriceps, diaphragm and less frequently abdominal contractile fatigue in this group of COPD patients. In addition, the rise in end-expiratory lung volume and diaphragm flattening associated with dynamic hyperinflation in COPD might limit the development of abdominal and diaphragm muscle fatigue. This study underlines that both respiratory and quadriceps fatigue should be considered to understand the complex interplay of factors leading to exercise intolerance in COPD patients. PMID:24324843

  20. A Study on the Differences of Quadriceps Femoris Activities by Knee Alignment during Isometric Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seol; Ko, Yu-Min; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Park, Ji-Won

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to identify how genu varum or valgum affects the electromyographic activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during knee isometric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two healthy young adults were enrolled in this study. They were enrolled and classified into three groups by knee alignment conditions: the genu varum, genu valgum, and control groups. [Methods] The electromyographic activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were calculated using the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. The participants contracted their quadriceps during isometric contraction at 30 and 60° of knee flexion. [Results] The genu varum group had more activity in the vastus medialis than in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, whereas the genu valgum group had more activity in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris than in the vastus medialis. There was a significant difference in the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis by angle of knee flexion degree only in the genu valgum. There were no significant differences in any of the three groups in terms of the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the rectus femoris by angle of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The quadriceps femoris was used for different strategies according to knee alignment during isometric contraction at 30 and 60°. This study suggests that rehabilitation training programs used to strengthen the quadriceps should consider the knee alignment conditions of the target subjects. PMID:25435677

  1. A Study on the Differences of Quadriceps Femoris Activities by Knee Alignment during Isometric Contraction.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol; Ko, Yu-Min; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Park, Ji-Won

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to identify how genu varum or valgum affects the electromyographic activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during knee isometric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two healthy young adults were enrolled in this study. They were enrolled and classified into three groups by knee alignment conditions: the genu varum, genu valgum, and control groups. [Methods] The electromyographic activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were calculated using the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. The participants contracted their quadriceps during isometric contraction at 30 and 60° of knee flexion. [Results] The genu varum group had more activity in the vastus medialis than in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, whereas the genu valgum group had more activity in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris than in the vastus medialis. There was a significant difference in the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis by angle of knee flexion degree only in the genu valgum. There were no significant differences in any of the three groups in terms of the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the rectus femoris by angle of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The quadriceps femoris was used for different strategies according to knee alignment during isometric contraction at 30 and 60°. This study suggests that rehabilitation training programs used to strengthen the quadriceps should consider the knee alignment conditions of the target subjects. PMID:25435677

  2. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples. PMID:22739821

  3. Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis can help adults with mild to moderate disability, resulting from relapsing or ... Publication Exercise as Part of Everyday Life Physical activity can be a regular part of ...

  4. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  5. Recovery of gait after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Beretta, Stephannie Spiandor; Pereira, Vinicius A I; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recovery time after quadriceps muscle fatigue on gait in young adults. Forty young adults (20-40 years old) performed three 8-m gait trials at preferred velocity before and after muscle fatigue, and after 5, 10 and 20min of passive rest. In addition, at each time point, two maximal isometric voluntary contractions were preformed. Muscle fatigue was induced by repeated sit-to-stand transfers until task failure. Spatio-temporal, kinetic and muscle activity parameters, measured in the central stride of each trial, were analyzed. Data were compared between before and after the muscle fatigue protocol and after the recovery periods by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The voluntary force was decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and after 5, 10 and 20min of recovery compared to before the fatigue protocol. Step width (p<0.001) and RMS of biceps femoris (p<0.05) were increased immediately after the fatigue protocol and remained increased after the recovery periods. In addition, stride duration was decreased immediately after the fatigue protocol compared to before and to after 10 and 20min of rest (p<0.001). The anterior-posterior propulsive impulse was also decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and remained low after 5, 10 and 20min of rest. We conclude that 20min is not enough to see full recovery of gait after exhaustive quadriceps muscle fatigue. PMID:26531768

  6. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus(®). [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23-29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47-62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35-12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  7. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus®. [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23–29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47–62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35–12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  8. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

  9. Wearable Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Assessment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308

  10. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production ...

  11. Aerobic exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  12. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  13. Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs on Developing Quadriceps and Hamstrings Strength of Young Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-01-01

    Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

  14. Superior results with eccentric compared to concentric quadriceps training in patients with jumper's knee: a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, P; Alfredson, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: A recent study reported promising clinical results using eccentric quadriceps training on a decline board to treat jumper's knee (patellar tendinosis). Methods: In this prospective study, athletes (mean age 25 years) with jumper's knee were randomised to treatment with either painful eccentric or painful concentric quadriceps training on a decline board. Fifteen exercises were repeated three times, twice daily, 7 days/week, for 12 weeks. All patients ceased sporting activities for the first 6 weeks. Age, height, weight, and duration of symptoms were similar between groups. Visual analogue scales (VAS; patient estimation of pain during exercise) and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) scores, before and after treatment, and patient satisfaction, were used for evaluation. Results: In the eccentric group, for 9/10 tendons patients were satisfied with treatment, VAS decreased from 73 to 23 (p<0.005), and VISA score increased from 41 to 83 (p<0.005). In the concentric group, for 9/9 tendons patients were not satisfied, and there were no significant differences in VAS (from 74 to 68, p<0.34) and VISA score (from 41 to 37, p<0.34). At follow up (mean 32.6 months), patients in the eccentric group were still satisfied and sports active, but all patients in the concentric group had been treated surgically or by sclerosing injections. Conclusions: In conclusion, eccentric, but not concentric, quadriceps training on a decline board, seems to reduce pain in jumper's knee. The study aimed to include 20 patients in each group, but was stopped at the half time control because of poor results achieved in the concentric group. PMID:16244196

  15. Opposite effects of hyperoxia on mitochondrial and contractile efficiency in human quadriceps muscles.

    PubMed

    Layec, Gwenael; Bringard, Aurélien; Le Fur, Yann; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Vilmen, Christophe; Perrey, Stéphane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David

    2015-04-15

    Exercise efficiency is an important determinant of exercise capacity. However, little is known about the physiological factors that can modulate muscle efficiency during exercise. We examined whether improved O2 availability would 1) impair mitochondrial efficiency and shift the energy production toward aerobic ATP synthesis and 2) reduce the ATP cost of dynamic contraction owing to an improved neuromuscular efficiency, such that 3) whole body O2 cost would remain unchanged. We used (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, surface electromyography, and pulmonary O2 consumption (V?o2p) measurements in eight active subjects during 6 min of dynamic knee-extension exercise under different fractions of inspired O2 (FiO2 , 0.21 in normoxia and 1.0 in hyperoxia). V?o2p (755 ± 111 ml/min in normoxia and 799 ± 188 ml/min in hyperoxia, P > 0.05) and O2 cost (P > 0.05) were not significantly different between normoxia and hyperoxia. In contrast, the total ATP synthesis rate and the ATP cost of dynamic contraction were significantly lower in hyperoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05). As a result, the ratio of the rate of oxidative ATP synthesis from the quadriceps to V?o2p was lower in hyperoxia than normoxia but did not reach statistical significance (16 ± 3 mM/ml in normoxia and 12 ± 5 mM/ml in hyperoxia, P = 0.07). Together, these findings reveal dynamic and independent regulations of mitochondrial and contractile efficiency as a consequence of O2 availability in young active individuals. Furthermore, muscle efficiency appears to be already optimized in normoxia and is unlikely to contribute to the well-established improvement in exercise capacity induced by hyperoxia. PMID:25695290

  16. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

  17. Novel Pharmacological Properties of Dinoponera quadriceps Giant Ant Venom.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Juliana da Costa; Quinet, Yves Patric; Nonato, Dayanne Terra Tenório; Sousa, Paloma Leão; Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo; José Eduardo Ribeiro Honório Júnior; Pereira, Maria Gonçalves; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio

    2015-09-01

    The South American giant ant, Dinoponera quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae), produces proteinaceous venom that has antinociceptive, neuroprotective and antimicrobial effects, thereby supporting the popular use of these ants to treat asthma, rheumatism, earache and back pain. Anticoagulant activity is another biological property that has been shown for the venom of other hymenopteran species, like wasps. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antiplatelet properties of D. quadriceps venom (DqV). DqV anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by intravenous administration in Swiss mice in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. In vitro, DqV was assessed in coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time) and platelet aggregation tests. DqV inhibited (27-33%) the edema elicited by carrageenan and the leucocyte migration (43%) elicited by zymosan. DqV decreased by 57% and 42%, respectively, the content of malondialdehyde and nitrite in the peritoneal fluid. DqV prolonged (1.8x) the clotting time and decreased (27%) the platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate. The crude venom of D. quadriceps presents an anti-inflammatory effect in mice and in vitro anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects. PMID:26594770

  18. Fatigue and rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Greco, Camila C; da Silva, Wendell L; Camarda, Sérgio R A; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue induced by an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise on different hamstrings/quadriceps (H:Q) ratios of soccer players. Twenty-two male professional soccer players (23·1 ± 3·4 year) performed maximal eccentric (ecc) and concentric (con) contractions for knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60° s(-1) and 180° s(-1) to assess conventional (H(con) :Q(con)) and functional (H(ecc) :Q(con)) ratios. Additionally, they performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction for KE and KF, from which the maximal muscle strength, rate of force development (RFD) and RFD H:Q strength ratio (RFDH:Q) were extracted. Thereafter, subjects were performed an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise and a posttest similar to the pretest. There was significant reduction in H(con) :Q(con) (0·60 ± 0·06 versus 0·58 ± 0·06, P<0·05) and in H(ecc) :Q(con) (1·29 ± 0·2 versus 1·16 ± 0·2, P<0·01) after the soccer-specific exercise. However, no significant difference between Pre and Post exercise conditions was found for RFDH:Q at 0-50 (0·53 ± 0·23 versus 0·57 ± 0·24, P>0·05) and 0-100 ms (0·53 ± 0·17 versus 0·55 ± 0·17, P>0·05). In conclusion, H:Q strength ratios based on peak force values are more affected by fatigue than RFDH:Q obtained during early contraction phase. Thus, fatigue induced by soccer-specific intermittent protocol seems not reduce the potential for knee joint stabilization during the initial phase of voluntary muscle contraction. PMID:23216761

  19. Effects of Kinesiology Taping on Repositioning Error of the Knee Joint after Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, before and after a quadriceps muscle fatigue protocol, and after application of kinesiology tape. [Results] We found that repositioning errors of the dominant-side knee joint increased after quadriceps fatigue compared with no-fatigue conditions. However, kinesiology taping of the quadriceps muscle and patella after quadriceps fatigue significantly decreased repositioning errors of the knee joint. [Conclusion] These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue increases the repositioning error of the knee joint, whereas application of kinesiology tape decreases fatigue-induced joint repositioning error. PMID:25013297

  20. Effects of Open and Closed Kinetic Chains of Sling Exercise Therapy on the Muscle Activity of the Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle is critical in patellofemoral pain syndrome. The quadriceps muscle supplies the power for dynamic patellar movement, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) enable the patella to stabilize during tracking. We followed the theories about open and closed kinetic chain exercises to design two exercises, sling open chain knee extension (SOCKE) exercise and sling closed chain knee extension (SCCKE) exercise. The purpose of our study was to research the changes in quadriceps muscle activity during both exercises. [Methods] Electromyographic analysis was used to explore the different effects of the two exercises. The MVC% was calculated for the VMO and VL during exercise for analysis. [Results] We found that the mean MVC% values of the VMO and VL during the SOCKE exercise were higher than those during the SCCKE exercise. The ratio of the VMO to VL was 1.0 ± 0.19 during the SOCKE exercise and 1.11 ± 0.15 during the SCCKE exercise. [Conclusions] The SOCKE exercise is targeted at quadriceps muscle training and has a recruitment effect on the VMO. The beneficial effect of the SOCKE exercise is better than that of the SCCKE exercise. PMID:25276016

  1. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  2. Influence of step rate and quadriceps load distribution on patellofemoral cartilage contact pressures during running.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Rachel L; Smith, Colin R; Vignos, Michael F; Kaiser, Jarred; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-08-20

    Interventions used to treat patellofemoral pain in runners are often designed to alter patellofemoral mechanics. This study used a computational model to investigate the influence of two interventions, step rate manipulation and quadriceps strengthening, on patellofemoral contact pressures during running. Running mechanics were analyzed using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model that included a knee with six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. An elastic foundation model was used to compute articular contact pressures. The lower extremity model was scaled to anthropometric dimensions of 22 healthy adults, who ran on an instrumented treadmill at 90%, 100% and 110% of their preferred step rate. Numerical optimization was then used to predict the muscle forces, secondary tibiofemoral kinematics and all patellofemoral kinematics that would generate the measured primary hip, knee and ankle joint accelerations. Mean and peak patella contact pressures reached 5.0 and 9.7MPa during the midstance phase of running. Increasing step rate by 10% significantly reduced mean contact pressures by 10.4% and contact area by 7.4%, but had small effects on lateral patellar translation and tilt. Enhancing vastus medialis strength did not substantially affect pressure magnitudes or lateral patellar translation, but did shift contact pressure medially toward the patellar median ridge. Thus, the model suggests that step rate tends to primarily modulate the magnitude of contact pressure and contact area, while vastus medialis strengthening has the potential to alter mediolateral pressure locations. These results are relevant to consider in the design of interventions used to prevent or treat patellofemoral pain in runners. PMID:26070646

  3. Examining the Association Between Quadriceps Strength and Cognitive Performance in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Sun, Yu-Shan; Yang, Hui-Fang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Wu, Li-Wei; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidences showed impaired muscle strength was prevalent in older adults with mild cognition impairment or dementia. However, little was known about the role of quadriceps strength in the cognition decline among older population. The objective of our study was to investigate the relation between quadriceps strength and cognitive performance. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002), a total of 1799 participants aged ?60 years were enrolled in the study. Every subject completed a household interview, digit symbol substitution test (DSST), physical performances, and a questionnaire regarding personal health. Estimation of relationship between quadriceps strength and cognition was using multiple linear regression and quartile-based analysis with an extended-model approach for covariates adjustment. In a model adjusted for demographics, chronic diseases, health behaviors, and levels of folate and vitamin B12, the level of quadriceps strength was significantly associated with the scores of DSST. The ? coefficient interpreted as change of DSST scores for each Newton increment in quadriceps strength comparing participants in the highest quartile of quadriceps strength to those in the lowest quartile was 5.003 (95% confidence interval, 2.725–7.281, P?quadriceps strength were statistically significant (all P for trend <0.001). Higher quadriceps strength was associated with better cognitive performance. PMID:26266380

  4. Is Single-Radius Design Better for Quadriceps Recovery in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Bae, Dae-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although single-radius (SR) designs have a theoretical advantage in quadriceps recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there has been a paucity of objective evaluation studies. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty minimally invasive TKAs were prospectively randomized by a single surgeon into 2 groups: SR design TKA group and multi-radius design TKA group. Quadriceps force and power were assessed using a dynamometer, and clinical data were investigated preoperatively and 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Results There were no differences between two groups in quadriceps recovery and clinical results throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients whose postoperative quadriceps force and power reached preoperative level was similar in both groups. Conclusions Femoral component design itself would not significantly influence quadriceps recovery after TKA. PMID:26676282

  5. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  6. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles. PMID:26246835

  7. The effects of squatting with visual feedback on the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis in young adults with an increased quadriceps angle

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Pil-Neo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of performing squat exercises with visual feedback on the activation of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in young adults with an increased quadriceps angle (Q-angle). [Subjects] This study used a motion analysis program (Dartfish, Switzerland) to select 20 young adults with an increased Q-angle, who were then divided into a squat group that received visual feedback (VSG, n=10) and a squat group that received no visual feedback (SG, n=10). [Methods] The intensity of exercises was increased every two weeks over a six-week exercise period in both groups. A visual marker was attached to the patella of the subjects in the VSG, and they then performed squat exercises with a maximum of 90° of knee flexion within a route marked on a mirror. The SG performed squat exercises with a maximum 90° of knee flexion without attaching a visual feedback device. [Results] Analysis of the muscle activation due to 90° squat exercises indicated that both groups had statistically significant increases in activation of the VL. The VSG exhibited statistically significant increases in activation of the VMO. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that squat exercises with visual feedback are effective in activation of the VMO and VL muscles. The findings are meaningful in terms of preventing the occurrence of patellofemoral pain. PMID:26157251

  8. Relationship Between Intensity of Quadriceps Muscle Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Strength Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Jaclyn E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Eckhoff, Donald G.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can facilitate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the optimal intensity (dosage) of NMES and its effect on strength after TKA have yet to be determined. Objective The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the intensity of NMES application was related to the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength early after TKA. A secondary objective was to quantify quadriceps muscle fatigue and activation immediately after NMES to guide decisions about the timing of NMES during rehabilitation sessions. Design This study was an observational experimental investigation. Methods Data were collected from 30 people who were 50 to 85 years of age and who received NMES after TKA. These people participated in a randomized controlled trial in which they received either standard rehabilitation or standard rehabilitation plus NMES to the quadriceps muscle to mitigate strength loss. For the NMES intervention group, NMES was applied 2 times per day at the maximal tolerable intensity for 15 contractions beginning 48 hours after surgery over the first 6 weeks after TKA. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training intensity and quadriceps muscle strength and activation were assessed before surgery and 3.5 and 6.5 weeks after TKA. Results At 3.5 weeks, there was a significant association between NMES training intensity and a change in quadriceps muscle strength (R2=.68) and activation (R2=.22). At 6.5 weeks, NMES training intensity was related to a change in strength (R2=.25) but not to a change in activation (R2=.00). Furthermore, quadriceps muscle fatigue occurred during NMES sessions at 3.5 and 6.5 weeks, whereas quadriceps muscle activation did not change. Limitations Some participants reached the maximal stimulator output during at least 1 treatment session and might have tolerated more stimulation. Conclusions Higher NMES training intensities were associated with greater quadriceps muscle strength and activation after TKA. PMID:22652985

  9. Single-dose effects of whole body vibration on quadriceps strength in individuals with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Rick; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2015-11-01

    Context Paresis associated with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs function. Whole body vibration (WBV) may increase strength by activating neuromuscular circuits. Objective We assessed effects of a single session of WBV on lower extremity strength in individuals with motor-incomplete SCI. Design A single-session blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation research laboratory. Participants Subjects (n = 25; age 49.7 ± 12.5 years) had chronic SCI (>1 year) and were able to stand for at least 45 seconds. Interventions Subjects were randomized either to WBV (n = 13) consisting of four 45-second bouts with 1-minute intervening rest periods (frequency: 50 Hz, amplitude: 2 mm) or to sham electrical stimulation (n = 12). Outcome measures Maximal voluntary isometric quadriceps force was measured with a fixed dynamometer. A modified Five-Time-Sit-To-Stand (FTSTS) test was used to assess functional lower extremity strength. Measures were made at pre-test, immediate post-test, and delayed post-test 20 minutes later. Results At immediate post-test, change in voluntary isometric force in the WBV group was 1.12 kg greater than in the sham group. The within-group change for the WBV group was significant with a moderate effect size (P = 0.05; ES = 0.60). No force-related changes were observed in the sham group. The modified FTSTS scores improved in both groups, suggesting that this measure was subject to practice effects. Conclusion Evidence from the present study suggests that even a single session of WBV is associated with a meaningful short-term increase in quadriceps force-generating capacity in persons with motor-incomplete SCI. The multi-session use of WBV as part of a strengthening program deserves exploration. PMID:25664489

  10. Corticospinal and Intracortical Excitability of the Quadriceps in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelson, Andrew J.; Thomas, Abbey C.; Kluger, Benzi M.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle are characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (OA), contributing to the quadriceps weakness that is also a hallmark of the disease. The mechanisms underlying this central activation deficit (CAD) are unknown, although cortical mechanisms may be involved. Here, we utilize transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal and intracortical excitability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and in a comparably aged group of healthy older adults, to quantify group differences and to examine associations between TMS measures and pain, quadriceps strength, and CAD. Seventeen patients with knee OA and 20 healthy controls completed testing. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured at the quadriceps by superficial electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Corticospinal excitability was assessed by measuring resting motor threshold (RMT) to TMS stimulation of the quadriceps representation at primary motor cortex, and intracortical excitability was assessed via paired pulse paradigms for short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). No statistically significant differences between patients with knee OA and healthy controls were found for RMT, SICI or ICF measures (p>0.05). For patients with knee OA, there were significant associations observed between pain and RMT, as well as between pain and ICF. No associations were observed between CAD and measures of corticospinal or intracortical excitability. These data suggest against direct involvement of corticospinal or intracortical pathways within primary motor cortex in the mechanisms of CAD. However, pain is implicated in the neural mechanisms of quadriceps motor control in patients with knee OA. PMID:25183161

  11. Correlation between Quadriceps Endurance and Adduction Moment in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the strength or endurance of thigh muscles (quadriceps and hamstring) is positively or negatively correlated with the adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees. This study therefore assessed the relationships between the strength and endurance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and adduction moment in osteoarthritic knees and evaluated predictors of the adduction moment. The study cohort comprised 35 patients with unilateral medial osteoarthritis and varus deformity who were candidates for open wedge osteotomy. The maximal torque (60°/sec) and total work (180°/sec) of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and knee adduction moment were evaluated using an isokinetic testing device and gait analysis system. The total work of the quadriceps (r = 0.429, P = 0.037) and hamstring (r = 0.426, P = 0.045) muscles at 180°/sec each correlated with knee adduction moment. Preoperative varus deformity was positively correlated with adduction moment (r = 0.421, P = 0.041). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that quadriceps endurance at 180°/sec was the only factor independently associated with adduction moment (? = 0.790, P = 0.032). The adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees correlated with the endurance, but not the strength, of the quadriceps muscle. However, knee adduction moment did not correlate with the strength or endurance of the hamstring muscle. PMID:26539830

  12. Corticospinal and Intracortical Excitability of the Quadriceps in Active Older and Younger Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Thomas, Abbey C.; Hedgecock, James B.; Kluger, Benzi M.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related declines in neuromuscular function are well-documented, though the mechanisms underlying these deficits are unclear. Specific changes in corticospinal and intracortical neurophysiology may contribute, but have not been well studied, especially in lower extremity muscles. Furthermore, variations in physical activity levels may potentially confound the interpretation of neurophysiologic findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify differences in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of corticospinal and intracortical excitability of the quadriceps between healthy, active older and younger adults. Twenty younger (age: 25 ± 2.4 years; body mass index [BMI]: 22.1 ± 2.96 kg/m2; 11 males and 9 females) and twenty older (age: 68 ± 5.5 years; BMI: 26.8 ± 3.78 kg/m2; 11 males and 9 females) subjects who exercised regularly (at least 30 minutes, 3 times/week) completed testing. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured by superficial electromyographic recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL). Measures of corticospinal excitability using a double cone TMS coil included resting motor thresholds (RMT), resting recruitment curves (RRC) and silent periods (SP). Intracortical excitability was measured using paired pulse paradigms for short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). No statistically significant differences between older and younger adults were found for RMT, RRC slopes, SP, SICI or ICF measures (p>0.05). The physically active nature of the older adults included in this study may have contributed to the lack of differences in corticospinal and intracortical excitability since physical activity in older adults attenuates age-related declines in neuromuscular function. PMID:22951029

  13. Association between patella spurs and quadriceps tendon ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Ellanti, Prasad; Moriarity, Andrew; Wainberg, Nikita; Fhoghlu, Cliodhna Ni; McCarthy, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background quadriceps tendon (QT) ruptures are significant injuries that are relatively uncommon. The diagnosis of QT ruptures is frequently missed or delayed. An association between the presence of a patella spur and QT ruptures has been suggested in the literature. Patients and methods the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system was used to gather data on all patients who sustained a QT rupture over a six year period from 2008 to 2014. A retrospective review of the medical notes as well as radiographs was undertaken. We reviewed 200 knee radiographs of patients without QT ruptures to establish the incidence of patella spurs in our normal population. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows®. Results the records of 20 consecutive patients with 21 QT ruptures were reviewed. The mean age was 60.9 yrs (range 44.9–82.1 yrs) and the majority were male (n=17; 85%). There was one bilateral QT ruptures. Patella spurs were noted in 13 cases (62%) which were significantly higher than in patients without QT rupture 19% (P?0.05). Conclusion we noted a significantly higher incidence of patella spurs in patients with QT ruptures compared to those without. The presence of a QT rupture should be ruled out in patients with a knee injury and a patella spur on the knee radiographs. PMID:26261786

  14. Size of quadriceps femoris may contribute to thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Wei; He, Ying; Yao, Yu; Qiu, Li; Tian, Hao-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) frequently occurs on male individuals at their third and forth decades. The major site of involvement is the proximal muscles of lower limbs. Increasing evidence has shown that the occurrence of TPP is determined by multiple factors. We hypothesized that apart from hormonal fluctuations, skeletal muscle itself may explain for the age and sex variance as well. Our study was established to explore whether the size of lower limb skeletal muscles were related to TPP. We conducted a clinical experiment including 43 patients diagnosed with TPP (Group 1) and 39 pure hyperthyroidism individuals (Group 2). Current age, body mass index (BMI), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), average girth of bilateral upper arm and thigh, physical activity level (PAL) were measured. We also adopted B mode ultrasound to quantify the muscle thickness (MT) of the major muscle involved in the disease, the quadriceps femoris (QF, including rectus femoris, RF; vastus intermedius, VI; vastus medialis, VM and vastus lateralis, VL). Patients were matched in TSH, FT4 and FT3. PAL was also statistically identical between groups. Age, BMI, thigh girth, the average of bilateral MT of QF were statistically different. After adjusting for age, BMI and girth, Group 1 still presented with larger MT of QF than Group 2, regardless of their current thyroid hormone level. There indeed exists an independent relationship between muscle thickness and TPP. PMID:26519100

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  16. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  17. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer's Walk Exercise.

    PubMed

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemys?aw

    2015-03-29

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer's walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ? 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ? 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ? 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC) as compared to HAB/H ? 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC) and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC) compared to HAB/Q ? 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC). The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer's walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer's walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5. PMID:25964819

  18. In vivo specific tension of the human quadriceps femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Robert M; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Degens, Hans

    2009-08-01

    It is not known to what extent the inter-individual variation in human muscle strength is explicable by differences in specific tension. To investigate this, a comprehensive approach was used to determine in vivo specific tension of the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle (Method 1). Since this is a protracted technique, a simpler procedure was also developed to accurately estimate QF specific tension (Method 2). Method 1 comprised calculating patellar tendon force (F (t)) in 27 young, untrained males, by correcting maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for antagonist co-activation, voluntary activation and moment arm length. For each component muscle, the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated as volume divided by fascicle length during MVC. Dividing F (t) by the sum of the four PCSAs (each multiplied by the cosine of its pennation angle during MVC) provided QF specific tension. Method 2 was a simplification of Method 1, where QF specific tension was estimated from a single anatomical CSA and vastus lateralis muscle geometry. Using Method 1, the variability in MVC (18%) and specific tension (16%) was similar. Specific tension from Method 1 (30 +/- 5 N cm(-2)) was similar to and correlated with that of Method 2 (29 +/- 5 N cm(-2); R (2) = 0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, most of the inter-individual variability in MVC torque remains largely unexplained. Furthermore, a simple method of estimating QF specific tension provided similar values to the comprehensive approach, thereby enabling accurate estimations of QF specific tension where time and resources are limited. PMID:19468746

  19. “Central” Quadriceps Tendon Harvest With Patellar Bone Plug: Surgical Technique Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Scully, William F.; Wilson, David J.; Arrington, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the surgical technique for quadriceps tendon graft harvest while highlighting an additional technical note that has not been previously emphasized. The quadriceps tendon typically inserts eccentrically on the superior pole of the patella. By shifting the soft-tissue harvest to a location just off the medial edge of the tendon, the adjoining patellar bone plug will be centered on the superior pole of the patella, reducing the risk of an iatrogenic patellar fracture. PMID:24400194

  20. Physiological responses during downhill walking: A new exercise modality for subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Burtin, Chris; Hornikx, Miek; Demeyer, Heleen; De Bent, Kristien; van Remoortel, Hans; Osadnik, Christian R; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle quadriceps low-frequency fatigue (LFF) during exercise promotes improvements in exercise capacity with exercise training. In healthy subjects, eccentric muscle work induced by downhill walking (DW) generates higher muscular stress, whilst metabolic cost is lower compared to level walking (LW). We investigated quadriceps LFF and metabolic cost of DW in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ten participants (67 ± 7 years, FEV1 51 ± 15% predicted) performed DW, DW carrying a load (DWL) of 10% body weight via vest and LW, in random order. Quadriceps potentiated twitch force (TWqpot) was assessed before and after each walk, and muscle damage was assessed before and 24 hours after each walk via serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. Ventilation (VE) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured via breath-by-breath analysis during each walk. DW and DWL resulted in a greater decrease in TWqpot (-30 ± 14 N in DW, p < 0.05; and -22 ± 16 N in DWL, p < 0.05) compared to LW (-3 ± 21 N, p > 0.05). CK levels only increased 24 hours following DW and DWL (p < 0.05). DW and DWL showed lower VE and VO2 than LW (p < 0.05). DW is associated with enhanced quadriceps LFF and lower cardiorespiratory costs than LW. The addition of a chest load to DW does not seem to enhance these effects. PMID:25758676

  1. The Effect of Postsurgical Edema of the Knee Joint on Reflex Inhibition of the Quadriceps Femoris

    E-print Network

    McDonough, Andrew L.; Weir, Joseph P.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate reflex inhibition of the quadriceps femoris in a subject with postsurgical edema of the left knee. The subject was a 45-year-old male with a traumatic knee injury with resultant edema who underwent...

  2. Oxidative stress participates in quadriceps muscle dysfunction during the initiation of osteoarthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Wu, Po-Ting; Shen, Po-Chuan; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting approximately 15% of the population. Quadriceps muscle weakness is one of the risk factors of osteoarthritis development. Oxidative stress has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various muscle dysfunction; however, whether it is involved in osteoarthritis-associated quadriceps muscle weakness has never been investigated. The aim of the present study is to examine the involvement of oxidative stress in quadriceps muscle dysfunction in the initiation of osteoarthritis in rats. Rat osteoarthritis was initiated by conducting meniscectomy (MNX). Quadriceps muscle dysfunction was evaluated by assessing muscular interleukin-6, citrate synthase activity, and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression levels. Muscular oxidative stress was assessed by determining lipid peroxidation, Nrf2 expression, reactive oxygen species, and circulating antioxidants. Increased muscular interleukin-6 production as well as decreased citrate synthase activity and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression were observed at 7 and 14 days after MNX. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were significantly increased after MNX. Muscular free radical counts were increased while glutathione and glutathione peroxidase expression were decreased in MNX-treated rats. We conclude that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of muscle dysfunction in MNX-induced osteoarthritis. PMID:26722436

  3. Symptoms and quadriceps fatigability after walking and cycling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Man, William D-C; Soliman, Mohamed G G; Gearing, Johanne; Radford, Sheena G; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Gray, Barry J; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2003-09-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may stop cycling due to leg effort rather than breathlessness. However, cycling is not relevant to many patients, although walking may be more familiar. A total of 84 patients with COPD were asked to name the predominant symptom limiting incremental shuttle walking, endurance shuttle walking, incremental cycle ergometry, and endurance cycle ergometry, performed to exhaustion on four separate days. Furthermore, quadriceps fatigability was evaluated in 12 patients by measuring unpotentiated and potentiated twitch quadriceps tensions before and 30 minutes after incremental walking and cycling. Breathlessness alone was a more commonly cited limiting symptom after incremental walking compared with incremental cycling (81 vs. 34%; p < 0.001) and after endurance walking compared with endurance cycling (75 vs. 29%; p < 0.001). In addition, there was no significant change in mean pre- and postwalking twitch quadriceps tensions. However, cycling produced a significant reduction (unpotentiated 7.42 +/- 2.22 vs. 6.48 +/- 2.09 kg [p < 0.001]; potentiated 10.19 +/- 3.99 vs. 8.45 +/- 3.18 kg [p < 0.001]). Pre- to postexercise changes were significantly greater during cycling compared with walking (unpotentiated p = 0.01; potentiated p = 0.003). Leg effort is an infrequent symptom after walking in COPD, and low frequency fatigue of the quadriceps is an infrequent feature of incremental walking. PMID:12829456

  4. Effects of Tourniquet Use on Quadriceps Function and Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David; Gillies, Kim; Gillies, R. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A pneumatic tourniquet is commonly used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve surgical field visualisation but may result in quadriceps muscle ischaemia. We performed this study to analyse the effect of the tourniquet on recovery following TKA. Materials and Methods A prospective randomised single-blinded trial was undertaken to examine the effect of the tourniquet on post-operative pain, swelling, blood loss, quadriceps function and outcome following TKA. Twenty patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were randomised to tourniquet or no tourniquet groups. Quadriceps function was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) during active knee extension. Results The no tourniquet group had significantly less pain in the early post-operative period compared to the tourniquet group. There was no difference in Oxford knee score, range of motion, or thigh and knee swelling up to 12 months post-operatively. Quadriceps function, measured by surface EMG, was compromised for the first six months post-surgery by tourniquet use. The radiological cement mantle at the bone prosthesis interface at 12-month follow-up was not affected by the absence of a tourniquet. Conclusions We believe that it is safe and beneficial for our patients to routinely perform TKA without a tourniquet. PMID:25505702

  5. Relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic activity of quadriceps muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young; Oh, Jee Hae; Lee, Jong In

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We evaluated the relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM) to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a cross-sectional study. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with knee OA were assessed by anatomic radiographic knee alignment and the VM/VL ratio was calculated. Surface EMG from both the VM and VL muscles were evaluated during maximal isometric contraction at 60° knee flexion. Simultaneously, peak quadriceps torque was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Subjects were categorized into low, moderate, and high varus groups according to knee malalignment. The peak quadriceps torque and VM/VL ratio across groups, and their relationships with varus malalignment were analyzed. [Results] All subjects had medial compartment OA and the VM/VL ratio of all subjects was 1.31 ± 0.28 (mean ± SD). There were no significant differences in the peak quadriceps torque or VM/VL ratios across the groups nor were there any significant relationships with varus malalignment. [Conclusion] The VM/VL ratio and peak quadriceps torque were not associated with the severity of knee varus malalignment. PMID:25995602

  6. The Effect of Knee Braces on Quadriceps Strength and Inhibition in Subjects With Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Felson, David T

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Background The use of external supports has been questioned because they may lead to weakness in the surrounding muscles. To our knowledge, there is no investigation into the effect of knee supports or braces on quadriceps muscle strength and quadriceps inhibition in individuals with patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the effects of a flexible knee support on quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and arthrogenous muscle inhibition (AMI) in patients with PFJ OA. Methods The study included 108 participants who had at least 3 months of patellofemoral pain and a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2 or 3 for PFJ OA. The participants were randomized to a group that wore a flexible knee support (brace) or a group that did not wear a support (no brace) in a 6-week randomized controlled trial, followed by an open-label trial, in which all participants wore the brace for a total of 12 weeks. Quadriceps MVC, measured isometrically, and quadriceps AMI, measured by twitch interpolation, were assessed at the 6-week and 12-week time points. Results After 6 weeks, MVC did not differ between the brace and no-brace groups (9.09 Nm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.89, 23.07; P = .20). Arthrogenous muscle inhibition significantly decreased in the brace group (-8.62%; 95% CI: -13.90%, -3.33%; P = .002). After 12 weeks, in all of the participants who wore a flexible knee support, MVC increased by 7.98 Nm (95% CI: 2.52, 13.45; P = .004) and AMI decreased (-8.42%; 95% CI: -11.48%, -5.36%; P<.001). Although statistically significant, these results have doubtful clinical significance. Conclusion A patellofemoral flexible knee support in participants with PFJ OA does not have an adverse effect on quadriceps MVC or AMI. Using a knee support should not be discouraged because of concerns about deleterious effects on quadriceps strength and inhibition. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(1):19-25. Epub 10 Nov 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5093. PMID:26556391

  7. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemys?aw

    2015-01-01

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer’s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ? 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ? 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ? 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC) as compared to HAB/H ? 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC) and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC) compared to HAB/Q ? 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC). The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5. PMID:25964819

  8. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems. PMID:26157214

  9. Enhancing Relationships Strengthening Commitment

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    more strength of purpose and enhance your enjoyment of each other. Help Your Marriage Survive a Crisis stress reliever. Exercise control. It's natural to feel fear and anger during a crisis. There are ways

  10. Oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Kim, Y. G.; Curwick, L. R.; Merrick, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    MA6000E alloy is strengthened at high temperatures by dispersion of yttrium oxide. Strength properties are about twice those of conventional nickel base alloys. Good thermal fatigue, intermediate temperature strength, and good oxidation resistance give alloy unique combination of benefits. Application in aircraft gas turbine is improved.

  11. as the Strengthening Precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2014-12-01

    Generally, Laves phase and M23C6 are regarded as undesirable phases in creep-resistant steels due to their very high-coarsening rates and the resulting depletion of beneficial alloying elements from the matrix. In this study, a computational alloy design approach is presented to develop martensitic steels strengthened by Laves phase and/or M23C6, for which the coarsening rates are tailored such that they are at least one order of magnitude lower than those in existing alloys. Their volume fractions are optimized by tuning the chemical composition in parallel. The composition domain covering 10 alloying elements at realistic levels is searched by a genetic algorithm to explore the full potential of simultaneous maximization of the volume fraction and minimization of the precipitates coarsening rate. The calculations show that Co and W can drastically reduce the coarsening rate of Laves and M23C6 and yield high-volume fractions of precipitates. Mo on the other hand was shown to have a minimal effect on coarsening. The strengthening effects of Laves phase and M23C6 in the newly designed alloys are compared to existing counterparts, showing substantially higher precipitation-strengthening contributions especially after a long service time. New alloys were designed in which both Laves phase and M23C6 precipitates act as strengthening precipitates. Successfully combining MX and M23C6 was found to be impossible.

  12. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  13. Quadriceps neural alterations in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients: A 6-month longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lepley, A S; Gribble, P A; Thomas, A C; Tevald, M A; Sohn, D H; Pietrosimone, B G

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate differences in quadriceps corticospinal excitability, spinal-reflexive excitability, strength, and voluntary activation before, 2 weeks post and 6 months post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). This longitudinal, case-control investigation examined 20 patients scheduled for ACLr (11 females, 9 males; age: 20.9?±?4.4?years; height:172.4?±?7.5?cm; weight:76.2?±?11.8?kg) and 20 healthy controls (11 females, 9 males; age:21.7?±?3.7 years; height: 173.7?±?9.9?cm; weight: 76.1?±?19.7?kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), central activation ratio (CAR), normalized Hoffmann spinal reflexes, active motor threshold (AMT), and normalized motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes at 120% of AMT were measured in the quadriceps muscle at the specific time points. ACLr patients demonstrated bilateral reductions in spinal-reflexive excitability compared with controls before surgery (P?=?0.02) and 2 weeks post-surgery (P???0.001). ACLr patients demonstrated higher AMT at 6 months post-surgery (P???0.001) in both limbs. No MEP differences were detected. Quadriceps MVIC and CAR were lower in both limbs of the ACLr group before surgery and 6 months post-surgery (P???0.05) compared with controls. Diminished excitability of spinal-reflexive and corticospinal pathways are present at different times following ACLr and occur in combination with clinical deficits in quadriceps strength and activation. Early rehabilitation strategies targeting spinal-reflexive excitability may help improve postoperative outcomes, while later-stage rehabilitation may benefit from therapeutic techniques aimed at improving corticospinal excitability. PMID:25693627

  14. Evaluation of Electromyographic Biofeedback for the Quadriceps Femoris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J.; Parker, Tonya M.; Kotsko, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback (EMGB) of the quadriceps femoris muscle in treating various knee conditions. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials included PubMed (1980–2010), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, 1995–2007), Web of Science (1986–2010), SPORTDiscus (1990–2007), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Key words were knee and biofeedback. Study Selection: The criteria for selection were clinical randomized controlled trials in which EMGB of the quadriceps femoris was used for various knee conditions of musculoskeletal origin. Trials were excluded because of research designs other than randomized controlled trials, articles published in a non-English language, inclusion of healthy research participants, inability to identify EMGB as the source of clinical improvement, and lack of pain, functional outcome, or quadriceps torque as outcome measures. Data Extraction: Twenty specific data points were abstracted from each clinical trial under the broad categories of attributes of the patient and injury, treatment variables for the EMGB group, treatment variables for the control group, and attributes of the research design. Data Synthesis: Eight trials yielded a total of 319 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome (n = 86), anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (n = 52), arthroscopic surgery (n = 91), or osteoarthritis (n = 90). The average methodologic score of the included studies was 4.6/10 based on PEDro criteria. Pooled analyses demonstrated heterogeneity of the included studies, rendering the interpretation of the pooled data inappropriate. The EMGB appeared to benefit short-term postsurgical pain or quadriceps strength in 3 of 4 postsurgical investigations but was ineffective for chronic knee conditions such as patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis in all 4 studies. Because the findings are based on limited data, caution is warranted until more randomized controlled trials are conducted to support or refute the general trends observed in this report. PMID:22488142

  15. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  16. Ultrasound characteristics of the patellar and quadriceps tendons among young elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Visnes, H; Tegnander, A; Bahr, R

    2015-04-01

    Tendons adapt in response to sports-specific loading, but sometimes develop tendinopathy. If the presence of ultrasound changes like hypoechoic areas and neovascularization in asymptomatic tendons precede (and predict) future tendon problems is unknown. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between the development of ultrasound changes in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and symptoms of jumper's knee, as well to examine the medium-term effects of intensive training on tendon thickness among adolescent athletes. Elite junior volleyball athletes were followed with semi-annual ultrasound and clinical examinations (average follow-up: 1.7 years). Of the 141 asymptomatic athletes included, 22 athletes (35 patellar tendons) developed jumper's knee. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a baseline finding of a hypoechoic tendon area (odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 9.2) increased the risk of developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Patellar tendon thickness among healthy athletes did not change (Wilk's lambda, P?=?0.07) while quadriceps tendon thickness increased (P?=?0.001). In conclusion, ultrasound changes at baseline were risk factors for developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Also, among healthy athletes, we observed a 7-11% increase in quadriceps tendon thickness, while there was no increase in patellar tendon thickness. PMID:24612006

  17. A Novel Noninvasive Method for Measuring Fatigability of the Quadriceps Muscle in Noncooperating Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Jesper B.; Rose, Martin H.; Møller, Kirsten; Perner, Anders; Jensen, Bente R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Critical illness is associated with muscle weakness leading to long-term functional limitations. Objectives. To assess the reliability of a novel method for evaluating fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects. Methods. On two occasions, separated by seven days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95% confidence interval (MDC95%). Results. The Fatigue Index (ICC3.1, 0.84; MDC95%, 0.12) and the slope of the regression line (ICC3.1, 0.99; MDC95%, 0.03) showed substantial relative and absolute reliability during the first 15 and 30 contractions, respectively. Conclusion. This method for assessing fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions. PMID:26266252

  18. Strengthening the quality assurance of

    E-print Network

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Strengthening the quality assurance of UK transnational education Consultation report May 2014 #12;1 Strengthening the quality assurance of UK transnational education Introduction 1 The consultation: Strengthening the quality assurance of UK transnational education (TNE) was jointly managed by the Quality Assurance Agency

  19. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  20. Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Jeremy; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Wallman, Karen; Beilby, John

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m x 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) muscle soreness ratings, as well as in reduced decrements to isometric leg extension and flexion strength in the 48-h post-exercise period. COLD also facilitated a more rapid return to baseline repeated sprint performances. The only benefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments. PMID:18547863

  1. Exercise Physiologists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... personal trainers) or athletic trainers . <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Exercise physiologists perform fitness ... of exercise physiologists were self-employed in 2014. Work Schedules Most exercise physiologists work full time. <- What ...

  2. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Márk; Nagy, Szilvia A; K?szegi, Tamás; Ambrus, Míra; Bogner, Péter; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Tóth, Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2014-10-01

    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy old males age 60-70. Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%]) (p<0.05). The rate of torque development increased 30% only after SSC exercise (p<0.05). Resting testosterone and cortisol levels were unchanged but after each program the acute exercise-induced cortisol levels were 12-15% lower (p<0.05). Both programs increased quadriceps size 2.5% (p<0.05). It is concluded that both ECC and SSC exercise training produces favorable adaptations in healthy old males' quadriceps muscle. Although the rate of muscle tension during the SSC vs. ECC contractions was about 4-fold greater, the total mechanical work seems to regulate the hypetrophic, hormonal, and most of the mechanical adaptations. However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly. PMID:25064038

  3. Regional variations in human patellar trabecular architecture and the structure of the quadriceps enthesis: a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Hechmi; Larguech, Gaith; Filaire, Edith; Pinti, Antonio; Lespessailles, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether there were regional differences in the quadriceps enthesis and the patella bone structure that could suggest unequal force transmission to the patella. Quadriceps tendon enthesis was removed by cutting the patellae transversally in the middle and the quadriceps tendon approximately 1 cm from the bone. Tissues were post-fixed, decalcified, dehydrated through and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial longitudinal sections were cut, mounted on glass slides at 1-mm intervals and slides were stained. Trabecular architecture was analysed from digital images taken from the histological slides, and regional differences at the enthesis in the thickness of the uncalcified fibrocartilage and the cortical zone of calcified tissue (calcified cartilage and lamellar bone) were evaluated. At the quadriceps enthesis, the thickness of the cortical zone of calcified tissue was significantly greater in the central part of the enthesis than medially and laterally. The trabeculae were thicker in the central and lateral parts compared with the medial region. Similarly, the zone of uncalcified fibrocartilage was thicker laterally and centrally than medially. Bone structure and the thickness of uncalcified fibrocartilage presented a similarity between the centre and the lateral parts; however, the medial side was different. We suggest that the mechanical stress at the proximal quadriceps tendon enthesis is higher laterally and centrally compared with medially. This could induce a lateral patellar translation, which is potentially a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:22458636

  4. Preactivation of the quadriceps muscle could limit cranial tibial translation in a cranial cruciate ligament deficient canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Juan M; Lefebvre, Michael; Böhme, Beatrice; Laurent, Cédric; Balligand, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency is the leading cause of lameness of the canine stifle. Application of tension in the quadriceps muscle could trigger cranial tibial translation in case of CrCL rupture. We replaced the quadriceps muscle and the gastrocnemius muscle by load cells and turn-buckles. First, eight canine limbs were placed in a servo-hydraulic testing machine, which applied 50% of body weight (BW). In a second phase, the CrCL was transected, and the limbs were tested in a similar manner. In a third phase, a quadriceps pretension of 15% BW was applied and limbs were again tested in a similar manner. Cranial tibial translation was significantly decreased in CrCL deficient stifles (p?quadriceps pretension was applied. These findings indicate that quadriceps pretension could play a role in the stability of a CrCL deficient stifle and should then be considered in rehabilitation programs and conservative treatment of CrCL rupture in dogs. PMID:25487559

  5. Effects of quadriceps and hamstrings proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on knee movement sensation.

    PubMed

    Streepey, Jefferson W; Mock, Marla J; Riskowski, Jody L; Vanwye, William R; Vitvitskiy, Boris M; Mikesky, Alan E

    2010-04-01

    Stretching before competition has traditionally been thought to benefit performance; however, recent evidence demonstrating reduced muscle force and power immediately after stretching suggests otherwise. We hypothesized that knee joint position sense would be diminished immediately after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching to the hamstrings and quadriceps. Eighteen subjects (aged 18-30 years) were seated with their dominant foot attached to a motorized arm with the knee flexed at 135 degrees . To block external cues, the subjects wore a blindfold, earplugs, and headphones providing white noise. The knee was displaced in either the flexion or the extension direction at a velocity of 0.4 degrees .s, and subjects pressed a button when they sensed motion. The knee was returned to 135 degrees , and the test was repeated for a total of 10 trials. The PNF group received PNF stretching to the hamstrings and quadriceps of the dominant leg. The SHAM group had the dominant leg passively moved within each subject's functional range of motion. The ability to detect knee movement was retested in the PNF and SHAM groups. Pre- and posttest latencies between movement onset and subject response were analyzed. Results indicated that the PNF group had significantly increased latencies after stretching (from 2.56 +/- 0.83 to 3.46 +/- 1.90 seconds) compared with the SHAM group (3.93 +/- 2.40 to 3.72 +/- 2.15 seconds). It is concluded that PNF stretching of the hamstrings and quadriceps may acutely diminish sensitivity to knee movement. For coaches and trainers, these findings are consistent with previous reports of loss in muscle force and power immediately after stretching, suggesting that stretching just before competition may diminish performance. PMID:20300021

  6. Quadriceps traumatic myositis ossificans in a football player: management with intravenous pamidronate.

    PubMed

    Mani-Babu, Sivanadian; Wolman, Roger; Keen, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Myositis ossificans (MO) can be a significant complication of traumatic muscle contusion. Bisphosphates have been used in management of heterotopic ossification after spinal cord injury, but there is a lack of evidence with respect to MO in the sporting population. We present a case of a 14-year-old male football player with posttraumatic quadriceps MO, treated with 2 doses of intravenous pamidronate. This was associated with improvement in clinical features and imaging and a reduced urinary N-terminal telopeptide, a marker of bone turnover. This case demonstrates that bisphosphonates may be a potential treatment option in MO. PMID:24184852

  7. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  8. Early Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Improve Quadriceps Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Jaclyn E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Eckhoff, Donald G.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The recovery of quadriceps muscle force and function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is suboptimal, which predisposes patients to disability with increasing age. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of quadriceps muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), initiated 48 hours after TKA, as an adjunct to standard rehabilitation. Design This was a prospective, longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Methods Sixty-six patients, aged 50 to 85 years and planning a primary unilateral TKA, were randomly assigned to receive either standard rehabilitation (control) or standard rehabilitation plus NMES applied to the quadriceps muscle (initiated 48 hours after surgery). The NMES was applied twice per day at the maximum tolerable intensity for 15 contractions. Data for muscle strength, functional performance, and self-report measures were obtained before surgery and 3.5, 6.5, 13, 26, and 52 weeks after TKA. Results At 3.5 weeks after TKA, significant improvements with NMES were found for quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength, functional performance, and knee extension active range of motion. At 52 weeks, the differences between groups were attenuated, but improvements with NMES were still significant for quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength, functional performance, and some self-report measures. Limitations Treatment volume was not matched for both study arms; NMES was added to the standard of care treatment. Furthermore, testers were not blinded during testing, but used standardized scripts to avoid bias. Finally, some patients reached the maximum stimulator output during at least one treatment session and may have tolerated more stimulation. Conclusions The early addition of NMES effectively attenuated loss of quadriceps muscle strength and improved functional performance following TKA. The effects were most pronounced and clinically meaningful within the first month after surgery, but persisted through 1 year after surgery. PMID:22095207

  9. Development of a home ankle exerciser.

    PubMed

    Petrosenko, R D; Vandervoort, A A; Chesworth, B M; Porter, M M; Campbell, G J

    1996-06-01

    A portable, lightweight home ankle exerciser was designed and built by the Biomedical Engineering Department of University Hospital in London, Ontario, Canada. The ankle exerciser incorporates several unique features that overcomes the drawbacks of exercise equipment presently available. For optimal muscle strengthening, the resistance offered by the device matches the strength curve of the ankle muscles. The magnitude of the resistance can be widely varied to accommodate any subject. Resistance is generated by a slip clutch rather than by springs or weights which can be cumbersome and potentially dangerous. One of the considerations in the design of the ankle exerciser was to monitor subject compliance with the exercise regimen. This is accomplished with a battery-operated monitoring unit mounted on the device. The exerciser is instrumented with a battery-powered torque transducer and digital display unit that enables the subject and assessor to monitor the exercise resistance level at a glance. PMID:8782190

  10. Pro- and Anticonvulsant Effects of the Ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempf) Venom in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nôga, D A M F; Cagni, F C; Santos, J R; Silva, D; Azevedo, D L O; Araújo, A; Silva, R H; Ribeiro, A M

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsy affects at least 50 million people worldwide, and the available treatment is associated with various side effects. Approximately 20-30% of the patients develop seizures that persist despite careful monitored treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of new antiepileptic drugs, and the venoms can be an excellent source of probes. In this context, while there are studies on venoms from snakes, scorpions, and spiders, little is known regarding venom from ants. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential pro- and anticonvulsant effects of the venom from the ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempf) in Swiss mice. After the injection of the crude venom (DqTx-5, 50, and 500 mg/mL) in the lateral ventricle of mice, we observed a reduction of exploration and grooming behaviors, as well as an increase in immobility duration. In addition, the crude venom induced procursive behavior and tonic-clonic seizures at the highest concentration. Conversely, the preadministration of the denatured venom (AbDq) at the concentration of 2 mg/mL protected the animals against tonic-clonic seizures (66.7%) and death (100%) induced by administration of bicuculline. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that D. quadriceps venom might be potential source of new pro- and anticonvulsants molecules. PMID:26045053

  11. Is quadriceps muscle strength a determinant of the physical function of the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Altubasi, Ibrahim Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the relationships of the quadriceps rate of torque development and the time to peak torque with the physical function of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. Quadriceps strength was measured using isometric and isokinetic torque tests. Time to peak torque and rate of torque development were calculated from the torque time curve of the isokinetic and isometric torque tests, respectively. Physical activities were measured using 4 physical activity tests. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships among the variables. [Results] The time to peak torque showed significant correlations with all measures of physical activity tests. Rate of torque development showed significant correlation with the timed stair-climbing test. Isometric and isokinetic torques had no significant correlations with any of the physical activity tests. [Conclusion] Time to maximum torque and the rate of torque development might be more important than peak torque in determining the physical function of the elderly. PMID:26644638

  12. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hristovski, Robert; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a “hard” intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg’s RPE (6–20) = 15). During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. “Time on task” for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE) values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics. PMID:26421436

  13. The effects of high-fat diet, branched-chain amino acids and exercise on female C57BL/6 mouse Achilles tendon biomechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, G. P.; Platt, K. M.; Corbett, J.; Reeves, J.; Hardy, A. L.; Elenes, E. Y.; Charnigo, R. J.; Hunter, S. A.; Pearson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any negative consequences resulting from HFD consumption. Methods We examined the effects of 16 weeks of 60% HFD feeding, voluntary exercise (free choice wheel running) and BCAA administration in female C57BL/6 mice. The Achilles tendons and quadriceps muscles were removed at the end of the experiment and assessed histologically and biomechanically. Results HFD feeding significantly decreased the Achilles tendon modulus without histological alterations. BCAA administration significantly decreased the stiffness of Achilles tendons in the exercised normal diet mice. Exercise partially ameliorated both the weight gain and glucose levels in the HFD-fed mice, led to a significant decrease in the maximum load of the Achilles tendon, and an increase in the average fibril diameter of the quadriceps femoris muscle. There were significant correlations between body weight and several biomechanical properties, demonstrating the importance of controlling obesity for maintaining healthy tendon properties. Conclusions In summary, this study showed a significant impact of obesity and body weight on tendon biomechanical properties with limited effects of exercise and BCAAs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:186–92. PMID:24021530

  14. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Pregnant? What to Expect Compulsive Exercise KidsHealth > Parents > Emotions & Behavior > Behavior > Compulsive Exercise Print A A A ...

  15. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  16. Lack of Correlation between Dynamic Balance and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio in Patients with Chronic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Lee, Seok-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps (HQ) ratio, as well as the relationships of these parameters with dynamic balance, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Materials and Methods We compared 25 patients diagnosed with chronic unilateral ACL tears and 25 age-matched healthy volunteers. The maximal torque of the quadriceps and hamstring and dynamic balance were measured. Results Although the isokinetic maximal peak torques were about 50% lower in the quadriceps (57%, p<0.001) and hamstring (56%, p=0.001) muscles in the chronic ACL tear group than in the control group, their HQ ratios were similar (56%±17% vs. 58%±6%, p=0.591). HQ ratio was significantly correlated with anterior-posterior stability index (r=-0.511, p=0.021) and overall stability index (r=-0.476, p=0.034) in control group, but these correlations were not observed in chronic ACL tear group. Conclusions Thigh muscle strength was about 50% lower in the chronic ACL tear group than in the control group, but the HQ ratio was similar. The dynamic balance of the knee was not influenced by thigh muscle strength but was influenced by HQ ratio in healthy young individuals. However, HQ ratio was not correlated with dynamic knee balance in chronic ACL tear patients. PMID:26060609

  17. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  18. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shashi K

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one’s strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

  19. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aim for the lower end of your target heart rate range. As your exercise program progresses, you can gradually build up to ... family doctor to find out what your target heart rate should be. What is aerobic exercise? Aerobic exercise is the type that moves large ...

  20. Morel-Lavallee Lesion Initially Diagnosed as Quadriceps Contusion: Ultrasound, MRI, and Importance of Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Jeremiah J.; Anderson, Shane B.

    2015-01-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLL) are rare, closed degloving injuries caused by trauma that delivers a shearing force to the soft tissue most commonly of the hip. If not treated in the acute and subacute setting these lesions are often complicated by re-accumulation of fluid, infection, or chronic pain. We present a unique case of a recurrent, massive medial knee/thigh MLL in which proper treatment was delayed due to initial diagnosis of a quadriceps contusion. We describe the ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of this patient and based on a review of recent literature propose that the initial management should have included early drainage/debridement, which likely could have prevented recurrence and significantly shortened the clinical course. PMID:25987925

  1. Corticospinal Responses of Quadriceps are Abnormally Coupled with Hip Adductors in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors often lose the ability to move their joints independently, which results in abnormal movement patterns when attempting to perform an isolated motion. For instance, many stroke subjects exhibit unwanted secondary knee extension movement when performing hip adduction. This study aimed at characterizing whether the neural substrates mediating abnormal activation patterns after stroke are of cortical origin. We developed a novel transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol to evaluate the extent of abnormal across-joint coupling of corticospinal responses in chronic stroke survivors. In stroke survivors, we found that the magnitude of motor evoked potentials of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis during isometric hip adduction were significantly higher than those recorded during knee extension at similar background activity (P = 0.03 & P = 0.01). Moreover, motor evoked potential coupling ratios of the quadriceps muscles were significantly different than those observed in healthy controls (P = 0.005 to P = 0.037). No differences in motor evoked potential coupling ratios were observed between the younger and older adults (P = 0.474 to P = 0.919). These findings provide evidence for the first time that stroke subjects exhibit abnormal excitability of the quadriceps muscle corticospinal neurons when performing isometric hip adduction. Importantly, the abnormal corticospinal responses observed in stroke subjects were not mediated by aging. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying loss of independent joint control after stroke and have meaningful implications for post-stroke interventions. Moreover, the proposed ‘motor evoked potential coupling ratio’ may serve as an effective probe to evaluate cortical contributions to abnormal muscle synergy after stroke. PMID:22116042

  2. Adverse effect of femoral nerve blockade on quadriceps strength and function after ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Krych, Aaron; Arutyunyan, Grigoriy; Kuzma, Scott; Levy, Bruce; Dahm, Diane; Stuart, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if quadriceps strength and functional outcomes were similar at 6 months following anterior cruciate ligament [ACL] reconstruction in patients receiving a continuous 48-hour femoral nerve blockade for postoperative analgesia (FNB group) versus patients with no FNB (control group). A retrospective cohort was designed including athletes who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft between 2005 and 2010 at our institution with identical rehabilitation protocols. The FNB group included 96 patients with an average age of 21 years and the control group included 100 patients with an average age of 20 years. At 6 months following ACL reconstruction, isokinetic strength (slow and fast activation) and functional tests including vertical jump, single hop, triple hop, and return to sport were analyzed with an ? value?quadriceps) strength and function at 6 months follow-up was affirmed. However, no differences were observed in return to sport, bringing into question whether these statistical differences translate into meaningful clinical consequences after ACL reconstruction. The level of evidence was level III, retrospective case-control series. PMID:24622910

  3. Interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate determined with MSNA during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLean, D. A.; Imadojemu, V. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use the microdialysis technique to simultaneously measure the interstitial concentrations of several putative stimulators of the exercise pressor reflex during 5 min of intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans (n = 7). Exercise resulted in approximately a threefold (P < 0.05) increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 13 +/- 3 beats/min (P < 0.05) and 20 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and blood pressure, respectively. During recovery, all reflex responses quickly returned to baseline. Interstitial lactate levels were increased (P < 0.05) from rest (1.1 +/- 0.1 mM) to exercise (1. 6 +/- 0.2 mM) and were further increased (P < 0.05) during recovery (2.0 +/- 0.2 mM). Dialysate phosphate concentrations were 0.55 +/- 0. 04, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.48 +/- 0.03 mM during rest, exercise, and recovery, respectively, and were significantly elevated during exercise. At the onset of exercise, dialysate K(+) levels rose rapidly above resting values (4.2 +/- 0.1 meq/l) and continued to increase during the exercise bout. After 5 min of contractions, dialysate K(+) levels had peaked with an increase (P < 0.05) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 meq/l and subsequently decreased during recovery, not being different from rest after 3 min. In contrast, H(+) concentrations rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) from resting levels (69.4 +/- 3.7 nM) during quadriceps exercise and continued to decrease with a mean decline (P < 0.05) of 16.7 +/- 3.8 nM being achieved after 5 min. During recovery, H(+) concentrations rapidly increased and were not significantly different from baseline after 1 min. This study represents the first time that skeletal muscle interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate have been measured in conjunction with MSNA, heart rate, and blood pressure during intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans. These data suggest that interstitial K(+) and phosphate, but not lactate and H(+), may contribute to the stimulation of the exercise pressor reflex.

  4. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  5. Posture Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shows that a person with osteoporosis can gently lean back to comfortably stretch out and strengthen the ... trying to squeeze a pencil between them. Then lean back slightly but stay comfortable. Your head should ...

  6. The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Krainski, Felix; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Heinicke, Katja; Romain, Nadine; Pacini, Eric L; Snell, Peter G; Wyrick, Phil; Palmer, M Dean; Haller, Ronald G; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-06-15

    Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P = 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P = 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P = 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P = 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P = 0.238 and +13 ± 28%, P = 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, (31)P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning. PMID:24790012

  7. Summer Science Can Strengthen Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Ava F.; Smith, Ruby

    1989-01-01

    Described are 22 activities which can be done by students outside of school. Topics include the seashore, shadows, restaurants, water, amusement parks, factories, museums, camping, weather, animals, photography, plants, food, and exercise. (CW)

  8. Decision rules for egg recognition are related to functional roles and chemical cues in the queenless ant Dinoponera quadriceps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannure-Nascimento, Ivelize C.; Nascimento, Fabio S.; Dantas, José O.; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-07-01

    The capacity to distinguish colony members from strangers is a key component in social life. In social insects, this extends to the brood and involves discrimination of queen eggs. Chemical substances communicate colony affiliation for both adults and brood; thus, in theory, all colony members should be able to recognize fellow nestmates. In this study, we investigate the ability of Dinoponera quadriceps workers to discriminate nestmate and non-nestmate eggs based on cuticular hydrocarbon composition. We analyzed whether cuticular hydrocarbons present on the eggs provide cues of discrimination. The results show that egg recognition in D. quadriceps is related to both age and the functional role of workers. Brood care workers were able to distinguish nestmate from non-nestmate eggs, while callow and forager workers were unable to do so.

  9. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    PubMed Central

    How, Moo Ing; Lee, Puah Ken; Wei, Tan See; Chong, Chua Tai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compartment syndrome isolated to the anterior thigh is a rare complication of soccer injury. Previous reports in the English literature on sports trauma-related compartment syndrome of the thigh are vague in their description of the response of thigh musculature to blunt trauma, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of high-risk features of compartment syndrome, vascular injury in quadriceps trauma, and the role of vascular study in blunt thigh injury. Case report We present herein the rare case of a 30-year-old man who developed thigh compartment syndrome 8 days after soccer injury due to severe edema of vastus intermedius and large thigh hematoma secondary to rupture of the profunda femoris vein. MRI revealed “blow-out” rupture of the vastus lateralis. Decompressive fasciotomy and vein repair performed with subsequent split-skin grafting of the wound defect resulted in a good functional outcome at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome. PMID:25931302

  10. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  11. Precision, comfort and mechanical performance of the Quadriso-tester, a quadriceps force measuring device.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, G J; Lemmink, K A P M; Slagers, A J; Westhoff, M H; van Riet, G A J; Rakhorst, G

    2003-05-01

    The mechanical performance, repeatability and comfort of the Quadriso-tester, which assesses isometric knee extensor muscle strength, were examined. Twenty healthy subjects and 20 patients treated for unilateral anterior ligamenta cruciata insufficiency were tested. Intra-rater repeatability was determined by the testing and retesting of subjects and calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient and the mean difference between test and retest values. The comfort level was determined a questionnaire. Measuring time was recorded, and the relationship between knee angle and extension moment was plotted. Strength and stiffness were determined using the finite element method. Intra-rater repeatability was high; the intra-class correlation coefficient of the right and left leg was 0.90 and 0.91, respectively; the coefficient of variation was 6.4 and 6.0%, respectively. The median comfort score of the healthy subjects was 7, and that of the patients was 9. Measuring time remained within 30 min. Misalignment of the knee and sidebar axis disturbed the relationship between knee angle and extension moment Strength and stiffness were higher than required. In conclusion, the Quadriso-tester is a comfortable and fast device to determine quadriceps force with a high repeatability. The knee and sidebar axis should be well aligned. PMID:12803292

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...

  13. Morning Exercise 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Evidence revealing the importance of chronic exercise for improving general physical health and maintaining long?term successful cognitive function is widely available but less information addressing the potential efficacy of an acute bout...

  14. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  15. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing treatments were conducted on O-temper and T8 temper AA2024 truss cores, the strength increase was different for different architectures, but was nearly the same for the two parent material tempers. Finally, the question of how much microtruss strengthening can be obtained for a given amount of parent metal strengthening was addressed by examining the interaction of material and geometric parameters in a model system.

  16. Changes in transmission in the pathway of heteronymous spinal recurrent inhibition from soleus to quadriceps motor neurons during movement in man.

    PubMed

    Iles, J F; Pardoe, J

    1999-09-01

    H reflexes were induced in the human quadriceps muscle by electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve. The reflexes were conditioned by prior stimulation of the inferior soleus nerve. The conditioning stimulus produced an inhibition of long duration (>20 ms). The threshold of this inhibition was at zero soleus motor discharge and the inhibition scaled with soleus motor discharge. It was concluded that the inhibition was a heteronymous recurrent inhibition of quadriceps motor neurons mediated by Renshaw cells which had been activated by soleus motor neuron discharge. This recurrent inhibition declined during voluntary tonic contraction of the quadriceps, falling to zero at around one-third of maximum voluntary contraction. Antagonist contraction and weak co-contraction of the quadriceps and its antagonists did not lead to any significant change in recurrent inhibition. It is concluded that motor commands descending from the brain reduce heteronymous recurrent inhibition during isolated quadriceps muscle contraction, but to a much lesser extent during co-contraction. No evidence was obtained for any descending facilitation of heteronymous recurrent inhibition. PMID:10468514

  17. Quadriceps muscle weakness and atrophy are associated with a differential epigenetic profile in advanced COPD.

    PubMed

    Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Ausin, Pilar; Roca, Josep; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle dysfunction and atrophy. We assessed whether quadriceps muscle weakness and atrophy are associated with a differential expression profile of epigenetic events in patients with advanced COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). In vastus lateralis (VL) of sedentary severe COPD patients (n=41), who were further subdivided into those with (n=25) and without (n=16) muscle weakness and healthy controls (n=19), expression of muscle-enriched miRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), growth and atrophy signalling markers, total protein and histone acetylation, transcription factors, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligases and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared with controls, in VL of all COPD together and in muscle-weakness patients, expression of miR-1, miR-206 and miR-27a, levels of lysine-acetylated proteins and histones and acetylated histone 3 were increased, whereas expression of HDAC3, HDAC4, sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) were decreased, Akt (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) expression did not differ, follistatin expression was greater, whereas myostatin expression was lower, serum reponse factor (SRF) expression was increased and fibre size of fast-twitch fibres was significantly reduced. In VL of severe COPD patients with muscle weakness and atrophy, epigenetic events regulate muscle differentiation rather than proliferation and muscle growth and atrophy signalling, probably as feedback mechanisms to prevent those muscles from undergoing further atrophy. Lysine-hyperacetylation of histones may drive enhanced protein catabolism in those muscles. These findings may help design novel therapeutic strategies (enhancers of miRNAs promoting myogenesis and acetylation inhibitors) to selectively target muscle weakness and atrophy in severe COPD. PMID:25628226

  18. NMR based biomarkers to study age-related changes in the human quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Azzabou, Noura; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-10-01

    Age-related sarcopenia is a major health issue. To improve elderly person quality of life, it is important to characterize age-associated structural changes within the skeletal muscle. NMR imaging offers quantitative tools to monitor these changes. We scanned 93 subjects: 33 young adults aged between 19 and 27years old and 60 older adults between 69 and 80years old. Their physical activity was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer and they were classified either as active or sedentary. A standard multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) sequence was run and water T2 maps were extracted using a tri-exponential fit. Fat fraction was quantified using three-point Dixon technique. Each quadriceps muscle was characterized by: water T2 mean value, water T2 heterogeneity and the mean fat fraction. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed that water T2 mean values and its heterogeneity indices as well as fat fraction were significantly higher in the elderly group (p<0.05). Only fat fraction was significantly lower in the active group compared to the sedentary one (p<0.05). Linear regression confirmed the significant impact of age on these NMR parameters whereas physical activity impact was not systematic. NMR imaging provided a comprehensive assessment of the aging process impact on skeletal muscle composition. Water T2 increase might be related to changes in fiber typology while increased T2 heterogeneities might correlate with some degree of tissue disorganization, like the development of interstitial fibrosis. Fat fraction and water T2 heterogeneity increase was partly slowed down by physical activity. These changes were not gender dependent. PMID:26122131

  19. Analysis of three different equations for predicting quadriceps femoris muscle strength in patients with COPD *

    PubMed Central

    Nellessen, Aline Gonçalves; Donária, Leila; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida; Pitta, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare equations for predicting peak quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle force; to determine the agreement among the equations in identifying QF muscle weakness in COPD patients; and to assess the differences in characteristics among the groups of patients classified as having or not having QF muscle weakness by each equation. Methods: Fifty-six COPD patients underwent assessment of peak QF muscle force by dynamometry (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee extension). Predicted values were calculated with three equations: an age-height-weight-gender equation (Eq-AHWG); an age-weight-gender equation (Eq-AWG); and an age-fat-free mass-gender equation (Eq-AFFMG). Results: Comparison of the percentage of predicted values obtained with the three equations showed that the Eq-AHWG gave higher values than did the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, with no difference between the last two. The Eq-AHWG showed moderate agreement with the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, whereas the last two also showed moderate, albeit lower, agreement with each other. In the sample as a whole, QF muscle weakness (< 80% of predicted) was identified by the Eq-AHWG, Eq-AWG, and Eq-AFFMG in 59%, 68%, and 70% of the patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Age, fat-free mass, and body mass index are characteristics that differentiate between patients with and without QF muscle weakness. Conclusions: The three equations were statistically equivalent in classifying COPD patients as having or not having QF muscle weakness. However, the Eq-AHWG gave higher peak force values than did the Eq-AWG and the Eq-AFFMG, as well as showing greater agreement with the other equations. PMID:26398750

  20. Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Ogborn, Daniel I; Cupido, Colleen; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Massage therapy is commonly used during physical rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to ameliorate pain and promote recovery from injury. Although there is evidence that massage may relieve pain in injured muscle, how massage affects cellular function remains unknown. To assess the effects of massage, we administered either massage therapy or no treatment to separate quadriceps of 11 young male participants after exercise-induced muscle damage. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the quadriceps (vastus lateralis) at baseline, immediately after 10 min of massage treatment, and after a 2.5-hour period of recovery. We found that massage activated the mechanotransduction signaling pathways focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), potentiated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling [nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?)], and mitigated the rise in nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) (p65) nuclear accumulation caused by exercise-induced muscle trauma. Moreover, despite having no effect on muscle metabolites (glycogen, lactate), massage attenuated the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and reduced heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) phosphorylation, thereby mitigating cellular stress resulting from myofiber injury. In summary, when administered to skeletal muscle that has been acutely damaged through exercise, massage therapy appears to be clinically beneficial by reducing inflammation and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22301554

  1. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:26311953

  2. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:26311953

  3. Brugada syndrome, exercise, and exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Masrur, Shihab; Memon, Sarfaraz; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    There are few data on the risk of exercise and the role of exercise stress testing in Brugada syndrome. We sought to address this deficiency using a systematic literature review. We identified 98 English-language articles possibly addressing exercise in Brugada syndrome by searching PubMed and Google Scholar from January 1990 through November 2013 using the keywords "Brugada syndrome," "exercise," "exercise testing," and "syncope" alone and in combinations. Abstracts were reviewed, and those articles pertaining to Brugada syndrome and exercise were reviewed in full. We identified 18 articles reporting on Brugada syndrome and exercise. This pool included 2 large studies of 93 and 50 Brugada subjects undergoing exercise testing, plus 16 case reports. There were no reports of exercise-related sudden death, but there were 4 cases of syncope after exercise. We identified 166 Brugada patients who underwent exercise testing. During exercise testing, there were 2 reports of ventricular tachycardia and 1 report of multiple ventricular extrasystoles. ST-segment elevation increased (ST augmentation) during the early recovery phase of exercise in 57% of patients. Exercise unmasked a Brugada electrocardiographic pattern in 5 patients. Exercise is associated with syncope and ST augmentation after exercise and may be helpful in unmasking Brugada syndrome. There are insufficient data on the risks of exercise in Brugada syndrome to make recommendations for exercise, but the observations that exercise can worsen the ST abnormalities in Brugada and produce ventricular arrhythmias suggest that patients with Brugada syndrome should be restricted from vigorous exercise. PMID:25955277

  4. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    DOEpatents

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  5. Burnishing Techniques Strengthen Hip Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.

  6. Adaptive Force Regulation of Muscle Strengthening Rehabilitation Device With Magnetorheological Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

  7. Transcriptome Analysis in Venom Gland of the Predatory Giant Ant Dinoponera quadriceps: Insights into the Polypeptide Toxin Arsenal of Hymenopterans

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Leung, Siu Wai; Prieto-da-Silva, Álvaro R. B.; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves P.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Dinoponera quadriceps is a predatory giant ant that inhabits the Neotropical region and subdues its prey (insects) with stings that deliver a toxic cocktail of molecules. Human accidents occasionally occur and cause local pain and systemic symptoms. A comprehensive study of the D. quadriceps venom gland transcriptome is required to advance our knowledge about the toxin repertoire of the giant ant venom and to understand the physiopathological basis of Hymenoptera envenomation. Results We conducted a transcriptome analysis of a cDNA library from the D. quadriceps venom gland with Sanger sequencing in combination with whole-transcriptome shotgun deep sequencing. From the cDNA library, a total of 420 independent clones were analyzed. Although the proportion of dinoponeratoxin isoform precursors was high, the first giant ant venom inhibitor cysteine-knot (ICK) toxin was found. The deep next generation sequencing yielded a total of 2,514,767 raw reads that were assembled into 18,546 contigs. A BLAST search of the assembled contigs against non-redundant and Swiss-Prot databases showed that 6,463 contigs corresponded to BLASTx hits and indicated an interesting diversity of transcripts related to venom gene expression. The majority of these venom-related sequences code for a major polypeptide core, which comprises venom allergens, lethal-like proteins and esterases, and a minor peptide framework composed of inter-specific structurally conserved cysteine-rich toxins. Both the cDNA library and deep sequencing yielded large proportions of contigs that showed no similarities with known sequences. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the venom gland transcriptome of the New World giant ant D. quadriceps. The glandular venom system was dissected, and the toxin arsenal was revealed; this process brought to light novel sequences that included an ICK-folded toxins, allergen proteins, esterases (phospholipases and carboxylesterases), and lethal-like toxins. These findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology, behavior and venomics of hymenopterans. PMID:24498135

  8. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training appeared to attenuate the increased Passive tilt-tolerance.

  9. AMPK? is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Kristensen, Caroline Maag; Hingst, Janne Rasmus; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Gudiksen, Anders; Foretz, Marc; Schjerling, Peter; Viollet, Benoit; Pilegaard, Henriette; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training increases skeletal muscle expression of metabolic proteins improving the oxidative capacity. Adaptations in skeletal muscle by pharmacologically induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are dependent on the AMPK?2 subunit. We hypothesized that exercise training-induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins, as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation, would be compromised in muscle-specific AMPK?1 and -?2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, glucose transporter 4, and VEGF in an AMPK-dependent manner, whereas cluster of differentiation 36 and fatty acid transport protein 1 mRNA content increased similarly in AMPK? wild-type (WT) and mdKO mice. During 4 wk of voluntary running wheel exercise training, the AMPK? mdKO mice ran less than WT. Maximal running speed was lower in AMPK? mdKO than in WT mice but increased similarly in both genotypes with exercise training. Exercise training increased quadriceps protein content of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1 (UQCRC1), cytochrome c, hexokinase II, plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein, and citrate synthase activity more in AMPK? WT than in mdKO muscle. However, analysis of a subgroup of mice matched for running distance revealed that only UQCRC1 protein content increased more in WT than in mdKO mice with exercise training. Thus, AMPK?1 and -?2 subunits are important for acute exercise-induced mRNA responses of some genes and may be involved in regulating basal metabolic protein expression but seem to be less important in exercise training-induced adaptations in metabolic proteins. PMID:26419588

  10. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  11. Rethinking health research capacity strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Emily; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an NIH-funded HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain under-articulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing 1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, 2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborating in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and 3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

  12. Recovery from cycling exercise: effects of carbohydrate and protein beverages.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A; Luden, Nicholas D; Smith, Alexia G; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO(2peak): 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285-300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO(2peak) + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. PMID:22852050

  13. Current ISS Exercise Countermeasures: Where are we now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Loerch, L.; Davis-Street, J.; Haralson, Cortni; Sams, C.

    2006-01-01

    Current International Space Station (ISS) crew schedules include 1.5 h/d for completion of resistive exercise and 1 h/d of aerobic exercise , 6 d/wk. While ISS post flight decrements in muscle strength, bone m ineral density, and aerobic capacity improved in some crewmembers, de conditioning was still evident even with this volume of exercise. Res ults from early ISS expeditions show maximum loss in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and pelvis in excess of 1.5% per month, with all crewmembers demonstrating significant bone loss in one or more re gions. Similarly, post flight muscle strength losses in the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups exceeded 30% in the immediate post miss ion period in some crewmembers. Measures of aerobic capacity early in the mission show average decrements of 15%, but with onboard aerobic exercise capability, the crew has been able to "train up" over the co urse of the mission. These findings are highly variable among crewmem bers and appear to be correlated with availability and reliability of the inflight resistive exercise device (RED), cycle ergometer, and t readmill. This suite of hardware was installed on ISS with limited op erational evaluation in groundbased test beds. As a result, onorbit hardware constraints have resulted in inadequate physical stimulus, d econditioning, and increased risk for compromised performance during intra and extravehicular activities. These issues indicate that the c urrent ISS Countermeasures System reliability or validity are not ade quate for extendedduration exploration missions. Learning Objective: A better understanding of the status of ISS exercise countermeasures , their ability to protect physiologic systems, and recommendations for exploration exercise countermeasures.

  14. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  15. Association of Serum Bicarbonate Levels With Gait Speed and Quadriceps Strength in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metabolic acidosis is associated with skeletal muscle proteolysis, and alkali supplementation has demonstrated improvements in lean body mass and urinary nitrogen wasting in several studies. However, the association of acidosis with functional outcomes has not been examined on a population-based level. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS 2,675 nationally representative adults 50 years of age and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 – 2002. FACTOR Serum bicarbonate level. OUTCOMES Low gait speed (gait speed) and low peak torque (peak torque) were defined as being in the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed and peak torque, respectively. MEASUREMENTS Serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. gait speed was determined from a 20-foot timed walk. peak torque was calculated using peak isokinetic knee extensor force. RESULTS Serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L was present in 22.7% of the cohort. Compared to participants with bicarbonate ?23 mEq/L, those with bicarbonate <23 mEq/L had higher body-mass index and serum albumin, were more likely to have low socioeconomic status, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and were less likely to use diuretics. Serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L, compared with ?23 mEq/L, was associated with low gait speed (OR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 – 1.95) and low peak torque (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07 – 1.74) after multivariable adjustment. The association with low peak torque was modified by race/ethnicity among women but not men (ORs of 1.52 (95% CI 1.08 – 2.13) for men, 2.33 (95% CI 1.23 – 4.44) for non- white women, and 0.93 (95% CI 0.47 – 1.82) for white women). LIMITATIONS Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of bicarbonate. CONCLUSIONS Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with slower gait speed and reduced quadriceps strength in older adults. Further studies should examine the effect of alkali therapy on functional outcomes. PMID:21354683

  16. [Isokinetic measurements of the stretch strength of the femoral quadriceps muscle in surfers in comparison to healthy, untrained persons].

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Petschnig, R; Bachl, N; Engel, A; Ammer, K

    1990-11-01

    The strength of the quadriceps muscle of twelve male surfers who practice their sport for more than 10 years was compared with results of 15 male untrained persons. The concentric peak torque of knee extensors was measured every 10 degrees in a range from 90 to 20 degrees isometrically and dynamically with a constant angle velocity of 10 degrees/sec. The difference in torque between the left and the right leg is not significant, but there is a slight dominance in favour of the standing leg. The body weight related strength of the surfers was 3.2 Nm/kg indicating a higher strength characteristic compared to 2.7 Nm/kg of untrained subjects. Moreover the strength values of our group of athletes were above the value of 3 Nm/kg, which is referred to in the literature as representing a good training status. In view of these results it can be concluded that a long-lasting specific training like surfing will change the strength characteristics of the quadriceps muscles, although none of the surfers had undertaken an extensive strength training for the lower extremity. PMID:2255886

  17. Exercise Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Martin G.; Sharman, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of apparent ‘normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ?210 mm Hg in men or ?190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ?110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a ‘hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory ‘masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  18. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  19. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  20. Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

  1. Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: Countering the Threat from Biological Weapons Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs By Command of Her Majesty April 2002 Cm 5484 £5.00 #12;3 STRENGTHENING THE BIOLOGICAL AND TOXIN WEAPONS CONVENTION

  2. GRANCRETE FOR FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    1 GRANCRETE FOR FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES Adolfo J. Obregon-Salinas, Sami H, as an alternative to epoxy for FRP strengthening systems used for reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Grancrete of the Joint ASI-ASCE Committees 423, Prestressed Concrete, and member of the ACI Committee 550, Precast

  3. An exercise programme for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulou, K; Johnson, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Home exercise programmes and exercise programmes carried out in a clinical setting are commonly advocated for the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), a very common lesion of the arm with a well-defined clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to describe the use and effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes in the treatment of LET. Eccentric exercises: Slow progressive eccentric exercises for LET should be performed with the elbow in extension, forearm in pronation, and wrist in extended position (as high as possible). However, it is unclear how the injured tendon, which is loaded eccentrically, returns to the starting position without experiencing concentric loading and how the "slowness" of eccentric exercises should be defined. Nor has the treatment regimen of the eccentric exercises of a supervised exercise programme been defined. Stretching exercises: Static stretching is defined as passively stretching a given muscle-tendon unit by slowly placing and maintaining it in a maximal position of stretch. We recommend the position should be held for 30–45 s, three times before and three times after eccentric exercises during each treatment session with a 30 s rest interval between each procedure. The treatment region of static stretching exercises when a supervised exercise programme is performed is unknown. Discussion: A well designed trial is needed to study the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for LET consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises. The issues relating to the supervised exercise programme should be defined so that therapists can replicate the programme. PMID:16306504

  4. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  5. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  6. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries. PMID:25007200

  7. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know exactly if or how exercise increases your immunity to certain illnesses, but there are several theories ( ... not exercise more intensely just to increase their immunity. Heavy, long-term exercise (such as marathon running ...

  8. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

  9. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePLUS

    ... help this important muscle get stronger by doing aerobic (say: air-OH-bik) exercise. Exercise is good ... your lungs. Which of these is your favorite? Aerobic means "with air," so aerobic exercise is a ...

  10. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  11. Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need:_____________________________ Model quality, validation exercise (cont'd). Part 2: local comparison of 2Å and 1.25Å structures. One

  12. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John M.; Strong, David R.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relative untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n = 25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use. PMID:24666811

  13. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use. PMID:24666811

  14. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Effect of resistance training on muscle use during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz, Lori L.; Tesch, Per A.; Biro, Ronald L.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effect of resistance training on exercise-induced contrast shift in magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was hypothesized that a given load could be lifted after training with less muscle showing contrast shift, thereby suggesting less muscle was used to perform the exercise. Nine males trained the left quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle 2 days/wk for 9 wk using 3-6 sets of 12 knee extensions each day. The right QF served as a control. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in MR images evoked by each of three bouts of exercise (5 sets of 10 knee extensions with a load equal to 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum pretraining load that could be lifted for 5 sets of 10 repetitions) were quantified pre- and posttraining. MR image contrast shift was quantified by determining QF cross-sectional area (CSA) showing increased spin-spin relaxation time. One repetition maximum increased 14% in the left trained QF and 7% in the right untrained QF. Left QF CSA increased 5%, with no change in right QSF CSA. Left QF CSA showing contrast shift was less after each bout of the exercise test posttraining. This was also true, to a lesser extent, for the right QF at the higher two loads. The results suggest that short-term resistance training reduces MR image contrast shift evoked by a given effort, thereby reflecting the use of less muscle to lift the load. Because this response was evident in both trained and contralateral untrained muscle, neural factors are suggested to be responsible. The consequence of this adaptation could be to increase 'stress' per unit area of active muscle during the course of training and thereby evoke hypertrophy.

  16. Levels of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need three main types of activity . They are aerobic (sometimes called "cardio"), muscle-strengthening , and bone-strengthening . ... I?" Get clicking to get started. Expand All » Aerobic activity What is it? Aerobic activity gets your ...

  17. Bonds that strengthen under force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Viola

    2006-03-01

    While the adhesive strength of most receptor-ligand interactions is exponentially reduced if strained, some receptor-ligand complexes exist that strengthen under force which is the hallmark of catch bonds. Although the existence of catch bonds was theoretically predicted, the first experimental demonstrations of their existence were given only recently, i.e. for the bacterial adhesin FimH that is located at the tip of type I fimbriae of E. coli and for p-selectin. In a major collaborative effort, we studied the structural origin by which the FimH-mannose bond is switched by force to a high binding state. Mutational studies were thereby combined with steered molecular dynamic simulations to decipher how force might affect protein conformation. Force-activation of FimH leads to a complex `stick-and-roll' bacterial adhesion behavior in which E. coli preferentially rolls over mannosylated surfaces at low shear but increasingly sticks firmly as the shear is increased. Interesting similarities are further seen if comparing the structural mechanisms by which liganded FimH and liganded integrins are switched to a high binding state. This comparison was made possible by docking fibronectin's 10^th type III module (fnIII10) to ?V?3 integrin. ?V?3 can switch from the ``closed'' ?V?3 integrin headpiece to the ``open'' conformation by opening the hinge angle between the ?A domain and the hybrid domain of the ?-integrin. The ``open'' state has been implicated by many experimental laboratories to correspond to the activated state of integrins. W. E. Thomas, E. Trintchina, M. Forero, V. Vogel, E. Sokurenko, Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear-force, Cell, 109 (2002) 913. W. E. Thomas, L. M. Nilsson, M. Forero, E. V. Sokurenko, V. Vogel, Shear-dependent `stick-and-roll' adhesion of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli, Molecular Microbiology 53 (2004) 1545. W. Thomas, M. Forero, O. Yakovenko, L. Nilsson, P. Vicini, E. Sokurenko, V. Vogel, Catch Bond Model Derived from Allostery Explains Force-Activated Bacterial Adhesion, Biophys. J, in press E. Puklin-Faucher, M. Gao, K. Schulten, V. Vogel, How the opening of the ?A/hybrid domain hinge angle in the ?v?3 integrin headpiece is regulated by the liganded MIDAS conformation and by ligand-mediated mechanical force, submitted.

  18. UC Santa Cruz strengthens the educational, economic,

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    UC Santa Cruz strengthens the educational, economic, and cultural fabric of the entire Monterey Bay $115 million CAPiTAL ExPENDiTURES $73 million Total expenditures in the region Economic impact on local

  19. Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA )

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Muscle-damaging exercise affects isokinetic torque more at short muscle length.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the length-dependent changes in quadriceps muscle torque during voluntary isometric and isokinetic contractions performed after severe muscle-damaging exercise. Thirteen physically active men (age = 23.8 ± 3.2 years, body weight = 77.2 ± 4.5 kg) performed stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise comprising 100 drop jumps with 30-second intervals between each jump. Changes in the voluntary and electrically evoked torque in concentric and isometric conditions at different muscle lengths, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were assessed within 72 hours after SSC exercise. Isokinetic knee extension torque decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at all joint angles after SSC exercise. At 2 minutes and at 72 hours after SSC exercise, the changes in knee torque were significantly smaller at 80° (where 180° = full knee extension) than at 110-130°. At 2 minutes after SSC exercise, the optimal angle for isokinetic knee extension torque shifted by 9.5 ± 8.9° to a longer muscle length (p < 0.05). Electrically induced torque at low-frequency (20-Hz) stimulation decreased significantly more at a knee joint angle of 130° than at 90°. The subjects felt acute muscle pain and CK activity in the blood increased to 1,593.9 ± 536.2 IU·L?¹ within 72 hours after SSC exercise (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the effect of muscle-damaging exercise on isokinetic torque is greatest for contractions at short muscle lengths. These findings have practical importance because the movements in most physical activities are dynamic in nature, and the decrease in torque at various points in the range of motion during exercise might affect overall performance. PMID:21273917

  1. Are flexibility and muscle-strengthening activities associated with a higher risk of developing low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Robert D.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Beattie, Paul F.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between participation in flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities with the development of low back pain (LBP). Design Observational cohort study. Methods The cohort included 4,610 adults, 17% female, between 20 and 81 years of age (mean 46.6, s.d. 4.96). The cohort was followed for a mean of 4.9 years for self-reported LBP. All participants reported at baseline whether they performed flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities, including specific sub-types. Results Neither general performance of flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities were associated with a higher incidence of LBP compared to those who did not perform these activities. Those who reported stretching, as a specific flexibility activity were at a higher risk of developing LBP compared with those who performed no flexibility exercises, reported calisthenic flexibility activities, or attended exercise classes. Those who reported using weight training machines, as part of muscle-strengthening activities, had a higher risk of reporting LBP, compared with those who did not perform muscle-strengthening activities or performed calisthenic or free weight activities. Conclusion In this sample, stretching or use of weight training machines is associated with increased risk of developing LBP compared to use of free weights, calisthenics or flexibility classes. PMID:23988784

  2. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  3. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  4. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  5. Reduction of O2 slow component by priming exercise: novel mechanistic insights from time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiwaki, Masato; Okushima, Dai; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-01-01

    Novel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS), with adipose tissue thickness correction, was used to test the hypotheses that heavy priming exercise reduces the V?O2 slow component (V?O2SC) (1) by elevating microvascular [Hb] volume at multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris (2) rather than reducing the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics. Twelve subjects completed two 6-min bouts of heavy work rate exercise, separated by 6 min of unloaded cycling. Priming exercise induced faster overall V?O2 kinetics consequent to a substantial reduction in the V?O2SC (0.27 ± 0.12 vs. 0.11 ± 0.09 L·min?1, P < 0.05) with an unchanged primary V?O2 time constant. An increased baseline for the primed bout [total (Hb + Mb)] (197.5 ± 21.6 vs. 210.7 ± 22.5 ?mol L?1, P < 0.01), reflecting increased microvascular [Hb] volume, correlated significantly with the V?O2SC reduction. At multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris, priming exercise reduced the baseline and slowed the increase in [deoxy (Hb + Mb)]. Changes in the intersite coefficient of variation in the time delay and time constant of [deoxy (Hb + Mb)] during the second bout were not correlated with the V?O2SC reduction. These results support a mechanistic link between priming exercise-induced increase in muscle [Hb] volume and the reduced V?O2SC that serves to speed overall V?O2 kinetics. However, reduction in the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics does not appear to be an obligatory feature of the priming response. PMID:26109190

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity affects exercise-induced changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation.

    PubMed

    Bachasson, D; Temesi, J; Gruet, M; Yokoyama, K; Rupp, T; Millet, G Y; Verges, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex during voluntary contractions elicits electrophysiological and mechanical responses in the target muscle. The effect of different TMS intensities on exercise-induced changes in TMS-elicited variables is unknown, impairing data interpretation. This study aimed to investigate TMS intensity effects on maximal voluntary activation (VATMS), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and silent periods (SPs) in the quadriceps muscles before, during, and after exhaustive isometric exercise. Eleven subjects performed sets of ten 5-s submaximal isometric quadriceps contractions at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength until task failure. Three different TMS intensities (I100, I75, I50) eliciting MEPs of 53±6%, 38±5% and 25±3% of maximal compound action potential (Mmax) at 20% MVC were used. MEPs and SPs were assessed at both absolute (40% baseline MVC) and relative (50%, 75%, and 100% MVC) force levels. VATMS was assessed with I100 and I75. When measured at absolute force level, MEP/Mmax increased during exercise at I50, decreased at I100 and remained unchanged at I75. No TMS intensity effect was observed at relative force levels. At both absolute and relative force levels, SPs increased at I100 and remained stable at I75 and I50. VATMS assessed at I75 tended to be lower than at I100. TMS intensity affects exercise-induced changes in MEP/Mmax (only when measured at absolute force level), SPs, and VATMS. These results indicate a single TMS intensity assessing maximal voluntary activation and exercise-induced changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability/inhibition may be inappropriate. PMID:26642805

  7. Effects of Neuromuscular Fatigue on Quadriceps Strength and Activation and Knee Biomechanics in Individuals Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abbey C; Lepley, Lindsey K; Wojtys, Edward M; McLean, Scott G; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Laboratory-based experiment using a pretest/posttest design. Objectives To determine the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on quadriceps strength and activation and sagittal and frontal plane knee biomechanics during dynamic landing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Background Impaired quadriceps central activation occurs post-ACLR, likely altering lower extremity biomechanics. Neuromuscular fatigue similarly reduces volitional muscle activation and impairs neuromuscular control. Upon return to full activity post-ACLR, individuals likely concurrently experience quadriceps central activation deficits and neuromuscular fatigue, though the effects of fatigue on muscle strength and activation and biomechanics post-ACLR are unknown. Methods Seventeen individuals 7 to 10 months post-ACLR and 16 controls participated. Quadriceps strength and central activation ratio were recorded prefatigue and postfatigue, which was induced via sets of double-leg squats. Knee biomechanics were recorded during a dynamic landing activity prefatigue and postfatigue. Results Both groups demonstrated smaller knee flexion (initial contact, P = .017; peak, P = .004) and abduction (initial contact, P = .005; peak, P = .009) angles postfatigue. The ACLR group had smaller peak knee flexion angles (P<.001) prefatigue and postfatigue than controls. Knee flexion moment was smaller in those post-ACLR than controls prefatigue (P<.001), but not postfatigue (P = .103). Controls had smaller knee flexion moments postfatigue (P = .001). Knee abduction moment was smaller in both groups postfatigue (P = .003). All participants demonstrated significantly lower strength (P<.001) and activation (P = .003) postfatigue. Conclusion Impaired strength, central activation, and biomechanics were present postfatigue in both groups, suggesting that neuromuscular fatigue may increase noncontact ACL injury risk. However, these changes were not exaggerated in those post-ACLR, likely because they already demonstrated a stiff-legged landing strategy prefatigue. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(12):1042-1050. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5785. PMID:26471851

  8. Postpartum Exercise and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Bane, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Many women who are breastfeeding also want to participate in exercise, but have concerns about the safety of their newborn. The following chapter reviews issues related to postpartum exercise and lactation. The goals of the chapter are to help clinicians understand the benefits of exercise, examine the impact of postpartum exercise on breastfeeding, and provide practical recommendations for exercise during the postpartum period in women who are breastfeeding. PMID:26398298

  9. An EMG comparative analysis of quadriceps during isoinertial strength training using nonlinear scaled wavelets.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Nicholas J; Mixco, Anthony R; Bohorquez, Jorge E; Signorile, Joseph F

    2015-04-01

    High-speed resistance training is used to increase power; however, momentum can reduce the effectiveness of high-speed (HS) training when using weight-stack (WS) machines. This study used a non-linear scaled wavelet analysis to assess differences between pneumatic (P) and WS during seven HS or controlled speed (CS) repetitions. Vastus medialis (VM) and lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) EMG data were collected during leg extension exercises performed by five regular weight-trainers (mean age ± SD, 23.2 ± 2.9 years). Data were analyzed using continuous wavelet analysis to assess temporal Intensity distribution across eight frequency bands. Significant differences occurred due to speed for all muscles (p<.0001). P produced higher Intensity than WS for all muscles during HS (p<.0001), and VM and RF during CS (p<.001). The CON phase produced higher Intensity than ECC for the vasti muscles during CS (p<.0003), and VM and RF during HS (p<.0001). Intensity increased across repetitions plateauing earlier for the vasti than RF during CS. Regardless of the machine, Intensity levels peaked between the 25-53 Hz and 46-82 Hz (2nd and 3rd wavelets) bands. The results indicate that when the objective is increasing power through isoinertial training, P machines at HS appear to be the most effective alternative. PMID:25553560

  10. Do Three Different Passive Assessments of Quadriceps Spasticity Relate to the Functional Activity of Walking for Children Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed Central

    White, Hank; Uhl, Tim L.; Augsburger, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A stiff-knee gait pattern is frequently associated with several impairments including quadriceps spasticity in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). The relationship of clinical measures of quadriceps spasticity and the stiff-knee gait pattern in children diagnosed with CP has not been well established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the ability of clinical measures of quadriceps spasticity (modified Ashworth scale [MAS], Ely tests, and pendulum test) to categorize a stiff-knee gait pattern in children with CP. Children were categorized as having a stiff-knee gait pattern based on kinematic and EMG gait data. Results of a logistic regression model revealed that the only significant measure was A1 of the pendulum test. Discriminant analysis functions were used to predict group membership (stiff-knee, not stiff-knee gait pattern) for each measure. The A1 of the pendulum test demonstrated the highest classification accuracy and the highest sensitivity compared to the other measures. Therefore, a negative pendulum test (indicated by an A1 value of 45 degrees or more) is more useful for ruling out a stiff-knee gait pattern compared to the other clinical measures. PMID:26576411

  11. A clinically relevant BTX-A injection protocol leads to persistent weakness, contractile material loss, and an altered mRNA expression phenotype in rabbit quadriceps muscles.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco A; Sawatsky, Andrew; Hart, David A; Herzog, Walter

    2015-07-16

    Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injections have become a common treatment modality for patients suffering from muscle spasticity. Despite its benefits, BTX-A treatments have been associated with adverse effects on target muscles. Currently, application of BTX-A is largely based on clinical experience, and research quantifying muscle structure following BTX-A treatment has not been performed systematically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate strength, muscle mass, and contractile material six months following a single or repeated (2 and 3) BTX-A injections into the quadriceps femoris of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty three skeletally mature rabbits were divided into four groups: experimental group rabbits received 1, 2, or 3 injections at intervals of 3 months (1-BTX-A, 2-BTX-A, 3-BTX-A, respectively) while control group rabbits received volume-matched saline injections. Knee extensor strength, quadriceps muscle mass, and quadriceps contractile material of the experimental group rabbits were expressed as a percentage change relative to the control group rabbits. One-way ANOVA was used to determine group differences in outcome measures (?=0.05). Muscle strength and contractile material were significantly reduced in experimental compared to control group rabbits but did not differ between experimental groups. Muscle mass was the same in experimental BTX-A and control group rabbits. We concluded from these results that muscle strength and contractile material do not fully recover within six months of BTX-A treatment. PMID:26087882

  12. Changes in Voluntary Activation Assessed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during Prolonged Cycling Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y.

    2014-01-01

    Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13±9%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (25±11%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (?8%, P<0.05 and ?14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

  13. The Feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mallery, Laurie H; MacDonald, Elizabeth A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Earl, Marie E; Rockwood, Kenneth; MacKnight, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Background For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. Methods A hospital-based resistance exercise program, which incorporates principles of resistance training and Pilates exercise, was developed and administered to intervention subjects to determine whether acutely-ill older patients can perform resistance exercise while in the hospital. Exercises were designed to be reproducible and easily performed in bed. The primary outcome measures were adherence and participation. Results Thirty-nine ill patients, recently admitted to an acute care hospital, who were over age 70 [mean age of 82.0 (SD= 7.3)] and ambulatory prior to admission, were randomized to the resistance exercise group (19) or passive range of motion (ROM) group (20). For the resistance exercise group, participation was 71% (p = 0.004) and adherence was 63% (p = 0.020). Participation and adherence for ROM exercises was 96% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Using a standardized and simple exercise regimen, selected, ill, older adults in the hospital are able to comply with resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if resistance exercise can prevent or treat hospital-related deterioration in mobility and function. PMID:14531932

  14. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  15. Effect of a Short Time Concentric Versus Eccentric Training Program on Electromyography Activity and Peak Torque of Quadriceps

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, Carlos; Abade, Eduardo; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum strength of the knee extensors were assessed. Eighteen physically healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years, body height 177 ± 4 cm, body mass 73 ± 7 kg) performed four weeks of unilateral CON isokinetic training for the quadriceps of the dominant leg on a REV9000 dynamometer. At the end of the fourth week, the sample was divided into two groups, with one group performing additional four weeks of unilateral ECC training and the other continuing with CON training. The training sessions consisted of three sets of ten maximal repetitions at a velocity of 60ºs-1, three days per week for eight weeks. The results showed that CON and ECC groups improved the peak torque in all types of contractions. Also, both groups presented increases in the avgEMG for VL, VM and RF. The present investigation showed that CON training elicited increases of the ISO peak torque and VM avgEMG in the CON contraction. Additionally, significant gains were reported after the ECC training on the VM avgEMG in all contractions and RM avgEMG in CON contraction. PMID:25114726

  16. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8?mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1?h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4?N?m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5?N?m, P?=?0.004), 22.5?N?m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0?N?m, P?=?0.025) and 22.5?N?m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7?N?m, P?=?0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode. PMID:25969895

  17. Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in the Quadriceps Using Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity in Young Females

    PubMed Central

    Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Fisher, Beth; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Clijsen, Ron; Cescon, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans. Methods A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years) and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years) performed two knee extensions: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 s, and (2) at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays. Results Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, p<0.01) was found during the sustained 60% MVC, probably as a result of simultaneous motor unit synchronization and a decrease in muscle fiber CV during the fatiguing task. Conclusions Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:25880369

  18. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (?50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  19. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R.; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190– -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29–150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72–0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

  20. Extraversion and exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Mathers, S; Walker, M B

    1999-01-01

    Extraversion has been suggested as a factor associated with addiction. This claim was tested in relation to exercise addiction. Twelve exercise addicts were compared with 12 nonaddicted individuals who were committed to regular exercise and with 12 nonexercising individuals drawn from the same student population. Addicted exercisers did not differ from nonaddicted exercisers in extraversion, although exercisers as a group were more extraverted than nonexercisers. The results are interpreted as evidence against the claim that extraversion is a component of the addictive personality profile. PMID:10022080

  1. Comparison of active and electrostimulated recovery strategies after fatiguing exercise.

    PubMed

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Makrof, Souleyma; Demoulin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks) which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR) recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer), an electrostimulated (ESR) recovery (25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the quadriceps) or a strictly passive recovery (PR). Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10) were evaluated before (pre-ex), immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex), after the recovery period (post-rec), as well as 75 minutes (1h15) and one day (24h) after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 ± 10.7%, AR: 105.3 ± 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 ± 10.5%). VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and post-rec (p < 0.001); there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64). In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery. Key pointsThree sets of submaximal isometric contractions at 60%, 55% and 50% of MVC induced an early fatigue without DOMS but did not lead to exhaustion.In comparison with passive recovery, active and electrostimulated recovery did not lead to significantly higher MVC torques 24h after the exercise bout.No significant differences were demonstrated between the effects of passive, active and electrostimulated recoveries on muscle pain after repeated submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:24149681

  2. Strengthening Language Experiences for Children through Fingerplays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Betty Ruth

    Fingerplays--brief stories that rhyme and can be dramatized by using the fingers--are an old activity for children that can be traced in Indian lore to a time before Columbus. Today, fingerplays delight and fascinate young children and provide a variety of learning opportunities. Fingerplays can provide a source for strengthening language…

  3. Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

    2007-01-01

    The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

  4. Strengthening the Nation by Narrowing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen; Montoya, James

    2009-01-01

    A 2007 report by Jobs for the Future concluded that the United States "has miles to go to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in degree production, strengthen the domestic workforce to meet demand for higher skills and knowledge, and remain internationally competitive." That the United States must educate more of its citizens for an…

  5. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  6. 78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Systems Strengthening AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...-1, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 32, Silver Spring, MD 20993,...

  7. Recent NIST Activities to Strengthen Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Recent NIST Activities to Strengthen Forensic Science John M. Butler, Ph.D. NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland Boston University Forensic Sciences Symposium Boston, MA April 10, 2015 #12;The World's Largest

  8. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  9. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  10. A Comprehensive Review of the Effectiveness of Different Exercise Programs for Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Allen, Kelli D.; Caine, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available, and scientific evidence is necessary for advising patients with OA on the optimal treatment strategy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild to moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, gender and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial. PMID:23306415

  11. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  12. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  13. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... running. Then take a few minutes for some strength training. Exercises like the ones below help build muscle ... What's A Good Workout for a Busy Schedule? Strength Training Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises (Video) Sports and ...

  14. Exercising on a budget

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find deals on used fitness equipment at yard sales and thrift shops. Invest in cheaper fitness items. ... sure you use proper form, go to the online exercise library at the American Council on Exercise. ...

  15. Exercise and age

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many exercises fit into more than one category: Aerobic exercises increase your breathing and heart rate. These ... diabetes, colon and breast cancers, and heart disease. Aerobic sports activities include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, biking, ...

  16. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  17. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ045 WOMEN’S HEALTH Exercise and Fitness • What are the benefits of exercise? • What are ... heart and lungs to work harder to build fitness. Improving the fitness of your heart and lungs ...

  18. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  19. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  20. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  1. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  2. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  3. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  4. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Make sure he or she drinks water or juice after exercise. For more information about exercise and physical activity for older adults, visit www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life . National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery into Health Gentle Exercise Some ...

  5. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  6. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  7. Exercising with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keep a positive attitude l Maintain a healthy body weight Three types of exercise are best if you ... Examples of flexibility exercises include upper- and lower-body stretching, yoga, and tai ... support and protect joints. Weight-bearing exercises, such as weight lifting, fall into ...

  8. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  9. Molecular profiles of Quadriceps muscle in myostatin-null mice reveal PI3K and apoptotic pathways as myostatin targets

    PubMed Central

    Chelh, Ilham; Meunier, Bruno; Picard, Brigitte; Reecy, Mark James; Chevalier, Catherine; Hocquette, Jean-François; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the TGF-? superfamily, has been identified as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Inactivating mutations in the MSTN gene are responsible for the development of a hypermuscular phenotype. In this study, we performed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to detect altered expression/abundance of genes and proteins. These differentially expressed genes and proteins may represent new molecular targets of MSTN and could be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Results Transcriptomic analysis of the Quadriceps muscles of 5-week-old MSTN-null mice (n = 4) and their controls (n = 4) was carried out using microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences) of 6,473 genes expressed in muscle. Proteomic profiles were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Comparison of the transcriptomic profiles revealed 192 up- and 245 down- regulated genes. Genes involved in the PI3K pathway, insulin/IGF pathway, carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis regulation were up-regulated. Genes belonging to canonical Wnt, calcium signalling pathways and cytokine-receptor cytokine interaction were down-regulated. Comparison of the protein profiles revealed 20 up- and 18 down-regulated proteins spots. Knockout of the MSTN gene was associated with up-regulation of proteins involved in glycolytic shift of the muscles and down-regulation of proteins involved in oxidative energy metabolism. In addition, an increased abundance of survival/anti-apoptotic factors were observed. Conclusion All together, these results showed a differential expression of genes and proteins related to the muscle energy metabolism and cell survival/anti-apoptotic pathway (e.g. DJ-1, PINK1, 14-3-3? protein, TCTP/GSK-3?). They revealed the PI3K and apoptotic pathways as MSTN targets and are in favour of a role of MSTN as a modulator of cell survival in vivo. PMID:19397818

  10. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

  11. Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S

    2014-02-01

    The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences. PMID:24525556

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft: intermediate-term clinical outcome after 24–36 months

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Arndt P; Lange, Vivien; Gille, Justus; Voigt, Christine; Fröhlich, Susanne; Stuhr, Markus; Jürgens, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although known as a possible graft option for decades, quadriceps tendon grafts have often been termed a second-line graft option. We report a consecutive case series using this method as the primary treatment line. The rationale for this study was to evaluate the midterm results of this method in a prospective and consecutive case series. The primary study question was to determine the clinical results 24–36 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft fixed with bioabsorbable cross-pins. Materials and methods The study population included 55 patients, of whom 24 were female (43.6%). The mean age at the index procedure was 31.7 years (15–58 years). All patients received an ACL construction using a bone block-free quadriceps tendon graft fixed with resorbable cross-pins. The postoperative regimen included partial weight-bearing for 3 weeks and flexion limited to 90° for six weeks; an orthosis was not used. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months (24.3–38.5 months) after the index procedure. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score and examination form was assessed, as well as the Lysholm and Gillquist score and the Tegner activity index. The Rolimeter arthrometer was used to assess the anterior laxity of the knee. Results Graft harvesting was possible in all cases; a bony extension was never required. On average, graft length was measured at 8.8 cm (7.5–10 cm). The mean IKDC subjective score at follow-up was 80.44 points (55.17–100 points, standard deviation [SD] 12.05). The mean preinjury Tegner activity index was 4.98 (2–7) compared to a mean value of 4.16 (2–7, SD 0.8) at follow-up. There was a mean loss of 0.82 index points. The average Lysholm and Gillquist score was 89 points (65–100, SD 17.7). Of the results, 89.1% were in the good or very good groups; in one case (1.8%), the result was poor, while the rest were fair. Conclusion ACL reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft achieved satisfactory results in a midterm review. PMID:24379730

  13. Strengthening an affiliation without a merger.

    PubMed

    Hegwer, Laura Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Froedtert Health and the Medical College of Wisconsin have created a shared governance structure with joint committees focused on value, IT, marketing, strategic planning, and other areas. A new funds-flow model shifts a percentage of the health system's bottom line to the medical college to support physician recruitment,joint initiatives, academic programs, and a strategic reserve. The strengthened affiliation has enhanced the ability of the organizations to engage in accountable care and population health initiatives, among other benefits. PMID:26665524

  14. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF INTENSE EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, David O.; Jena, Anupam B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercise constant. Our empirical results identify an association between income and exercise intensity that is consistent with the hypothesis that people respond to increased time costs of exercise by increasing intensity. More generally, our results suggest that time costs may be an important determinant of exercise patterns and that factors that can influence the time costs of exercise, such as intensity, may be important concerns in designing interventions to promote exercise. PMID:20371127

  16. Muscle-Strengthening and Conditioning Activities and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study in Two Cohorts of US Women

    PubMed Central

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A.; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D in women. Methods and Findings We prospectively followed up 99,316 middle-aged and older women for 8 years from the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS] aged 53–81 years, 2000–2008) and Nurses' Health Study II ([NHSII] aged 36–55 years, 2001–2009), who were free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D was carried out to examine the influence of these types of activities on T2D risk. During 705,869 person years of follow-up, 3,491 incident T2D cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models including aerobic MVPA, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women performing 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, and >150 min/week of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities was 0.83, 0.93, 0.75, and 0.60 compared to women reporting no muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (p<0.001 for trend). Furthermore, resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were each independently associated with lower risk of T2D in pooled analyses. Women who engaged in at least 150 min/week of aerobic MVPA and at least 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities had substantial risk reduction compared with inactive women (pooled RR?=?0.33 [95% CI 0.29–0.38]). Limitations to the study include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry. Conclusions Our study suggests that engagement in muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (resistance exercise, yoga, stretching, toning) is associated with a lower risk of T2D. Engagement in both aerobic MVPA and muscle-strengthening type activity is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of T2D in middle-aged and older women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24453948

  17. Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code Jonathon T. Giffin, Mihai Christodorescu,mihai,lpkruger}@cs.wisc.edu #12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code 2 Problem 1 Detect malicious modifications to code #12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code

  18. 1 STANDARD AND REGULATION FOR SEISMIC STRENGTHENING AND

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    .C. components; the seismic assessment and the strengthening design according to the national standards1 STANDARD AND REGULATION FOR SEISMIC STRENGTHENING AND RETROFITING Seismic Evaluation Standard for Existing Buildings GB50023-95, national code Technical Code for Seismic Strengthening of buildings

  19. Locomotor muscle fatigue is not critically regulated after prior upper body exercise.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R; Williams, N C; Hannah, R

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the effects of prior upper body exercise on subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise tolerance and associated changes in neuromuscular function and perceptual responses. Eight men performed three fixed work-rate (85% peak power) cycling tests: 1) to the limit of tolerance (CYC); 2) to the limit of tolerance after prior high-intensity arm-cranking exercise (ARM-CYC); and 3) without prior exercise and for an equal duration as ARM-CYC (ISOTIME). Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force during supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation. Voluntary activation was assessed using twitch interpolation during maximal voluntary contractions. Cycling time during ARM-CYC and ISOTIME (4.33 ± 1.10 min) was 38% shorter than during CYC (7.46 ± 2.79 min) (P < 0.001). Twitch force decreased more after CYC (-38 ± 13%) than ARM-CYC (-26 ± 10%) (P = 0.004) and ISOTIME (-24 ± 10%) (P = 0.003). Voluntary activation was 94 ± 5% at rest and decreased after CYC (89 ± 9%, P = 0.012) and ARM-CYC (91 ± 8%, P = 0.047). Rating of perceived exertion for limb discomfort increased more quickly during cycling in ARM-CYC [1.83 ± 0.46 arbitrary units (AU)/min] than CYC (1.10 ± 0.38 AU/min, P = 0.003) and ISOTIME (1.05 ± 0.43 AU/min, P = 0.002), and this was correlated with the reduced cycling time in ARM-CYC (r = -0.72, P = 0.045). In conclusion, cycling exercise tolerance after prior upper body exercise is potentially mediated by central fatigue and intolerable levels of sensory perception rather than a critical peripheral fatigue limit. PMID:26272315

  20. Articulating Support for Horizontal Resistive Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mechanical device provides support for a user engaged in any of a variety of resistive exercises in a substantially horizontal orientation. The unique features and versatility of the device promise to be useful in bedrest studies, rehabilitation, and specialized strength training. The device affords a capability for selectively loading and unloading of portions of the user s body through its support mechanisms, so that specific parts of the body can be trained with little or no effect on other parts that may be disabled or in the process of recovery from injury. Thus, the device is ideal for rehabilitation exercise programs prescribed by physicians and physical therapists. The capability for selective loading and support also offers potential benefits to strength and conditioning trainers and athletes who wish to selectively strengthen selected parts. The principal innovative aspect of the device is that it supports the subject s weight while enabling the subject, lying substantially horizontally, to perform an exercise that closely approximates a full standing squat. The device includes mechanisms that support the subject in such a way that the hips are free to translate both horizontally and vertically and are free to rotate about the line connecting the hips. At the same time, the shoulders are free to translate horizontally while the upper back is free to rotate about the line connecting the shoulders. Among the mechanisms for hip motion and support is a counterbalance that offsets the weight of the subject as the subject s pelvis translates horizontally and vertically and rotates the pelvis about the line connecting the hips. The counterbalance is connected to a pelvic support system that allows these pelvic movements. The subject is also supported at the shoulder by a mechanism that can tilt to provide continuous support of the upper back while allowing the rotation required for arching the back as the pelvis is displaced. The shoulder support also affords a capability for horizontal motion, and acts as the point of attachment of a load that is provided for squat and heel-raise exercises. The device is compatible with any resistive-exercise machine that provides bilateral loading via a moving cable or other mechanical linkage. The hip-translation and shoulder-translation and -rotation degrees of freedom of the supports can be locked individually or in combination in order to support the subject as necessary for exercises other than the standing squat. If necessary, for such exercises, the load can be applied directly to the subject by use of various attachments. In addition to the aforementioned heel raise, such exercises include the upright row, leg press, curls, extension of the triceps, front raise, lateral raise, and rear raise.

  1. Quadriceps Strength, Muscle Activation Failure, and Patient-Reported Function at the Time of Return to Activity in Patients Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Lindsey K; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Objectives To determine if quadriceps activation failure (QAF) moderates the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in individuals following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Background Quadriceps activation failure may impair the recovery of physical function after ACL reconstruction, given that QAF reduces strength and strength is related to physical function. Evidence of this relationship has been found in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, wherein patients with lower strength and greater QAF had lower levels of physical function. Methods Participants consisted of 52 individuals who were cleared for return to activity at an average ± SD of 7.4 ± 1.2 months post-ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps activation failure was assessed using the superimposed burst technique, and quadriceps strength was assessed using concentric isokinetic contractions (Newton meters per kilogram). Physical function was quantified using a combined variable of a physical measure (single-leg hop for distance) and a self-reported function measure (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] Subjective Knee Evaluation Form), calculated using a principal-component analysis. Simple correlations were then performed to determine the order in which variables were entered into the regression model to evaluate if QAF moderates the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function. Results The combination of quadriceps strength and the interaction of strength by QAF predicted 30% of the variance in physical function (R(2) = 0.30, P<.001; principal-component analysis, -0.61strength + 0.02interaction -1.896); however, the interaction of strength by QAF only accounted for 7% of the capabilities of the model (P = .023). Conclusion Physical function is largely influenced by the recovery of quadriceps strength and minimally attenuated by QAF. These data suggest that QAF may affect individuals post-ACL reconstruction differently, and to a lesser extent, than individuals with knee osteoarthritis. This trial was prospectively registered in a public registry (NCT01555567). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(12):1017-1025. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5753. PMID:26471854

  2. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being. PMID:21725900

  3. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  4. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  5. Effects of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on intramyocellular lipid concentration and high energy phosphates.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jonathan D; Johnson, Nathan A; Brown, Stephen J; Sachinwalla, Toos; Walton, David W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2010-12-01

    Eccentric exercise is known to cause changes to the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle and, in turn, may alter the ability of the muscle to store and utilise intracellular substrates such as intramyocellular lipid (IMCL). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) results in IMCL accumulation. Six males (31 ± 6 years; mean ± SD, and 72.3 ± 9.7 kg body mass) performed 300 unilateral, maximal, isokinetic, eccentric contractions (Ecc) (30° s(-1)) of the quadriceps on an isokinetic dynamometer, followed immediately by an equal amount of work by the contralateral leg but with concentric action (Con). Phosphate compounds and IMCL content of the vastus lateralis of both legs were measured using (31)P and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IMCL content was higher in Ecc than Con 24 h post but the reverse was evident 48 h post-exercise (P = 0.046). A significant time × trial interaction for resting [P(i)] (P = 0.045), showed increases in Ecc across time but no change in Con. A significant main effect of trial (P = 0.002) was apparent indicating the Ecc leg had marked metabolic dysfunction. The P(i)/PCr ratio showed a significant effect of trial (P = 0.001) with an increase evident in Ecc leg, primarily due to increases in [P(i)]. The present study highlights changes in IMCL content of skeletal muscle following EIMD. PMID:20706732

  6. The effects of topical Arnica on performance, pain and muscle damage after intense eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Pumpa, Kate L; Fallon, Kieran E; Bensoussan, Alan; Papalia, Shona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if topical Arnica is effective in reducing pain, indicators of inflammation and muscle damage, and in turn improve performance in well-trained males experiencing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty well-trained males matched by maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2 Max) completed a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Topical Arnica was applied to the skin superficial to the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles immediately after a downhill running protocol designed to induce DOMS. Topical Arnica was reapplied every 4 waking hours for the duration of the study. Performance measures (peak torque, countermovement and squat jump), pain assessments (visual analogue scale (VAS) and muscle tenderness) and blood analysis (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, myoglobin and creatine kinase) were assessed at seven time points over five days (pre-, post-, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the downhill run). Participants in the topical Arnica group reported less pain as assessed through muscle tenderness and VAS 72 hours post-exercise. The application of topical Arnica did not affect any performance assessments or markers of muscle damage or inflammation. Topical Arnica used immediately after intense eccentric exercise and for the following 96 hours did not have an effect on performance or blood markers. It did however demonstrate the possibility of providing pain relief three days post-eccentric exercise. PMID:23947690

  7. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  8. Capacity strengthening for environmental assessment in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adohinzin, Junior Bloh Nignilo; Xu, Ling; Du, Jing; Yang, Fenglin

    2011-09-01

    For over three decades, environmental assessment (EA) has gained increasing international recognition as a means of ensuring sustainable development. In light of environmental challenges, Benin has endorsed the principle that a healthy environment is a human right. This concern is manifested by the creation of many institutions for managing environmental issues. But until today, environmental problems are still on the rise and getting worse day by day because of Benin's limited experience in the field of EA. If EA is to be perceived as an instrument of sustainable development, it is important to take into account the achievements and the needs of the country in this field; because we cannot respond properly and adequately in the field of capacity strengthening in EA without first be familiar with what exists, what is fact, and what is needed. In this study, we address and analyze the status of existing resources in the field of EA in Benin with the purpose of identifying the needs for capacity strengthening to enhance environmental assessment effectiveness in the country. The detailed presentation of the results shows that the legislative and institutional resources are available and represent a strong element in the system of environmental management in Benin. However, there is still a room for improvements towards environmental governance before it becomes a solid system of decision supporting all sectors of intervention because the effective application of those laws and texts still constitute big challenges. Below are the main reasons that explain the particular situation: majority of the laws are put in force very late or taken without implementing decree at all; the organizational capabilities have large gaps; the absence of a mechanism for evaluating the needs for strengthening capacity for EA. Recommendations pinpointed three types of needs which must be filled to enhance the effectiveness of EA in Benin: upstream needs of the structure of EA; implementation and enforcement needs; and, maintenance and efficiency needs. PMID:21136291

  9. How Exercise Can Help

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... be active. That is, they need to improve muscle tone around the joint -- it actually protects the joint. Dr. Roland Moskowitz: If you strengthen the muscles and stabilize the joint, you decrease the instability ...

  10. Optimisation of Shear Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams

    E-print Network

    Yapa, Hiran D.; Lees, Janet M.

    2014-05-21

    associated with flexural failure Vmax, Vmin velocity limits Vt velocity at the tth iteration v shear stress vci shear stress along the crack w crack width wIF inertia factor X distance from support Xrange range Xt position at the tth iteration xopt_algo, yopt... due to increased loading, corrosion of the internal steel reinforcement and less conservative designs based on earlier design codes (Lees et al., 2002). A lack of strength leads to the need either to impose weight limits, to strengthen the structure...

  11. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contents Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Exercises Related Articles Exercise for People with Multiple Sclerosis - Series II Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Walking Program to Reduce Secondary Conditions in Adolescents with Autism Volkssport: The Foundations for a Lifetime ...

  12. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  13. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper. PMID:25857990

  14. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  15. [Strengthening the medical aspect of addiction care].

    PubMed

    van Brussel, G H

    2003-08-23

    The Dutch Association for Addiction Medicine and the umbrella organisation GGZ Nederland (sector organisation for mental health and addiction care) have compiled a report entitled 'Strengthening medical care in the addiction care sector'. The report argues why medical care needs to be strengthened and provides guidance as to how the present shortcomings in quality and quantity can be dealt with. Addiction is now considered to be a medical condition with patients instead of clients. This means that the care, including the financial aspects, needs to be organised in the same way as all other forms of regular health care. Furthermore, the training in addiction medicine needs to be given a clearer status in the form of departments, professorships, training institutes and certification. Within the context of this report the responsibility of addiction centres needs to be emphasised. Vacancies in the many forms of social work could be exchanged for well-trained nurses and physicians, without the need for extra financial assistance. PMID:12966626

  16. Strengthening under Load: Experimental and Numerical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vild, M.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents experimental and numerical research of strengthening of columns under load using welded plates. Three sets of three columns each were tested. All columns were 3 m long. The load from loading cylinders was transmitted through knife-edge bearings, which ensured pinned boundary condition perpendicular to the weaker axis. Set (A) comprised columns with welded T shaped cross-section. Set (B) comprised columns with welded monosymmetric I shaped cross-section. Both sets (A) and (B) had been loaded monotonically until collapse occurred. Set (C) contained columns with T shaped cross-section with the same dimensions as the columns in set (A). The columns from set (C) were first loaded to 70 kN. The force was being held constant and the second flange was being welded to the web under load. After the welding process was finished and the specimen cooled, the column was loaded to failure. The average forces at collapse of column sets (A), (B) and (C) were 143 kN, 308 kN and 323 kN, respectively. It was unexpected that the columns strengthened under load (C) had higher average resistance than the columns welded without preload (B). It could be caused by the residual stress and distortion caused by welding. The study includes the results of finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  17. A comparison of respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living and physical fitness in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hulya; Yatar, ?lker; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Aribas, Zeynep; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Ozcelik, Ugur; Kiper, Nural

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports that compare muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and parameters of physical fitness of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with healthy peers in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL and physical fitness in patients with CF and healthy subjects. Nineteen patients with CF (mean forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1: 86.56±18.36%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Respiratory (maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP and maximal expiratory pressure-MEP) and peripheral muscle strength (quadriceps, shoulder abductors and hand grip strength) were evaluated. Functional exercise capacity was determined with 6min walk test (6MWT). ADL was assessed with Glittre ADL test and physical fitness was assessed with Munich fitness test (MFT). There were not any statistically significant difference in MIP, %MIP, MEP and %MEP values between two groups (p>0.05). %Peripheral muscle strength (% quadriceps and shoulder abductors strength), 6MWT distance and %6MWT distance were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Glittre ADL-test time was significantly longer in patients with CF than healthy subjects (p<0.05). According to Munich fitness test, the number of bouncing a ball, hanging score, distance of standing vertical jumping and standing vertical jumping score were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL performance and speed, coordination, endurance and power components of physical fitness are adversely affected in mild-severe patients with CF compared to healthy peers. Evaluations must be done in comprehensive manner in patients with CF with all stages. PMID:26241869

  18. Strengthening and AcceleratingStrengthening and Accelerating the Development of Fusion Powerthe Development of Fusion Power

    E-print Network

    of almost limitless energy My favourite argument: The Lithium in one laptop battery + 45 litres of water can we strengthen and accelerate the path to fusion power? ­ Is a major speed-up possible) is not large enough to be a (net) source of power JET: Volume ~100 m3 Temperature ~ 150 M 0C World record (16

  19. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. We report 2 studies that test this hypothesis in…

  20. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  1. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscles of the rotator cuff--the part that helps with circular motion). These exercises should not cause you pain. If you feel any pain, stop exercising. Start again with a lighter weight. Warm up before adding weights. To warm up, stretch your ...

  2. Saliva composition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities. PMID:9739538

  3. Exercise Adherence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Pat

    This digest discusses exercise adherence, noting its vital role in maximizing the benefits associated with physical activity. Information is presented on the following: (1) factors that influence adherence to self-monitored programs of regular exercise (childhood eating habits, and psychological, physical, social, and situational factors); (2)…

  4. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  5. Biglycan (Bgn) and fibromodulin (Fmod) in ectopic ossification of tendon induced by exercise and in rotarod performance

    PubMed Central

    Kilts, T.; Ameye, L.; Syed-Picard, F.; Ono, M.; Berendsen, A. D.; Oldberg, A.; Heegaard, A-M.; Bi, Y.; Young, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the ectopic ossification (EO) found in tendons of biglycan (Bgn), fibromodulin (Fmod) single and double Bgn/Fmod deficient (DKO) mice with aging. At 3 months, Fmod KO, Bgn KO and DKO displayed torn cruciate ligaments and EO in their quadriceps tendon, menisci and cruciate and patellar ligaments. The phenotype was the least severe in the Fmod KO, intermediate in the Bgn KO and the most severe in the DKO. This condition progressed with age in all 3 mouse strains and resulted in the development of large supernumerary sesmoid bones. To determine the role of exercise on the extent of EO, we subjected normal and DKO mice to treadmill exercise for 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The EO in moderately exercised DKO was decreased compared to unexercised DKO mice. Finally, DKO and Bgn KO mice tested using a rotarod showed they had a reduced ability to maintain their grip on a rotating cylinder compared to WT controls. In summary, we show: 1) a detailed description of EO formed by Bgn, Fmod or combined depletion, 2) the role of exercise in modulating EO, and 3) that Bgn and Fmod are critical in controlling motor function. PMID:19422643

  6. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise.

    PubMed

    Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Szygula, Z; Witkowski, K; Stefaniak, T; Dziubek, W

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the indices of glutathione antioxidant system and oxidative damage level in resistance trained and untrained subjects and to assess the antioxidant action of alpha-lipoic acid in trained men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. Thirteen trained and twenty untrained men (NT) participated in the comparative study. Then trained men were randomly assigned to T(CON) group (control) or T(ALA) group (alpha-lipoic acid, 600 mg . day(-1), for 8 days) and performed isometric/isokinetic effort of quadriceps muscles. The study has shown the significantly higher erythrocyte levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in T(CON) than NT but no differences in plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (PC). However, total thiol (TT) concentration was two-fold lower in T(CON) than NT group. alpha-Lipoic acid variously influenced the post-exercise levels of GSH (+40%), GR (-24%) and GPx (+29%), but markedly reduced by over 30% the resting and post-exercise TBARS and PC in T(ALA) compared with T(CON). TT concentration significantly increased in T(ALA) but it did not reach the high level which was found in untrained group. It is concluded that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation diminishes oxidative damage. It does not abolish differences in glutathione antioxidant system between untrained and trained subjects but modulates a pro-antioxidant response to the muscle-damaging exercise. PMID:19617657

  7. cAMP levels in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle after an acute bout of aerobic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, A.; Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether exercise duration was associated with elevated and/or sustained elevations of postexercise adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by measuring cAMP levels in skeletal muscle for up to 4 h after acute exercise bouts of durations that are known to either produce (60 min) or not produce (10 min) mitochondrial proliferation after chronic training. Treadmill-acclimatized, but untrained, rats were run at 22 m/min for 0 (control), 10, or 60 min and were killed at various postexercise (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) time points. Fast-twitch white and red (quadriceps) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles were quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and assayed for cAMP with a commercial kit. Unexpectedly, cAMP contents in all three muscles were similar to control (nonexercise) at most (21 of 30) time points after a single 10- or 60-min run. Values at 9 of 30 time points were significantly different from control (P < 0.05); i.e., 3 time points were significantly higher than control and 6 were significantly less than control. These data suggest that the cAMP concentration of untrained skeletal muscle after a single bout of endurance-type exercise is not, by itself, associated with exercise duration.

  8. Implications of group III and IV muscle afferents for high-intensity endurance exercise performance in humans.

    PubMed

    Amann, Markus; Blain, Gregory M; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents on peripheral fatigue, central motor drive (CMD) and endurance capacity during high-intensity leg-cycling. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, seven males performed constant-load cycling exercise (318 ± 9 W; 80% of peak power output (W(peak))) to exhaustion under placebo conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing spinal ?-opioid receptor-sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents. Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in pre- vs. post-exercise quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (?Q(tw,pot)). CMD was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. To rule out a direct central effect of fentanyl, we documented unchanged resting cardioventilatory responses. Compared to placebo, significant hypoventilation during the fentanyl trial was indicated by the 9% lower V(E)/V(CO(2)), causing a 5 mmHg increase in end-tidal P(CO(2)) and a 3% lower haemoglobin saturation. Arterial pressure and heart rate averaged 8 and 10% lower, respectively, during the fentanyl trial and these differences progressively diminished towards end-exercise. Although initially similar, the percent change in CMD was 9 ± 3% higher at end-exercise with fentanyl vs. placebo (P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was shorter (6.8 ± 0.3 min vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 min) and end-exercise ?Q(tw,pot) was about one-third greater (-44 ± 2% vs. -34 ± 2%) following fentanyl vs. placebo. The rate of peripheral fatigue development was 67 ± 10% greater during the fentanyl trial (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that feedback from group III/IV muscle afferents limits CMD but also minimizes locomotor muscle fatigue development by stimulating adequate ventilatory and circulatory responses to exercise. In the face of blocked group III/IV muscle afferents, CMD is less inhibited but O(2) transport compromised and locomotor muscle fatigability is exacerbated with a combined net effect of a reduced endurance performance. PMID:21878520

  9. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  10. Effects of eccentric cycling exercise on IGF-I splice variant expression in the muscles of young and elderly people.

    PubMed

    Hameed, M; Toft, A D; Pedersen, B K; Harridge, S D R; Goldspink, G

    2008-08-01

    Recovery from micro damage resulting from intensive exercise has been shown to take longer in older muscles. To investigate the factors that may contribute to muscle repair, we have studied the expression of two splice variants of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene. IGF-IEa and mechano growth factor (MGF) were studied in response to 1 h of eccentric cycling exercise in young and old individuals. Subjects (nine young, aged 20-27 years and eight elderly, aged 67-75 years) completed an eccentric exercise protocol that consisted of 60 min of reverse pedal cycling. Workloads were chosen to give the same relative increases in oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate in young and old subjects. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the quadriceps muscle before and 2 1/4 h after completion of the exercise bout and were analyzed for IGF-IEa and MGF mRNA levels using real-time quantitative PCR. No difference was observed between the baseline levels of the two splice variants between the two subject groups. Eccentric cycling exercise resulted in a significant increase in the mean MGF mRNA in both young and old subjects but did not alter IGF-IEa mRNA levels in either age group. As reported previously (Toft et al., 2002), the levels of serum creatine kinase and myoglobin, markers of muscle damage, were increased significantly from baseline and to 5 days after exercise in both young and old subjects. This supports previous research in suggesting that the MGF splice variant is sensitive to muscle damage-inducing exercise and is differentially regulated compared with IGF-IEa. PMID:18067523

  11. Using exercises to improve public health preparedness in Asia, the Middle East and Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercises are increasingly common tools used by the health sector and other sectors to evaluate their preparedness to respond to public health threats. Exercises provide an opportunity for multiple sectors to practice, test and evaluate their response to all types of public health emergencies. The information from these exercises can be used to refine and improve preparedness plans. There is a growing body of literature about the use of exercises among local, state and federal public health agencies in the United States. There is much less information about the use of exercises among public health agencies in other countries and the use of exercises that involve multiple countries. Results We developed and conducted 12 exercises (four sub-national, five national, three sub-regional) from August 2006 through December 2008. These 12 exercises included 558 participants (average 47) and 137 observers (average 11) from 14 countries. Participants consistently rated the overall quality of the exercises as very good or excellent. They rated the exercises lowest on their ability to identifying key gaps in performance. The vast majority of participants noted that they would use the information they gained at the exercise to improve their organization’s preparedness to respond to an influenza pandemic. Participants felt the exercises were particularly good at raising awareness and understanding about public health threats, assisting in evaluating plans and identifying priorities for improvement, and building relationships that strengthen preparedness and response across sectors and across countries. Participants left the exercises with specific ideas about the most important actions that they should engage in after the exercise such as improved planning coordination across sectors and countries and better training of health workers and response personnel. Conclusions These experiences suggest that exercises can be a valuable, low-burden tool to improve emergency preparedness and response in countries around the world. They also demonstrate that countries can work together to develop and conduct successful exercises designed to improve regional preparedness to public health threats. The development of standardized evaluation methods for exercises may be an additional tool to help focus the actions to be taken as a result of the exercise and to improve future exercises. Exercises show great promise as tools to improve public health preparedness across sectors and countries. PMID:25063987

  12. The effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyoung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle joint. [Subjects] This study included 22 males in their twenties who were diagnosed with functional injury of the ankle joint. [Methods] To strengthen plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, 8 weeks of weight, resistance band, and plyometric training, and training using props were performed. [Results] A medical examination by interview indicated that pain, swelling, instability, running, and support capacity of the ankle joint significantly improved with the strategic strength resistance exercise program. For the isokinetic peak torque of the ankles, significant differences were observed in right plantar flexion and bilateral dorsiflexion. [Conclusion] The strategic strength resistance exercise program is highly recommended for the functional stability of the ankle joint. Efficient exercise therapy is useful for muscle damage prevention, muscle strengthening, and functional interventions. PMID:26644696

  13. [Institutional strengthening and updating of the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico (results and instrumentalization 2010-2012)].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Chávez, Manuel H; Kershenobich, David; Mansilla Olivares, Armando; Mancilla Ramírez, Javier; Kuri Morales, Pablo; Del Valle Muñoz, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In order to strengthen the academic and social management of the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico, from the draft paper presented to run for Vice President of the corporation, in 2007 I proposed to the plenary of the institution to develop a planning exercise strategy, in fact supporting the achievement of that objective. The idea behind the proposal, which was supported by most scholars, started from the consideration that although the Academy has always been an area of excellence for the advancement of medicine in the country, it was now necessary to strengthen, modernize and give a new direction to its work, on the basis of an exercise analysis and background checks, work, commitment and vision, under a inclusive, plural and agreed strategy with the academic body of the corporation, i.e. through a designed planning exercise. The result of this surely positive effort is presented in the following pages. To this end, part of the initial project description illustrates the process of technical and methodological development, the lines of action considered as priorities by academics, and details involving its realization. This planning strategy project yielded three specific conclusions: (i) the necessity for a functional reorganization proposal of the Academy's structure; (ii) the need for a self-sustainability financial project to fortify the economic capacity of the Academy; and (iii) the need for an updated project on technological communication of the Academy. PMID:21412397

  14. Magnesium carbonate precipitate strengthened aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic granules were precipitated internally with magnesium carbonate to enhance their structural stability under shear. The strengthened granules were tested in continuous-flow reactors for 220 days at organic loadings of 6-39 kg/m(3)/day, hydraulic retention times of 0.44-19 h, and temperatures of 10 or 28°C. The carbonate salt had markedly improved the granule strength without significant changes in granule morphology or microbial communities (with persistent strains Streptomyces sp., Rhizobium sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Nitratireductor sp.), or sacrifice in biological activity for organic degradation. MgCO3 precipitated granules could be used in continuous-flow reactor for wastewater treatment at low cost and with easy processing efforts. PMID:25727761

  15. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9–12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families. PMID:20871785

  16. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

  17. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  18. Exoplanet HD 209458b (Osiris): Evaporation Strengthened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Madjar, A.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Désert, J.-M.; Ballester, G. E.; Ferlet, R.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.

    2008-03-01

    Following reanalysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations of primary transits of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b at Ly?, Ben-Jaffel claims that no sign of evaporation is observed. Here we show that, in fact, this new analysis is consistent with the one of Vidal-Madjar and coworkers, and supports the detection of evaporation. The apparent disagreement is mainly due to the disparate wavelength ranges that are used to derive the transit absorption depth. Vidal-Madjar derives a 15% +/- 4% absorption depth during transit over the core of the stellar Ly? line (from -130 to +100 km s-1), and this result agrees with the 8.9% +/- 2.1% absorption depth reported by Ben-Jaffel from a slightly expanded data set but over a larger wavelength range (+/-200 km s-1). These measurements agree also with the 5% +/- 2% absorption reported by Vidal-Madjar over the whole Ly? line from independent, lower resolution data. We show that stellar Ly? variability is unlikely to significantly affect those detections. The H I atoms must necessarily have velocities above the escape velocities and/or be outside the Roche lobe, given the lobe shape and orientation. Absorption by H I in HD 209458b's atmosphere has thus been detected with different data sets, and now with independent analyses. All these results strengthen the concept of evaporating hot Jupiters, as well as the modeling of this phenomenon. Because the escape of H atoms is strengthened in this paper, we renew our proposal to use the nickname ``Osiris'' for the planet HD 209458b, which loses mass like the Egyptian god.

  19. Exercise and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

  20. Exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Tan, R A; Spector, S L

    1998-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is characterised by transient airway obstruction occurring after strenuous exertion. A fall of 10% or more in the FEV1 after exercise is diagnostic. Inhalation of large volumes of dry, cold air during exercise leads to loss of heat and water from the bronchial mucosa and airway cooling and drying. Proposed mechanisms for bronchoconstriction include: (i) mucosal drying and increased osmolarity stimulating mast cell degranulation; and (ii) rapid airway rewarming after exercise causing vascular congestion, increased permeability and oedema leading to obstruction. EIA symptoms start after exercise, peak 8 to 15 minutes after exercise and spontaneously resolve in about 60 minutes. A refractory period of up to 3 hours after recovery, during which repeat exercise causes less bronchospasm, has been observed. The amount of ventilation and the temperature of inspired air are important factors in determining the severity of EIA. Greater ventilation and cold, dry air increase the risk for EIA. Education regarding the nature and management of EIA is important not only for asthmatics but also for their families and coaches. With the proper precautions and workout techniques, there is no limit to what individuals with asthma can achieve in sports. Prevention is the main objective in managing EIA. Nonpharmacological measures include warming up before vigorous exertion, covering the mouth and nose in cold weather, exercising in warm, humidified environments if possible and warming down after exercise. Aerobic fitness and good control of baseline bronchial reactivity also help to diminish the effects of EIA. Inhaled beta-agonists are the medications of choice in EIA prophylaxis. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate (cromolyn sodium) or nedocromil may also be used. Agents that may be added if inhaled beta-agonists or sodium cromoglycate are not adequate include anticholinergic agents (such as ipratropium bromide), theophylline, calcium channel blockers, alpha-agonists, antihistamines and oral beta-agonists. Newer agents include antileukotriene agents, inhaled heparin and inhaled furosemide (frusemide). PMID:9458523

  1. Feasibility of an Exercise Program for Puerto Rican Women who are Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Ana L. Mulero; Santaella, Carmen L. Colón; Gómez, Cynthia Cruz; Burch, Annlee

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility of implementing two exercise programs for female patients who are breast cancer survivors and residents of the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Potential benefits and complications of participating in a gym-exercise program or a home-exercise program, as opposed to standard care, were identified. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a gym-exercise group, a home-exercise group, or a non-exercise group. Interventions consisted of exercise programs with both aerobic and strengthening components, offered for a 26-week period. Outcome measures consisted of functional evaluation, shoulder range of motion, 12-minute walk test, handgrip strength, body mass index, and quality of life. The results of this study showed that it is feasible for Puerto Rican women to participate in a moderate intensity exercise program without developing complications. Participation in the exercise programs studied here minimized the side effects after cancer treatment, such as reduced physical functional ability and restricted shoulder mobility. Improvements were found in the measures of shoulder range of motion, upper extremity related physical function, and distance walked. PMID:20664723

  2. Response of Biochemical Markers of Bone Metabolism to Exercise Intensity in Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; ASAI, Yo; AOKI, Fumiki; YOSHIMOTO, Kenji; MATSUI, Tohru; YANO, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We studied the response of biochemical markers of bone metabolism to exercise intensity in horses. Four horses were walked on a mechanical walker for one week (pre-exercise). Then they performed low-speed exercise on a high-speed treadmill in the first week and medium-speed exercise in the second week and high-speed exercise in the third week of training. We measured two indices of bone resorption, serum hydroxyproline concentration and the urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, and serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration as an index of bone formation. Both indices of bone resorption gradually decreased during the experiment. Serum OC concentration did not change in the first week but was significantly lower in the second and the third weeks compared to in the pre-exercise period and in the first week. These results suggest that the low-speed exercise decreased bone resorption but did not affect bone formation, which possibly results in increasing bone mineral content and strengthening of bones. The high-speed exercise decreased bone formation and bone resorption, i.e., bone turnover was suppressed. The low-speed exercise may be preferable for increasing bone mineral content. PMID:24833958

  3. Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and decreased regeneration in the mouse femoral Quadriceps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora; Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Blaber, Elizabeth; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Markitantova, Yulia

    Mechanical unloading of muscle during spaceflight in microgravity is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber type composition, gene expression, and reductions in regenerative muscle growth. Although limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time, up to two weeks of spaceflight. Here we report on how 30-day, long-term, mechanical unloading in microgravity affects mouse muscle of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle morphology observed in histological sections shows signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei and low density of myofibrils, their separation and fragmentation. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appears to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed muscle fibers. Many of them however showed evidence of apoptosis and degradation of synthesized fibrils, suggesting long-term unloading in microgravity affects late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals showed normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new muscle fibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Myofiber nuclei stress responses in spaceflight animals was detected by positive nuclear immunolocalization of c-jun and c-myc proteins. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscle was localized with pax-7, MyoD and MCad immunostaining, and did not appear altered in microgravity. In summary, long-term spaceflight in microgravity causes significant atrophy and degeneration of the femoral Quadriceps muscle group, and it may interfere with muscle regenerative processes by inducing apoptosis in newly formed myofibers during their differentiation phase.

  4. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  5. Exercise and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the ... until a bone breaks. Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. It is more common in women, but men ...

  6. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...

  7. Exercise Tips for Travelers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tips for Travelers Whether you’re traveling for business or pleasure, you can stick to your exercise ... you’re on vacation, but even on a business trip, it’s possible to squeeze in 30 minutes ...

  8. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  9. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > Parents > Nutrition & Fitness Center > Staying ... longer than 2 hours. Back Continue Raising Fit Kids Combining regular physical activity with a healthy diet ...

  10. Exercise and children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about themselves Are more physically fit Have more energy Other benefits of exercise are: A lower risk ... Let them know it will give them more energy, make their body stronger, and make them feel ...

  11. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about themselves Are more physically fit Have more energy Other benefits of exercise for children are: A ... know that being active will give them more energy, make their bodies stronger, and make them feel ...

  12. Exercises in Applied Geochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackleton, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews exercises in the analysis of samples and interpretations of results from the geochemical survey portion of a three year teacher education program in geology presented at Salisbury College of Advanced Education. (SL)

  13. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. Brisk walking or jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  14. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Jun 23,2015 If you have ... second set. Walking Heel-to-Toe Purpose: Improve balance. Starting Position: Stand close to a wall for ...

  15. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Exercise can improve lean body mass, decrease fat, stress, fatigue and depression; improve strength, improve strength, endurance, and cardiovascular fitness, It may also help the immune system work better. FOR MORE INFORMATION You can get ...

  16. Beat-to-beat measurement of the finger arterial pressure pulse shape index at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Raamat, Rein; Jagomägi, Kersti; Talts, Jaak; Toska, Karin; Walløe, Lars

    2003-03-01

    Arterial pressure waveform can be characterized by the pulse shape index kpulse determined as kpulse = (Pmean - Pdiast) / (Psyst - Pdiast). For brachial artery, the shape index value of 0.33 is usually applied to approximate Pmean from the measured Psyst and Pdiast. Our purpose was to test whether this value can validly be applied to finger vascular beds under different experimental conditions. By using Finapres, we non-invasively estimated the beat-to-beat values of kpulse in the fingers of young healthy persons in supine position at rest and during a 4-min moderate exercise (rhythmical exercise with the quadricep muscles in combination with handgrip compression). To detect intensive peripheral vasoconstrictions, a laser-Doppler probe was attached to the thumb pulp of the same hand. Periods of 30 s without intensive vasoconstriction for rest, different stages of exercise and recovery were involved in the analysis in every subject. The results demonstrated that the group-averaged value of kpulse (median with a 95% confidence interval) in the fingers of 11 healthy volunteers aged from 20 to 24, equalled 0.33 (0.31- 0.34), 0.31 (0.28-0.34), 0.35 (0.33-0.39) and 0.38 (0.34-0.43) for rest, first and second stages of exercise and recovery, respectively. We conclude that in the fingers of young healthy persons in supine position formula Pmean = Pdiast + 1/3 (Psyst - Pdiast) gives an adequate approximation for rest and low intensity exercise (first stage), and slightly underestimates the actual finger mean blood pressure during moderate exercise (second stage) and recovery. PMID:12641602

  17. Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code Jonathon T. Giffin, Mihai Christodorescu,mihai,lpkruger}@cs.wisc.edu #12;#12;#12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code 4 Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code 5 Self-Checksumming · Integrity Verification Kernels [Aucsmith 1996

  18. Family Strengthening Research: FY2014. OPRE Report 2015-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides detailed summaries of major research investments by OPRE's Division of Family Strengthening (DFS) along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include strengthening relationships within families, supporting fatherhood, nurturing children through their families, reducing teen pregnancy,…

  19. Strengthening behavior of carbon/metal nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Shin, S. E.; Choi, H. J.; Hwang, J. Y.; Bae, D. H.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites reinforced with nano-scale reinforcements exhibit excellent mechanical properties with low volume fraction of the reinforcement. For instance, only an addition of 0.7 vol.% few-layer graphene (FLG) into the pure titanium shows strength of ~1.5?GPa, obviously much superior to that of the monolithic titanium. The strengthening efficiency of composites is determined by several factors such as reinforcement geometrical/spatial characteristics and interfacial features between the matrix and the reinforcement. For the metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs), since the nano-scale reinforcement has significantly high specific surface area, interfacial feature is more important and has to be clearly evaluated in understanding property of MMNCs. Although many researchers suggested the theoretical work using continuum mechanics in order to estimate the mechanical properties of the metallic composites, a clear determination has yet not to be proven by systematic experimental works. Here, we provide a new model to predict strength and stiffness of MMNCs based on quantitative analysis of efficiency parameters in which interface feature is strongly emphasized. To validate the model, we select multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and FLG for reinforcement, and titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al) for the matrix to modify bonding strength and specific surface area in the MMNCs. PMID:26542897

  20. L12-Strengthened Cobalt-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akane; Inui, Haruyuki; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of the ?'-Co3(Al,W) phase with an L12 structure provided Co-base alloys with a new strengthening mechanism, enabling a new class of high-temperature material: Co-base superalloys. This review discusses the current understanding of the phase stability, deformation, and oxidation behaviors of ?' single-phase and ? + ?' two-phase alloys in comparison with Ni-base ?'-L12 phase and ? + ?' superalloys. Relatively low stacking fault energies and phase stability of the ?' phase compared with those in Ni-base alloys are responsible for the unique deformation behaviors observed in Co-base ?' and ? + ?' alloys. Controlling energies of planar defects, such as stacking faults and antiphase boundaries, by alloying is critical for alloy development. Experimental and density functional theory studies indicate that additions of Ta, Ti, Nb, Hf, and Ni are effective in simultaneously increasing the phase stability and stacking fault energy of ?'-Co3(Al,W), thus improving the high-temperature strength of Co-base ?' phase and ? + ?' two-phase superalloys.

  1. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, D.G.; Allen, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail that has been possible to date. The beam is produced by using third-generation insertion devices in a 7 GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1100 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high power devices is very high and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm{sup 2}. Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop{reg_sign}, a dispersion strengthened copper, is the desired material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Strengthening behavior of carbon/metal nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S. E.; Choi, H. J.; Hwang, J. Y.; Bae, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    Nanocomposites reinforced with nano-scale reinforcements exhibit excellent mechanical properties with low volume fraction of the reinforcement. For instance, only an addition of 0.7 vol.% few-layer graphene (FLG) into the pure titanium shows strength of ~1.5?GPa, obviously much superior to that of the monolithic titanium. The strengthening efficiency of composites is determined by several factors such as reinforcement geometrical/spatial characteristics and interfacial features between the matrix and the reinforcement. For the metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs), since the nano-scale reinforcement has significantly high specific surface area, interfacial feature is more important and has to be clearly evaluated in understanding property of MMNCs. Although many researchers suggested the theoretical work using continuum mechanics in order to estimate the mechanical properties of the metallic composites, a clear determination has yet not to be proven by systematic experimental works. Here, we provide a new model to predict strength and stiffness of MMNCs based on quantitative analysis of efficiency parameters in which interface feature is strongly emphasized. To validate the model, we select multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and FLG for reinforcement, and titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al) for the matrix to modify bonding strength and specific surface area in the MMNCs.

  3. Health-system strengthening and tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David

    2010-06-19

    Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice. PMID:20488514

  4. The Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial: design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P; Legault, Claudine; Mihalko, Shannon; Miller, Gary D; Loeser, Richard F; DeVita, Paul; Lyles, Mary; Eckstein, Felix; Hunter, David J; Williamson, Jeff D; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is the most modifiable risk factor, and dietary induced weight loss potentially the best nonpharmacologic intervention to prevent or to slow osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression. We are currently conducting a study to test the hypothesis that intensive weight loss will reduce inflammation and joint loads sufficiently to alter disease progression, either with or without exercise. This article describes the intervention, the empirical evidence to support it, and test-retest reliability data. Methods/Design This is a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. The study population consists of 450 overweight and obese (BMI = 27–40.5 kg/m2) older (age ? 55 yrs) adults with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Participants are randomized to one of three 18-month interventions: intensive dietary restriction-plus-exercise; exercise-only; or intensive dietary restriction-only. The primary aims are to compare the effects of these interventions on inflammatory biomarkers and knee joint loads. Secondary aims will examine the effects of these interventions on function, pain, and mobility; the dose response to weight loss on disease progression; if inflammatory biomarkers and knee joint loads are mediators of the interventions; and the association between quadriceps strength and disease progression. Results Test-retest reliability results indicated that the ICCs for knee joint load variables were excellent, ranging from 0.86 – 0.98. Knee flexion/extension moments were most affected by BMI, with lower reliability with the highest tertile of BMI. The reliability of the semi-quantitative scoring of the knee joint using MRI exceeded previously reported results, ranging from a low of 0.66 for synovitis to a high of 0.99 for bone marrow lesion size. Discussion The IDEA trial has the potential to enhance our understanding of the OA disease process, refine weight loss and exercise recommendations in this prevalent disease, and reduce the burden of disability. Trial Registration NCT00381290 PMID:19638215

  5. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated. PMID:26042047

  6. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise

    PubMed Central

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated. PMID:26042047

  7. Subliminal Strengthening: Improving Elders’ Physical Function over Time through an Implicit-Age-Stereotype Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Becca R.; Pilver, Corey; Chung, Pil H.; Slade, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Negative age stereotypes that older individuals assimilate from their culture are associated with detrimental outcomes, including worse physical function. We examined for the first time whether positive age stereotypes, presented subliminally across multiple sessions in the community, would reverse this process. One hundred older individuals (aged 61-99, SD=10 years, M=81) were randomly assigned to an implicit-positive-age-stereotype intervention, explicit-positive-age-stereotype intervention, both, or neither. Interventions occurred at four one week intervals. As expected, the implicit intervention, in sequence, strengthened positive age stereotypes, strengthened positive self-perceptions of aging, and improved physical function. The improvement of physical function continued for three weeks following the last intervention session. Further, negative age stereotypes and negative self-perceptions of aging were weakened. For all outcomes, the implicit intervention's impact was greater than, and independent of, the explicit intervention's impact. The implicit physical-function effect surpassed a previous study's six-month-exercise intervention with similar-aged participants. These findings suggest the intervention served, in effect, as an implicit fitness center. PMID:25326508

  8. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

  9. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  10. Exercise and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Gayda, Mathieu; Lepers, Romuald; Sosner, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Aging is a natural and complex physiological process influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable. As the number of older individuals continues to increase, it is important to develop interventions that can be easily implemented and contribute to "successful aging". In addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being, the benefits of regular exercise on mortality, and the prevention and control of chronic disease affecting both life expectancy and quality of life are well established. We summarize the benefits of regular exercise on longevity, present the current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms, and outline the main recommendations. Exercise can partially reverse the effects of the aging process on physiological functions and preserve functional reserve in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise decreases the risk of death, prevents the development of certain cancers, lowers the risk of osteoporosis and increases longevity. Training programs should include exercises aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, as well as flexibility and balance. Though the benefits of physical activity appear to be directly linked to the notion of training volume and intensity, further research is required in the elderly, in order to develop more precise recommendations, bearing in mind that the main aim is to foster long-term adherence to physical activity in this growing population. PMID:23063021

  11. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life. PMID:26071171

  12. Exoplanet HD 209458b : Evaporation strengthened

    E-print Network

    A. Vidal-Madjar; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; J. -M. Desert; G. E. Ballester; R. Ferlet; G. Hebrard; M. Mayor

    2008-02-05

    Following re-analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations of primary transits of the extrasolar planet HD209458b at Lyman-alpha, Ben-Jaffel (2007, BJ007) claims that no sign of evaporation is observed. Here we show that, in fact, this new analysis is consistent with the one of Vidal-Madjar et al. (2003, VM003) and supports the detection of evaporation. The apparent disagreement is mainly due to the disparate wavelength ranges that are used to derive the transit absorption depth. VM003 derives a (15+/-4)% absorption depth during transit over the core of the stellar Lyman-alpha line (from -130 km/s to +100 km/s), and this result agrees with the (8.9+/-2.1)% absorption depth reported by BJ007 from a slightly expanded dataset but over a larger wavelength range (+/-200 km/s). These measurements agree also with the (5+/-2)% absorption reported by Vidal-Madjar et al. (2004) over the whole Lyman-alpha line from independent, lower-resolution data. We show that stellar Lyman-alpha variability is unlikely to significantly affect those detections. The HI atoms must necessarily have velocities above the escape velocities and/or be outside the Roche lobe, given the lobe shape and orientation. Absorption by HI in HD209458b's atmosphere has thus been detected with different datasets, and now with independent analyses. All these results strengthen the concept of evaporating hot-Jupiters, as well as the modelization of this phenomenon.

  13. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Afefy, Hamdy M.; Kassem, Nesreen M.; Fawzy, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  14. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Afefy, Hamdy M; Kassem, Nesreen M; Fawzy, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam-column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam-column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  15. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  16. Is the voluntary control of exercise in man necessary for the ventilatory response?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, L; Garlick, J; Guz, A; Murphy, K; Semple, S J

    1984-01-01

    The ventilatory response to electrically induced exercise (EEL) was studied in eighteen normal subjects and compared with the response to performing the same exercise voluntarily (EV). EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles so as to cause a pushing movement at 1 HZ against a spring load; this produced no pain or discomfort. Matching of EV to EEL was achieved by subjects copying a tension signal recorded during EEL and displayed on a storage oscilloscope. There were no differences between the resting states measured before either form of exercise. The ventilatory response (change in ventilation as a ratio of the change in CO2 elimination) was similar in the two types of exercise. The increases in ventilation and CO2 elimination were greater with EEL. Small but significant increases in the gas exchange ratio and serum lactate were found for EEL but not for EV, suggesting an increase in anaerobic metabolism in EEL. End-tidal PCO2 showed little change in either form of exercise. In some runs end-tidal PCO2 rose, but insufficiently to account for the ventilatory response as judged by the response to inhaled CO2. In two subjects arterial blood samples showed small and inconsistent changes in both Pa,CO2 and PaO2 for EV and EEL. pH and base excess changes also were consistent with more anaerobiosis with EEL compared to EV. The first ten breaths of exercise were used to study the on transient. In EV, expiratory duration shortened and ventilation increased significantly on the first breath but CO2 elimination did not increase until the second breath; in EEL, these variables did not change significantly until the second breath. For the remainder of the on transient the pattern of the ventilatory response was similar for EV and EEL. By the end of the on transient both EV and EEL had reached approximately 80% of their final steady-state values. These results suggest that a normal ventilatory response can occur in the absence of a drive to exercise from the cortex. PMID:6436481

  17. Antioxidants in exercise nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sen, C K

    2001-01-01

    Physical exercise may be associated with a 10- to 20-fold increase in whole body oxygen uptake. Oxygen flux in the active peripheral skeletal muscle fibres may increase by as much as 100- to 200-fold during exercise. Studies during the past 2 decades suggest that during strenuous exercise, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is elevated to a level that overwhelms tissue antioxidant defence systems. The result is oxidative stress. The magnitude of the stress depends on the ability of the tissues to detoxify ROS, that is, antioxidant defences. Antioxidants produced by the body act in concert with their exogenous, mainly dietary, counterparts to provide protection against the ravages of reactive oxygen as well as nitrogen species. Antioxidant supplementation is likely to provide beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative tissue damage. While universal recommendations specifying types and dosages of antioxidants are difficult to make, it would be prudent for competitive athletes routinely engaged in strenuous exercise to seek an estimate of individual requirement. A new dimension in oxidant biology has recently unfolded. Although excessive oxidants may cause damage to tissues, lower levels of oxidants in biological cells may act as messenger molecules enabling the function of numerous physiological processes. It is plausible that some exercise-induced beneficial effects are actually oxidant-mediated. Such developments call for an even more careful analysis of the overall significance of types and amounts of antioxidants in diet. While these complexities pose significant challenges, experts agree that if used prudently, oxidants and antioxidants may serve as potent therapeutic tools. Efforts to determine individual needs of athletes and a balanced diet rich in antioxidant supplements are highly recommended. PMID:11708399

  18. Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. ); Rowland, R.A. . Chemical Preparedness Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

  19. Section 6 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Section 6 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises: 1. Contrast Slater type orbitals (STOs) with Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs). Exercises: 1. By expanding the molecular orbitals {k} as linear combinations of atomic orbitals {µ}, k = µ cµk µ show how the canonical Hartree-Fock (HF

  20. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

  1. 34 CFR 608.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General ...is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU)...

  2. Weelchair exercise roller product design

    E-print Network

    Su, Benjamin W

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by bicycle training rollers, a wheelchair exercise roller (an exercise machine for the application of wheelchair users) was designed from conception of idea to alpha prototype. Background and market data was ...

  3. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Women Older Adults Military & Military Families Exercise for Stress and Anxiety The physical benefits of exercise — improving ... University Press, 2011) Fitness Tips: Stay Healthy, Manage Stress The most recent federal guidelines for adults recommend ...

  4. Exercise to Improve Your Balance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercise to Improve Your Balance Having good balance is important for many everyday activities, such as ... fracture of the arm, hand, ankle, or hip. Balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid ...

  5. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients. PMID:26341655

  6. Why You Need Flexibility Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  7. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Post-Surgery Diet Post-Surgery Exercise How are diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic ... fatigued. Pancan.org has published a very informative Diet and Nutrition booklet. You can review this booklet ...

  8. OXIDE DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Mark A.

    2001-11-06

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys (e.g. the INCOLOY{reg_sign} MA956 alloy) are known for their excellent high temperature properties and are prime candidate materials for the construction of very high temperature heat exchangers that will be used in Vision 21 power plants. The main limitation of these materials is their poor weldability. Commercially available ODS tubing also tends to exhibit relatively poor circumferential creep strength due to current processing practices resulting in a fine grain size in the transverse direction. Thus far, these two characteristics of the ODS tubing have restricted its use to mostly non-pressure containing applications. The objectives of this program are to develop: (a) an MA956 tube with sufficient circumferential creep strength for long term use as heat exchanger tubing for very high temperatures; (b) a welding technique(s) for producing adequate joints between an MA956 tube and an MA956 tube, and an MA956 tube and an INCONEL 601 tube; (c) the bending strain limits, below which recrystallization will not occur in a MA956 tube during normal operation; and (d) the high temperature corrosion limits for the MA956 alloy with respect to working-fluid side and fireside environments. Also, this program seeks to generate data for use by heat exchanger designers and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and perform an analysis of the mechanical property, tube bending, and corrosion data in order to determine the implications on the design of a very high temperature heat exchanger (T>1093 C/2000 F). After one year, work is currently being conducted on increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, developing joining techniques for this material, determining the tube bending strain limits, and establishing the high temperature corrosion parameters for the MA956 alloy in environments expected to be present in Vision 21 power plants. Work in these areas will is continuing into the next fiscal year, with success anticipated to produce innovative developments that will allow the reliable use of ODS alloys for heat exchanger tubing, as well as a variety of applications previously not possible with metallic materials.

  9. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757

  10. Dynamic inter-limb resistance exercise device for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Douglas F.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Essential for fitness on Earth, resistive exercise is even more important for astronauts, who must maintain muscle and bone strength in the absence of gravity. To meet this need, designers and scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, Life Science Division, have worked to develop more effective exercise devices for long-duration exposure to microgravity. One of these concepts is the Inter-Limb Resistance Device which allows the subject to exercise one limb directly against another, strengthening muscle groups in the arms, legs, and back. It features a modular harness with an inelastic cable and instrumented pulley. Forces similar to other high resistance exercise equipment are generated. Sensors in the pulley measure force and velocity for performance feedback display and data acquisition. This free-floating apparatus avoids vibration of sensitive experiments on board spacecraft. Compact with low mass, this hardware is also well suited for a 'safe haven' from radiation on board Space Station Freedom, and may prove useful in confined environments on Earth, such as Antarctic stations, submarines, and other underwater habitats. Potential spin-offs of this technology include products for personal strengthening and cardiovascular conditioning, rehabilitation of hospital patients, fitness exercise for the disabled, and retraining after sports injuries.

  11. Functional exercise of Kingsley Dam emergency action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    At the request of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (F.E.R.C.), the Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District (Central) performed a Functional Test of the Kingsley Dam Emergency Action Plan (E.A.P.) on October 27, 1992. The purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the Emergency Action Plan under a stress-induced environment with time constraints that exercised skills which are required for emergency management. This exercise was unique as it took place simultaneously at three different sites: North Platte Holiday Inn, Lincoln County Civil Defense Headquarters and the Keith County Civil Defense Office. Fifty miles separated the two Civil Defense Headquarters. There was a mobile command post that allowed radio communications between the different Civil Defenses offices. During the exercise, both levels of the E.A.P. (hazardous situation developing and failure has occurred) were tested. Both Keith and Lincoln County Civil Defense offices were able to test their own preparedness plans and communications. Besides the successful tests of the plans, a cooperative spirit was strengthened among the agencies as well as an exchange of knowledge and resources.

  12. Strengthening Sustainable Manufacturing in The White House, Environmental Protection Agency

    E-print Network

    Strengthening Sustainable Manufacturing in Indiana The White House, Environmental Protection Agency with Matt Bogoshian Senior Policy Counsel, Environmental Protection Agency Office of Chemical Safety West Lafayette, IN The White House, Environmental Protection Agency and Purdue University invite you

  13. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  14. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  15. Strengthening the Connection between Community Service and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Educators often treat community service and diversity as distinct areas. The author argues that educators should seize upon the intersection of these two areas in order to strengthen students' capacity to engage with each.

  16. Bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening in a Real Fire 

    E-print Network

    Stratford, Tim J; Gillie, Martin; Chen, J; Usmani, Asif

    FRP strengthening is critically dependent upon the bonding adhesive. The adhesive used is typically an ambient cure epoxy with a glass transition temperature as low as 60ºC. This paper describes the performance of bonded ...

  17. The Performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening in the Fire 

    E-print Network

    Stratford, Tim J; Gillie, Martin; Chen, J

    2007-11-14

    Bonded fibre-reinforced-polymer (FRP) strengthening is an increasingly popular refurbishment method. This involves gluing an advanced fibre composite on to the existing structure to increase its sectional capacity. One ...

  18. Exercise and Fluid Balance Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

  19. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation Find with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano

  20. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Solomon Zegeye s ­ Exercise Session 3­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, S.K. Zegeye Lyapunov Stability Check Consider the continuous anything about the stability of the system. ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3­ sc4026 1 #12

  1. NISTIR 7340 NIST Intercomparison Exercise

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7340 NIST Intercomparison Exercise Program for Organic Contaminants in the Marine Environment: Description and Results of 2005 Organic Intercomparison Exercises Michele M. Schantz John R Exercises Michele M. Schantz, John R. Kucklick,1 Reenie M. Parris, Dianne L. Poster, and Stephen A. Wise

  2. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Jacopo Antonello j ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, J. Antonello Review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, J. Antonello

  3. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Marco Forgione m ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, M. Forgione Linearization Example In the following diagram, we.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, M. Forgione · x, horizontal position

  4. Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 20, 2011 ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 6 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Integral Control Consider the simple

  5. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a ­ Exercise Session 2­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Basic review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation 5 Do similarly with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2­ sc4026 1

  6. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Properties of the matrix exponential Show, by using/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Review of Eigenvalues

  7. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 8, 2009 ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Linear Quadratic Regulator, in Theory Consider

  8. Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p.stano@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 14, 2010 ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session ­ Exercise Session 6 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Integral Control Consider the simple first-order model

  9. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Linearization Example In the following diagram, we have.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano · x, horizontal position

  10. The Role of Macronutrients in Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…

  11. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  12. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  13. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  14. Exercising after Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tone. Low-impact aerobics is great for increasing heart and respiratory rates, which helps keep vital organs healthy. General activity, like washing the car or working in the garden, can help women stay active when exercise isn’t an option. “Any activity is better ...

  15. Interdisciplinary Exercises in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastonguay, Paul R.

    1975-01-01

    Lists a series of thought questions to stimulate a student to undertake his own interdisciplinary exercises to correlate his learnings in his own way. The statements are designed to challenge the mind, in order to develop a personal framework on topics such as life, the meaning of man, and the evolution and bondage of social structure. (BR)

  16. Exercises in Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, William J.; And Others

    The 35 exercises presented in this paper have been designed to simulate real-life experiences involving the process of persuasion and to enhance understanding of the persuasive process. Among the aspects of the persuasive process dealt with are the identification of persuasive events, emotive language, language intensity, source credibility,…

  17. Exercise Tips for Travelers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the sample Go4Life workout you can do any time, anywhere. Download the Tip Sheet Exercise Tips for Travelers (PDF, 343.39 KB) You Might Also Like Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals Making Your Fitness Center Comfortable for Members ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. About Go4Life Policies & Disclaimer Download Acrobat Reader ...

  18. The Business Controversy Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    2001-01-01

    Describes an exercise used in business communication courses that uses controversial business news to provoke discussion and build critical thinking as well as help students to develop writing and speaking skills as they prepare to face the communications implications of workplace controversies and crises. (SR)

  19. Inspiring Exercises for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Tzee-Char

    1999-01-01

    Inspiring exercises are used to guide students at all levels to rediscover the essential meaning of various individual pieces of mathematics. Presents five sets of examples including Abel's identity, Hensel's lemma, finitely generated Abelian groups, Baire's category theorem, and the Weierstrass preparation theorem. (Author/ASK)

  20. Exercises in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Danny

    1991-01-01

    Presents three exercises that deal with issues in communication: (1) icebreaking techniques for seminar groups, including individual, pair, and small group formats; (2) a workshop that stresses cooperative groupwork, including competitive teams; and (3) a workshop that encourages assertiveness in learning situations and discusses submissiveness,…

  1. Exercise for Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an hour of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and joints Sleep better at night As kids spend more time ...

  2. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  3. Local architecture of the vastus intermedius is a better predictor of knee extension force than that of the other quadriceps femoris muscle heads.

    PubMed

    Ando, Ryosuke; Saito, Akira; Umemura, Yoshihisa; Akima, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle architecture of each head of the quadriceps femoris (QF) at multiple regions can be used to predict knee extension force. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were measured using sonographic images from multiple regions on each muscle of the QF with the knee flexed to 90°. The fascicle lengths of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were estimated based on sonographic images taken along the length of the thigh. The muscle architecture of the vastus intermedius was determined in two separate locations using sonographic images of the anterior (ant-VI) and lateral portions (lat-VI). The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured during isometric knee extension at a knee joint angle of 90°. The relationship between MVC force and muscle architecture was examined using a stepwise linear regression analysis with MVC force as the dependent variable. The muscle thickness of the ant-VI was selected as an independent variable in the first step of the linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.66, P<0.01). In the second step, pennation angle of the lat-VI was added to the model (R(2) = 0.91, P<0.01). These results suggest that among the four muscles that make up the QF, the muscle architecture of the VI is the best predictor of knee extension force. PMID:24915999

  4. Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.

  5. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p?exercise in both treatment groups. During the 60 hour recovery period, a significant (p?=?0.047) interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p?exercise and interestingly coincided with a gradual increase in plasma antioxidant capacity, whereas biomarkers for inflammation were still elevated after 60 hours recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation. PMID:22564864

  6. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  7. The Magnitude of Peripheral Muscle Fatigue Induced by High and Low Intensity Single-Joint Exercise Does Not Lead to Central Motor Output Reductions in Resistance Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Paul W. M.; Finn, Harrison T.; Siegler, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine quadriceps muscle fatigue and central motor output during fatiguing single joint exercise at 40% and 80% maximal torque output in resistance trained men. Method Ten resistance trained men performed fatiguing isometric knee extensor exercise at 40% and 80% of maximal torque output. Maximal torque, rate of torque development, and measures of central motor output and peripheral muscle fatigue were recorded at two matched volumes of exercise, and after a final contraction performed to exhaustion. Central motor output was quantified from changes in voluntary activation, normalized surface electromyograms (EMG), and V-waves. Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting potentiated twitch (Q.pot.tw). Central motor output during the exercise protocols was estimated from EMG and interpolated twitches applied during the task (VAsub). Results Greater reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development were observed during the 40% protocol (p<0.05). Maximal central motor output did not change for either protocol. For the 40% protocol reductions from pre-exercise in rate and amplitude variables calculated from the Q.pot.tw between 66.2 to 70.8% (p<0.001) exceeded those observed during the 80% protocol (p<0.01). V-waves only declined during the 80% protocol between 56.8 ± 35.8% to 53.6 ± 37.4% (p<0.05). At the end of the final 80% contraction VAsub had increased from 91.2 ± 6.2% to 94.9 ± 4.7% (p = 0.005), but a greater increase was observed during the 40% contraction where VAsub had increased from 67.1 ± 6.1% to 88.9 ± 9.6% (p<0.001). Conclusion Maximal central motor output in resistance trained men is well preserved despite varying levels of peripheral muscle fatigue. Upregulated central motor output during the 40% contraction protocol appeared to elicit greater peripheral fatigue. V-waves declines during the 80% protocol suggest intensity dependent modulation of the Ia afferent pathway. PMID:26439261

  8. Exercise for tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271

  9. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  10. Development of a framework to measure health profession regulation strengthening.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Carey F; Kelley, Maureen A; Verani, Andre R; St Louis, Michael E; Riley, Patricia L

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a framework to evaluate the progress and impact of a multi-year US government initiative to strengthen nursing and midwifery professional regulation in sub-Saharan Africa. The framework was designed as a capability maturity model, which is a stepwise series of performance levels that describe the sophistication of processes necessary to achieve an organization's objectives. A model from the field of software design was adapted to comprise the key functions of a nursing and midwifery regulatory body and describe five stages of advancing each function. The framework was used to measure the progress of five countries that received direct assistance to strengthen regulations and to benchmark the status of regulations in the 17 countries participating in the initiative. The framework captured meaningful advancements in regulatory strengthening in the five supported countries and the level of regulatory capacity in participating countries. The project uses the framework to assess yearly progress of supported countries, track the overall impact of the project on national and regional nursing regulation, and to identify national and regional priorities for regulatory strengthening. It is the first of its kind to document and measure progress toward sustainably strengthening nursing and midwifery regulation in Africa. PMID:24863957

  11. NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION STRENGTHENS WEAK ELECTRICAL COUPLING IN MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Han, Victor Z.; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Welsh, John P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling that shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of receptormediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate-receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20–100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, while co-stimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate-receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (i) occurred despite increased input conductance, (ii) induced Ca2+-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (iii) required activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (iv) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and thus, (v) strengthened coupling mainly between non-adjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  12. Strut Deformation in CFRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    PubMed Central

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2014-01-01

    Strut-and-tie model (STM) method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions). It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level. PMID:25197698

  13. Strengthening Mechanisms in Thermomechanically Processed NbTi-Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostryzhev, Andrii G.; Marenych, Olexandra O.; Killmore, Chris R.; Pereloma, Elena V.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of deformation temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated for thermomechanically processed NbTi-microalloyed steel with ferrite-pearlite microstructure. With a decrease in the finish deformation temperature at 1348 K to 1098 K (1075 °C to 825 °C) temperature range, the ambient temperature yield stress did not vary significantly, work hardening rate decreased, ultimate tensile strength decreased, and elongation to failure increased. These variations in mechanical properties were correlated to the variations in microstructural parameters (such as ferrite grain size, solid solution concentrations, precipitate number density and dislocation density). Calculations based on the measured microstructural parameters suggested the grain refinement, solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening, and work hardening contributed up to 32 pct, up to 48 pct, up to 25 pct, and less than 3 pct to the yield stress, respectively. With a decrease in the finish deformation temperature, both the grain size strengthening and solid solution strengthening increased, the precipitation strengthening decreased, and the work hardening contribution did not vary significantly.

  14. Strut deformation in CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams.

    PubMed

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2014-01-01

    Strut-and-tie model (STM) method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions). It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level. PMID:25197698

  15. CFRP Mechanical Anchorage for Externally Strengthened RC Beams under Flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Alnadher; Abdalla, Jamal; Hawileh, Rami; Galal, Khaled

    De-bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) sheets and plates from the concrete substrate is one of the major reasons behind premature failures of beams that are externally strengthened with such CFRP materials. To delay or prevent de-bonding and therefore enhancing the load carrying capacity of strengthened beams, several anchorage systems were developed and used. This paper investigates the use of CFRP mechanical anchorage of CFRP sheets and plates used to externally strengthen reinforced concrete beams under flexure. The pin-and-fan shape CFRP anchor, which is custom-made from typical rolled fiber sheets and bundles of loose fiber is used. Several reinforced concrete beams were casted and tested in standard four-point bending scheme to study the effectiveness of this anchorage system. The beams were externally strengthened in flexure with bonded CFRP sheets and plates and then fastened to the soffit of the beams' using various patterns of CFRP anchors. It is observed that the CFRP plates begins to separate from the beams as soon as de-bonding occurs in specimens without CFRP anchors, while in beams with CFRP anchors de-bonding was delayed leading to increase in the load carrying capacity over the un-anchored strengthened beams.

  16. Does an exercise aimed at improving swallow function have an effect on vocal function in the healthy elderly?

    PubMed

    Easterling, Caryn

    2008-09-01

    Age-related sarcopenia or muscle wasting contributes to changes in the ability to perform activities of daily living, changes in deglutition, and changes in vocal function. The Shaker Exercise, an isometric and isokinetic exercise, has been shown to strengthen suprahyoid muscles and increase deglutitive anteroposterior (AP) upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening diameter. The aim of this study was to determine if this exercise has an effect on the age-related changes in vocal function and deglutition in healthy older adults. Eleven females and 10 males, aged 65-78 years (mean = 70 +/- 4 years) and with a negative history for dysphagia and voice disorders, participated by exercising three times per day for 6 weeks. Five age-matched controls did not perform the exercise. Acoustic analysis of voice and biomechanical analysis of deglutition were performed before and after 6 weeks of exercise. Controls participated in voice analysis only. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI), a multivariate voice index, was used to compare voice production initially and after 6 weeks. Deglutitive biomechanical measures increased and DSI scores improved in 10 of 21 participants following 6 weeks of the exercise. DSI for controls did not change over the 6-week period. Ten of 21 exercise participants experienced improved deglutitive biomechanics and DSI scores. Accuracy of exercise performance, compliance, and/or disclosed alterations in health status may contribute to the lack of deglutitive and DSI change in the participants who did not experience change in function. A large randomized control study, including periodic monitoring of health status, exercise performance accuracy, and compliance, is warranted to evaluate the affect of this exercise on deglutition as well as voice. The Shaker Exercise could be recommended as a preventative measure to diminish the effect of sarcopenia on the muscles used in deglutition and voice and alter the progression of the characteristic senescent voice and swallow changes. PMID:18437461

  17. The feasibility and acceptability of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve exercise performance in patients with advanced cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the feasibility and acceptability of lower limb neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as a home-based exercise therapy in patients with cancer who could not attend hospital-based exercise training. Methods A single-arm prospective pilot study of NMES, applied daily to both quadriceps muscles for six weeks. Participants were recruited from patients referred to a hospital-based multi-disciplinary supportive care team specializing in treatment of patients with nutritional depletion and functional decline. Results Of the 15 participants who underwent baseline testing, 10 (67%) completed the study and only one (7%) withdrew because of discomfort due to NMES treatment. 7/10 (70%) of participants used NMES at least three times a week for the duration of the study. Use of NMES did not lead to significant improvements in physical performance tests. Conclusions NMES is a feasible and acceptable intervention for home use in patients with cancer, poor performance status and metastatic disease. However, whether NMES is an effective strategy to stabilize or improve physical performance in such patients is not proven. PMID:24808760

  18. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, Maria A.; Cordie, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented.

  19. Seriously Implementing Health Capacity Strengthening Programs in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lapão, Luís Velez

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenges of healthcare reform, skills and new capabilities are needed to support the reform and it is of crucial importance in Africa where shortages affects the health system resilience. Edwards et al provides a good example of the challenge of implementing a mentoring program in one province in a sub-Saharan country. From this example, various aspects of strengthening the capacity of managers in healthcare are examined based on our experience in action-training in Africa, as mentoring shares many characteristics with action-training. What practical lessons can be drawn to promote the strengthening so that managers can better intervene in complex contexts? Deeper involvement of health authorities and more rigorous approaches are seriously desirable for the proper development of health capacity strengthening programs in Africa.

  20. High temperature dispersion strengthening of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, M.; Vedula, K.

    1986-01-01

    A potential high temperature strengthening mechanism for alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl was investigated. This study forms part of an overall program at NASA Lewis Research Center for exploring the potential of alloys based on NiAl for high temperature applications. An alloy containing 2.26 at% Nb and produced by hot extrusion of blended powders was examined in detail using optical and electron microscopy. Interdiffusion between the blended Nb and NiAl powders results in the formation of intermediate phases. A fine dispersion of precipitates of a hexagonal, ordered NiAlNb phases in a matrix of NiAl can be produced and this results in strengthening of the alloy by interfering with dislocation motion at high temperature. These precipitates are, however, found to coarsen during the high temperature (1300 K) deformation at slow strain rates and this may impose some limitatioins on the use of this strengthening mechanism.

  1. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    SciTech Connect

    M.S. RUBEN

    2000-09-14

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103, Rev 02. (Details 4 and 5).

  2. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  3. Mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened molybdenum, Mo-ODS, developed by a proprietary powder metallurgy process, exhibits a creep rupture life at 0.65T{sub m} (1,600 C) of three to five orders of magnitude greater than unalloyed molybdenum, while maintaining ductile fracture behavior at temperatures significantly below room temperature. In comparison, the creep rupture life of the Mo-50Re solid solution strengthened alloy at 1,600 C is only an order of magnitude greater than unalloyed molybdenum. The results of microstructural characterization and thermal stability and mechanical property testing are discussed.

  4. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 13, 2011 ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12

  5. Exercise Session 1 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 1 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 1 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano State-Space Model Consider the third-order model d3q dt3. Simulate the model with Matlab. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 1 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate

  6. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p.stano@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 7, 2010 ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12

  7. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Jacopo Antonello j.antonello@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 11, 2012 ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise-loop eigenvalues at s1 = -1, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5

  8. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  9. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  10. Exercise, muscle, and CHO metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are a key source of energy for contracting skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise and fatigue during such exercise often coincides with CHO depletion. Our current understanding of the importance of CHO for exercise metabolism has its foundations in classic studies in the early 20th century by Scandinavian physiologists and Bengt Saltin contributed significantly to that tradition. This brief review summarizes our contemporary understanding of key aspects of muscle glycogen and glucose metabolism during exercise, through the lens of seminal studies by Bengt Saltin. PMID:26589114

  11. [Muscle enzyme activity and exercise].

    PubMed

    Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

    2009-02-01

    Exercise is classically associated with muscular soreness, presenting one to two days later, delayed onset muscular soreness. Blood muscle enzymes and protein elevations are characteristic, and may cause renal failure. Creatin phosphokinase peak appears on the fourth day and depends on exercise type and individual parameters. This effect is attenuated with repeated bouts, by habituation. Metabolic complications are rare. The knowledge of this reaction, even with common exercises, allows to postpone investigations for a complex metabolic disorder, or to avoid stopping a medication for fear of a side effect, as with statins. Indeed, it is necessary to wait for seven days without any exercise before interpreting an elevated CK result. PMID:19180440

  12. Moderate resistance exercise program: its effect in slowly progressive neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Aitkens, S G; McCrory, M A; Kilmer, D D; Bernauer, E M

    1993-07-01

    A 12-week moderate resistance exercise program was performed by 27 patients with slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) and 14 control subjects (CTL) in order to determine safety and efficacy of a strengthening program. A 3-day per week submaximal regimen of home exercise using ankle and wrist weights and hand grip exerciser was prescribed. One side of the body was randomly chosen for exercise. Subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic and isometric strength at baseline and after weeks 4 and 12 of the training protocol, and the prescribed amount of work was gradually increased throughout the program. Both the NMD and CTL groups demonstrated significant (p < .05) increases in most strength measures. Both groups responded similarly to the exercise program, and strength gains did not significantly differ between the exercised and nonexercised limbs in either group. This study provides evidence that a 12-week submaximal strength training program is practical and safe in slowly progressive NMD and produces moderate improvement in measured strength. PMID:8328892

  13. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Raiser, Sara N.; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3–18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2–3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. PMID:22440321

  14. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Raiser, Sara N; Vincent, Kevin R

    2012-07-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3-18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2-3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. PMID:22440321

  15. Long-term effects of therapeutic exercise on nonspecific chronic neck pain: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Su, Hao-Tsung; Yen, Ling-Wei; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Nonspecific neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disease. Therapeutic exercise has been shown to improve pain and disability in short-term and midterm follow-ups. This study performed a literature review of the long-term effects of therapeutic exercise on subjects with nonspecific chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] The databases of the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro and PubMed were used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published from January 2000 to January 2014 and explicitly including a one-year follow-up were identified. [Results] Only six articles were included in this review. They had scores of 5 to 8 points on the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was grade I. The study results show that the main exercises used were cervical strengthening and endurance training exercise. Short-term exercises (10 to 12 weeks) helped to improve the body function, structure, activity and participation immediately after the intervention, but not at the long-term follow-up. On the other hand, long-term interventions (1?year) resulted in improvements in body function and structure at the 3?year follow-up. [Conclusion] The results of the six high-quality studies suggest that long-term exercise have long-term benefits for patients with nonspecific neck pain in terms of body function and structure. PMID:25995604

  16. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. Results. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52?m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43?L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Conclusions. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living. PMID:25197712

  17. Long-term effects of therapeutic exercise on nonspecific chronic neck pain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Su, Hao-Tsung; Yen, Ling-Wei; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Nonspecific neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disease. Therapeutic exercise has been shown to improve pain and disability in short-term and midterm follow-ups. This study performed a literature review of the long-term effects of therapeutic exercise on subjects with nonspecific chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] The databases of the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro and PubMed were used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published from January 2000 to January 2014 and explicitly including a one-year follow-up were identified. [Results] Only six articles were included in this review. They had scores of 5 to 8 points on the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was grade I. The study results show that the main exercises used were cervical strengthening and endurance training exercise. Short-term exercises (10 to 12 weeks) helped to improve the body function, structure, activity and participation immediately after the intervention, but not at the long-term follow-up. On the other hand, long-term interventions (1?year) resulted in improvements in body function and structure at the 3?year follow-up. [Conclusion] The results of the six high-quality studies suggest that long-term exercise have long-term benefits for patients with nonspecific neck pain in terms of body function and structure. PMID:25995604

  18. Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.

  19. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  20. Growth hormone and connective tissue in exercise.

    PubMed

    Doessing, S; Kjaer, M

    2005-08-01

    Over the last few years, growth hormone (GH) has become increasingly popular as doping within different sports. However, the precise mechanisms behind the ergogenic (performance enhancing) effects of GH in athletes are still being debated. Besides a well-documented stimulatory effect of GH on carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, and a possible anabolic effect on myofibrillar muscle protein, we suggest a role for GH as an anabolic agent in connective tissue in human skeletal muscle and tendon. Given the importance of the connective tissue for the function of skeletal muscle and tendon, a strengthening effect of GH on connective tissue could fit with the ergogenic effect of GH experienced by athletes. This review examines the endogenous secretion of GH and its mediators in relation to exercise. Furthermore, we consider the effect of endogenous GH and administered recombinant human GH (rhGH) on both myofibrillar and connective tissue protein synthesis, thus offering an alternative explanation for the ergogenic effect of GH. Finally, we suggest a possible therapeutic role for rhGH in clinical management of the frequently suffered injuries in the connective tissue. PMID:15998337

  1. Section 1 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    problem, determine the probability for observing a z-component of angular momentum equal to 1hSection 1 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises 1. Transform (using the coordinate of degenerate eigenvalues can be made to have orthonormal eigenfunctions. 6. Solve the following second order

  2. Effects of proprioceptive circuit exercise on knee joint pain and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck; Kim, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied proprioceptive circuit exercise to patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and examined its effects on knee joint muscle function and the level of pain. [Subjects] In this study, 14 patients with knee osteoarthritis in two groups, a proprioceptive circuit exercise group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7), were examined. [Methods] IsoMed 2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany) was used to assess knee joint muscle function, and a Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain level. [Results] In the proprioceptive circuit exercise group, knee joint muscle function and pain levels improved significantly, whereas in the control group, no significant improvement was observed. [Conclusion] A proprioceptive circuit exercise may be an effective way to strengthen knee joint muscle function and reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26357422

  3. Intergovernmental Approaches for Strengthening K-12 Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour-Garb, Allison, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains an edited transcript of the Rockefeller Institute's October 29, 2007 symposium (Chicago, IL) entitled "Intergovernmental Approaches to Strengthen K-12 Accountability Systems" as well as a framework paper circulated in preparation for the symposium. The transcript begins with a list of the forty state and federal education…

  4. Strengthening the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning via Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.; Poling, Devereaux A.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, national policy experts have questioned the overall quality of educational research, and they have suggested that researchers strengthen their scientific methods by maximizing the use of experimental designs. To promote more rigorous methodology, we discuss several new and often-overlooked opportunities for incorporating…

  5. Strengthening Software Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Strengthening Software Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code Jonathon T. Giffin Mihai with self-modifying code. Our detection is efficient, adding less than 1 microsecond to each checksum in this paper that processes can use self-modifying code to de- tect the page-replication attack. Memory write

  6. Strengthening Software Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code

    E-print Network

    Miller, Barton P.

    Strengthening Software Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code Jonathon T. Giffin Mihai with self-modifying code. Our detection is efficient, adding less than 1 microsecond to each checksum possibly mali- cious modification to its code. Wurster et al. developed an attack against such programs

  7. Simple Pseudorandom Number Generator with Strengthened Double Encryption (Cilia)

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Simple Pseudorandom Number Generator with Strengthened Double Encryption (Cilia) Henry Ng Henry.Ng.a@gmail.com Abstract. A new cryptographic pseudorandom number generator Cilia is presented. It hashes real random data using an iterative hash func- tion to update its secret state, and it generates pseudorandom numbers

  8. Strengthening College Opportunity and Performance: Federal, State and Institutional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Leaders in all sectors--government, business, philanthropy--are calling on American colleges and universities to enroll and graduate more students to bolster the nation's economic competitiveness and to enhance its standard of living. The urgency of strengthening college opportunity informed President Obama's articulation of what amounts to a…

  9. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  10. Strengthening Democracy and Personal Development through Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author states his belief that community based learning among adults can be a powerful force for encouraging personal development and for strengthening democracy in this multicultural, globally interdependent, battered world. To do so, however, it needs to pervade all the curricula, degree programs, learning contracts, and…

  11. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

  12. Conceptual Precalculus: Strengthening Students' Quantitative and Covariational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Bernard L.; Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Tallman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past few decades points to ways precalculus and calculus courses can be strengthened to improve student learning in these courses. This research has informed the development of the Algebra and Precalculus Concept Readiness (APCR) and the Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) assessments. In this article, the authors present three…

  13. Mechanisms for slow strengthening in granular materials W. Losert,1

    E-print Network

    Gollub, Jerry P.

    ,3 and J. P. Gollub1,4 1 Physics Department, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 2 Laboratoire Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550, Japan 4 Physics Department cause a granular material to strengthen over time at low applied stress. The strength is determined from

  14. Strengthening Research by Designing for Coherence and Connections to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerst, Timothy; Confrey, Jere; Heck, Daniel; Knuth, Eric; Lambdin, Diana V.; White, Dorothy; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Quander, Judith Reed

    2010-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is committed to strengthening relations between research and practice and to the development of a coherent knowledge base that is usable in practice. The need to work toward connection and coherence is not unique to the field of mathematics education. Fields such as medicine, software…

  15. Invariant-Strengthened Elimination of Dependent State Elements

    E-print Network

    Mishchenko, Alan

    Invariant-Strengthened Elimination of Dependent State Elements Michael L. Case1,2 Alan Mishchenko1-independent syn- thesis optimization that is effective in reducing the total number of state elements of a design. It works by identifying and eliminat- ing dependent state elements which may be expressed as functions

  16. Strengthening Password-Based Authentication Protocols Against Online Dictionary Attacks

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yongdae

    Strengthening Password-Based Authentication Protocols Against Online Dictionary Attacks Peng Wang1 , Yongdae Kim1 , Vishal Kher1 , and Taekyoung Kwon2 1 Computer Science and Engineering, University attacks (dictionary attacks). Existing Strong Password-based Authentication and Key Agreement (SPAKA

  17. Strengthening Password-based Authentication Protocols Against Online Dictionary Attacks

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Strengthening Password-based Authentication Protocols Against Online Dictionary Attacks Peng Wang1 , Yongdae Kim1 , Vishal Kher1 , Taekyoung Kwon2 1 Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota attacks (dictionary attacks). Existing Strong Password-based Authentication and Key Agreement (SPAKA

  18. Strengthening Financial Management. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of essays examines strategies to strengthen financial management in the community colleges from the perspective of college finance and administrative support officers. Part I focuses on selected role functions that college business officers perform, containing "Integrating Academic Planning and Budgeting," by Byron N. McClenney and…

  19. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  20. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  1. Practice and Cognition to Strengthen College Students' Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    College students' ideological morality always is the hotspot concerned by various circles of the society, and to strengthen and improve the ideological and moral education in colleges, continually enhance the pertinence and actual effect of the moral education, help college students to dissolve their worldly confusion in moral culture, further…

  2. Using Model-based Assurance to Strengthen Diagnostic Procedures

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    Using Model-based Assurance to Strengthen Diagnostic Procedures Robyn Lutz Jet Propulsion Lab procedures are instructions used to isolate failures during operations. Assuring such procedures manually independent perspective helped in assuring the procedures' adequacy and quality. Finally, the paper discusses

  3. A review on strengthening steel beams using FRP under fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohamed; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Sulong, N H Ramli; Islam, A B M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

  4. Squeeze strengthening of magnetorheological fluids using mixed mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becnel, A. C.; Sherman, S. G.; Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    This research details a novel method of increasing the shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluids by combining shear and squeeze modes of operation to manipulate particle chain structures, so-called squeeze strengthening. Using a custom built Searle cell magnetorheometer, which is a model device emulating a rotary magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA), the contribution of squeeze strengthening to the total controllable yield force is experimentally investigated. Using an eccentric rotating inner cylinder, characterization data from large (1 mm) and small (0.25 mm) nominal gap geometries are compared to investigate the squeeze strengthening effect. Details of the experimental setup and method are presented, and a hybrid model is used to explain experimental trends. This study demonstrates that it is feasible, utilizing squeeze strengthening to increase yield stress, to either (1) design a rotary MREA of a given volume to achieve higher energy absorption density (energy absorbed normalized by active fluid volume), or (2) reduce the volume of a given rotary MREA to achieve the same energy absorption density.

  5. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  6. State Council Resolutions on Further Strengthening Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Several resolutions on strengthening work in rural education have been made in order to accelerate development of rural education in China, deepen reform of rural education, guarantee a well-off society, and harmonize rural and urban development. This article presents a detailed plan of actions for each resolution. The resolutions are enumerated…

  7. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  8. Strengthening Landmark Heuristics via Hitting Sets Technical Report: Proofs

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Thomas

    Strengthening Landmark Heuristics via Hitting Sets Technical Report: Proofs Blai Bonet Departamento@informatik.uni-freiburg.de Hitting Sets Let A = {a1, . . . , an} be a set and F = {F1, . . . , Fm} a family of subsets of A. A subset H A has the hitting set property, or is a hitting set, iff H Fi = for 1 i m (i.e., H "hits

  9. Levers for Change: Opportunities to Strengthen California's High School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This executive summary of a 28-page EdSource report highlights three powerful levers that state policymakers and local schools can use to strengthen high school curriculum. These levers are: (1) California's Academic Content Standards; (2) Eligibility to Attend the State's Public Universities, and (3) Career and Technical Education. It also…

  10. Exercising Your Finger After an Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to make it easier to squeeze. Exercise: Object Pick-up This exercise can improve fine motor skills, such ... or tying your shoes. To do this exercise, pick up small objects such as coins, marbles or buttons ...

  11. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  12. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  13. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  14. Effects of Exercise on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, G. Lawrence

    Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…

  15. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients. PMID:16101469

  16. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  17. Squeezing the Muscle: Compression Clothing and Muscle Metabolism during Recovery from High Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Laaksonen, Marko S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ?37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P?=?0.79) and BF (P?=?0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P?=?0.41) and non-compressed BF (P?=?0.05; effect size?=?2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P?=?0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P?=?0.79; recovery P?=?0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P?=?0.64; recovery P?=?0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P?=?0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ?37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF. PMID:23613756

  18. Muscle metabolism and activation heterogeneity by combined 31P chemical shift and T2 imaging, and pulmonary O2 uptake during incremental knee-extensor exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Daniel T.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Whipp, Brian J.; Ward, Susan A.; McIntyre, Dominick J.; Ladroue, Christophe; Griffiths, John R.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of skeletal muscle substrate depletion, metabolite accumulation, and fatigue during large muscle-mass exercise is not well understood. Measurement of intramuscular energy store degradation and metabolite accumulation is confounded by muscle heterogeneity. Therefore, to characterize regional metabolic distribution in the locomotor muscles, we combined 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, and T2-weighted imaging with pulmonary oxygen uptake during bilateral knee-extension exercise to intolerance. Six men completed incremental tests for the following: 1) unlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and 2) spatial determination of 31P metabolism and activation. The relationship of pulmonary oxygen uptake to whole quadriceps phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) was inversely linear, and three of four knee-extensor muscles showed activation as assessed by change in T2. The largest changes in [PCr], [inorganic phosphate] ([Pi]) and pH occurred in rectus femoris, but no voxel (72 cm3) showed complete PCr depletion at exercise cessation. The most metabolically active voxel reached 11 ± 9 mM [PCr] (resting, 29 ± 1 mM), 23 ± 11 mM [Pi] (resting, 7 ± 1 mM), and a pH of 6.64 ± 0.29 (resting, 7.08 ± 0.03). However, the distribution of 31P metabolites and pH varied widely between voxels, and the intervoxel coefficient of variation increased between rest (?10%) and exercise intolerance (?30–60%). Therefore, the limit of tolerance was attained with wide heterogeneity in substrate depletion and fatigue-related metabolite accumulation, with extreme metabolic perturbation isolated to only a small volume of active muscle (<5%). Regional intramuscular disturbances are thus likely an important requisite for exercise intolerance. How these signals integrate to limit muscle power production, while regional “recruitable muscle” energy stores are presumably still available, remains uncertain. PMID:23813534

  19. Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C B

    2001-07-01

    Endurance exercise training (EXT) is singly the most important aspect of rehabilitation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. When effective, this modality of physical reconditioning leads to improved functional exercise capacity and reduced breathlessness. Early implementation is desirable to obtain more meaningful responses (e.g., when FEV1 falls below 50% of the predicted value in patients with chronic obstructive disease). Preparation for effective EXT requires optimization of respiratory system mechanics (e.g., using bronchodilator therapy), prevention of gas exchange failure (i.e., using supplemental oxygen), nutritional guidance, and psychological support (e.g., to overcome stigmata of disability, fear, and inclination to panic). EXT should be applied using a rigorous, scientifically based aerobic exercise prescription (AXRx) that recognizes basic principles of the human response to exercise prescription while considering individual pathophysiological limitations and identifying safety thresholds for exercise participation. The mode of aerobic exercise should use large muscle groups of the legs (e.g., treadmill or cycle ergometer). The recommended duration is an accumulation of 30 min of exercise per session at the target intensity, achieved by continuous or interval training. EXT should be supervised with a recommended frequency of at least three times per week for 6--8 wk. Target exercise intensity can be monitored by oxygen uptake, work rate, heart rate, or perceived exertion. Target intensity can be determined initially on the basis of 40% of a reference value for maximum oxygen uptake and linked to other variables through predictable interrelationships. All aspects of the AXRx must be reviewed with regard to progression during training. Pulmonary rehabilitation must recognize the importance of achieving clinically meaningful responses (e.g., increased 6-min walking distance of 54 m) as well as the need for maintenance exercise program to sustain the benefits. PMID:11462076

  20. The Efficacy of Exercise Therapy in Reducing Shoulder Pain Related to Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Barbara; Cheifetz, Oren; Gillespie, Jessica; Snowden, Katie; Temesy, Jessica; Vandenberk, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Recent research indicates that physiotherapy interventions, such as exercise and manual therapy, may be effective in decreasing the frequency of side effects linked with breast cancer treatment, including fatigue, pain, nausea, and decreased quality of life. This systematic review aims to determine the efficacy of exercise therapy in reducing shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment and to identify outcome measures that can be used to assess shoulder pain in this population. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using portals such as the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE (1996 to April 2011), and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985 to April 2011). Databases were searched for relevant studies published up to April 2011. Participants in relevant studies were adults (?18 years of age) with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer at any point during the treatment of their disease. Results: Six articles were independently appraised by two blinded reviewers. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, each analyzing different types of exercise—shoulder/arm/scapular strengthening/stabilization, postural exercises, general exercises and conditioning, shoulder range-of-motion exercises, and lymphedema exercises—with respect to their efficacy in reducing shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment. Conclusions: Results suggest that exercise targeting shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment may be effective. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the lack of methodological quality and homogeneity of the studies included. Clinicians should use valid outcome measures, such as the visual analogue scale and brief pain inventory, to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. PMID:24396158

  1. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  2. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  3. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  4. Recrystallization characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotzler, R. K.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopy was employed to study the process of recrystallization in two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) mechanically alloyed nickel-base alloys, MA 754 and MA 6000E. MA 754 contained both fine, uniformly dispersed particles and coarser oxides aligned along the working direction. Hot rolled MA 754 had a grain size of 0.5 microns and high dislocation densities. After partial primary recrystallization, the fine grains transformed to large elongated grains via secondary (or abnormal) grain growth. Extruded and rolled MA 6000E contained equiaxed grains of 0.2 micron diameter. Primary recrystallization occurring during working eliminated virtually all dislocations. Conversion from fine to coarse grains was triggered by gamma prime dissolution; this was also a process of secondary or abnormal grain growth. Comparisons were made to conventional and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys.

  5. Precipitation Strengthening in Al-Ni-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yangyang; Huang, Kai; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-09-01

    Precipitation hardening of eutectic and hypoeutectic Al-Ni alloys by 2 to 4 wt pct. manganese is investigated with focus on the effect of the alloys' chemical composition and solidification cooling rate on microstructure and tensile strength. Within the context of the investigation, mathematical equations based on the Orowan Looping strengthening mechanism were used to calculate the strengthening increment contributed by each of the phases present in the aged alloy. The calculations agree well with measured values and suggest that the larger part of the alloy's yield strength is due to the Al3Ni eutectic phase, this is closely followed by contribution from the Al6Mn particles, which precipitate predominantly at grain boundaries.

  6. Precipitation Strengthening in Al-Ni-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yangyang; Huang, Kai; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening of eutectic and hypoeutectic Al-Ni alloys by 2 to 4 wt pct. manganese is investigated with focus on the effect of the alloys' chemical composition and solidification cooling rate on microstructure and tensile strength. Within the context of the investigation, mathematical equations based on the Orowan Looping strengthening mechanism were used to calculate the strengthening increment contributed by each of the phases present in the aged alloy. The calculations agree well with measured values and suggest that the larger part of the alloy's yield strength is due to the Al3Ni eutectic phase, this is closely followed by contribution from the Al6Mn particles, which precipitate predominantly at grain boundaries.

  7. Oxidation-induced contraction and strengthening of boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.; Wagner, T. C.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to measure and understand the physical and mechanical effects that occur in boron fibers during and after thermal treatment in a controlled oxygen argon gaseous mixture. Of principal concern was the optimization of this treatment as a secondary processing method for significantly improving fiber tensile strength. Strengthening was accomplished by an oxidation induced axial contraction of the fiber and a resulting axial compression of strength limiting flaws within the fiber's tungsten boride core. Various physical observations were used to develop mechanistic models for oxidation, contraction, and flow formation. Processing guidelines are discussed for possibly exceeding the 5.5 GN/sq m strength limit and also for achieving fiber strengthening during application of boron containing diffusion barrier coatings.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A.; Kellezi, Holti; Risis, Steve; Frøsig, Christian; Vienberg, Sara G.; Treebak, Jonas T.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13–15), but not AMPK ?2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12–13) mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p = 0.051; n = 6). To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n = 7–8) and AMPK ?2 KD (n = 7–9) mice with 5-amino-1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK ?2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-coactivator 1? (PGC-1? KO; n = 9–10). Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1? KO mice (p < 0.01) and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p < 0.05). Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training. PMID:25852572

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD.

    PubMed

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A; Kellezi, Holti; Risis, Steve; Frøsig, Christian; Vienberg, Sara G; Treebak, Jonas T

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13-15), but not AMPK ?2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12-13) mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p = 0.051; n = 6). To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n = 7-8) and AMPK ?2 KD (n = 7-9) mice with 5-amino-1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK ?2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-coactivator 1? (PGC-1? KO; n = 9-10). Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1? KO mice (p < 0.01) and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p < 0.05). Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training. PMID:25852572

  10. 75 FR 23582 - Federal Housing Administration: Continuation of FHA Reform-Strengthening Risk Management Through...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...Administration: Continuation of FHA Reform-- Strengthening Risk Management Through Responsible FHA-Approved Lenders; Correction...designed to strengthen FHA by improving its management of risk. Although the preamble to the final rule correctly...

  11. A proof of the (strengthened) Liar formula in a semantical extension of Peano Arithmetic 

    E-print Network

    Ketland, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    In the Tarskian theory of truth, the strengthened liar sentence is a theorem. More generally, any formalized truth theory which proves the full, self-applicative scheme True(“f”) f will prove the strengthened liar ...

  12. 77 FR 52742 - Public Meeting-Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance System; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance...public feedback regarding the medical device postmarket surveillance...strengthening the national medical device postmarket surveillance...August 27, 2012. Leslie Kux, Assistant Commissioner for...

  13. 40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system...Fewer Than 10,000 People Combined Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.551 What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my...

  14. 76 FR 17962 - Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Geological Survey Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater... titled ``Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of... Federal Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and its Water Resources Workgroup....

  15. Orowan strengthening and forest hardening superposition examined by dislocation dynamics simulations

    E-print Network

    Devincre, Benoit

    Orowan strengthening and forest hardening superposition examined by dislocation dynamics- hardening mechanism is involved. In this work, use is made of dislocation dynamics simulations.e. Orowan strengthening and forest hardening. Based on a formal description of each hardening mechanism

  16. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  17. Bush Administration, Member of Congress Propose Legislation to Strengthen NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-06-01

    The Bush administration has transmitted to Congress legislation to strengthen the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through an ``organic act'' that codifies the agency's establishment and purposes. Donald Evans, secretary of the Department of Commerce, which includes NOAA, announced the legislation on 10 June. In a statement, he said the act would be ``an important step forward in enhancing NOAA's ability to carry out the research and management objectives entrusted to it.''

  18. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  19. Strengthening and toughening metallic glasses: The elastic perspectives and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2014-04-28

    There exist general conflicts between strength and toughness in crystalline engineering materials, and various strengthening and toughening strategies have been developed from the dislocation motion perspectives. Metallic glasses (MGs) have demonstrated great potentials owing to their unique properties; however, their structural applications are strictly limited. One of the key problems is that the traditional strengthening and toughening strategies and mechanisms are not applicable in MGs due to the absence of dislocations and crystalline microstructures. Here, we show that the strength and toughness, or equivalently the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, are invariably mutually exclusive in MGs. Accordingly, the MGs can be categorized into four groups with different levels of integrated mechanical properties. It is further revealed that the conflicts originate fundamentally from the atomic bonding structures and the levels of strength-toughness combinations are indeed dominated by the bulk modulus. Moreover, we propose novel strategies for optimizing the mechanical properties of MGs from the elastic perspectives. We emphasize the significance of developing high bulk modulus MGs to achieve simultaneously both high strength and good toughness and highlight the elastic opportunities for strengthening and toughening materials.

  20. Retrofitting Heritage Buildings by Strengthening or Using Seismic Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Danieli, Moshe; Bloch, Jacob; Ribakov, Yuri

    2008-07-08

    Many heritage buildings in the Mediterranean area include stone domes as a structural and architectural element. Present stage of these buildings often requires strengthening or retrofitting in order to increase their seismic resistance. Strengthening is possible by casting above existing dome a thin reinforced concrete shell with a support ring. It yields reduction of stresses and strains in the dome. This paper deals with examples of actual restoration and strengthening of three structures in Georgia, two of them damaged by an earthquake in 1991, (a temple in Nikortzminda and a synagogue in Oni, built in 11{sup th} and 19{sup r} century, respectively) and a mosque in Akhaltzikhe, built in 18th century. Retrofitting of these structures was aimed at preservation of initial geometry and appearance by creating composite (stone--reinforced concrete, or stone--shotcrete) structures, which were partially or fully hidden. Further improving of seismic response may be achieved by using hybrid seismic isolation decreasing the seismic forces and adding damping. A brief description of the design procedure for such cases is presented.

  1. Pansynaptic Enlargement at Adult Cortical Connections Strengthened by Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Claire E.J.; Barnes, Samuel J.; Albieri, Giorgia; Knott, Graham W.; Finnerty, Gerald T.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral experience alters the strength of neuronal connections in adult neocortex. These changes in synaptic strength are thought to be central to experience-dependent plasticity, learning, and memory. However, it is not known how changes in synaptic transmission between neurons become persistent, thereby enabling the storage of previous experience. A long-standing hypothesis is that altered synaptic strength is maintained by structural modifications to synapses. However, the extent of synaptic modifications and the changes in neurotransmission that the modifications support remain unclear. To address these questions, we recorded from pairs of synaptically connected layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex and imaged their contacts with high-resolution confocal microscopy after altering sensory experience by whisker trimming. Excitatory connections strengthened by experience exhibited larger axonal varicosities, dendritic spines, and interposed contact zones. Electron microscopy showed that contact zone size was strongly correlated with postsynaptic density area. Therefore, our findings indicate that whole synapses are larger at strengthened connections. Synaptic transmission was both stronger and more reliable following experience-dependent synapse enlargement. Hence, sensory experience modified both presynaptic and postsynaptic function. Our findings suggest that the enlargement of synaptic contacts is an integral part of long-lasting strengthening of cortical connections and, hence, of information storage in the neocortex. PMID:23118196

  2. Nano-subgrain Strengthening in Ball-milled Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D

    2006-03-23

    The strength and deformation behavior of ball-milled, iron-base materials containing nano-scale subgrains have been evaluated. As reported by several authors, nanosubgrains form during the early stages of ball milling as a result of severe plastic deformation inherent in the ball milling process. The strength for these nano-scale subgrains are compared with the strength of larger-scale subgrains in iron and iron-base alloys produced by traditional mechanical working. The data covers over 2 orders of magnitude in subgrain size (from 30 nm to 6 {micro}m) and shows a continuous pattern of behavior. For all materials studied, the strength varied as {lambda}{sup -1}, where {lambda} is the subgrain size. Strengthening from subgrains was found to breakdown at a much smaller subgrain size than strengthening from grains. In addition, the ball-milled materials showed significant strengthening contributions from nano-scale oxide particles. Shear bands are developed during testing of ball-milled materials containing ultra-fine subgrains. A model for shear band development in nano-scale subgrains during deformation has also been developed. The model predicts a strain state of uniaxial compression in the shear band with a strain of -1.24. Subgrains are shown to offer the opportunity for high strength and good work hardening with the absence of yield point behavior.

  3. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P.; Swenson, C. A.

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  4. Strengthening of Aluminum Alloy 2219 by Thermo-mechanical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Lei, Kun; Song, Peng; Liu, Xinqin; Zhang, Fei; Li, Jianfei; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Strengthening of aluminum alloy 2219 by thermo-mechanical treatment has been compared with artificial aging. Three simple deformation modes including pre-stretching, compression, and rolling have been used in thermo-mechanical treatment. The tensile strength, elongation, fracture feature, and precipitated phase have been investigated. The results show that the strengthening effect of thermo-mechanical treatment is better than the one of artificial aging. Especially, the yield strength significantly increases with a small decrease of elongation. When the specimen is pre-stretched to 8.0%, the yield strength reaches 385.0 MPa and increases by 22.2% in comparison to the one obtained in aging condition. The maximum tensile strength of 472.4 MPa is achieved with 4.0% thickness reduction by compression. The fracture morphology reveals locally ductile and brittle failure mechanism, while the coarse second-phase particles distribute on the fracture surface. The intermediate phases ?? or ?' orthogonally precipitate in the matrix after thermo-mechanical treatment. As compared to artificial aging, the cold plastic deformation increases distribution homogeneity and the volume fraction of ?'' or ?' precipitates. These result in a better strengthening effect.

  5. Age Strengthening of Gray Cast Iron Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Von L. Richards; Wayne Nicola

    2003-06-26

    The primary objective of this research is to identify the age strengthening mechanism in gray and ductile cast iron, and to quantify the parameters that control it. It is also to contribute to a new predictive model for gray and ductile iron strength and hardness. This work shows that age strengthening occurs on a sigmoidal-logarithmic scale in gray and ductile cast irons, to a statistically significant extent. This is similar to Avrami-Johnson-Mehl kinetics for phase transformations in metals. It occurs in both cupola-melted iron and induction melted iron. However, it does not happen in all compositions. We have developed some understanding of the process. Data suggests that nitrogen and nitride-forming trace elements have a significant role in the process, but that is yet not fully characterized. Also, the time dependence of the bulk hardness and strength increase, the nano-scale precipitation evidence from neutron scattering, differential scanning calorimetry results and matrix micro-hardness increase in ferrite all indicate that age strengthening occurs by a precipitation or pre-precipitate cluster formation mechanism.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  7. Enhancing Adherence in Clinical Exercise Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Heather A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses exercise adherence from the perspective of adhering to an exercise treatment in a controlled trial, focusing on: adherence (to intervention and measurement); the development of randomized clinical trials; exemplary randomized clinical trials in exercise science (exercise training studies and physical activity interventions); and study…

  8. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  9. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  10. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  11. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  12. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  13. Exercise Manual for Methods in Systematics

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    Exercise Manual for BIOL 471 Methods in Systematics Spring 2007 by Christopher R. Hardy, James C in Systematics, page 2 of 62 BIOL 471 ­ Methods in Systematics Exercise Manual Table of Contents Exercise page Biotic Inventory & Related Activities Exercise 01: Traditional Dichotomous Keys and Biotic Inventory

  14. Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5

    E-print Network

    Peleg, Shmuel

    Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5 Due: Friday, July 6, Ross closing time This exercise should be submitted in pairs. See submission instruc- tions at the end of the exercise description. In this exercise you will solve the Poisson equation for deriving intrinsic images from a sequence of images. Given

  15. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  16. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  17. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  18. Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5

    E-print Network

    Peleg, Shmuel

    Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5 Due: Friday, July 6, Ross closing time This exercise should be submitted in pairs. See submission instruc­ tions at the end of the exercise description. In this exercise you will solve the Poisson equation for deriving intrinsic images from a sequence of images. Given

  19. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  20. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  1. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  2. Effects of exercise on circadian rhythms and mobility in aging Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rakshit, Kuntol; Wambua, Rebecca; Giebultowicz, Tomasz M.; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.

    2013-01-01

    Daily life functions such as sleep and feeding oscillate with circa 24 h period due to endogenous circadian rhythms generated by circadian clocks. Genetic or environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with various aging-related phenotypes. Circadian rhythms decay during normal aging, and there is a need to explore strategies that could avert age-related changes in the circadian system. Exercise was reported to delay aging in mammals. Here, we investigated whether daily exercise via stimulation of upward climbing movement could improve circadian rest/activity rhythms in aging Drosophila melanogaster. We found that repeated exercise regimen did not strengthen circadian locomotor activity rhythms in aging flies and had no effect on their lifespan. We also tested the effects of exercise on mobility and determined that regular exercise lowered age-specific climbing ability in both wild type and clock mutant flies. Interestingly, the climbing ability was most significantly reduced in flies carrying a null mutation in the core clock gene period, while rescue of this gene significantly improved climbing to wild type levels. Our work highlights the importance of period in sustaining endurance in aging flies exposed to physical challenge. PMID:23916842

  3. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65?years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8?m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  4. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65?years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8?m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  5. Effects of double air-cushion biofeedback exercises in a patient with sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We developed a double air-cushion biofeedback device to be used for sacroiliac (SI) joint exercises and investigated the effects of exercising using the device in a patient with SI joint pain. [Subject] A 40-year-old man, who complained of pain in the left posterior iliac crest area and SI joints over a 6-month period participated. [Methods] After a 4-week exercise program using the double air-cushion biofeedback device, the subject was assessed using the Gaenslen, Patrick, posterior shear (POSH), and resisted abduction (REAB) tests. [Results] After performing exercise designed to strengthen subdivisions of the gluteus medius, the subject had no pain in the Gaenslen, Patrick, POSH, or REAB tests of the SI joint. The visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain on palpation of the left posterior iliac crest area decreased to 4/10 from an initial score of 7/10. [Conclusion] Exercises with the double air-cushion biofeedback device improved hip asymmetry, SI joint mobility, and muscle strength.

  6. 34 CFR 609.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General § 609.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black...

  7. 34 CFR 609.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General § 609.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black...

  8. 34 CFR 609.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General § 609.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black...

  9. 34 CFR 608.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges... HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General § 608.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program? The Strengthening Historically Black Colleges...

  10. 34 CFR 608.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges... HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General § 608.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program? The Strengthening Historically Black Colleges...

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    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fresh start and reserve strengthening. 1.846-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-3 Fresh start and reserve strengthening... relating to fresh start and reserve strengthening. For purposes of section 1023(e) of the 1986 Act,...

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    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General § 609.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black...

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    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges... HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General § 608.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program? The Strengthening Historically Black Colleges...

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    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General § 609.1 What is the Strengthening Historically Black...

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  17. Strengthening steel bridges with new high modulus CFRP M. Dawood, E. Sumner & S. Rizkalla

    E-print Network

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  18. Behavior of Scaled Steel-Concrete Composite Girders and Steel Monopole Towers Strengthened with CFRP

    E-print Network

    Behavior of Scaled Steel-Concrete Composite Girders and Steel Monopole Towers Strengthened with CFRP DAVID SCHNERCH AND SAMI RIZKALLA Cost-effective rehabilitation and/or strengthening of steel. The current research program makes use of new high modulus types of carbon fiber for strengthening steel

  19. 26 CFR 1.846-3 - Fresh start and reserve strengthening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Fresh start and reserve strengthening. 1.846-3 Section...Companies § 1.846-3 Fresh start and reserve strengthening. (a) In general...provides rules relating to fresh start and reserve strengthening. For purposes...

  20. 26 CFR 1.846-3 - Fresh start and reserve strengthening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Fresh start and reserve strengthening. 1.846-3 Section...Companies § 1.846-3 Fresh start and reserve strengthening. (a) In general...provides rules relating to fresh start and reserve strengthening. For purposes...