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1

Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

2001-01-01

2

A new isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise using EMG-biofeedback  

PubMed Central

A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: “pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds”. Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries. PMID:25356122

Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin

2014-01-01

3

Comparative Study of Hamstring and Quadriceps Strengthening Treatments in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohsen; Alenazi, Aqeel M.

2014-01-01

4

Closed kinetic chain alone compared to combined open and closed kinetic chain exercises for quadriceps strengthening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with respect to return to sports: a prospective matched follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has focused over the past decade on closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises due to presumably less strain on the graft than with isokinetic open kinetic chain exercises (OKC); however, recent reports suggest that there are only minor differences in ACL strain values between some CKC and OKC exercises. We studied anterior knee laxity,

C. Mikkelsen; S. Werner; E. Eriksson

2000-01-01

5

ISOKINETIC ECCENTRIC EXERCISE OF QUADRICEPS FEMORIS DOES NOT AFFECT RUNNING ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassilis, P, Vassilios, B, Vassilis, M, Athanasios, JZ, Vassilis, T, Christina, K, and Yiannis, K. Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy. JS trength Cond Res 22: 1222-1227, 2008—The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty- four young healthy men performed

PASCHALIS VASSILIS; BALTZOPOULOS VASSILIOS; MOUGIOS VASSILIS; JAMURTAS Z. ATHANASIOS; THEOHARIS VASSILIS; KARATZAFERI CHRISTINA; KOUTEDAKIS YIANNIS

6

Effects of Massage on Limb and Skin Blood Flow after Quadriceps Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

HINDS, T., I. MCEWAN, J. PERKES, E. DAWSON, D. BALL, and K. GEORGE. Effects of Massage on Limb and Skin Blood Flow after Quadriceps Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 1308-1313, 2004. Purpose: At present, thereis little scientific evidence that postexercise manual massage has any effect on the factors associated with the recovery process. The purpose

TESSA HINDS; ISLAY MCEWAN; JILL PERKES; ELLEN DAWSON; DEREK BALL; KEITH GEORGE

2004-01-01

7

THE EFFECT OF CROSS EXERCISE ON QUADRICEPS STRENGTH IN DIFFERENT KNEE ANGLES AFTER THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAPANDREOU, M. G. ; PAPAIOANNOU, N. ; ANTONOGIANNAKIS, E. & ZEERIS, H. The effect of cross exercise on quadriceps strength in different knee angles after the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. v. 1, n. 4, p. 123-137, 2007. The patients following ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) demonstrate a substantial quadriceps strength weakness which is more pronounced in the early

Maria G. Papandreou; Nikos Papaioannou; Emmanouel Antonogiannakis; Hlias Zeeris

8

Effect of Isometric Quadriceps Exercise on Muscle Strength, Pain, and Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40–65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] The 5-week isometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:24926143

Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

2014-01-01

9

Assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in women after injury induced by maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise with low angular speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to propose a model for exer- cise-induced muscle injury by way of a maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise at low angular speed, and assess the time course of functional recovery of the injured quadriceps femoris muscle from the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and electrical activity (root mean square - RMS and median frequency -

Fábio Viadanna Serrão; Paula Regina Mendes da Silva Serrão; Bernd Foerster; Alberto Tannús; Vanessa Monteiro Pedro; Tania F. Salvini

2007-01-01

10

Exercise-induced quadriceps oxidative stress and peripheral muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced muscle oxidative stress may be involved in the myopathy associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to look at whether local exercise induces muscle oxidative stress and whether this oxidative stress may be associated with the reduced muscle endurance in patients with COPD. Quadriceps endurance was measured in 12 patients with COPD (FEV1 = 0.96 +/- 0.14 SEM) and 10 healthy sedentary subjects by repeated knee extensions of the dominant leg. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and 48 hours after exercise. Muscle oxidative stress was measured by lipid peroxidation and oxidized proteins. Muscle antioxidant was evaluated by peroxidase glutathion activity. Quadriceps endurance was significantly reduced in patients with COPD when compared with the healthy control subjects (p < 0.01). Forty-eight hours postexercise, only patients with COPD had a significant increase in muscle lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) and oxidized proteins (p < 0.05), whereas increased peroxidase glutathion activity was only observed in control subjects (p < 0.05). Both increases in muscle lipid peroxidation and oxidized proteins were significantly and inversely correlated with quadriceps endurance capacity in COPD (p < 0.05). In summary, local exercise induced muscle oxidative stress in patients with COPD, whereas it failed to raise antioxidant activity. In these individuals, muscle oxidative stress was associated with a reduced quadriceps endurance. PMID:12672647

Couillard, Annabelle; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier; Debigaré, Richard; Michaud, Annie; Koechlin, Christelle; LeBlanc, Pierre; Préfaut, Christian

2003-06-15

11

Effect of cross exercise on quadriceps acceleration reaction time and subjective scores (Lysholm questionnaire) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or reconstruction can cause knee impairments and disability. Knee impairments are related to quadriceps performance – accelerated reaction time (ART) – and disability to performance of daily living activities which is assessed by questionnaires such as the Lysholm knee score. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of cross exercise, as

Maria G Papandreou; Evdokia V Billis; Emmanouel M Antonogiannakis; Nikos A Papaioannou

2009-01-01

12

Muscle metabolism during fatiguing isometric quadriceps exercise in adolescents and adults.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents are less susceptible to muscle fatigue during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise than adults, but the physiological basis for these differences is not clear. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate the muscle metabolic responses, using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, during fatiguing isometric quadriceps exercise in 13 adolescents (7 females) and 14 adults (8 females). Participants completed 30 maximal voluntary contractions (6-s duration) separated by 6 s of rest. Fatigue was quantified as the relative decrease in force over the test. Fatigue was not significantly different with age (p = 0.20) or sex (p = 0.63). Metabolic perturbation (change in phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and ADP concentrations) was significantly greater in adults compared with adolescents; no sex effects were present. Muscle pH did not differ with age or sex. Phosphocreatine recovery following exercise was not significantly different with age (p = 0.27) or sex (p = 0.97) but a significant interaction effect was present (p = 0.04). Recovery tended to be faster in boys than men but slower in girls than women, though no significant group differences were identified. The results of this study show that at a comparable level of muscle fatigue, the metabolic profile is profoundly different between adolescents and adults. PMID:24669985

Willcocks, Rebecca J; Fulford, Jonathan; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A

2014-04-01

13

Assessment of the Quadriceps Femoris Muscle in Women after Injury Induced by Maximal Eccentric Isokinetic Exercise with Low Angular Speed  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to propose a model for exercise- induced muscle injury by way of a maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise at low angular speed, and assess the time course of functional recovery of the injured quadriceps femoris muscle from the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and electrical activity (root mean square - RMS and median frequency - MDF). The effectiveness of the proposed eccentric exercise in inducing injury was assessed from the activity of creatine kinase (CK). In addition, the presence of edema of the quadriceps femoris muscle was assessed by a visual inspection of the intensity of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal. These measurements were carried out before and after the exercise. Ten healthy women (21.9 ± 1.5) took part in this study. The injury was induced by 4 series of 15 maximal eccentric isokinetic contractions at 5°/s. The MVC torque reduced up to the 4th day after the exercise (p < 0.05). The RMS of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and the rectus femoris (RF) muscles decreased on the 2nd (VMO and RF; p < 0.05) and 3rd (RF; p < 0.05) days after. The MDF of the VMO increased immediately after (p < 0.05), whilst the MDF of the RF and VL decreased immediately after (RF; p < 0.05), on the 1st (RF and VL; p < 0.05) and on the 2nd (VL; p < 0.05) days after. The CK activity increased on the 2nd day after (p < 0.05). An increase in the intensity of the MRI signal was observed on the 2nd and 7th days after. In conclusion: 1- the eccentric exercise with low angular speed was effective in inducing injury, 2- the quadriceps femoris already started its functional recovery, as shown by the MVC torque and electrical activity, in the first week after the exercise, despite the presence of an increase in the intensity of the MRI signal. Key pointsThe low angular speed eccentric exercise was effec-tive in inducing injury of the quadriceps femoris muscle, and could be used as a muscle injury induc-ing model in future studies;The quadriceps femoris muscle injured by eccentric exercise started its functional recovery in the first week after low angular speed eccentric exercise. PMID:24149232

Serrao, Fabio Viadanna; Serrao, Paula Regina Mendes da Silva; Foerster, Bernd; Tannus, Alberto; Monteiro Pedro, Vanessa; Salvini, Tania F.

2007-01-01

14

The effect of iyengar yoga and strengthening exercises for people living with osteoarthritis of the knee: a case series.  

PubMed

This case series describes the impact of various forms of exercise on symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A group of 15 women and men performed one of the following: traditional stretching and strengthening exercises, Iyengar yoga, or no structured group exercise. Low back and hamstring flexibility and quadriceps strength and function were monitored before and after the program. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to assess subjective change after the six-week intervention period. A global assessment questionnaire was also completed by each participant and each instructor at the exit sessions to measure perceived changes in improvements since the initiation of the intervention. This study found functional changes and improvement in quality of life in traditional exercise and a yoga based approach that should encourage further comprehensive and carefully designed studies of yoga in osteoarthritis. PMID:17827096

Bukowski, Elaine L; Conway, Allison; Glentz, Laura A; Kurland, Kristy; Galantino, Mary Lou

15

Quadriceps Fatigability after Single Muscle Exercise in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare quadriceps fatigability in patients with varying severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with age-matched control subjects. Ten healthy control subjects, 8 patients with severe disease (FEV1 less than 35% pre- dicted), and 11 patients with mild to moderate disease were stud- ied. The FEV1 was 1.75 0.13 L (SE), 50.4 2.9% of

M. Jeffery Mador; Omer Deniz; Ajay Aggarwal; Thomas J. Kufel

2003-01-01

16

The relationship between muscle deoxygenation and activation in different muscles of the quadriceps during cycle ramp exercise  

PubMed Central

The relationship between muscle deoxygenation and activation was examined in three different muscles of the quadriceps during cycling ramp exercise. Seven young male adults (24 ± 3 yr; mean ± SD) pedaled at 60 rpm to exhaustion, with a work rate (WR) increase of 20 W/min. Pulmonary oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath, while muscle deoxygenation (HHb) and activity were measured by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and surface electromyography (EMG), respectively, at the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM). Muscle deoxygenation was corrected for adipose tissue thickness and normalized to the amplitude of the HHb response, while EMG signals were integrated (iEMG) and normalized to the maximum iEMG determined from maximal voluntary contractions. Muscle deoxygenation and activation were then plotted as a percentage of maximal work rate (%WRmax). The HHb response for all three muscle groups was fitted by a sigmoid function, which was determined as the best fitting model. The c/d parameter for the sigmoid fit (representing the %WRmax at 50% of the total amplitude of the HHb response) was similar between VL (47 ± 12% WRmax) and VM (43 ± 11% WRmax), yet greater (P < 0.05) for RF (65 ± 13% WRmax), demonstrating a “right shift” of the HHb response compared with VL and VM. The iEMG also showed that muscle activation of the RF muscle was lower (P < 0.05) compared with VL and VM throughout the majority of the ramp exercise, which may explain the different HHb response in RF. Therefore, these data suggest that the sigmoid function can be used to model the HHb response in different muscles of the quadriceps; however, simultaneous measures of muscle activation are also needed for the HHb response to be properly interpreted during cycle ramp exercise. PMID:21799133

Chin, Lisa M. K.; Kowalchuk, John M.; Barstow, Thomas J.; Kondo, Narihiko; Amano, Tatsuro; Shiojiri, Tomoyuki

2011-01-01

17

Which Treatment is More Effective for Functional Ankle Instability: Strengthening or Combined Muscle Strengthening and Proprioceptive Exercises?  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to implement combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises to examine the effects of combined exercises on functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Experiments were conducted with 30 adult males and females. The study subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group (Group A), a muscle strengthening exercise group (Group B), or a combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise group (Group C) consisting of 10 subjects each. In Group A, measurements were only conducted before and after the experiment without any intervention, whereas the exercise programs for Group B and Group C were implemented three days per week for four weeks. [Results] Muscle strength showed significant increases in Groups B and C compared with the control group during plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion. The Cumberland ankle instability tool showed significant increases in Group B and Group C compared with Group A and significant increases in Group C compared with Group B. [Conclusion] Applying combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises to those who have functional ankle instability is more effective than applying only muscle strengthening exercises. PMID:24707089

Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Young-Eok; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jin-Su; Ji, Sung-Ha; Ji, Sang-Goo; Seo, Tae-Hwa; Kim, Young-Ok

2014-01-01

18

Control of the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis after exercise in trained and untrained human quadriceps muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of differences in exercise intensity on the time constant (t\\u000ac) of phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis after exercise and the relationships betweent\\u000ac and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in endurance-trained runners (n = 5) and untrained controls (n = 7) (average VO2max = 66.2 and 52.0 ml · min–1 · kg–1, respectively). To measure the metabolism of

Hideyuki Takahashi; Mitsuharu Inaki; Koichi Fujimoto; Shigeru Katsuta; Izumi Anno; Mamoru Nütsu; Yuji Itai

1995-01-01

19

Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis in Relation to Hamstring and Quadriceps Strength  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65?years of age (57.65 ± 4.78?years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA. PMID:24396198

Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Al-Johani, Ahmed H.; Zakaria, Abdul Rahim; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Kachanathu, SJ

2013-01-01

20

Increases of Quadriceps Inter-Muscular Cross-Correlation and Coherence during Exhausting Stepping Exercise  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the change of the intermuscular cross-correlation and coherence of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during exhausting stepping exercise. Eleven healthy adults repeated the stepping exercise up to their individual endurance limits (RPE score reached 20), and the cross-correlation and coherence were assessed by surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. The coefficient and time lag of cross-correlation and the coherence areas in the alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (15–30 Hz), gamma (30–60 Hz) and high-gamma (60–150 Hz) bands among the three muscle pairs (RF-VM, RF-VL and VM-VL) were calculated. As muscle fatigue, RF-VM and VM-VL showed increases of coefficients and the shortening of time lags. RF-VM and RF-VL showed increases of beta-band coherence in the ascent and descent phases, respectively. The increased intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a compensatory strategy for maintaining the coordination of knee synergistic muscles during fatigue due to the fatigue-related disturbance of the corticospinal transmission. Therefore, the intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a potential index for assessing muscle fatigue and monitoring the central control of motor function during dynamic fatiguing exercise. PMID:23443382

Chang, Ya-Ju; Chou, Ching-Chieh; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Yuh; Fang, Chia-Ying; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Lien, Hen-Yu

2012-01-01

21

Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who

Cay Anderson-Hanley; Joseph P. Nimon; Sarah C. Westen

2010-01-01

22

Role-playing exercises to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe how role-playing exercises can be used to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems in emergency management. Through role-playing exercises, the participants gain experience with adapting to changing demands and risk relative to challenges to their ability to predict future risk, adapt, and recover from harmful events. Role-playing exercises at the same time enable

Rogier Woltjer; Jiri Trnka; Jonas Lundberg; Björn Johansson

2006-01-01

23

Impact of lower extremity strengthening exercises and mobility on fall rates in hospitalized adults.  

PubMed

Preventing falls in acute care hospitals is a major challenge, and achieving positive outcomes has remained elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of lower extremity strengthening exercises and mobility on fall rates and fall rates with injury. A nonequivalent control group design was used. Subjects on the intervention unit received targeted lower extremity strengthening exercises and ambulation using a nurse-driven mobility protocol; subjects on the control unit received ambulation alone. One assisted fall occurred on the intervention unit. PMID:21209594

Padula, Cynthia A; Disano, Cindy; Ruggiero, Cynthia; Carpentier, Michelle; Reppucci, Melanie; Forloney, Barbara; Hughes, Cynthia

2011-01-01

24

Conceptual framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring strains.  

PubMed

High-speed running accounts for the majority of hamstring strains in many sports. The terminal swing phase is believed to be the most hazardous as the hamstrings are undergoing an active lengthening contraction in a long muscle length position. Prevention-based strength training mainly focuses on eccentric exercises. However, it appears crucial to integrate other parameters than the contraction type. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present a conceptual framework based on six key parameters (contraction type, load, range of motion, angular velocity, uni-/bilateral exercises, kinetic chain) for the hamstring's strength exercise for strain prevention. Based on the biomechanical parameters of sprinting, it is proposed to use high-load eccentric contractions. The movement should be performed at a slow to moderate angular velocity and focused at the knee joint, while the hip is kept in a large flexion position in order to reach a greater elongation stress of the hamstrings than in the terminal swing phase. In this way, we believe that, during sprinting, athletes would be better trained to brake the knee extension effectively in the whole range of motion without overstretch of the hamstrings. Finally, based on its functional application, unilateral open kinetic chain should be preferred. PMID:24062275

Guex, Kenny; Millet, Grégoire P

2013-12-01

25

Effects of Individual Strengthening Exercises on Subdivisions of the Gluteus Medius in a Patient with Sacroiliac Joint Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius in a patient with sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 32?year-old female who complained of pain in the posterior area of the left iliac crest and sacroiliac joints over a period of 6 months was the subject of this study. [Methods] She performed individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius over 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and VAS scores were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] After individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius, the subject showed no pain in the Gaenslen, Patrick, or REAB tests for the left sacroiliac joint. The VAS score was less the 3/10, compared with 7/10 initially. [Conclusion] Individual strengthening exercises for the subdivisions of the gluteus medius were effective at reducing SI joint pain for this patient. PMID:25276045

Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

26

PERCEIVED LOADING AND MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES: COMPARISON OF ELASTIC RESISTANCE AND MACHINE EXERCISES  

PubMed Central

Objective: Decreased hip muscle strength is frequently reported in patients with hip injury or pathology. Furthermore, soccer players suffering from groin injury show decreased strength of hip muscles. Estimating 10?repetition maximum can be time?consuming and difficult, thus, using the Borg category rating 10 scale (Borg CR10 scale) can be a useful tool for estimating the intensity of exercise. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the feasibility of the use of the Borg CR10 scale for rating strength training intensity of the hip abductor and hip adductor muscles, and 2) to compare hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). Methods: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ?2), moderate (Borg >2–<5), heavy (Borg ?5–<7) and near maximum (Borg ?7). Results: Moderate to strong associations were observed between perceived loading and nEMG obtained during the adduction exercise with elastic resistance (r=0.8±0.3) as well as in machine (r=0.69±0.55) and the abduction exercise with elastic resistance (r=0.66±0.29) as well as in machine (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during resistance training of the hip adductor and hip abductor muscles. Although elastic resistance and exercise machine seem equally effective for recruiting muscle activity of the hip adductors, the elastic resistance condition was able to demonstrate greater muscle recruitment than the exercise machine during hip abduction. PMID:24377067

Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian; Sundstrup, Emil; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.

2013-01-01

27

Effects of contraction duration on low-frequency fatigue in voluntary and electrically induced exercise of quadriceps muscle in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to investigate if low-frequency fatigue (LFF) dependent on the duration of repeated muscle contractions\\u000a and to compare LFF in voluntary and electrically induced exercise. Male subjects performed three 9-min periods of repeated\\u000a isometric knee extensions at 40% maximal voluntary contraction with contraction plus relaxation periods of 30 plus 60?s, 15\\u000a plus 30?s and 5

A. Ratkevi?ius; A. Skurvydas; E. Povilonis; B. Quistorff; J. Lexell

1998-01-01

28

Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparative Effectiveness of a Home Exercise Program Including Stretching Alone versus Stretching Supplemented with Eccentric or Concentric Strengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of eccentric strengthening. Ninety-four subjects (50 men) with chronic lateral epicondylitis were allocated randomly into three groups: stretching, concentric strengthening with stretching, and eccentric strengthening with stretching. Subjects performed an exercise program for six weeks. All three groups received instruction on icing, stretching, and avoidance of aggravating activities. The strengthening

Katherine W. Arendt; K NEWCOMER; R GAY; M SCHAEFER; P KORTEBEIN

2005-01-01

29

Effects of Strengthening and Aerobic Exercises on Pain Severity and Function in Patients with Knee Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of rehabilitation techniques, including aerobic and strengthening exercises on patients with knee rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: 48 male patients with knee RA were randomly assigned into 3 groups, including aerobic exercises, strengthening exercise, and control. The two first groups completed their treatment protocol for 8 weeks, 3 days per week. Visual Analogue Scale, WOMAC questionnaire, 6-minute walking test, standard goniometer were used to assess pain severity, functional ability, walking ability, knee joint ROM respectively at baseline and after applying therapeutic interventions. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P < 0.05 significant level. Results: Participants had a mean ± SD age of 58.6 ± 7.8 years (height 1.72 ± 0.07 m, weight 81.0 ± 6.4 kg) with no significant difference between three groups. Both therapeutic interventions reduced pain significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the control group, without significant difference between the two experimental groups. The patients fulfilled aerobic exercise attained higher levels of function and walking ability compared to strengthening group significantly (P < 0.001). The knee range of motion (ROM)wassignificantly (P < 0.001) improved in the two experimental groups in comparison to controls, the strengthening group had more significant (P < 0.001) improvement. Conclusions: It can be concluded that an aerobic exercise program improves functional and walking ability in patients with knee RA, and strengthening exercise has more efficient effect on knee ROM, both aerobic and strengthening exercises can equally relieve pain. PMID:22891151

Rahnama, Nader; Mazloum, Vahid

2012-01-01

30

Strengthening Exercises Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life but Do Not Change Autonomic Modulation in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL) of FM patients. Methods Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990) were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX) exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon’s Bench), maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE), a short-form health survey (SF-36). Results The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). The FLEX group showed higher improvements in anxiety (p<0.05). Both groups showed improvements in the QOL, and there was no significant difference observed between the groups. There was no change in the HRV of the STRE and FLEX groups. Conclusions Strengthening exercises show greater and more rapid improvements in pain and strength than flexibility exercises. Despite the benefits in fitness, pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004405 PMID:24651512

Gavi, Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira; Vassalo, Dalton Valentin; Amaral, Fabian Tadeu; Macedo, Danielle Constancia Felicio; Gava, Pablo Lucio; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Valim, Valeria

2014-01-01

31

Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparative Effectiveness of a Home Exercise Program Including Stretching Alone versus Stretching Supplemented with Eccentric or Concentric Strengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of eccentric strengthening. Ninety-four subjects (50 men) with chronic lateral epicondylitis were allocated randomly into three groups: stretching, concentric strengthening with stretching, and eccentric strengthening with stretching. Subjects performed an exercise program for six weeks. All three groups received instruction on icing, stretching, and avoidance of aggra- vating activities. The

Julio A. Martinez-Silvestrini; Karen L. Newcomer; Ralph E. Gay; Michael P. Schaefer

32

Progressive load training for the quadriceps muscle associated with proprioception exercises for the prevention of falls in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study aims to evaluate the effect of 18-week progressive muscular strength and proprioception training program on the\\u000a muscle strength of the quadriceps, in prevention of falls in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The incidence of falls\\u000a in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?0.263, 95% CI 0.10–0.68).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  This study aims to evaluate

L. E. P. P. Teixeira; K. N. G. Silva; A. M. Imoto; T. J. P. Teixeira; A. H. Kayo; R. Montenegro-Rodrigues; M. S. Peccin; V. F. M. Trevisani

2010-01-01

33

The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and knee function in professional soccer players: return to sport after ACL reconstruction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction) on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40) received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500?Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50?Hz) three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments), 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months) were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment) is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741. PMID:24381943

Taradaj, J; Halski, T; Kucharzewski, M; Walewicz, K; Smykla, A; Ozon, M; Slupska, L; Dymarek, R; Ptaszkowski, K; Rajfur, J; Pasternok, M

2013-01-01

34

The Effect of NeuroMuscular Electrical Stimulation on Quadriceps Strength and Knee Function in Professional Soccer Players: Return to Sport after ACL Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction) on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40) received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500?Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50?Hz) three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments), 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months) were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment) is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741. PMID:24381943

Taradaj, J.; Halski, T.; Kucharzewski, M.; Walewicz, K.; Smykla, A.; Ozon, M.; Slupska, L.; Dymarek, R.; Ptaszkowski, K.; Rajfur, J.; Pasternok, M.

2013-01-01

35

Strengthening exercises to improve hand strength and functionality in rheumatoid arthritis with hand deformities: a randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory and chronic disease of joints, which may result in irreversible deformities. To evaluate the effects of an exercise programme aimed at improving the hand strength in individuals with hand deformities resulting from RA and to analyse the impact these exercises have on functionality. Twenty women with RA hand deformities participated in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 (n = 13) had women participating in the exercise programme aimed at improving handgrip (HS) and pinch strengths (PS) as well as the motor coordination of the hand; Group 2 (n = 7) had women with RA who received no treatment for their hands (control). The treatment programme for hands consisted of 20 sessions, twice a week and at-home exercises. Both groups were submitted to Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and evaluation of HS and PS by means of dynamometry. Re-evaluations were performed after 10 and 20 sessions in Group 1 and after 2 months in Group 2. After 20 sessions of physiotherapy, Group 1 had a significant gain in HS and PS (p < 0.05) in addition to the improvement of functionality as assessed by HAQ (p = 0.016). For Group 2, no difference was found between the variables analysed (p > 0.05). The strengthening exercises for individuals with RA hand deformity are beneficial to improve handgrip and pinch strengths as well as functionality. PMID:22565655

Cima, Stephanie Robinson; Barone, Adriana; Porto, Jaqueline Mello; de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho

2013-03-01

36

Advice for improving memory: exercising, strengthening, and cultivating natural memory, 1860-1910.  

PubMed

The idea that human memory can be improved appears to be as ancient as the concept of memory itself. For centuries, authors have promised that using artificial mnemonical systems can improve remembering. However, in the late nineteenth century many authors of memory improvement texts emphasized the importance of enhancing natural memory as opposed to developing artificial memory systems. In doing so, they portrayed natural memory as something analogous to other body functions and parts, such as muscles, and promoted a metaphorical view of memory that did not rely wholly on the more familiar root metaphors of storage and inscription. At the same time, they stressed that natural memory could be reconciled with moral purposes, especially through notions of exercise, training, and discipline. This article explores these ideas and how they chimed with Victorian concerns about free will, the education of the young, moral imperatives around self-improvement, and the increasing interest in science and especially a science of the mind. PMID:24272820

Collins, Alan F

2014-01-01

37

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios in college football players: A high velocity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios were assessed on 60 in tercollegiate football players at functional speeds of 90, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec on the Cybex II. The ratio rose as velocity of exercise increased and the quadriceps was stronger than the hamstrings at all speeds. The flexor\\/extensor ratio differed bilaterally at all speeds with ratio lower for the dominant knee.The study helped establish

Maureen G. Stafford; William A. Grana

1984-01-01

38

Effects of electromyographic biofeedback on quadriceps strength: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Quadriceps strength is a vital component to lower extremity function and is often the focus in resistance training interventions and injury rehabilitation. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) is frequently used to supplement strength gains; however, the true effect remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the treatment effect for EMGBF on quadriceps strength compared with that of placebo and traditional exercise interventions in both healthy and pathological populations. Web of Science and ProQuest databases were searched, and bibliographies of relevant articles were crossreferenced. Six articles measuring isometric quadriceps strength in response to EMGBF training were included and methodologically assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Standardized effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from preintervention and postintervention measures for EMGBF, placebo, and exercise-only interventions. Separate comparisons were made between studies assessing different intervention length (<4 and ?4 weeks) and patient populations (pathological and healthy). Articles included received an average PEDro score of 6.5 ± 0.84. Homogeneous EMGBF effect sizes were found in all 6 studies (d = 0.01-5.56), with 4 studies reporting CI that crossed 0. A heterogeneous collection of effect sizes was found for exercise alone (d = -0.12 to 1.18) and placebo (d = -0.2 to 1.38), with 4 and 1 studies having a CI that crossed 0, respectively. The greatest EMGBF effects were found in pathological populations (d = 0.01-5.56), with the strongest effect found in the subjects with knee osteoarthritis (d = 5.56, CI = 4.26-6.68). As a group, effects were the strongest for EMGBF compared with that of placebo and exercise-only interventions, yet definitive evidence that EMGBF is beneficial for increasing quadriceps strength could not be concluded because of the 4 studies demonstrating a wide CI. PMID:22289696

Lepley, Adam S; Gribble, Phillip A; Pietrosimone, Brian G

2012-03-01

39

Quadriceps Fatigue Alters Human Muscle Performance during a Novel Weight Bearing Task  

PubMed Central

Limited information is currently available regarding muscle synergistic patterns and triggered reflex responses during dynamic weight bearing activities in the presence of muscle fatigue. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on patterns of muscle activation and performance in response to sudden, unexpected perturbations during a weight-bearing task. Methods Motion of the knee was measured as subjects were asked to track a visual target as accurately as possible while performing a resisted single leg squat task. Random perturbations were delivered in 20% of the trials by unexpectedly releasing the resistance during the flexion phase of the exercise. Absolute and constant errors were calculated to evaluate target tracking performance. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity was recorded during both perturbed and unperturbed trials. Twelve healthy females were tested before and after completing a repetitive submaximal eccentric quadriceps fatigue protocol. A second group of 12 females served as controls. Unexpected perturbations elicited long latency responses characterized by facilitation of the quadriceps and inhibition of the hamstrings. Results Muscle fatigue increased the amplitude of the long latency response in vastus lateralis by 4.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p=.004). Changes in tracking error occurred in response to perturbations after fatigue in spite of significantly increased quadriceps muscle activity, especially during the extension phase of the exercise. Conclusion Quadriceps muscle fatigue alters the patterns of coordinated muscle activity and may render subjects less able to cope with unexpected perturbations during weight bearing tasks. PMID:20164810

Ballantyne, Bryon T.; Shields, Richard K.

2010-01-01

40

Quadriceps protects the anterior cruciate ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to show that the quadriceps is the primary muscular restraint to anterior tibial translation during closed kinetic chain activities such as running, jumping, walking, and standing. It is my hypothesis that the quadriceps vector is directed superiorly during open kinetic chain knee extension and inferiorly during closed kinetic chain knee extension. My methods involve

Marko Bodor

2001-01-01

41

Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. METHODS: This pilot study assessed the compliance

Raymond J Walls; Gavin McHugh; Donal J O'Gorman; Niall M Moyna; John M O'Byrne

2010-01-01

42

The effects of an isometric knee extension with hip adduction (KEWHA) exercise on selective VMO muscle strengthening.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of four weeks of training using a knee extension with hip adduction (KEWHA) exercise in asymptomatic participants. In addition, we compared different methods of electromyographic (EMG) onset-time detection. Eighteen participants who achieved earlier activation of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle compared to that of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) muscle performed the isometric KEWHA exercise in the sitting position for four weeks. A 15° hip adduction was added to the existing knee extension in the KEWHA exercise. EMG onset times were detected using a computer-analyzed system and evaluated using two methods in which the thresholds for activity onset were set at two and three standard deviations (SDs) of the mean baseline activity. No significant difference in the EMG onset-time for the VMO muscle was observed compared to that of the VL muscle between the pre- and post-tests (p>0.05) when data at 2SDs of the mean baseline activity were analyzed. However, a significant difference in the onset times for the VMO muscle and VL muscle was found between the pre- and post-tests (p<0.05) when data at 3SDs of the mean baseline activity were analyzed. In addition, less variation was observed in data analyzed at 3SDs compared to that of the data at 2SDs. The normalized VMO:VL muscle ratio was not significantly different between the pre- and post-tests. These findings show that the KEWHA exercise may decrease the difference between the onset times of VMO and VL muscles. In addition, we suggest that task-specific EMG onset-time detection methods are required to minimize variations in the data obtained during the recording of muscle activation. PMID:21925899

Choi, Boram; Kim, Minhee; Jeon, Hye-Seon

2011-12-01

43

Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.  

PubMed

College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples. PMID:22739821

Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

2012-06-01

44

Aggressive Quadriceps Loading Can Induce Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The force responsible for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries remains controversial. The patella tendon to tibial shaft angle causes an anterior tibial shear force with quadriceps activation.Hypothesis: An aggressive quadriceps contraction can injure the ACL.Methods: The authors characterized noncontact ACL injury and kinematics with aggressive quadriceps loading. Thirteen freshfrozen knees were potted in a jig held in 20

Gene Demorat; Paul Weinhold; Troy Blackburn; Steven Chudik; William Garrett

2004-01-01

45

A New Concept For Isokinetic Hamstring: Quadriceps Muscle Strength Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, the hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio is calculated by dividing the maximal knee flexor (hamstring) moment by the maximal knee extensor (quadriceps) moment measured at identical angular velocity and contraction mode. The agonist-antagonist strength relationship for knee extension and flexion may, however, be better described by the more functional ratios of eccentric hamstring to concentric quadriceps moments (extension), and concentric hamstring

Per Aagaard; Erik B. Simonsen; S. Peter Magnusson; Benny Larsson; Poul Dyhre-Poulsen

1998-01-01

46

Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD. PMID:24224506

Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

2013-12-01

47

Pelvic floor muscle training exercises  

MedlinePLUS

Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... have fecal incontinence Pelvic floor muscle training exercises ...

48

Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

Erdem, Devrim; ?ayli, Ömer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

2006-02-01

49

A Study on the Differences of Quadriceps Femoris Activities by Knee Alignment during Isometric Contraction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study attempted to identify how genu varum or valgum affects the electromyographic activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during knee isometric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two healthy young adults were enrolled in this study. They were enrolled and classified into three groups by knee alignment conditions: the genu varum, genu valgum, and control groups. [Methods] The electromyographic activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were calculated using the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. The participants contracted their quadriceps during isometric contraction at 30 and 60° of knee flexion. [Results] The genu varum group had more activity in the vastus medialis than in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, whereas the genu valgum group had more activity in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris than in the vastus medialis. There was a significant difference in the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis by angle of knee flexion degree only in the genu valgum. There were no significant differences in any of the three groups in terms of the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the rectus femoris by angle of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The quadriceps femoris was used for different strategies according to knee alignment during isometric contraction at 30 and 60°. This study suggests that rehabilitation training programs used to strengthen the quadriceps should consider the knee alignment conditions of the target subjects.

Park, Seol; Ko, Yu-Min; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Park, Ji-Won

2014-01-01

50

Quadriceps and Respiratory Muscle Fatigue Following High-Intensity Cycling in COPD Patients  

PubMed Central

Exercise intolerance in COPD seems to combine abnormal ventilatory mechanics, impaired O2 transport and skeletal muscle dysfunction. However their relatie contribution and their influence on symptoms reported by patients remain to be clarified. In order to clarify the complex interaction between ventilatory and neuromuscular exercise limiting factors and symptoms, we evaluated respiratory muscles and quadriceps contractile fatigue, dynamic hyperinflation and symptoms induced by exhaustive high-intensity cycling in COPD patients. Fifteen gold II-III COPD patients (age = 67±6 yr; BMI = 26.6±4.2 kg.m-2) performed constant-load cycling test at 80% of their peak workload until exhaustion (9.3±2.4 min). Before exercise and at exhaustion, potentiated twitch quadriceps strength (Qtw), transdiaphragmatic (Pdi,tw) and gastric (Pga,tw) pressures were evoked by femoral nerve, cervical and thoracic magnetic stimulation, respectively. Changes in operational lung volumes during exercise were assessed via repetitive inspiratory capacity (IC) measurements. Dyspnoea and leg discomfort were measured on visual analog scale. At exhaustion, Qtw (-33±15%, >15% reduction observed in all patients but two) and Pdi,tw (-20±15%, >15% reduction in 6 patients) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) but not Pga,tw (-6±10%, >15% reduction in 3 patients). Percentage reduction in Qtw correlated with the percentage reduction in Pdi,tw (r=0.66; P<0.05). Percentage reductions in Pdi,tw and Pga,tw negatively correlated with the reduction in IC at exhaustion (r=-0.56 and r=-0.62, respectively; P<0.05). Neither dyspnea nor leg discomfort correlated with the amount of muscle fatigue. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise induces quadriceps, diaphragm and less frequently abdominal contractile fatigue in this group of COPD patients. In addition, the rise in end-expiratory lung volume and diaphragm flattening associated with dynamic hyperinflation in COPD might limit the development of abdominal and diaphragm muscle fatigue. This study underlines that both respiratory and quadriceps fatigue should be considered to understand the complex interplay of factors leading to exercise intolerance in COPD patients. PMID:24324843

Bachasson, Damien; Wuyam, Bernard; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Tamisier, Renaud; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel

2013-01-01

51

Feasibility and efficacy of an 8-week progressive home-based strengthening exercise program in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and/or total hip joint replacement: a preliminary trial.  

PubMed

The feasibility and efficacy of an additional progressive home-based strengthening exercise program (PHSEP) on subjects that already attended supervised institutional exercise therapy was investigated. Thirty-six hip patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) and/or total hip replacement in at least one hip joint were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). IG (18 patients, mean age 64.9, standard deviation (SD) 7.5) followed an 8-week PHSEP in addition to their weekly institutional exercise therapy, while CG (18 patients, mean age 64.7, SD 9) solely continued the weekly institutional exercise sessions. Before and after the intervention period, strength of hip muscles was quantified applying isokinetic concentric and isometric measurements, and health-related quality of life was monitored using the SF36 questionnaire. Adherence to the exercise program was evaluated using exercise logs. The PHSEP was feasible for all subjects in IG with an adherence of 99%. Exercise logs reported that pain resulting from the PHSEP was low. Increased strength in isokinetic concentric hip adduction (13%) and isometric hip abduction (9%), adduction (12%), and flexion (7%) was found in IG in comparison to CG. The results of the SF36 did not change during the intervention period. Consequently, supervised institutional exercise therapy supplemented by a PHSEP could increase hip muscle strength in patients with hip OA and/or total hip replacement. However, further research should evaluate the optimal frequency and duration of such supplementary sessions and their potential to increase physical function and reduce pain. PMID:22086491

Steinhilber, Benjamin; Haupt, Georg; Miller, Regina; Boeer, Johannes; Grau, Stefan; Janssen, Pia; Krauss, Inga

2012-03-01

52

Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and

W D-C Man; N S Hopkinson; F Harraf; D Nikoletou; M I Polkey; J Moxham

2005-01-01

53

Isokinetic quadriceps training in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present investigation were (a) to evaluate the effect of eccentric quadriceps training in patients with unilateral patellofemoral pain and (b) to compare the effect of eccentric and concentric quadriceps training in patients with bilateral patellofemoral pain. Fifteen patients (9 male and 6 female, aged 17–36 years with a mean of 27.5 years) participated in this study.

S. Werner; E. Eriksson

1993-01-01

54

Bilateral rectus femoris intramuscular haematoma following simultaneous quadriceps strain in an athlete: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bilateral rectus femoris haematoma following a simultaneous strain of the quadriceps muscles is a very rare condition. Case presentation We report the case of a 21-year-old Greek Caucasian female rowing athlete who was injured on both thighs. She complained of pain and inability to walk. Physical examination revealed tenderness over the thighs and restriction of knee movement. The result of a roentgenogram was normal, and there was no evidence of fracture or patella displacement. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed haematoma formation in both the rectus femoris muscles. The diameters of the left and right haematomas within the muscles were 6 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Therapeutic approaches included compression bandages, ice application, rest, elevation, and administration of muscle relaxant drugs. Active stretching and isometric exercises were performed after three days. The patient was able to walk using crutches two days after the initiation of treatment. On the seventh day, she had regained her full ability to walk without crutches. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered on the fifth day and continued for one week. Six weeks later, she had pain-free function and the result of magnetic resonance imaging was normal. She was able to resume her training programme and two weeks later, she returned to her previous sport activities and competitions. Conclusion There are references in the literature regarding the occurrence of unilateral quadriceps haematomas following strain and bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in athletes. Simultaneous bilateral rectus femoris haematomas after a muscle strain is a rare condition. It must be diagnosed early. The three phases of treatment are rest, knee mobilization, and restoration of quadriceps function. PMID:20167096

2010-01-01

55

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on exercise parameters in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: what works?  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is research evidence which supports the effectiveness of exercise in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, what is unclear are the parameters underpinning this intervention. This has led to uncertainty when operationalizing exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to evaluate the parameters of exercise programs reported in primary research, to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription for patellofemoral pain. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. Only trials that identified exercise to be effective in treating patellofemoral pain were included. Appropriate databases and reference lists were searched using established keywords. Data relating to common exercise parameters such as the type of exercise, length, and frequency of intervention, intensity, repetitions, sets, and specific technique were extracted, along with details of co-interventions that may have been used. Results A total of ten randomized controlled trials were included in this review and from these trials 14 interventions arms were evaluated. All 14 interventions focused on active exercises, all but two of which also included a passive stretching component. The current body of evidence demonstrates positive results with exercise interventions such as knee extension, squats, stationary cycling, static quadriceps, active straight leg raise, leg press, and step-up and down exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A progressive regime of daily exercises of two to four sets of ten or more repetitions over an intervention period of 6 weeks or more, combined with exercises to address flexibility of the lower limb musculature was commonly used. Conclusion Currently, the primary research on this topic supports the use of closed kinetic chain, strengthening exercises for musculature of the lower limb, combined with flexibility options. The current evidence base supports a prescription of daily exercises of two–four sets of ten or more repetitions over a period of 6 weeks or more. PMID:22135495

Harvie, Daniel; O'Leary, Timothy; Kumar, Saravana

2011-01-01

56

Aerobic exercise (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

57

Strengthening mindfetalness.  

PubMed

Pregnant women have varying degrees of awareness of their unborn baby's fitness. A challenge for midwives is to strengthen awareness and use the information from the unborn baby's mother to increase the possibility for a healthy baby to be born. A special kind of mindfulness, here referred to as mindfetalness are suggested to be a concept to use in antenatal care. PMID:22578751

Rådestad, Ingela

2012-06-01

58

Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

2005-01-01

59

Diagnosis and management of quadriceps strains and contusions  

PubMed Central

Injuries to the quadriceps muscle group occur frequently in sports and athletic activities. Muscle strains and contusions constitute the majority of these injuries. The clinical presentation and assessment of quadriceps strains and contusions are reviewed along with discussion of appropriate imaging used in diagnosis. Treatment protocols for acute injuries are reviewed including rehabilitation techniques frequently utilized during recovery. Special consideration is given to discussing the criteria for return to sports for athletes after injury. Myositis ossificans is a potentially disabling complication from quadriceps contusions and risk factors, prevention, and treatment are reviewed. PMID:21063497

2010-01-01

60

Post-exercise alcohol ingestion exacerbates eccentric-exercise induced losses in performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute alcohol intake on muscular performance in both the exercising and non-exercising legs in the days following\\u000a strenuous eccentric exercise was investigated to ascertain whether an interaction between post-exercise alcohol use and muscle\\u000a damage causes an increase in damage-related weakness. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the\\u000a quadriceps muscles of one leg on an

Matthew J. Barnes; Toby Mündel; Stephen R. Stannard

2010-01-01

61

Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. ?1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. ?8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. ?12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. ?6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

2013-01-01

62

Lipoprotein lipase activity in the skeletal muscle during physical exercise in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in lipoportein lipase activity\\/LPLA\\/ in the quadriceps femoris muscle were followed in ten dogs during 3-hour treadmill exercise and 2-hour post-exercise recovery period. During the first hour of exercise muscle LPLA steeply increased. Subsequently the enzyme activity tended to plateau. After exercise LPLA decreased to the pre-exercise value within 1 hour. It is concluded that exercise increases the ability

Stanislaw Kozlowski; Leszek Budohoski; Ewa Pohoska; Krystyna Nazar

1979-01-01

63

Effectiveness of injury prevention programs on developing quadriceps and hamstrings strength of young male professional soccer players.  

PubMed

Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

2013-12-18

64

Quadriceps strength and volitional activation before and after total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee have quadriceps weakness and arthrogenous muscle inhibition (AMI). While total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reliably reduces pain and improves function in patients with knee OA, quadriceps weakness persists after surgery. The purpose of this investigation was to assess contributions of AMI to quadriceps weakness before and after TKA and to assess the effect

Jennifer E. Stevens; Ryan L. Mizner; Lynn Snyder-Mackler

2003-01-01

65

Strain within the anterior cruciate ligament during hamstring and quadriceps activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to measure strain in the ACL during simulated: (1) hamstring activity alone, (2) quadriceps activity alone, and (3) simultaneous quadriceps and hamstring activity. Seven knee speci mens removed from cadavers were studied. Heavy sutures applied to load cells were attached to the hamstring and quadriceps tendons. Loads were then applied manually (hamstrings) and\\/or with

P. Renström; S. W. Arms; T. S. Stanwyck; R. J. Johnson; M. H. Pope

1986-01-01

66

Discrete Optimization 2012. Exercises 9-11 Exercise 9.  

E-print Network

on the combinatorial polytope. (Motivation: This is an easy way to strengthen the cover inequalities.) Exercise 10Discrete Optimization 2012. Exercises 9-11 Exercise 9. (Optional, more special.) In the 0 this dual problem provide some useful information for the primal problem? Exercise 11. Derive the Lagrangian

Damaschke, Peter

67

Non-invasive quantitative assessment of oxidative metabolism in quadriceps muscles by near infrared spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background—Near infrared spectroscopy can be used in non-invasive monitoring of changes in skeletal muscle oxygenation in exercising subjects. Objective—To evaluate whether this method can be used to assess metabolic capacity of muscles. Two distinctive variables abstracted from a curve of changes in muscle oxygenation were assessed. Methods—Exercise on a cycle ergometer was performed by 18 elite male athletes and eight healthy young men. A measuring probe was placed on the skin of the quadriceps muscle to measure reflected light at two wavelengths (760 and 850 nm), so that the relative index of muscle oxygenation could be calculated. Exercise intensity was increased from 50 W in 50 W increments until the subject was exhausted. During exercise, changes in muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration were recorded. The following two variables for assessment of muscle oxygenation were then abstracted and analysed by plotting curves of changes in muscle oxygenation: the rate of recovery of muscle oxygen saturation (RR) and the relative value of the effective decrease in muscle oxygenation (Deff). Results—Data analysis showed a correlation between muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration at the various exercise intensities and verified the feasibility of the experiment. Data for the athletes were compared with those for the controls using the Aspin-Welch test of significance; t = 2.3 and 2.86 for RR and Deff respectively. There were significant differences (p = 0.05) between the athletes and the control group with respect to these two variables. Conclusion—RR and Deff may be distinctive variables that can be used to characterise muscle oxidative metabolism during human body movement. Key Words: recovery; muscle; oxygen saturation; exercise; elite athletes PMID:11726485

Ding, H; Wang, G; Lei, W; Wang, R; Huang, L; Xia, Q; Wu, J

2001-01-01

68

Quadriceps EMG muscle activation during accurate soccer instep kicking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six competitive soccer players were recruited to examine EMG activation in three quadriceps muscles during a kicking accuracy task. Participants performed three maximum instep place kicks of a stationary ball, 11 m perpendicular from the centre of the goal line towards targets (0.75 m) in the four corners of the goal. Surface EMG of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus

Joanna C. Scurr; Victoria Abbott; Nick Ball

2011-01-01

69

Severe and early quadriceps weakness in mechanically ventilated patients  

E-print Network

Provencher1 , Mathieu Simon1 , Richard Baillot1 , François Maltais1 and François Lellouche1 ICU-acquired is the primary manifestation of critical illness polyneur- opathy or myopathy or both. Although quadriceps (46%) Neuromuscular blocker 5 (38%) Risk factors, mean 3 ± 1 Duration of hospitalization before

Boyer, Edmond

70

Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

2010-01-01

71

Quadriceps Activation Failure After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Is Not Mediated by Knee Joint Effusion  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Descriptive prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between knee joint effusion, quadriceps activation, and quadriceps strength. These relationships may help clinicians better identify impaired quadriceps activation. BACKGROUND After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, the involved quadriceps may demonstrate weakness. Experimental data have shown that quadriceps activation and strength may be directly mediated by intracapsular joint pressure created by saline injection. An inverse relationship between quadriceps activation and the amount of saline injected has been reported. This association has not been demonstrated for traumatic effusion. We hypothesized that traumatic joint effusion due to ACL rupture and postinjury quadriceps strength would correlate well with quadriceps activation, allowing clinicians to use effusion and strength measurement as a surrogate for electrophysiological assessment of quadriceps activation. METHODS Prospective data were collected on 188 patients within 100 days of ACL injury (average, 27 days) referred from a single surgeon. A complete clinical evaluation of the knee was performed, including ligamentous assessment and assessment of range of motion and effusion. Quadriceps function was electrophysiologically assessed using maximal volitional isometric contraction and burst superimposition techniques to quantify both strength and activation. RESULTS Effusion grade did not correlate with quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) (zero effusion: mean ± SD CAR, 93.5% ± 5.8%; trace effusion: CAR, 93.8% ± 9.5%; 1+ effusion: CAR, 94.0% ± 7.5%; 2+/3+ effusion: CAR, 90.6% ± 11.1%). These values are lower than normative data from healthy subjects (CAR, 98% ± 3%). CONCLUSION Joint effusion after ACL injury does not directly mediate quadriceps activation failure seen after injury. Therefore, it should not be used as a clinical substitute for electrophysiological assessment of quadriceps activation. Patients presenting to physical therapy after ACL injury should be treated with high-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation to help normalize this activation. PMID:22523081

LYNCH, ANDREW D.; LOGERSTEDT, DAVID S.; AXE, MICHAEL J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

2013-01-01

72

Effects of Open and Closed Kinetic Chains of Sling Exercise Therapy on the Muscle Activity of the Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle is critical in patellofemoral pain syndrome. The quadriceps muscle supplies the power for dynamic patellar movement, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) enable the patella to stabilize during tracking. We followed the theories about open and closed kinetic chain exercises to design two exercises, sling open chain knee extension (SOCKE) exercise and sling closed chain knee extension (SCCKE) exercise. The purpose of our study was to research the changes in quadriceps muscle activity during both exercises. [Methods] Electromyographic analysis was used to explore the different effects of the two exercises. The MVC% was calculated for the VMO and VL during exercise for analysis. [Results] We found that the mean MVC% values of the VMO and VL during the SOCKE exercise were higher than those during the SCCKE exercise. The ratio of the VMO to VL was 1.0 ± 0.19 during the SOCKE exercise and 1.11 ± 0.15 during the SCCKE exercise. [Conclusions] The SOCKE exercise is targeted at quadriceps muscle training and has a recruitment effect on the VMO. The beneficial effect of the SOCKE exercise is better than that of the SCCKE exercise. PMID:25276016

Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

2014-01-01

73

Fatigue and rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in professional soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue induced by an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise on different hamstrings/quadriceps (H:Q) ratios of soccer players. Twenty-two male professional soccer players (23·1 ± 3·4 year) performed maximal eccentric (ecc) and concentric (con) contractions for knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60° s(-1) and 180° s(-1) to assess conventional (H(con) :Q(con)) and functional (H(ecc) :Q(con)) ratios. Additionally, they performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction for KE and KF, from which the maximal muscle strength, rate of force development (RFD) and RFD H:Q strength ratio (RFDH:Q) were extracted. Thereafter, subjects were performed an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise and a posttest similar to the pretest. There was significant reduction in H(con) :Q(con) (0·60 ± 0·06 versus 0·58 ± 0·06, P<0·05) and in H(ecc) :Q(con) (1·29 ± 0·2 versus 1·16 ± 0·2, P<0·01) after the soccer-specific exercise. However, no significant difference between Pre and Post exercise conditions was found for RFDH:Q at 0-50 (0·53 ± 0·23 versus 0·57 ± 0·24, P>0·05) and 0-100 ms (0·53 ± 0·17 versus 0·55 ± 0·17, P>0·05). In conclusion, H:Q strength ratios based on peak force values are more affected by fatigue than RFDH:Q obtained during early contraction phase. Thus, fatigue induced by soccer-specific intermittent protocol seems not reduce the potential for knee joint stabilization during the initial phase of voluntary muscle contraction. PMID:23216761

Greco, Camila C; da Silva, Wendell L; Camarda, Sérgio R A; Denadai, Benedito S

2013-01-01

74

The Effects of Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises and Open Kinetic Chain Exercises Using Elastic Bands on Electromyographic Activity in Degenerative Gonarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of closed kinetic chain exercises (CKCEs) and open kinetic chain exercises (OKCEs) with elastic bands on the electromyographic activity of patients with degenerative gonarthritis. [Subjects] The study subjects were 30 degenerative gonarthritis patients who were divided into a CKCE group (CKCEG, n=10), an OKCE group (OKCEG, n=10), and a control group (CG, n=10). [Methods] The CKCEG and the OKCEG performed exercises with elastic bands, and the CG took part in a quadriceps strengthening exercise. All three groups performed the exercises three times per week for four weeks. The electromyographic activities of the subjects’ vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were measured and compared. [Results] Within-group comparisons revealed that the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles increased significantly in the CKCEG. The OKCEG displayed significant increases in the electromyographic activity of the VM, RF, ST, and BF muscles, and the CG showed significant increases in the electromyographic activities of the RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles. In between-group comparisons after the intervention, the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, and VL muscles of the CKCEG were significantly higher than those of the CG. The electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, and ST muscles of the OKCEG were significantly higher than those of the CG. [Conclusion] We consider CKCEs with elastic bands are an effective intervention for increasing the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles of degenerative gonarthritis patients, and OKCEs with elastic bands are an effective intervention for increasing the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, ST, and BF muscles of degenerative gonarthritis patients.

Cho, Igsoo; Hwangbo, Gak; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

2014-01-01

75

Strengthening Our Military Families  

MedlinePLUS

... Commitment STRENGTHENING OUR MILITARY FAMILIES 1 ? ? Strengthening Our Military Families: Meeting America’s Commitment “This government-wide review ... Behav Pediatr. 2009;30:271-278 Strengthening Our MilitAry FAMilieS 2 ? ? • civilian family members can live fulfilling ...

76

Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

2001-01-01

77

Primary Tuberculous Pyomyositis of Quadriceps Femoris in an Immunocompetent Individual  

PubMed Central

Primary tuberculous pyomyositis is a rare manifestation of musculoskeletal tuberculosis especially in immunocompetent individuals without a focus of tuberculosis in the body and the underlying bone disease. It can cause a diagnostic dilemma for a physician and surgeon because of its similar presentation to soft tissue sarcomas, hematomas, and myopathies. We present a case of a 45-year-old immunocompetant gentleman with a thigh swelling with sepsis due to pyomyositis of the quadriceps requiring a multimodal management of drainage of abscess, debridement of devitalized muscle, antitubercular drugs, and physiotherapy. In a tubercular endemic country, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose this disease which can be cured completely. PMID:24367732

Modi, M. A.; Mate, A. D.; Nasta, A. M.; Gvalani, A. K.

2013-01-01

78

Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft  

PubMed Central

Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella.

Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

2014-01-01

79

VALIDITY OF THE PENDULUM TEST TO MEASURE QUADRICEPS SPASTICITY IN CHILDREN DIAGNOSED WITH CEREBRAL PALSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stiff-knee gait pattern of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) is assumed to be caused by spasticity of the quadriceps which interferes with knee flexion normally occurring during the swing phase of walking. In current clinical practice, the ability to assess quadriceps spasticity is limited by the lack of an objective and reliable test that discriminates the role spasticity

Henry Dulin White II

2007-01-01

80

Anterior-posterior and rotational displacement of the tibia elicited by quadriceps contraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior-posterior displacement and rotation of the tibia elicited by isolated loading of the quadriceps mus cle was determined as a function of joint angle and muscle load using a computerized radiographic tech nique. Data collected from 12 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees demonstrated that quadriceps contraction can result in significant (<7 mm) anterior displacement of the tibia in the range of

Shunji Hirokawa; Moshe Solomonow; Yun Lu; Zong-Ping Lou; Robert DAmbrosia

1992-01-01

81

Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.  

PubMed

Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

2014-12-01

82

Quadriceps EMG muscle activation during accurate soccer instep kicking.  

PubMed

Six competitive soccer players were recruited to examine EMG activation in three quadriceps muscles during a kicking accuracy task. Participants performed three maximum instep place kicks of a stationary ball, 11 m perpendicular from the centre of the goal line towards targets (0.75 m(2)) in the four corners of the goal. Surface EMG of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris of the kicking leg was normalized and averaged across all participants to compare between muscles, targets, and the phase of the kick. Although no significant difference were observed between muscles or kick phases, kicks to the right targets produced significantly greater muscle activity than those towards the left targets (P < 0.01). In addition, kicks towards the top right target demonstrated significantly greater muscle activity than towards the top and bottom left (P < 0.01). Under accurate soccer shooting conditions, kicks aimed to the top right corner of the goal demonstrated a higher level of quadriceps muscle activation than those towards the other corners. PMID:21170796

Scurr, Joanna C; Abbott, Victoria; Ball, Nick

2011-02-01

83

FRP : Strengthened RC Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures using advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, and in particular the behaviour of FRP-strengthened RC structures is a topic which has become very popular in recent years. This popularity has arisen due to the need to maintain and upgrade essential infrastructure in all parts of the world, combined with the well-known advantages of FRP composites, such as good corrosion resistance and ease for site handling due to their light weight. The continuous reduction in the material cost of FRP composites has also contributed to their popularity. While a great amount of research now exists in the published literature on this topic, it is scattered in various journals and conference proceedings. This book therefore provides the first ever comprehensive, state-of-the-art summary of the existing research on FRP strengthening of RC structures, with the emphasis being on structural behaviour and strength models. The main topics covered include: Bond behaviour Flexural and shear strengthening of beams Column strengthening Flexural strengthening of slabs. For each area, the methods of strengthening are discussed, followed by a description of behaviour and failure modes and then the presentation of rational design recommendations, for direct use in practical design of FRP strengthening measures. Researchers, practicing engineers, code writers and postgraduate students in structural engineering and construction materials, as well as consulting firms, government departments, professional bodies, contracting firms and FRP material suppliers will find this an invaluable resource.

Teng, J. G.; Chen, J. F.; Smith, S. T.; Lam, L.

2002-01-01

84

Preferential quadriceps activation in female athletes with incremental increases in landing intensity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. PMID:21844610

Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Schmitt, Laura C; Uhl, Timothy L; Hewett, Timothy E

2011-08-01

85

Developments in the Use of the Hamstring/Quadriceps Ratio for the Assessment of Muscle Balance  

PubMed Central

Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q) muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension) and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion). PMID:24701125

Coombs, Rosalind; Garbutt, Gerard

2002-01-01

86

Unilateral Lower Limb Injury: Its Long-Term Effects on Quadriceps, Hamstring, and Plantarflexor Muscle Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holder-Powell HM, Rutherford OM. Unilat- eral lower limb injury: its long-term effects on quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:717-720. Objective: To ascertain if long-term deficits in quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength remain after unilateral lower-limb musculoskeletal injury and to quantify whether improvements in performance continue once a subject concludes rehabilitation and returns to everyday

Heather M. Holder-Powell; Olga M. Rutherford

87

Effects of joint angle, electrodes and waveform on electrical stimulation of the quadriceps and hamstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isometric twitch moments of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded in 20 normal subjects at 40 cells of a superimposed\\u000a grid. Results were compared at 15, 45, and 75 of knee flexion. Bipolar stimulation at 6 pairs of cells was performed to determine\\u000a the effect of electrode size, waveform, and polarity on moments. The quadriceps had one region of excitability

Donald R. McNeal; Lucinda L. Baker

1988-01-01

88

Measurement of fibre pennation using ultrasound in the human quadriceps in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Real-time ultrasound scanning was used to measure the angles of fibre pennation of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) of the human quadriceps (n = 12) in vivo. The maximum isometric force and cross-sectional area of the quadriceps were also measured. With the knee at right-angles the mean fibre angles for VL and VI respectively were 0.133 (0.021) rad

O. M. Rutherford; D. A. Jones

1992-01-01

89

Comparing two estimations of the quadriceps force distribution for use during patellofemoral simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMG analysis has indicated that the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis contribute less to the quadriceps moment during knee extension than the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA's) of the muscles indicate. Both PCSA- and EMG-based quadriceps force distributions were utilized while computationally simulating knee extension. For both distributions, a 10° increase in the Q-angle and a 50% decrease in the force

John J. Elias; Derek R. Bratton; David M. Weinstein; Andrew J. Cosgarea

2006-01-01

90

Quadriceps forces and patellar motion in the anatomical model of the patellofemoral joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of quadriceps muscle loading on three-dimensional patellar movements were studied in vitro with three patterns of muscle loading according to anatomical, mathematical and Q-angle models. Loading of the quadriceps based on the mathematical model resulted in more lateral patellar deviation, 0.5 ± 0.6 cm in 0°, and 0.6 ± 0.9 cm in 15° of knee flexion, than those

Naotaka Sakai; Zong-Ping Luo; James A. Rand; Kai-Nan An

1996-01-01

91

Different kinds of exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercise is a vital component of staying fit and healthy. There are two main types of workouts. Cardio workouts work to maintain and strengthen the cardiovascular system and burn calories. Weight training workouts work to build muscle and tone the body so that it can move more easily and increase flexibility. Both kinds of workouts should be incorporated to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

92

Contributors to Fatigue Resistance of the Hamstrings and Quadriceps in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between quadriceps and hamstrings voluntary muscle fatigue and upper motor lesion impairments in cerebral palsy in order to gain a better understanding of their contribution to the observed fatigue resistance. Methods Seventeen ambulatory subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 17.0, SD = 4.8 years) were recruited. Quantitative measures of strength, spasticity, cocontraction, and stiffness for both muscle groups were collected on an isokinetic dynamometer and entered in a factor analysis. The resulting factors were used as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis with quadriceps and hamstrings fatigue as dependent variables. Findings Five independent factors explained 90% of the variance. In order of loadings, higher hamstring cocontraction and spasticity and lower hamstring strength were associated with lower levels of hamstring fatigue. Higher quadriceps cocontraction and lower quadriceps strength were the most predictive of lower levels of quadriceps fatigue. Interpretation Greater motor impairments of the agonist muscle, particularly cocontraction, spasticity, and weakness, were associated with lower rates of muscle fatigue of the same muscle during performance of a voluntary fatigue protocol for the hamstrings and quadriceps. Muscles are highly adaptable; therefore, the results of this study suggest that the observed fatigue resistance may be due to the effect of the primary neural insult on motor unit recruitment and rate modulation or the result of secondary adaptations to spasticity, weakness, or excessive cocontraction. PMID:19264384

Moreau, Noelle G; Li, Li; Geaghan, James P; Damiano, Diane L

2009-01-01

93

Corticospinal and intracortical excitability of the quadriceps in patients with knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Deficits in voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle are characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (OA), contributing to the quadriceps weakness that is also a hallmark of the disease. The mechanisms underlying this central activation deficit (CAD) are unknown, although cortical mechanisms may be involved. Here, we utilize transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal and intracortical excitability in patients with knee OA and in a comparably aged group of healthy older adults, to quantify group differences, and to examine associations between TMS measures and pain, quadriceps strength, and CAD. Seventeen patients with knee OA and 20 healthy controls completed testing. Motor evoked potentials were measured at the quadriceps by superficial electromyographic recordings. Corticospinal excitability was assessed by measuring resting motor threshold (RMT) to TMS stimulation of the quadriceps representation at primary motor cortex, and intracortical excitability was assessed via paired-pulse paradigms for short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). No statistically significant differences between patients with knee OA and healthy controls were found for RMT, SICI or ICF measures (p > 0.05). For patients with knee OA, there were significant associations observed between pain and RMT, as well as between pain and ICF. No associations were observed between CAD and measures of corticospinal or intracortical excitability. These data suggest against direct involvement of corticospinal or intracortical pathways within primary motor cortex in the mechanisms of CAD. However, pain is implicated in the neural mechanisms of quadriceps motor control in patients with knee OA. PMID:25183161

Kittelson, Andrew J; Thomas, Abbey C; Kluger, Benzi M; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

2014-12-01

94

Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established. The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically. We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric. The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode. The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite™ treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO™ force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. Discussion A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov number: NCT01586130. PMID:24693988

2014-01-01

95

This class fuses together the basics of ballet dance to strengthen your body, create lean muscle, improve posture,  

E-print Network

, improve posture, and increase flexibility. It includes basic ballet techniques, strengthening exercisesThis class fuses together the basics of ballet dance to strengthen your body, create lean muscle no equipment- just your own bodyweight. It includes a wide variety of exercise techniques

Van Stryland, Eric

96

Biomechanics of human quadriceps muscles during electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

The quadriceps muscles of neurologically intact and spinal cord injured (SCI) human subjects were stimulated with constant current pulses. Up to three, separately adjustable stimulating electrodes over the motor points for vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were used to maximize torque generation while minimizing discomfort. The torque generated by stimulation increased as the knee was slowly flexed to about 1 rad (50-60 degrees) and decreased beyond that point (a 'negative slope' on a torque-angle curve). Despite this region of negative slope the force generated by small oscillations remained positively correlated to the angle changes. When the knee was slowly extended again from a flexed position, the torque continued to decline and therefore showed a large degree of 'hysteresis'. Of the three heads studied, only stimulation of RF muscle generally produced this behavior. VL and VM had torques that increased monotonically with knee flexion over the range studied. The torques generated with electrical stimulation of normal subjects represented up to about 30% of maximum voluntary contraction. When subjects generated similar torques voluntarily, the negative slope region and substantial hysteresis were not observed. Thus, SCI subjects may be adversely affected by hysteresis during electrically-induced transitions from sitting to standing and vice versa, while normal subjects are not. PMID:10213025

Stein, R B; Momose, K; Bobet, J

1999-04-01

97

Strengthening America's Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

2000-01-01

98

Strengthening Resilience in Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,…

Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah

2014-01-01

99

Enhancing Relationships Strengthening Commitment  

E-print Network

Enhancing Relationships Strengthening Commitment Love is wonderful, but no one ever said love to experience many times in their relationship. We may not love our partner all of the time ­ and the other Caring enough to fight. Partners who are passionate about their differences stand a better chance

Leistikow, Bruce N.

100

Light Rail Transit Strengthening  

E-print Network

Light Rail Transit Improving mobility Easing congestion Strengthening our communities Central Corridor Communicating to the Public During Major Construction May 25, 2011 #12;2 Light Rail Transit;Light Rail Transit Central Corridor Route and Stations 3 · 18 new stations · 9.8 miles of new double

Minnesota, University of

101

Whole body oxygen uptake and evoked knee torque in response to low frequency electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles: V•O2 frequency response to NMES  

PubMed Central

Background There is emerging evidence that isometric Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) may offer a way to elicit therapeutically significant increases in whole-body oxygen uptake in order to deliver aerobic exercise to patients unable to exercise volitionally, with consequent gains in cardiovascular health. The optimal stimulation frequency to elicit a significant and sustained pulmonary oxygen uptake has not been determined. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency response of the oxygen uptake and evoked torque due to NMES of the quadriceps muscles across a range of low frequencies spanning the twitch to tetanus transition. Methods Ten healthy male subjects underwent bilateral NMES of the quadriceps muscles comprising eight 4 minute bouts of intermittent stimulation at selected frequencies in the range 1 to 12 Hz, interspersed with 4 minutes rest periods. Respiratory gases and knee extensor torque were simultaneously monitored throughout. Multiple linear regression was used to fit the resulting data to an energetic model which expressed the energy rate in terms of the pulse frequency, the torque time integral and a factor representing the accumulated force developed per unit time. Results Additional oxygen uptake increased over the frequency range to a maximum of 564 (SD 114) ml min-1 at 12 Hz, and the respiratory exchange ratio was close to unity from 4 to 12 Hz. While the highest induced torque occurred at 12 Hz, the peak of the force development factor occurred at 6 Hz. The regression model accounted for 88% of the variability in the observed energetic response. Conclusions Taking into account the requirement to avoid prolonged tetanic contractions and to minimize evoked torque, the results suggest that the ideal frequency for sustainable aerobic exercise is 4 to 5 Hz, which coincided in this study with the frequency above which significant twitch force summation occurred. PMID:23809189

2013-01-01

102

Quadriceps activation normative values and the affect of subcutaneous tissue thickness.  

PubMed

Calculation of the central activation ratio (CAR) using the superimposed burst technique (SIB) is widely used. 0.95 is considered a normal value of the CAR in healthy subjects, but it has not been objectively examined. Since an electrical stimulation penetrates the subcutaneous tissue, the intensity of electrical stimulation may vary depending on the subcutaneous tissue thickness. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps with the knee at 90°. Once the MVIC reached a plateau, an electrical stimulation was manually delivered to the quadriceps. Quadriceps CAR was quantified using the equation: CAR=MVIC/MVIC+SIB torque. Quadriceps subcutaneous thickness was measured using ultrasound imaging and skinfolder pinch calipers. CAR values were estimated at 0.95 ± 0.04 for dominant and 0.93 ± 0.05 for non-dominant limbs. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed that there were negative correlations for quadriceps torque output (Nm/kg) and subcutaneous tissue thickness measured by ultrasound imaging (dominant: r=-0.54, p<0.001; non-dominant: r=-0.53, p<0.001). We found no relationship between CAR and subcutaneous tissue thickness. A CAR of 0.95 may be considered full activation in healthy young adults, and CAR in healthy adults generated by the SIB technique may not be dependent on subcutaneous thickness. PMID:20947373

Park, Jihong; Hopkins, J Ty

2011-02-01

103

In vivo specific tension of the human quadriceps femoris muscle.  

PubMed

It is not known to what extent the inter-individual variation in human muscle strength is explicable by differences in specific tension. To investigate this, a comprehensive approach was used to determine in vivo specific tension of the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle (Method 1). Since this is a protracted technique, a simpler procedure was also developed to accurately estimate QF specific tension (Method 2). Method 1 comprised calculating patellar tendon force (F (t)) in 27 young, untrained males, by correcting maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for antagonist co-activation, voluntary activation and moment arm length. For each component muscle, the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated as volume divided by fascicle length during MVC. Dividing F (t) by the sum of the four PCSAs (each multiplied by the cosine of its pennation angle during MVC) provided QF specific tension. Method 2 was a simplification of Method 1, where QF specific tension was estimated from a single anatomical CSA and vastus lateralis muscle geometry. Using Method 1, the variability in MVC (18%) and specific tension (16%) was similar. Specific tension from Method 1 (30 +/- 5 N cm(-2)) was similar to and correlated with that of Method 2 (29 +/- 5 N cm(-2); R (2) = 0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, most of the inter-individual variability in MVC torque remains largely unexplained. Furthermore, a simple method of estimating QF specific tension provided similar values to the comprehensive approach, thereby enabling accurate estimations of QF specific tension where time and resources are limited. PMID:19468746

Erskine, Robert M; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Degens, Hans

2009-08-01

104

Medial quadriceps tendon-femoral ligament: surgical anatomy and reconstruction technique to prevent patella instability.  

PubMed

Detailed anatomic dissections of the deep medial knee retinaculum have shown a consistent prominent anatomic structure extending from the distal deep quadriceps tendon to the adductor tubercle region, forming a distinct medial quadriceps tendon-femoral ligament (MQTFL). Reconstruction of this anatomic structure has yielded consistent medial stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without drilling into the patella over more than 3 years in patients with recurrent patella instability and dislocation. Results are similar to those of MPFL reconstruction but with reduced risk of patella fracture, a known and serious complication of MPFL reconstruction. The reconstruction graft is secured at the anatomic femoral origin of the MQTFL and brought under the vastus medialis such that it may be woven and attached to the deep distal medial quadriceps tendon to provide a secure, reliable reproduction of the MQTFL and excellent stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without risk of patella fracture. PMID:23875137

Fulkerson, John P; Edgar, Cory

2013-05-01

105

Medial Quadriceps Tendon-Femoral Ligament: Surgical Anatomy and Reconstruction Technique to Prevent Patella Instability  

PubMed Central

Detailed anatomic dissections of the deep medial knee retinaculum have shown a consistent prominent anatomic structure extending from the distal deep quadriceps tendon to the adductor tubercle region, forming a distinct medial quadriceps tendon–femoral ligament (MQTFL). Reconstruction of this anatomic structure has yielded consistent medial stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without drilling into the patella over more than 3 years in patients with recurrent patella instability and dislocation. Results are similar to those of MPFL reconstruction but with reduced risk of patella fracture, a known and serious complication of MPFL reconstruction. The reconstruction graft is secured at the anatomic femoral origin of the MQTFL and brought under the vastus medialis such that it may be woven and attached to the deep distal medial quadriceps tendon to provide a secure, reliable reproduction of the MQTFL and excellent stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without risk of patella fracture. PMID:23875137

Fulkerson, John P.; Edgar, Cory

2013-01-01

106

Sagittal-Plane Trunk Position, Landing Forces, and Quadriceps Electromyographic Activity  

PubMed Central

Context: Researchers have suggested that large landing forces, excessive quadriceps activity, and an erect posture during landing are risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The influence of knee kinematics on these risk factors has been investigated extensively, but trunk positioning has received little attention. Objective: To determine the effect of trunk flexion on landing forces and quadriceps activation during landing. Design: Two (sex) × 2 (task) repeated-measures design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty healthy, physically active volunteers (20 men, 20 women). Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 drop-landing tasks. The first task represented the natural, or preferred, landing strategy. The second task was identical to the first except that participants flexed the trunk during landing. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces and mean quadriceps electromyographic amplitude during the loading phase of landing (ie, the interval from initial ground contact to peak knee flexion). Results: Trunk flexion decreased the vertical ground reaction force (P < .001) and quadriceps electromyographic amplitude (P < .001). The effect of trunk flexion did not differ across sex for landing forces or quadriceps electromyographic activity. Conclusions: We found that trunk flexion during landing reduced landing forces and quadriceps activity, thus potentially reducing the force imparted to the ACL. Research has indicated that trunk flexion during landing also increases knee and hip flexion, resulting in a less erect landing posture. In combination, these findings support emphasis on trunk flexion during landing as part of ACL injury-prevention programs. PMID:19295962

Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A

2009-01-01

107

Impact of joint status on contraction steadiness of m. quadriceps femoris in people with severe haemophilia.  

PubMed

Impaired contraction steadiness of lower limb muscles affects functional performance and may increase injury risk. We hypothesize that haemophilic arthropathy of the knee and the strength status of quadriceps are relevant factors which compromise a steady contraction. This study addresses the questions if impaired steadiness of the quadriceps is verifiable in people with haemophilia (PWH) and whether a connection between the status of the knee joint and quadriceps strength exists. A total of 157 PWH and 85 controls (C) performed a strength test with a knee extensor device to evaluate their bilateral and unilateral maximal quadriceps strength and steadiness. Isometric steadiness was measured by the coefficient of variation of maximum peak torque (CV-MVIC in %). For classification of the knee joint status the World Federation of Haemophilia (WFH) score was used. Lower steadiness (higher CV values) was found in PWH compared with C during bilateral [PWH vs. C; 0.63 (0.36/1.13) vs. 0.35 (0.15/0.72), median (Q25/Q75) P < 0.001] and unilateral trials [left leg: 0.70 (0.32/1.64) vs. 0.50 (0.23/1.04), P < 0.05; right leg: 0.68 (0.29/1.51) vs. 0.39 (0.18/0.68), P < 0.001]. PWH with a WFH score difference (?1) between their extremities showed a less steady contraction in the more affected extremity (P < 0.05). More unsteady contractions have also been found in extremities with lower quadriceps strength compared with the contralateral stronger extremities (P < 0.001), whereby the weaker extremities were associated with a worse joint status (P < 0.001). The results of this study verify an impaired ability to realize a steady contraction of quadriceps in PWH and the influence of joint damage and strength on its manifestation. PMID:25156626

Brunner, A; Stäuber, F; Göhler, S; Czepa, D; Wendel, M; Seuser, A; Hilberg, T

2014-11-01

108

Simultaneous Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture following Long-Term Low-Dose Nasal Corticosteroid Application  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare injury, which was previously only described in slightly more than 100 cases in the English literature. Occurrence after minor trauma is predominantly associated with certain medical conditions including chronic diseases and long-term use of certain drugs. We report the case of a 61-year-old healthy patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following minor trauma. Medical history was completely clear except of a long-term nasal corticosteroid medication due to allergic rhinitis. PMID:23984143

Ettinger, Max; Krettek, Christian

2013-01-01

109

Exercise behaviors after burn injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified. PMID:23816997

Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

2013-01-01

110

Effects of different duration isometric contractions on tendon elasticity in human quadriceps muscles  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the influence of isometric training protocols with long- and short-duration contractions on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo. The elasticity was assessed through in vivo determination of the elongation (L) of the tendons and aponeuroses using ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric exercise up to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC).Eight young males completed 12 weeks (4 days per week) of a unilateral isometric training programme on knee extensors, which consisted of two different combinations of contraction and relaxation times at 70 % MVC: one leg was trained using a short-duration protocol (3 sets of 50 repetitions of contraction for 1 s and relaxation for 2 s), and the other leg was trained using a long-duration protocol (4 sets of a combination of contraction for 20 s and relaxation for 1 min). The training volume per session, expressed as the integrated torque, was the same for the two protocols.Both protocols resulted in a significant increase in MVC: 31.8 ± 17.2 % for the short-duration protocol and 33.9 ± 14.4 % for the long-duration protocol. Moreover, the training produced significant increases in the muscle volume of the constituents of the quadriceps femoris, with similar relative gains for the two protocols: 7.4 ± 3.9 % for the short-duration protocol and 7.6 ± 4.3 % for the long-duration protocol.The short-duration protocol produced no significant change in L values at any of the force production levels. For the long-duration protocol, however, the L values above 550 N were significantly shorter after training. Analysis revealed that the group × test time interaction effect on tendon stiffness was significant. Stiffness increased significantly for the long-duration protocol, but not for the short-duration protocol.The present study demonstrates a greater increase in stiffness of human tendon structures following isometric training using longer duration contractions compared to shorter contractions. This suggests that the changes in the elasticity of the tendon structures after resistance training may be affected by the duration of muscle contraction. PMID:11600697

Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

2001-01-01

111

Estimation of tendon slack lengths of quadriceps based on a least squares optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the force transfer relationship from muscle to tendon, a chart determining a normalized tendon force is developed. The experimental data of knee extension moment obtained at maximum isometric contractions are prepared to characterize one's musculo-tendon properties. An optimization algorithm is introduced, which searches the tendon slack lengths of quadriceps by minimizing the differences of calculated knee extension moment

Yoonsu Nam; Woo Eun Lee; Tai Jun Yoon

2008-01-01

112

Fatigue effects on quadriceps and hamstrings activation in dancers performing drop landings.  

PubMed

Fatigue may reduce a dancer's ability to maintain the muscle synergies required for stable human movement. Therefore, fatigue presents as a potential risk factor for injury in dancers. Activation patterns of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups in athletic populations have been consistently reported to alter in response to fatigue during landing tasks. It is unknown whether dancers demonstrate similar muscle activation patterns, nor if dancers respond to fatiguing protocols, with regard to muscle activation, in the same manner as their athletic counter-parts. The purpose of this study was to assess quadriceps and hamstrings activation levels in a cohort of dancers performing drop landings before and after completion of a dance-specific fatigue protocol, the High Intensity Dance Performance Fitness Test. Quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction ratios significantly increased between pre- and post-fatigue conditions in a similar fashion to that reported in the literature. Therefore, the neuromuscular activation of the knee extensors and flexors in dancers changed in response to the dance-specific fatiguing protocol. Furthermore, quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction ratios were substantially greater than previously reported in other athletic populations, due to low hamstrings activation levels. Future investigation of dancer biomechanical adaptations to fatigue would be beneficial to further examine the potential implications for injury risk. PMID:24069945

McEldowney, Kasey M; Hopper, Luke S; Etlin-Stein, Hannah; Redding, Emma

2013-09-01

113

In vivo patellar tracking induced by individual quadriceps components in individuals with patellofemoral pain  

E-print Network

history: Accepted 28 August 2009 Keywords: Patella Tracking In vivo Kinematics Patellofemoral pain and translation of the patella induced by selective activation of individual quadriceps components would differ in PFP subjects. This could be due to anatomical differences in the VMO insertion on the patella

Makhsous, Mohsen

114

The Relationship between Quadriceps Thickness, Radiological Staging, and Clinical Parameters in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical parameters, radiological staging and evaluated ultrasound results of quadriceps muscle thickness in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects] The current study comprised 75 patients (51 female, 24 male) with a mean age of 57.9±5.2?years (range 40–65 years) and a diagnosis of osteoarthritis in both knees. [Methods] Knee radiographs were evaluated according to the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Clinical evaluation performed with the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the 50-meter walking test, and the 10-step stair test. The thickness of the muscle layer of the quadriceps femoris (M. vastus intermedius and M. rectus femoris) was measured with high-resolution real-time ultrasonography. [Results] The results of this study showed a significant negative correlation between quadriceps thickness and age, duration of disease, stage of knee OA, and VAS, WOMAC, 50-m walking test, and 10-step stair test scores. [Conclusion] The evaluation of quadriceps muscle thickness with ultrasound can be considered a practical and economical method in the diagnosis and follow-up of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013299

Koca, Irfan; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Ozkur, Ayhan

2014-01-01

115

Intra- and intermuscular variation in human quadriceps femoris architecture assessed in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the functional importance of the human quadriceps femoris in movements such as running, jumping, lifting and climbing, and the known effects of muscle architecture on muscle function, no research has fully described the complex architecture of this muscle group. We used ultrasound imaging techniques to measure muscle thickness, fascicle angle and fascicle length at multiple regions of the four

Anthony J. Blazevich; Nicholas David Gill; Shi Zhou

2006-01-01

116

Neuro-Sliding Mode Control of Knee-Joint Angle with Quadriceps Electrical Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we employed a control methodology which is based on synergistic combination of a single-neuron controller with sliding mode control (SMC) for control of knee-joint position in paraplegic subjects with quadriceps stimulation. The control law will be switched from the sliding mode control to neural control, when the state trajectory of system enters in some boundary layer around

Erfanian A

117

Biomechanics of the knee joint in flexion under various quadriceps forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioemchanics of the entire knee joint including tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints were investigated at different flexion angles (0° to 90°) and quadriceps forces (3, 137, and 411 N). In particular, the effect of changes in location and magnitude of restraining force that counterbalances the isometric extensor moment on predictions was investigated. The model consisted of three bony structures and their

W. Mesfar; A. Shirazi-Adl

2005-01-01

118

Axial computed tomography of the patellofemoral joint with and without quadriceps contraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computed tomography was used to analyze the patellofemoral relationship during the first 60° of knee flexion in patients with chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome (49 knees) and a healthy control group (15 knees). The patellofemoral joints were imaged axially through the center of the patella articular cartilage with the knee flexed 0°, 0° with maximal quadriceps muscle contraction, 30°, and 60°.

R. M. Biedert; C. Gruhl

1997-01-01

119

Knee kinematics and ligament lengths during physiologic levels of isometric quadriceps loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinematics of the knee and the distances between insertion sites of selected fibers of the major ligaments of the knee were determined for physiologic levels of quadriceps forces. Passive positioning of the knee was used as the reference state and was performed by manually flexing the knee to the angle of interest. Static measurements were made using a 6-d.f.

Y.-F. Hsich; L. F. Draganich

1997-01-01

120

Identification of quadriceps-shank dynamics using randomized interpulse interval stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model structures for artificially stimulated paralyzed muscle-limb system dynamics were developed and experimentally evaluated in paraplegic patients. The examined system consisted of the quadriceps, electrically stimulated using surface electrodes, and a freely swinging shank. The interpulse interval of the stimulation sequence was randomized to obtain persistent system excitation. The outputs of the system were the angular position, velocity, and acceleration,

Henry M. Franken; Peter H. Veltink; Roel Tijsmans; Henk Nijmeijer; Herman B. K. Boom

1995-01-01

121

Angle and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0° (terminal extension), 10°, 30°, 50°, 70°, and 90° flexion. Knee extensor

Danny M. Pincivero; Yuliya Salfetnikov; Robert M. Campy; Alan J. Coelho

2004-01-01

122

Associations between walking time, quadriceps muscle strength and cardiovascular capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether there are any associations between walking time, quadriceps muscle strength and cardiovascular capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-one patients with RA and 26 patients with AS belonging to Steinbrocker's functional class I-II were examined. Cardiovascular capacity was calculated from the expired air during a bicycle test and quadriceps muscle strength by the peak torque from an isokinetic dynamometer test. Walking time was the time it took to walk a distance of 160 m on a flat floor and to climb up and down a staircase. In patients with RA, flat floor walking and stair climbing times correlated inversely with quadriceps muscle strength and cardiovascular capacity. Similar results were seen in patients with AS, although the association between cardiovascular capacity and stair-climbing time was not statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis was performed for all patients with quadriceps muscle strength and cardiovascular capacity applied as independent variables in two separate models. Cardiovascular capacity explained 32% and quadriceps muscle strength 21% of the variance in flat floor walking time. Quadriceps muscle strength, together with diagnosis and age, explained 38% of the variance in stair-climbing time, and cardiovascular capacity together with age and pain explained 36% of the variance. In conclusion, in spite of cardiovascular capacity and quadriceps muscle strength being associated with walking times, the findings suggest that they play only a modest role in explaining rapid walking on flat floor and in stairs. PMID:15293089

Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Jokstad, Kari; Bjerkhoel, Frithjof

2004-08-01

123

Influence of aerobic cycle exercise training on patellar tendon cross-sectional area in older women.  

PubMed

Nine to 12 weeks of resistance exercise training in young individuals induces quadriceps muscle (?6%) and region-specific patellar tendon (4-6%) hypertrophy. However, 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (?1?h total exercise time) in older individuals (60-78 years) induces quadriceps muscle hypertrophy (9%) without impacting patellar tendon size. The current study examined if a different loading paradigm using cycle exercise would promote patellar tendon hypertrophy or alter the internal tendon properties, measured with magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity, in older individuals. Nine women (70?±?2 years) completed 12 weeks of aerobic upright cycle exercise training (?28?h total exercise time). Aerobic exercise training increased (P?quadriceps muscle size (11?±?2%) and VO2max (30?±?9%). Mean patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) (2?±?1%) and signal intensity (-1?±?2%) were unchanged (P?>?0.05) over the 12 weeks of training. Region-specific CSA was unchanged (P?>?0.05) at the proximal (-1?±?3%) and mid regions (2?±?2%) of the tendon but tended (P?=?0.069) to increase at the distal region (5?±?3%). Region-specific signal intensity differed along the tendon but was unchanged (P?>?0.05) with training. Although more studies are needed, exercise-induced patellar tendon hypertrophy, compared with skeletal muscle, appears to be attenuated in older individuals, while the loading pattern associated with aerobic exercise seems to have more impact than resistance exercise in promoting patellar tendon hypertrophy. PMID:22092782

Standley, R A; Harber, M P; Lee, J D; Konopka, A R; Trappe, S W; Trappe, T A

2013-06-01

124

Stretching Exercises for Horses: Are They Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to present research in both animals and humans that support the use of stretching exercises in horses as a means of increasing range of motion, improving body flexibility and posture, and preventing injury by strengthening the supportive tissues. Too often veterinarians may overlook the importance of stretch exercises. This could partially be due to a lack of

Ava Frick

2010-01-01

125

Comparison of quadriceps strength and handgrip strength in their association with health outcomes in older adults in primary care.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is thought to play a major role in the functional impairment that occurs with old age. In clinical practice, sarcopenia is often determined by measuring handgrip strength. Here, we compared the lower limb quadriceps strength to the handgrip strength in their association with health outcomes in older adults in primary care. Our study population consisted of older adults (n?=?764, 68.2 % women, median age 83) that participated in the Integrated Systemic Care for Older People (ISCOPE) study. Participants were visited at baseline to measure quadriceps strength and handgrip strength. Data on health outcomes were obtained at baseline and after 12 months (including life satisfaction, disability in daily living, GP contact-time and hospitalization). Quadriceps strength and handgrip strength showed a weak association (??=?0.42 [95 % CI 0.33-0.50]; R (2)?=?0.17). Quadriceps strength and handgrip strength were independently associated with health outcomes at baseline, including quality of life, disability in daily living, GP contact-time, hospitalization, and gait speed. Combined weakness of the quadriceps and handgrip distinguished a most vulnerable subpopulation that presented with the poorest health outcomes. At follow-up, handgrip strength showed an association with quality of life (??=?0.05; P?=?0.002) and disability in daily living (??=?-0.5; P?=?0.004). Quadriceps weakness did not further contribute to the prediction of the measured health outcomes. We conclude that quadriceps strength is only moderately associated with handgrip strength in an older population and that the combination of quadriceps strength and handgrip strength measurements may aid in the identification of older adults in primary care with the poorest health outcomes. In the prediction of poor health outcomes, quadriceps strength measurements do not show an added value to the handgrip strength. PMID:25280549

Chan, On Ying A; van Houwelingen, Anne H; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blom, Jeanet W; den Elzen, Wendy P J

2014-10-01

126

Effective Family Strengthening Interventions. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Family Strengthening Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin summarizes the results of a training and technology transfer program focussing on strengthening families for the prevention of delinquency. A national search was conducted for representative family strengthening programs, and through a process that involved national conferences, regional training sessions, and technical assistance,…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol L.

127

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

128

The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinson's Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Exercise is recommended for every patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effectiveness of two different forms of exercise for PD, Tai Chi and combined stretching-strengthening exercise, was compared. Methods Patients with mild-to-moderate PD were recruited to join either the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group (n=7), the Tai Chi group (n=9), or the control (nonintervention) group (n=7). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 8 weeks. The Tai Chi exercise was led by certified instructors based on a Tai-Chi-for-arthritis program. The combined stretching-strengthening exercise comprised folk dancing, stepping, and elastic-band exercises. The subjects' functional fitness, parkinsonian symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and depression were evaluated. Results Both exercise groups yielded better results in their overall functional fitness after the intervention. However, no improvement with exercise was found for parkinsonian symptoms, as evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. With respect to the domains of QoL, the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group fared better in the social domain of QoL, and the Tai Chi group fared better in the emotional domain, while QoL and depression worsened in the control group. The postintervention QoL was improved relative to the control condition only for the Tai Chi group. Although the exercise interventions did not have any effect on depression, the control group was associated with a significant deterioration. Conclusions Exercise improved the functional fitness and QoL of PD patients, with Tai Chi yielding better results in QoL and favorable results in functional fitness. These findings suggest that Tai Chi could be a good exercise strategy for patients with PD. PMID:24285965

Cheon, Sang-Myung; Chae, Bo-Kyung; Sung, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Geon Cheol

2013-01-01

129

Evidence of local exercise-induced systemic oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.  

PubMed

Chronic inactivity may not be the sole factor involved in the myopathy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. One hypothesis is that exercise-induced oxidative stress that leads to muscle alterations may also be involved. This study investigated whether exercise localised to a peripheral muscle group would induce oxidative stress in COPD patients. Eleven COPD patients (FEV1 1.15+/-0.4 L (mean+/-SD)) and 12 healthy age-matched subjects with a similar low quantity of physical activity performed endurance exercise localised to a peripheral muscle group, the quadriceps of the dominant leg. The authors measured plasma levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) as an index of oxidative stress, the release in superoxide anion (O2*-) by stimulated phagocytes as an oxidant, and blood vitamin E as one antioxidant. Quadriceps endurance was significantly lower in the COPD patients compared with healthy subjects (136+/-16 s versus 385+/-69 s (mean+/-SEM), respectively). A significant increase in TBARs 6 h after quadriceps exercise was only found in the COPD patients. In addition, significantly higher O2*- release and lower blood vitamin E levels were found in COPD patients than in controls at rest. This blood vitamin E level was significantly correlated with the resting level of plasma TBARs in the COPD patients. This study mainly showed that quadriceps exercise induced systemic oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and that vitamin E levels were decreased in these patients at rest. The exact relevance of these findings to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease myopathy needs to be elucidated. PMID:12449164

Couillard, A; Koechlin, C; Cristol, J P; Varray, A; Prefaut, C

2002-11-01

130

Skeletal muscle weakness, exercise tolerance and physical activity in adults with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of muscle weakness and the importance of physical inactivity in cystic fibrosis (CF), and its relationship to exercise tolerance and muscle strength. Exercise tolerance, skeletal and respiratory muscle strength were studied in a group of 64 adults with CF (age 26+/-8 yrs, FEV(1 % predicted) 65+/-19) and in 20 age-matched controls. Physical activity (PA) was assessed in 20 patients and all controls. Quadriceps muscle weakness was present in 56% of the patients. Peak oxygen uptake and 6-min walking distance were below normal in 89 and 75% of patients, respectively. Respiratory muscle strength was normal. The differences remained after correcting for PA. Quadriceps force was correlated to the 6-min walking distance but not to peak oxygen uptake. "Mild" PA (>3 metabolic equivalents (METS)) and the number of steps overlapped with controls, but CF patients had less moderate PA (>4.8 METS). Moderate PA was related to peak oxygen uptake and quadriceps force. Skeletal muscle weakness and exercise intolerance are prevalent in cystic fibrosis. Physical inactivity is a factor significantly contributing to exercise tolerance and skeletal muscle force in adults with cystic fibrosis, but these impairments are in excess to that expected from physical inactivity only. PMID:18715878

Troosters, T; Langer, D; Vrijsen, B; Segers, J; Wouters, K; Janssens, W; Gosselink, R; Decramer, M; Dupont, L

2009-01-01

131

Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

2003-01-01

132

The amplitude modulation of the Quadriceps H-reflex in relation to the knee joint action during walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously the modulation of the quadriceps H-reflex has only been investigated in the initial part of the gait cycle, and\\u000a it was suggested that the quadriceps H-reflex modulates with relative high reflex gain at heel contact and decreases during\\u000a the subsequent part of stance (Dietz et al. 1990b). The objectives of the present study was to elaborate on the previous

Birgit Larsen; Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting; Brigitte A. Lavoie; Michael Voigt

2006-01-01

133

Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular\\u000a function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait\\u000a before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques\\u000a were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal

Gillian Hatfield Murdock; Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

134

The Relationship Between Quadriceps Muscle Force, Knee Flexion, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain in an In Vitro Simulated Jump Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An instrumented cadaveric knee construct was used to quantify the association between impact force, quadriceps force, knee flexion angle, and anterior cruciate ligament relative strain in simulated unipedal jump landings.Hypothesis: Anterior cruciate ligament strain will correlate with impact force, quadriceps force, and knee flexion angle.Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study.Methods: Eleven cadaveric knees (age, 70.8 [19.3] years; 5 male; 6

Thomas J. Withrow; Laura J. Huston; Edward M. Wojtys; James A. Ashton-Miller

2006-01-01

135

Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque and the hamstrings-to-quadriceps conventional and functional ratios.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has shown acute static stretching may decrease hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. However, the effects of static stretching on the functional H:Q ratio, which uses eccentric hamstrings muscle actions, have not been investigated. This study examined the acute effects of hamstrings and quadriceps static stretching on leg extensor and flexor concentric peak torque (PT), leg flexor eccentric PT, and the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. Twenty-two women (mean ± SD age=20.6 ± 1.9 years; body mass=64.6 ± 9.1 kg; height=164.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed three maximal voluntary unilateral isokinetic leg extension, flexion, and eccentric hamstring muscle actions at the angular velocities of 60 and 180°/s before and after a bout of hamstrings, quadriceps, and combined hamstrings and quadriceps static stretching, and a control condition. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time × condition) were used to analyze the leg extension, flexion, and eccentric PT as well as the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. Results indicated that when collapsed across velocity, hamstrings-only stretching decreased the conventional ratios (P<0.05). Quadriceps-only and hamstrings and quadriceps stretching decreased the functional ratios (P<0.05). These findings suggested that stretching may adversely affect the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. PMID:21672027

Costa, P B; Ryan, E D; Herda, T J; Walter, A A; Defreitas, J M; Stout, J R; Cramer, J T

2013-02-01

136

Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis  

PubMed Central

The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

2014-01-01

137

Unilateral lower limb injury: Its long-term effects on quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To ascertain if long-term deficits in quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength remain after unilateral lower-limb musculoskeletal injury and to quantify whether improvements in performance continue once a subject concludes rehabilitation and returns to everyday activities. The relation between the size of decrement and limb dominance, type of injury, and time since injury was also considered.Design: Isometric and\\/or dynamic

Heather M. Holder-Powell; Olga M. Rutherford

1999-01-01

138

The effects of ACL injury on quadriceps and hamstring torque, work and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess isokinetic torque, work and power between non-injured, ACL (anterior cruciate ligament)-deficient and ACL-reconstructed individuals. Ten healthy, non-injured individuals, seven unilateral ACL-deficient individuals and six unilateral ACL-reconstructed individuals were assessed for isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength at 1.05 and 3.14 rad ·s -1 . Peak torque, total work, average power and the ratio

Danny M. Pincivero; Brandan M. Heller; Su-I Hou

2002-01-01

139

A dynamic warm-up model increases quadriceps strength and hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Research suggests that static stretching can negatively influence muscle strength and power and may result in decreased functional performance. The dynamic warm-up (DWU) is a common alternative to static stretching before physical activity, but there is limited research investigating the effects of a DWU. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of a DWU and static stretching warm-up (SWU) on muscle flexibility, strength, and vertical jump using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-five volunteers were randomly assigned into a control (CON), SWU, or DWU group. All participants rode a stationary bicycle for 5 minutes and completed a 10-minute warm-up protocol. During this protocol, the DWU group performed dynamic stretching and running, the SWU group performed static stretching, and the CON group rested. Dependent variables were measured immediately before and after the warm-up protocol. A digital inclinometer measured flexibility (degrees) for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hip flexor muscles. An isokinetic dynamometer measured concentric and eccentric peak torque (N·m/kg) for the hamstrings and quadriceps. A force plate was used to measure vertical jump height (meters) and power (watts). In the DWU group, there was a significant increase in hamstring flexibility (pretest: 26.4 ± 13.5°, posttest: 16.9 ± 9.4°; p < .0001) and eccentric quadriceps peak torque (pretest: 2.49 ± 0.83 N·m/kg, posttest: 2.78 ± 0.69 N·m/kg; p = 0.04). The CON and SWU did not significantly affect any flexibility, strength, or vertical jump measures (p > 0.05). The DWU significantly improved eccentric quadriceps strength and hamstrings flexibility, whereas the SWU did not facilitate any positive or negative changes in muscle flexibility, strength, power, or vertical jump. Therefore, the DWU may be a better preactivity warm-up choice than an SWU. PMID:22446678

Aguilar, Alain J; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Brown, Cathleen N; Herman, Daniel C; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Padua, Darin A

2012-04-01

140

Preserved function and reduced angiogenesis potential of the quadriceps in patients with mild COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about limb muscle abnormalities in mild COPD. Inactivity and systemic inflammation could play a role in the development of limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The objective of the present study was to characterize quadriceps function, enzymatic activities and morphometry, levels of plasma inflammatory markers and physical activity levels in daily life (PAdl) in patients with mild COPD (GOLD 1). Methods Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area (MTCSA), quadriceps strength, endurance, fiber-type distribution, capillarity, pro-angiogenesis factors (VEGF-A, angiopoietin I and II) and muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in 37 patients with mild COPD and 19 controls. Systemic inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-?, Fibrinogen, SP-D) and PAdl were assessed. Results MTCSA, quadriceps strength and endurance were not different between COPD and controls. Capillarity and muscle oxidative capacity were all preserved in mild COPD. Reduced pro-angiogenesis factor mRNA expression was seen in COPD. The level of moderately active intensity (>3 METs) was significantly lower in mild COPD and, in multiple regression analyses, the level of physical activity was a determinant of muscle oxidative capacity and capillarization. No between-group differences were found regarding muscle oxidative stress while circulating IL-6 levels were elevated in mild COPD. Conclusions The quadriceps muscle function was preserved in mild COPD although a reduced potential for angiogenesis was found. The reduced level of daily activities and evidence of systemic inflammation in these individuals suggest that these factors precede the development of overt limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. PMID:24438094

2014-01-01

141

Quadriceps cross-sectional area changes in young healthy men with different magnitude of Q angle.  

PubMed

Knee pain and dysfunction have been often associated with an ineffective pull of the patella by the vastus medialis (VM) relative to the vastus lateralis (VL), particularly in individuals with knee joint malalignment. Such changes in muscular behavior may be attributed to muscle inhibition and/or atrophy that precedes the onset of symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of knee joint malalignment, indicated by a high quadriceps (Q) angle (HQ angle >15 degrees ), on the anatomic cross-sectional area (aCSA) of the entire quadriceps and its individual parts, in a group of 17 young asymptomatic men compared with a group of 19 asymptomatic individuals with low Q angle (LQ angle <15 degrees ). The aCSA of the entire quadriceps (TQ), VM, VL, vastus intermedius (VI), rectus femoris (RF), and patellar tendon (PT) were measured during static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the quadriceps relaxed and under contraction, respectively. A statistically significant lower aCSA was obtained in the HQ angle group, compared with the LQ angle group, for the TQ, VL, and VI in both static (TQ = 9.9%, VL = 12.9%, and VI = 9.1%; P < 0.05) and dynamic imaging (TQ = 10.7%, P < 0.001; VL = 13.4%, P < 0.01; and VI = 9.8%, P < 0.05) and the aCSA of the VM in dynamic MRI (11.9%; P < 0.01). The muscle atrophy obtained in the HQ angle group may be the result of a protective mechanism that inhibits and progressively adapts muscle behavior to reduce abnormal loading and wear of joint structures. PMID:18556437

Tsakoniti, Aikaterini E; Stoupis, Christoforos A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros I

2008-09-01

142

Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide the first in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) measures of knee extensor moment arms, measured during dynamic volitional activity. The hypothesis was that the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) have significant off-axis moment arms compared to the central quadriceps components. After obtaining informed consent, three 3D dynamic cine phase contrast (PC) MRI

Nicole A. Wilson; Frances T. Sheehan

2009-01-01

143

Quadriceps voluntary activation at different joint angles measured by two stimulation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a People are able to fully activate their quadriceps at mid-length during a brief isometric contraction but it is uncertain\\u000a whether this is the case at other muscle lengths. With the twitch superimposition technique for determining levels of voluntary\\u000a activation (VA), the muscle may be stimulated through the intramuscular branches of the nerve or via the nerve trunk itself.\\u000a The

S. A. Newman; G. Jones; D. J. Newham

2003-01-01

144

Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns, which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers

Ben D. Roewer; Stephanie L. Di Stasi; Lynn Snyder-Mackler

2011-01-01

145

Dynamic quadriceps angle: a comparison of female elite volleyball players with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common complaint in female volleyball players. Larger quadriceps femoris angle (Q angle) has been implicated as a source of patellofemoral pain but values measured during functional tasks (dynamic Q angle) have not been adequately documented in the literature.ObjectiveWith this study, we attempt to determine whether excessive Q angle during a functional task is

M Massada; R Aido; C Magalhães; N Puga

2011-01-01

146

Immediate changes in the quadriceps femoris angle after insertion of an orthotic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure changes in the quadriceps femoris angle (Q-angle) after the insertion of full-length flexible orthotics. Setting: Outpatient health center of Logan College of Chiropractic. Subjects: A total of 40 male subjects were included in the study population. The selected population all demonstrated bilateral pes planus or hyperpronation syndrome. Design: Before-after trial. Method: A cohort demonstrating bilateral hyperpronation was

D. Robert Kuhn; Terry R. Yochum; Anton R. Cherry; Sean S. Rodgers

2002-01-01

147

Fatigue of intermittently stimulated quadriceps during imposed cyclical lower leg movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

During prolonged experiments the influence of knee angular velocity, and stimulation parameters (interpulse interval (IPI), duty cycle (DC), number of pulses per cycle (NP)) on fatigue-induced torque decline of paralyzed human quadriceps was studied. Identification of torque-angle and — angular velocity was also performed. The overall loss of maximum torque (MT) and torque-time integral (TTl) per cycle during sustained intermittent

Henry M. Franken; Peter H. VeItink; Marc Fidder; Herman B. K. Boom

1992-01-01

148

The effect of insufficient quadriceps strength on gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the effect of quadriceps strength and joint stability on gait patterns after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction.Design. Cross-sectional comparative study in which four groups underwent motion analysis with surface electromyography.Background. Individuals following anterior cruciate ligament rupture often demonstrate reduced knee angles and moments during the early stance phase of gait. Alterations in gait can neither be

Michael Lewek; Katherine Rudolph; Michael Axe; Lynn Snyder-Mackler

2002-01-01

149

An Acute Bout of Quadriceps Muscle Stretching has no Influence on Knee Joint Proprioception  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this study was to determine if an acute bout of static stretching of the quadriceps muscle affects the sense of joint position, the threshold to detect passive movement, and the sense of force. Thirty young, healthy men (age : 22.1 ± 2.7 years) were randomly divided into two groups. The Stretching Group (n=15) underwent stretching of the dominant quadriceps muscle, which comprised ten passive stretches lasting 30 seconds each, while the Control Group (n=15) remained seated for the same length of time. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to establish intragroup differences over time, and an independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables between groups at each moment. None of the measurements revealed any significant change between both groups in each assessment moment or between moments within groups (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that static quadriceps muscle stretching has no effect on the sense of knee joint position, threshold to detect passive movement, and force sense, suggesting that stretching does not have appreciable effect on the spindle firing characteristics and tendon organs activation. PMID:23486744

Torres, Rui; Duarte, José Alberto; Cabri, Jan MH

2012-01-01

150

An Acute Bout of Quadriceps Muscle Stretching has no Influence on Knee Joint Proprioception.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to determine if an acute bout of static stretching of the quadriceps muscle affects the sense of joint position, the threshold to detect passive movement, and the sense of force. Thirty young, healthy men (age : 22.1 ± 2.7 years) were randomly divided into two groups. The Stretching Group (n=15) underwent stretching of the dominant quadriceps muscle, which comprised ten passive stretches lasting 30 seconds each, while the Control Group (n=15) remained seated for the same length of time. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to establish intragroup differences over time, and an independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables between groups at each moment. None of the measurements revealed any significant change between both groups in each assessment moment or between moments within groups (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that static quadriceps muscle stretching has no effect on the sense of knee joint position, threshold to detect passive movement, and force sense, suggesting that stretching does not have appreciable effect on the spindle firing characteristics and tendon organs activation. PMID:23486744

Torres, Rui; Duarte, José Alberto; Cabri, Jan Mh

2012-10-01

151

Exercise Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

Ribisl, Paul M.

152

The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise.  

PubMed

Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass. PMID:24740653

Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

2014-06-15

153

Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of acute moderate alcohol intake on muscular performance during recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed a beverage containing 1g\\/kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice) (ALC). On another occasion they performed an

Matthew. J. Barnes; Toby Mündel; Stephen. R. Stannard

2010-01-01

154

Glutathione Depletion in Rested and Exercised Mice: Biochemical Consequence and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chronic in vivo glutathione (GSH) depletion by L-buthionine- [S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) on intracellular and interorgan GSH regulation was investigated in mice both at rest and after an acute bout of exhaustive swim exercise, BSO treatment for 12 days decreased concentrations of GSH in the liver, kidney, quadriceps muscle, and plasma to 28, 15, 7, and 35%, respectively, compared

C. Leeuwenburgh; L. L. Ji

1995-01-01

155

Core muscle strengthening's improvement of balance performance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of core muscle strengthening on balance in community-dwelling older adults, 24 healthy men and women between 65 and 85 years old were randomized to either exercise (EX; n = 12) or control (CON; n = 12) groups. The exercise group performed a core strengthening home exercise program thrice weekly for 6 wk. Core muscle (curl-up test), functional reach (FR) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) were assessed at baseline and follow-up. There were no group differences at baseline. At follow-up, EX exhibited significantly greater improvements in curl-up (Cohen's d = 4.4), FR (1.3), and SEBT (>1.9 for all directions) than CON. The change in curl-up was significantly correlated with the change in FR (r = .44, p = .03) and SEBT (r > .61, p ? .002). These results suggest that core strengthening should be part of a comprehensive balance-training program for older adults. PMID:23348043

Kahle, Nicole; Tevald, Michael A

2014-01-01

156

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

157

Doublet stimulation protocol to minimize musculoskeletal stress during paralyzed quadriceps muscle testing.  

PubMed

With long-term electrical stimulation training, paralyzed muscle can serve as an effective load delivery agent for the skeletal system. Muscle adaptations to training, however, will almost certainly outstrip bone adaptations, exposing participants in training protocols to an elevated risk for fracture. Assessing the physiological properties of the chronically paralyzed quadriceps may transmit unacceptably high shear forces to the osteoporotic distal femur. We devised a two-pulse doublet strategy to measure quadriceps physiological properties while minimizing the peak muscle force. The purposes of the study were 1) to determine the repeatability of the doublet stimulation protocol, and 2) to compare this protocol among individuals with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight individuals with SCI and four individuals without SCI underwent testing. The doublet force-frequency relationship shifted to the left after SCI, likely reflecting enhancements in the twitch-to-tetanus ratio known to exist in paralyzed muscle. Posttetanic potentiation occurred to a greater degree in subjects with SCI (20%) than in non-SCI subjects (7%). Potentiation of contractile rate occurred in both subject groups (14% and 23% for SCI and non-SCI, respectively). Normalized contractile speed (rate of force rise, rate of force fall) reflected well-known adaptations of paralyzed muscle toward a fast fatigable muscle. The doublet stimulation strategy provided repeatable and sensitive measurements of muscle force and speed properties that revealed meaningful differences between subjects with and without SCI. Doublet stimulation may offer a unique way to test muscle physiological parameters of the quadriceps in subjects with uncertain musculoskeletal integrity. PMID:18436697

Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Littmann, Andrew E; Iguchi, Masaki; Shields, Richard K

2008-06-01

158

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of a quadriceps tendon tear.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important causative agent in myositis and pyomyositis, but its involvement in quadriceps tendon tears has not been reported until now. In the case reported here, accurate diagnosis was delayed because of the unique presentation, and the infection was mismanaged with corticosteroids because of the presumptive diagnosis of an inflammatory pathology. Subsequently, aggressive surgical and antibiotic management produced a satisfactory outcome. Early detection and appropriate management of these infections are extremely important in preventing limb- and life-threatening consequences. PMID:23710480

Parikh, Shital N; Bansal, Danesh

2013-05-01

159

Quadriceps traumatic myositis ossificans in a football player: management with intravenous pamidronate.  

PubMed

: Myositis ossificans (MO) can be a significant complication of traumatic muscle contusion. Bisphosphates have been used in management of heterotopic ossification after spinal cord injury, but there is a lack of evidence with respect to MO in the sporting population. We present a case of a 14-year-old male football player with posttraumatic quadriceps MO, treated with 2 doses of intravenous pamidronate. This was associated with improvement in clinical features and imaging and a reduced urinary N-terminal telopeptide, a marker of bone turnover. This case demonstrates that bisphosphonates may be a potential treatment option in MO. PMID:24184852

Mani-Babu, Sivanadian; Wolman, Roger; Keen, Richard

2014-09-01

160

Effects of Motorized vs Non-Motorized Treadmill Training on Hamstring/Quadriceps Strength Ratios  

PubMed Central

Previous literature suggests that muscular involvement and biomechanical changes elicit different responses between overground and treadmill training. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of training on two different treadmill designs on the conventional (CR; concentric only) and functional (FR; eccentric to concentric) hamstring and quadriceps strength ratios. Fifteen men and sixteen women were randomly divided into three groups: motorized (MT), non-motorized (NMT) or control (C). Subjects completed pre and post-test isokinetic concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring testing of both legs. Subjects completed 4 weeks of training on their respective treadmills with mileage increasing ½ mile each week, beginning with 2 miles. The C group did not participate in any training. The CR revealed a significant two way interaction of group x time with MT increasing (pre: 0.80 ± 0.09 to post: 0.84 ± 0.09), NMT decreasing (pre: 0.76 ± 0.13 to post: 0.74 ± 0.10), and C showing no change (pre: 0.79 ± 0.10 to post: 0.79 ± 0.09. The FR revealed a significant two way interaction of speed x sex with the FR increasing as speeds increased for men (60 degrees.s-1: 1.04 ± 0.11; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.66 ± 0.27; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.36 ± 0.45) and women (60 degrees.s-1: 1.05 ± 0.16; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.90 ± 0.26; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.75 ± 0.47) but women increased greater relative to men. Training mode elicited a specific change in concentric hamstring and quadriceps strength resulting in specific changes to the CR; however, neither training mode had an effect on eccentric hamstrings nor the FR. Special attention should be given to the mode of endurance training when the goal is to alter the hamstring/quadriceps CR. Key points Specificity of treadmill training had different effects on concentric strength. Specificity of treadmill training had little or no effect on eccentric strength. Conventional and functional strength ratios may give different results based on training mode. Four weeks is long enough for strength results to be apparent in untrained people. PMID:24137064

Franks, Kelly A.; Brown, Lee E.; Coburn, Jared W.; Kersey, Robert D.; Bottaro, Martim

2012-01-01

161

Strengthening Families Program Implementation Manual  

E-print Network

Group Leader's Guide Karol L. Kumpfer, Ph.D. Revised, 2001 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriStrengthening Families Program Implementation Manual Karol L. Kumpfer, Ph.D. Revised, 2001 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race

162

Strengthening Families Program Parent Handbook  

E-print Network

Strengthening Families Program Parent Handbook Karol L. Kumpfer, Ph.D. Revised, 2001 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department

163

Strengthening Families Program Research Brief  

E-print Network

Strengthening Families Program Research Brief The following review of the literature provides researchers have focused for several decades on peer influences, almost to the exclusion of family influences and Sibling Drug Abuse Research indicates that parents who abuse alcohol and/or drugs have a negative impact

164

HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING INDUCES MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SKELETAL MUSCLES  

PubMed Central

In the present study we investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on fibre composition and metabolism of two specific muscles of mice: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism. PMID:24744502

Toti, L.; Bartalucci, A.; Ferrucci, M.; Fulceri, F.; Lazzeri, G.; Lenzi, P.; Soldani, P.; Gobbi, P.; La Torre, A.

2013-01-01

165

Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that exercise interventions are more effective than no exercise control and to compare the effectiveness of different exercise interventions in relieving pain and improving function in patients with lower limb osteoarthritis. Data sources Nine electronic databases searched from inception to March 2012. Study selection Randomised controlled trials comparing exercise interventions with each other or with no exercise control for adults with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Data extraction Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcomes extracted were pain intensity and limitation of function. Trial sequential analysis was used to investigate reliability and conclusiveness of available evidence for exercise interventions. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to combine both direct (within trial) and indirect (between trial) evidence on treatment effectiveness. Results 60 trials (44 knee, two hip, 14 mixed) covering 12 exercise interventions and with 8218 patients met inclusion criteria. Sequential analysis showed that as of 2002 sufficient evidence had been accrued to show significant benefit of exercise interventions over no exercise control. For pain relief, strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening plus aerobic, aquatic strengthening, and aquatic strengthening plus flexibility, exercises were significantly more effective than no exercise control. A combined intervention of strengthening, flexibility, and aerobic exercise was also significantly more effective than no exercise control for improving limitation in function (standardised mean difference ?0.63, 95% credible interval ?1.16 to ?0.10). Conclusions As of 2002 sufficient evidence had accumulated to show significant benefit of exercise over no exercise in patients with osteoarthritis, and further trials are unlikely to overturn this result. An approach combining exercises to increase strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity is likely to be most effective in the management of lower limb osteoarthritis. The evidence is largely from trials in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Protocol registration PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/) No CRD42012002267. PMID:24055922

2013-01-01

166

Significant Effect of Gender on Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Strength Ratio and Static Balance in Prepubescent Children From 7 to 12 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A number of studies have reported lower muscular strength of the hamstring and the quadriceps and better postural control in female compared with male athletes. Whether those differences are innate and also exist in children and adolescents or are caused by training and participation in different sports is unknown.Hypothesis: Gender differences in hamstring and quadriceps muscular strength and static

Inger Holm; Nina Vøllestad

2008-01-01

167

Anterior Cruciate Ligament—Deficient Potential Copers and Noncopers Reveal Different Isokinetic Quadriceps Strength Profiles in the Early Stage After Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Isokinetic muscle strength testing using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)—injured subjects.Purpose and Hypotheses: The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in subjects with ACL deficiency classified as potential copers or noncopers and to investigate whether these curve

Ingrid Eitzen; Thomas J. Eitzen; Inger Holm; Lynn Snyder-Mackler; May Arna Risberg

2010-01-01

168

Group III and IV muscle afferents contribute to ventilatory and cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of somatosensory feedback on cardioventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in five men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects performed the same leg cycling exercise (50/100/150/325 ± 19 W, 3 min each) under placebo conditions (interspinous saline, L3–L4) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing central projection of spinal opioid receptor-sensitive muscle afferents. Quadriceps strength was similar before and after fentanyl administration. To evaluate whether a cephalad migration of fentanyl affected cardioventilatory control centers in the brain stem, we compared resting ventilatory responses to hypercapnia (HCVR) and cardioventilatory responses to arm vs. leg cycling exercise after each injection. Similar HCVR and minor effects of fentanyl on cardioventilatory responses to arm exercise excluded direct medullary effects of fentanyl. Central command during leg exercise was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. No differences between conditions were found in resting heart rate (HR), ventilation [minute ventilation (V?e)], or mean arterial pressure (MAP). Quadriceps electromyogram, O2 consumption (V?o2), and plasma lactate were similar in both conditions at the four steady-state workloads. Compared with placebo, a substantial hypoventilation during fentanyl exercise was indicated by the 8–17% reduction in V?e/CO2 production (V?co2) secondary to a reduced breathing frequency, leading to average increases of 4–7 Torr in end-tidal Pco2 (P < 0.001) and a reduced hemoglobin saturation (?3 ± 1%; P < 0.05) at the heaviest workload (?90% maximal V?o2) with fentanyl. HR was reduced 2–8%, MAP 8–13%, and ratings of perceived exertion by 13% during fentanyl vs. placebo exercise (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the essential contribution of muscle afferent feedback to the ventilatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses to rhythmic exercise in humans, even in the presence of unaltered contributions from other major inputs to cardioventilatory control. PMID:20634355

Blain, Gregory M.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Pegelow, David F.; Dempsey, Jerome A.

2010-01-01

169

The effects of high-fat diet, branched-chain amino acids and exercise on female C57BL/6 mouse Achilles tendon biomechanical properties  

PubMed Central

Objectives The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any negative consequences resulting from HFD consumption. Methods We examined the effects of 16 weeks of 60% HFD feeding, voluntary exercise (free choice wheel running) and BCAA administration in female C57BL/6 mice. The Achilles tendons and quadriceps muscles were removed at the end of the experiment and assessed histologically and biomechanically. Results HFD feeding significantly decreased the Achilles tendon modulus without histological alterations. BCAA administration significantly decreased the stiffness of Achilles tendons in the exercised normal diet mice. Exercise partially ameliorated both the weight gain and glucose levels in the HFD-fed mice, led to a significant decrease in the maximum load of the Achilles tendon, and an increase in the average fibril diameter of the quadriceps femoris muscle. There were significant correlations between body weight and several biomechanical properties, demonstrating the importance of controlling obesity for maintaining healthy tendon properties. Conclusions In summary, this study showed a significant impact of obesity and body weight on tendon biomechanical properties with limited effects of exercise and BCAAs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:186–92. PMID:24021530

Boivin, G. P.; Platt, K. M.; Corbett, J.; Reeves, J.; Hardy, A. L.; Elenes, E. Y.; Charnigo, R. J.; Hunter, S. A.; Pearson, K. J.

2013-01-01

170

Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.  

PubMed

We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. PMID:16609979

Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

2006-05-01

171

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

E-print Network

We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

2012-01-01

172

27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17.107 Section 17.107 Alcohol...USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.107 Strengthening bonds. Whenever the amount of a bond on...

2010-04-01

173

Quadriceps Contusion  

MedlinePLUS

... a few simple guidelines when you play sports: Wear protective gear that fits correctly. Hockey and football require pants that should have thigh pads. Make sure you wear them and they're properly fitted to you ...

174

Effect of carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if timing of a supplement would have an effect on muscle damage, function and soreness. Methods Twenty-seven untrained men (21 ± 3 yrs) were given a supplement before or after exercise. Subjects were randomly assigned to a pre exercise (n = 9), received carbohydrate/protein drink before exercise and placebo after, a post exercise (n = 9), received placebo before exercise and carbohydrate/protein drink after, or a control group (n = 9), received placebo before and after exercise. Subjects performed 50 eccentric quadriceps contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Tests for creatine kinase (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and muscle soreness were recorded before exercise and at six, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post exercise. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze data. Results There were no group by time interactions however, CK significantly increased for all groups when compared to pre exercise (101 ± 43 U/L) reaching a peak at 48 h (661 ± 1178 U/L). MVC was significantly reduced at 24 h by 31.4 ± 14.0%. Muscle soreness was also significantly increased from pre exercise peaking at 48 h. Conclusion Eccentric exercise caused significant muscle damage, loss of strength, and soreness; however timing of ingestion of carbohydrate/protein supplement had no effect. PMID:18284676

White, James P; Wilson, Jacob M; Austin, Krista G; Greer, Beau K; St John, Noah; Panton, Lynn B

2008-01-01

175

Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing treatments were conducted on O-temper and T8 temper AA2024 truss cores, the strength increase was different for different architectures, but was nearly the same for the two parent material tempers. Finally, the question of how much microtruss strengthening can be obtained for a given amount of parent metal strengthening was addressed by examining the interaction of material and geometric parameters in a model system.

Ng, Evelyn K.

176

The effect of passive stretching on delayed onset muscle soreness, and other detrimental effects following eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure if passive stretching would influence delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), dynamic muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase concentration (CK) and the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (PCr/P(i)) following eccentric exercise. Seven healthy untrained women, 28-46 years old, performed eccentric exercise with the right m. quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, angle velocity: 60 degrees.s-1) until exhaustion, in two different experiments, with an interval of 13-23 months. In both experiments the PCr/P(i) ratio, dynamic muscle strength, CK and muscle pain were measured before the eccentric exercise (day 0) and the following 7 d. In the second experiment daily passive stretching (3 times of 30 s duration, with a pause of 30 s in between) of m. quadriceps was included in the protocol. The stretching was performed before and immediately after the eccentric exercise at day 0, and before measurements of the dependent variables daily for the following 7 d. The eccentric exercise alone led to significant decreases in PCr/P(i) ratio (P < 0.001) and muscle strength (P < 0.001), and an increase in CK concentration (P < 0.01). All subjects reported pain in the right m. quadriceps with a peak 48 h after exercise. There was no difference in the reported variables between experiments one and two. It is concluded that passive stretching did not have any significant influence on increased plasma-CK, muscle pain, muscle strength and the PCr/P(i) ratio, indicating that passive stretching after eccentric exercise cannot prevent secondary pathological alterations. PMID:9764443

Lund, H; Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Kanstrup, I L; Sejrsen, P

1998-08-01

177

Kegel Exercises for Your Pelvic Muscles  

MedlinePLUS

... 10 seconds. Do sets of 10 to 20 contractions per day. Be patient and continue to exercise. It takes time to strengthen the pelvic muscles, just like it takes time to improve the muscles in your arms, legs or abdomen. You may not notice any change ...

178

An evaluation of different protocols for measuring the force-velocity relationship of the human quadriceps muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer was used to evaluate the problems associated with measuring the concentric force-velocity characteristics of human knee extensor muscles. Three contraction protocols were investigated, simple voluntary contractions (VC); releases from maximal voluntary isometric contractions (VR) and releases from. isometric femoral nerve stimulated contractions (FNR). Percutaneous stimulation of the quadriceps was unsuitable for dynamic contractions as

C. James; P. Sacco; M. V. Hurley; D. A. Jones

1994-01-01

179

Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

2012-01-01

180

A Stochastic Model of Knee Angle in Response to Electrical Stimulation of the Quadriceps and Hamstrings Muscles  

E-print Network

and Hamstrings Muscles Cheryl L. Lynch* and Milos R. Popovic* *Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups is presented. This model includes uncertainty due to fatigue and day cord injury I. INTRODUCTION Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses short electrical pulses

Popovic, Milos R.

181

Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

2012-01-01

182

Parameters and comparisons of the quadriceps angle of college-aged men and women in the supine and standing positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine normal, mean quadriceps angles (Q angles) for college-aged men and women, and to compare Q angles measured in the supine and the standing positions. The Q angles of 269 men and 257 women were measured in both positions by use of a specially modified goniometer. The mean Q angle for men was

Lynn H. Woodland; Rulon S. Francis

1992-01-01

183

Neuro-Sliding Mode Control with Modular Models for Control of Knee-joint Angle Using Quadriceps Electrical Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a control methodology which is based on synergistic combination of a single-neuron controller with sliding mode control (SMC) for control of knee- joint position in paraplegic subjects with quadriceps stimulation. The control law will be switched from the sliding mode control to neural control, when the state trajectory of system enters in some boundary layer

Arash Ajoudani; Abbas Erfanian

2007-01-01

184

In vitro investigation of the influence of tibial slope on quadriceps extension force after total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of tibial base plate angulation on knee kinematics and kinetics during knee arthroplasty. The amount of quadriceps force required to extend the knee and the anteroposterior displacement of a mobile bearing insert as well as tibiofemoral position were measured during an in vitro simulation of an isokinetic knee extension cycle.

Sven Ostermeier; Christof Hurschler; Henning Windhagen; Christina Stukenborg-Colsman

2006-01-01

185

Interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate determined with MSNA during exercise in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to use the microdialysis technique to simultaneously measure the interstitial concentrations of several putative stimulators of the exercise pressor reflex during 5 min of intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans (n = 7). Exercise resulted in approximately a threefold (P < 0.05) increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 13 +/- 3 beats/min (P < 0.05) and 20 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and blood pressure, respectively. During recovery, all reflex responses quickly returned to baseline. Interstitial lactate levels were increased (P < 0.05) from rest (1.1 +/- 0.1 mM) to exercise (1. 6 +/- 0.2 mM) and were further increased (P < 0.05) during recovery (2.0 +/- 0.2 mM). Dialysate phosphate concentrations were 0.55 +/- 0. 04, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.48 +/- 0.03 mM during rest, exercise, and recovery, respectively, and were significantly elevated during exercise. At the onset of exercise, dialysate K(+) levels rose rapidly above resting values (4.2 +/- 0.1 meq/l) and continued to increase during the exercise bout. After 5 min of contractions, dialysate K(+) levels had peaked with an increase (P < 0.05) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 meq/l and subsequently decreased during recovery, not being different from rest after 3 min. In contrast, H(+) concentrations rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) from resting levels (69.4 +/- 3.7 nM) during quadriceps exercise and continued to decrease with a mean decline (P < 0.05) of 16.7 +/- 3.8 nM being achieved after 5 min. During recovery, H(+) concentrations rapidly increased and were not significantly different from baseline after 1 min. This study represents the first time that skeletal muscle interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate have been measured in conjunction with MSNA, heart rate, and blood pressure during intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans. These data suggest that interstitial K(+) and phosphate, but not lactate and H(+), may contribute to the stimulation of the exercise pressor reflex.

MacLean, D. A.; Imadojemu, V. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

2000-01-01

186

Exercise therapy for patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of exercise therapy on back pain, spinal range of motion (ROM), and disability in persons with diffuse\\u000a idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Persons with symptomatic DISH received a daily exercise program for 24 weeks consisting\\u000a of mobility, stretching, and strengthening exercises for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. It included 14 supervised\\u000a sessions over 8 weeks. Outcomes included visual

Adeeba Al-Herz; Jan Paul Snip; Bruce Clark; John M. Esdaile

2008-01-01

187

Volcanological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which builds on knowledge gained in previous homework exercises located at the same site, asks students in an undergraduate class at Tulane University to answer some basic questions about volcanoes, and to determine the volcanic hazards associated with Mt. Rainier, Washington; Montserrat, West Indies; and Long Valley Caldera, California by searching the World Wide Web.

Nelson, Stephen

188

QUADRICEPS LOW FREQUENCY FATIGUE AND MUSCLE PAIN ARE CONTRACTION TYPE DEPENDENT  

PubMed Central

Introduction Eccentric contractions are thought to induce greater low frequency fatigue (LFF) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) than concentric contractions. This study induced a similar amount of eccentric quadriceps muscle fatigue during either a concentric or eccentric fatigue task to compare LFF and DOMS. Methods Subjects (n=22) performed concentric or eccentric fatigue tasks using 75% of the pre-fatigue maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and both tasks ended when the MVC eccentric torque decreased by 25% pre-fatigue. Results When subjects reached the failure criterion during the eccentric and concentric tasks, the concentric MVC was 78 ± 9.8% and 64 ± 8.4% of initial, respectively. LFF was greater after the concentric than the eccentric protocols (22 ± 12.4% and 15 ± 7.6% increase, respectively; p < 0.01). DOMS was over 100% greater for the eccentric protocol. Discussion These results indicate that DOMS is not dependent on the events that contribute to LFF. PMID:20544933

Iguchi, Masaki; Shields, Richard K.

2010-01-01

189

Minimally Invasive Harvest of a Quadriceps Tendon Graft With or Without a Bone Block  

PubMed Central

The quadriceps tendon (QT) as a graft source for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has recently achieved increased attention. Although many knee surgeons have been using the QT as a graft for ACL revision surgery, it has never gained universal acceptance for primary ACL reconstruction. The QT is a very versatile graft that can be harvested in different widths, thicknesses, and lengths. Conventionally, the QT graft is harvested by an open technique, requiring a 6 to 8 cm longitudinal incision, which often leads to unpleasant scars. We describe a new, minimally invasive, standardized approach in which the QT graft can be harvested through a 2- to 3-cm skin incision and a new option of using the graft without a bone block.

Fink, Christian; Herbort, Mirco; Abermann, Elisabeth; Hoser, Christian

2014-01-01

190

Electromyographic fatigue thresholds of the superficial muscles of the quadriceps femoris.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the thresholds of neuromuscular fatigue determined simultaneously from the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles using the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) test. Eight adult volunteers [mean (SD) age, 33 (10) years] served as subjects for this investigation. The results of a one-way repeated measured ANOVA indicated that there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference among the mean EMGFT values for the VL [248(31)W], VM [223(43)W] and RF [220(30)W] muscles. Tukey post-hoc comparisons indicated that the EMGFT for the RF was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of the VL. These findings suggested that during cycle ergometry there is a dissociation in neuromuscular fatigue characteristics of the superficial muscles of the quadriceps femoris group. PMID:7588679

Housh, T J; deVries, H A; Johnson, G O; Housh, D J; Evans, S A; Stout, J R; Evetovich, T K; Bradway, R M

1995-01-01

191

The effects of the Brazilian ant Dinoponera quadriceps venom on chemically induced seizure models.  

PubMed

Arthropod venoms are potential sources of neuroactive substances, providing new tools for the design of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Dinoponera quadriceps venom (DqV) on seizure models in mice induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), pilocarpine, and strychnine. In the PTZ model, intraperitoneal treatment with DqV (0.5mg/kg) increased the time until the first seizure and the percentage of survival (155.4±27.7s/12.5%, p<0.05) compared to the control group (79.75±3.97s/0%), whereas endovenous treatment (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) decreased the time until the first seizure (0.1mg/kg: 77.83±5.3s versus 101.0±3.3s in the control group; 0.5mg/kg: 74.43±3.9s versus 101.0±3.3s for the control group, p<0.05). We did not observe significant changes in the pilocarpine- and strychnine-induced seizure models. In assays that measured oxidative parameters in the PTZ model, intraperitoneal treatment with DqV (0.5 and 2.0mg/kg) only decreased the levels of MDA and nitrite in the cortex. However, endovenous treatment with DqV (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) increased the levels of MDA in the cortex and hippocampus and at a dose of 0.5mg/kg in the striatum. Moreover, increased in nitrite content was observed in all three of the brain regions analyzed. Taken together, the D. quadriceps venom caused both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects in a PTZ-induced seizure model, and this effect was dependent on the route of administration used. PMID:23747963

Lopes, Kamila Soares; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; Lima, Camila Nayane de Carvalho; Linhares, Maria Isabel; Torres, Alba Fabíola Costa; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves Patric; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França; Martins, Alice Maria Costa

2013-09-01

192

Corticospinal Responses of Quadriceps are Abnormally Coupled with Hip Adductors in Chronic Stroke Survivors  

PubMed Central

Stroke survivors often lose the ability to move their joints independently, which results in abnormal movement patterns when attempting to perform an isolated motion. For instance, many stroke subjects exhibit unwanted secondary knee extension movement when performing hip adduction. This study aimed at characterizing whether the neural substrates mediating abnormal activation patterns after stroke are of cortical origin. We developed a novel transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol to evaluate the extent of abnormal across-joint coupling of corticospinal responses in chronic stroke survivors. In stroke survivors, we found that the magnitude of motor evoked potentials of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis during isometric hip adduction were significantly higher than those recorded during knee extension at similar background activity (P = 0.03 & P = 0.01). Moreover, motor evoked potential coupling ratios of the quadriceps muscles were significantly different than those observed in healthy controls (P = 0.005 to P = 0.037). No differences in motor evoked potential coupling ratios were observed between the younger and older adults (P = 0.474 to P = 0.919). These findings provide evidence for the first time that stroke subjects exhibit abnormal excitability of the quadriceps muscle corticospinal neurons when performing isometric hip adduction. Importantly, the abnormal corticospinal responses observed in stroke subjects were not mediated by aging. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying loss of independent joint control after stroke and have meaningful implications for post-stroke interventions. Moreover, the proposed ‘motor evoked potential coupling ratio’ may serve as an effective probe to evaluate cortical contributions to abnormal muscle synergy after stroke. PMID:22116042

Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin

2011-01-01

193

Assessment of quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area by ultrasound extended-field-of-view imaging.  

PubMed

This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of an extended-field-of-view ultrasonography (EFOV) method for quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) assessment. The CSA was measured at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the distance from the superior border of the patella to the medial aspect of anterior superior iliac spine by EFOV imaging and compared to the CSA measured by computed tomography (CT). Validity was tested by intra-class correlation (ICC) between the two methods and intra- and inter-experimenter and inter-day reliability were also examined. The ICC computed between the two techniques ranged between 0.951 and 0.998 (P < 0.000), but the 95% confidence intervals of the ICCs were in the acceptable range only for 30, 40 and 50% sections (0.842-0.999, 0.943-0.997 and 0.992-0.999, respectively). The standard error of the EFOV technique when compared to CT was 2.4, 4.3, 1.2, 1.2 and 0.6%, for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% sections, respectively. The coefficient of variation, showing intra- and inter-experimenter reliability, ranged from 0.6 to 2.7%. ICCs computed to assess the inter-day reliability were between 0.982 and 0.998 (95% confidence interval 0.892-1). When CSA was compared between sections statistically significant differences were found between them, regardless of the imaging technique used. Small standard errors of the measurement and high ICCs with the small confidence intervals suggest that, at proximal and mid-thigh sections, EFOV is a valid and reliable method to measure quadriceps muscle size. PMID:20191287

Noorkoiv, M; Nosaka, K; Blazevich, A J

2010-07-01

194

Rethinking health research capacity strengthening  

PubMed Central

Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an NIH-funded HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain under-articulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing 1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, 2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborating in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and 3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

Vasquez, Emily; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

2013-01-01

195

The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest.  

PubMed

Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P = 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P = 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P = 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P = 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P = 0.238 and +13 ± 28%, P = 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, (31)P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning. PMID:24790012

Krainski, Felix; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Heinicke, Katja; Romain, Nadine; Pacini, Eric L; Snell, Peter G; Wyrick, Phil; Palmer, M Dean; Haller, Ronald G; Levine, Benjamin D

2014-06-15

196

Adaptive Force Regulation of Muscle Strengthening Rehabilitation Device With Magnetorheological Fluids  

PubMed Central

In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

2008-01-01

197

Atorvastatin Increases Exercise Leg Blood Flow in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642

Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

2011-01-01

198

Exercise response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

1975-01-01

199

Influence of acute eccentric exercise on the H:Q ratio.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an acute bout of eccentric exercise on maximal isokinetic concentric peak torque (PT) of the leg flexors and extensors and the hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio. Sixteen male (mean±SD: age=20.9±2 years; stature=177.0±4.4 cm; mass=76.8±10.0 kg) volunteers performed maximal, concentric isokinetic leg extension and flexion muscle actions at 60°·sec?-?1 before and after (24-72 h) a bout of eccentric exercise. The eccentric exercise protocol consisted of 4 sets of 10 repetitions for the leg press, leg extension, and leg curl exercises at 120% of the concentric one repetition maximum (1-RM). The results indicated that the acute eccentric exercise protocol resulted in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in isokinetic leg flexion (13-19%) and leg extension (11-16%) PT 24-72 h post-exercise. However, the H:Q ratios were unaltered by the eccentric exercise protocol. These findings suggest that an acute bout of eccentric exercise utilizing both multi - and single - joint dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercises results in similar decreases in maximal isokinetic strength of the leg flexors and extensors, but does not alter the H:Q ratio. PMID:22095326

Thompson, B J; Smith, D B; Sobolewski, E J; Fiddler, R E; Everett, L; Klufa, J L; Ryan, E D

2011-12-01

200

The dose-dependent antioxidant effects of physical exercise in the hippocampus of mice.  

PubMed

Exercise increases both the consumption of oxygen and the production of reactive species in biological tissues, and this is counterbalanced by antioxidant adaptations to regular physical training. When the intensity of exercise fluctuates between mild and moderate, it improves the status of reduction-oxidation balance in the brain and induces neuroplasticity. However, intense exercise can oxidize the brain and impair neurological function. The effect of the frequency of exercise, which is an important factor in physical training, is still unknown. The effect of periodic exercise on biomarkers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of mice was evaluated in this study. Mice were made to run on a treadmill for 8 weeks, two, three, or five times per week, and their hippocampi and quadriceps femoris muscles were then dissected. Biomarkers of oxidative damage were negatively correlated with the frequency of exercise and mitochondrial muscular activity, while the sulfhydryl contents were positively correlated with exercise frequency. A logistic analysis revealed a dose-dependent effect of exercise on these biomarkers. In summary, these results suggested that manipulating the frequency of physical exercise could induce antioxidant-related adaptations in the hippocampi of adult mice. PMID:24858240

Speck, Ana Elisa; Tromm, Camila Baumer; Pozzi, Bruna Gianatassio; Paganini, Carla Souza; Tuon, Talita; Silveira, Paulo C L; Aguiar, Aderbal Silva; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

2014-08-01

201

Treatment of Knee Arthrofibrosis and Quadriceps Insufficiency after Patellar Tendon Repair: A Case Report Including Use of the Graston Technique  

PubMed Central

Arthrofibrosis of the knee is a surgical complication that can limit range of motion, inhibit muscle activity, and decrease patient function. Optimal conservative treatment has not been well established in the literature, leaving a clinician with limited evidence for treatment planning. Described here is part of the rehabilitative course of care for a patient with arthrofibrotic limitations after a mid-substance patellar tendon repair with augmentation. Marked limitations in knee flexion range of motion and quadriceps activity were addressed using the Graston Technique to deal with soft-tissue adhesions; traditional physical therapy care was also provided. Clear improvement in range of motion and quadriceps activity and function was noted over the course of 5 treatments during 1 month. Treatment process and clinical reasoning are offered to promote understanding and to facilitate future inquiry. PMID:21589706

Black, Douglass W.

2010-01-01

202

Bilateral, spontaneous and simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Report of five cases.  

PubMed

Bilateral and simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon of the knee without significant trauma in five patients, two males and three females, with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism is reported. Ruptures of the extensor mechanism are relatively rare injuries. Unilateral rupture is more common. Bilateral, simultaneous and spontaneous rupture is a very rare condition and only eleven cases have been reported in patients with a number of systemic diseases. Two cases have also been described in healthy subjects. The following points contribute to the diagnosis of quadriceps tendon rupture: 1) sudden pain and inability to extend the knee, 2) a palpable defect above the patella, 3) lateral x-rays with technique for soft tissue, reveal a defect and anterior tilting of the proximal pole of the patella. Operative repair of the ruptured tendon was the treatment in all our cases and gave excellent results. PMID:1785948

Provelegios, S; Markakis, P; Cambouroglou, G; Choumis, G; Dounis, E

1991-01-01

203

Anatomically Anchored Template-Based Level Set Segmentation: Application to Quadriceps Muscles in MR Images from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a semi-automated segmentation method for magnetic resonance images of the quadriceps muscles. Our\\u000a method uses an anatomically anchored, template-based initialization of the level set-based segmentation approach. The method\\u000a only requires the input of a single point from the user inside the rectus femoris. The templates are quantitatively selected\\u000a from a set of images based on

Jeffrey W. Prescott; Thomas M. Best; Mark S. Swanson; Furqan Haq; Rebecca D. Jackson; Metin N. Gurcan

2011-01-01

204

The effect of mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy on the quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion in elite fencers  

PubMed Central

To investigate how mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy (PT) affects quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion, this case-control study examined elite fencers who continue to train and play fully with mild tendon pains. Twenty-four elite fencers (10 women) with mild symptomatic PT and 24 controls (10 women) participated in the study. Concentric/eccentric isokinetic strength of the quadriceps was tested, and peak torque and total work were recorded. Kinematic data from the knee during the Fente motion were collected. The first analysis period (P1) was after heel contact to the maximal flexion of the knee, and the second (P2) was right after P1 to heel-off. Normalized peak torque and work of concentric/eccentric contractions were not significantly different. Affected fencers demonstrated significantly reduced angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.042). The male fencers did not demonstrate any differences. The affected female fencers demonstrated significantly weaker concentric peak torque at 60°·s-1 (p = 0. 009) and 180°·s-1 (p = 0.047) and less concentric work at 60°·s-1 (p = 0.020). They also demonstrated significantly reduced average angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.001). Therefore, mild symptomatic PT seems to have an effect on the isokinetic concentric contraction of the quadriceps and the angular velocity of the knee during the backward Fente motion in elite female fencers who are participating fully in training and competition. Key points It is likely that even mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy could affect the athletic performances in elite fencers. Elite female fencers are more likely to be affected substantially by symptomatic patellar tendinopathy in their sporting ability than male fencers. Because weak concentric knee extensors may affect the performance in fencing, not only eccentric training for symptomatic patellar tendinopathy but also proper concentric training of the quadriceps may be helpful in a rehabilitation program of elite female fencers who are participating fully in their training and competition. PMID:24149561

Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Eunkuk; Park, Jongchul; Kang, Hyunyong

2011-01-01

205

Contractile Properties and Fiber Type Distribution of Quadriceps Muscles in Adults with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults with GH deficiency (GHD) report weakness and fatigability. The origin of such symptoms is still debated. This work aimed to clarify whether weakness and fatigability depend on impairment of skeletal muscle contractile capacity. Five males with childhood-onset GHD (age 6 SE, 29.6 6 1.9) and 13 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area

R. Bottinelli; M. NARICI; M. A. PELLEGRINO; B. KAYSER; M. CANEPARI; G. FAGLIA; A. SARTORIO

1997-01-01

206

Intrinsic risk factors of non-contact quadriceps and hamstring strains in soccer: a prospective study of 100 professional players  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo identify the intrinsic risk factors of non-contact strains in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles of professional soccer players via a cohort prospective design.MethodsA total of 100 professional soccer players (aged 19.4–27.8 years) from four professional teams underwent a composite musculoskeletal assessment at preseason. Intrinsic risk factors included dichotomies of asymmetries in muscle strength, flexibility, proprioception, anthropometry and knee joint

Konstantinos Fousekis; Elias Tsepis; Peter Poulmedis; Spyros Athanasopoulos; George Vagenas

2011-01-01

207

The importance of quadriceps and hamstring muscle loading on knee kinematics and in-situ forces in the ACL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of hamstring co-contraction with quadriceps on the kinematics of the human knee joint and the in-situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during a simulated isometric extension motion of the knee. Cadaveric human knee specimens (n=10) were tested using the robotic\\/universal force–moment sensor (UFS) system and measurements of knee kinematics and in-situ forces in

G Li; T. W Rudy; M Sakane; A Kanamori; C. B Ma; S. L.-Y Woo

1999-01-01

208

Maximal peak torque as a predictor of angle-specific torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study assessed the relationship between the isokinetic peak torque (PT) (speed of movement 1.05 and 3.14 rads–1) and the angle-specific torques (ASTs) at 0.26 and 1.31 rad of knee flexion in multiple contractions of the quadriceps and hamstrings in 70 individuals with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency and 78 individuals with a chronic medial collateral ligament (MCL)

P. Kannus; M. Jiirvinen; M. Lehto

1991-01-01

209

Evidence for determining the exercise prescription in patients with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise. PMID:23445861

Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A

2013-02-01

210

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft for adolescents with open physes- a technical note  

PubMed Central

Background One major concern in the treatment of ACL lesions in children and adolescents with open physes is the risk of iatrogenic damage to the physes and a possibly resulting growth disturbance. Purpose The primary purpose of this article is to describe our technique of a transphyseal ACL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-bone autograft in children and adolescents with open growth plates. The secondary aim is to report our early results in terms of postoperative growth disturbances which are considered to be a major concern in this challenging group of patients. It was our hypothesis that with our proposed technique no significant growth disturbances would occur. Methods From January 1997 to December 2007 49 consecutive children and adolescents with open growth plates were treated for a torn ACL using the aforementioned surgical technique. The patients (28 males and 21 females) with a median age at surgery of 13 (range 8-15) years were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures were follow-up radiographs (weight-bearing long leg radiographs of the injured and uninjured knee, anteroposterior and lateral views, a tangential view of the patella and a tunnel view of the injured knee) and follow-up notes (6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months and until closing of physes) for occurrence of any tibial and/or femoral growth changes. Results: All of the 49 patients had a sufficient clinical and radiological follow-up (minimum 5 years, rate 100%). 48 cases did not show any clinical and radiological growth disturbance. One case of growth disturbance in a 10.5 years old girl was observed. She developed a progressive valgus-flexion deformity which was attributed to a malplacement of the autograft bone block within the femoral posterolateral epiphyseal plate leading to an early localized growth stop. None of the patients were reoperated due to ACL graft failure. Five of the patients underwent revision ACL surgery due to another adequate sports trauma after the growth-stop. The tibial fixation screw had to be removed under local anaesthesia in 10 patients. Conclusions The described ACL reconstruction technique represents a promising alternative to previously described procedures in the treatment of children and adolescents with open growth plates. Using quadriceps tendon future graft availability is not compromised, as the most frequently used autograft-source, ipsilateral hamstring tendons, remains untouched. PMID:21477319

2011-01-01

211

Strengthening the public health system.  

PubMed

Although the American public health system has made major contributions to life expectancy for residents of this country over the past century, the system now faces more complex health problems that require comprehensive approaches and increased capacity, particularly in local and State public health agencies. To strengthen the public health system, concerted action is needed to meet these five critical needs: First, the knowledge base of public health workers needs to be supplemented through on-the-job training and continuing education programs. To this end, self-study courses will be expanded, and a network of regional training centers will be established throughout the country. Second, communities need dynamic leadership from public health officials and their agencies. To enhance leadership skills and expand the leadership role of public health agencies, focused personal leadership development activities, including a Public Health Leadership Institute, and national conferences will provide a vision of the future role of public health agencies. Third, local and State public health agencies need access to data on the current health status of the people in their communities and guidance from the nation's public health experts. To improve access to information resources, state-of-the-art technologies will be deployed to create integrated information and communication systems linking all components of the public health system. Fourth, local and State agencies need disease prevention and health promotion plans that target problems and develop strategies and the capacity to address them. To provide communities with structured approaches to this process, planning tools have been developed and distributed, and technical assistance will be provided to local and State health agencies to involve each community in planning,priority setting, and constituency building.Finally, public health agencies need adequate resources to fund prevention programs. To improve the use of existing Federal support and enhance the availability of new community resources, grant programs will be modified, and innovative approaches to local resource enhancement will be developed and shared.Activities in these five key areas are designed to improve the infrastructure of the public health system and its capacity to carry out effectively the core functions of public health assessment, policy development, and assurance of the availability of the benefits of public health. If the nation is to achieve the health objectives for the year 2000, the public health system-the individuals and institutions that, when working effectively together, promote and protect the health of the people-must be strengthened. PMID:1454972

Roper, W L; Baker, E L; Dyal, W W; Nicola, R M

1992-01-01

212

Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise?  

PubMed

Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:22365798

Pritchard, Mary E; Beaver, Jessica L

2012-04-01

213

Peripheral fatigue limits endurance exercise via a sensory feedback-mediated reduction in spinal motoneuronal output  

PubMed Central

This study sought to determine whether afferent feedback associated with peripheral muscle fatigue inhibits central motor drive (CMD) and thereby limits endurance exercise performance. On two separate days, eight men performed constant-load, single-leg knee extensor exercise to exhaustion (85% of peak power) with each leg (Leg1 and Leg2). On another day, the performance test was repeated with one leg (Leg1) and consecutively (within 10 s) with the other/contralateral leg (Leg2-post). Exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue was assessed by reductions in potentiated quadriceps twitch-force from pre- to postexercise (?Qtw,pot) in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation. The output from spinal motoneurons, estimated from quadriceps electromyography (iEMG), was used to reflect changes in CMD. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded during exercise. Time to exhaustion (?9.3 min) and exercise-induced ?Qtw,pot (?51%) were similar in Leg1 and Leg2 (P > 0.5). In the consecutive leg trial, endurance performance of the first leg was similar to that observed during the initial trial (?9.3 min; P = 0.8); however, time to exhaustion of the consecutively exercising contralateral leg (Leg2-post) was shorter than the initial Leg2 trial (4.7 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 0.4 min; P < 0.01). Additionally, ?Qtw,pot following Leg2-post was less than Leg2 (33 ± 3 vs 52 ± 3%; P < 0.01). Although the slope of iEMG was similar during Leg2 and Leg2-post, end-exercise iEMG following Leg2-post was 26% lower compared with Leg2 (P < 0.05). Despite a similar rate of rise, RPE was consistently ?28% higher throughout Leg2-post vs. Leg2 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that peripheral fatigue and associated afferent feedback limits the development of peripheral fatigue and compromises endurance exercise performance by inhibiting CMD. PMID:23722705

Venturelli, Massimo; Ives, Stephen J.; McDaniel, John; Layec, Gwenael; Rossman, Matthew J.; Richardson, Russell S.

2013-01-01

214

Improved key health outcomes in women with fibromyalgia undergoing different supervised exercise programmes: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the relative effects of supervised aerobic exercise (AE) with a combined programme of supervised aerobic, muscle strengthening and flexibility exercises on important health outcomes in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM). Sixty-four women diagnosed with FM were randomly allocated to one of three groups: AE, combined exercise (CE) or usual care control. They

B Sañudo; L Carrasco; J Saxton; D Galiano; M de Hoyo

2010-01-01

215

27 CFR 44.124 - Strengthening bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.124 Section 44.124 Alcohol, Tobacco...WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds § 44.124 Strengthening bond. Where...

2010-04-01

216

Flexural Strengthening of Prestressed Bridge Slabs  

E-print Network

University Raleigh, North Carolina 76 Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials offer great potential for cost the feasibility of using different strengthening techniques as well as different types of FRP for strengthening. Consequently, the steel reinforcement in concrete structures becomes susceptible to rusting and corrosion

217

BOND PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT FRP STRENGTHENING SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

program conducted to evaluate bond characteristics of CFRP reinforcement bonded to concrete beams. A total strengthening techniques were investigated, including near surface mounted CFRP bars, strips and externally bonded CFRP sheets. For each strengthening technique, different bond lengths were considered. Design

218

Impact of Pain Reported During Isometric Quadriceps Muscle Strength Testing in People With Knee Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Methods Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Results Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from ?.36 (95% confidence interval=?.41, ?.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. Limitations The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Conclusions Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms and disease, the data suggest that isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests maintain their relationship with self-report or performance-based disability measures even when pain is elicited during testing. PMID:21835892

Stratford, Paul W.

2011-01-01

219

Impaired calcium pump function does not slow relaxation in human skeletal muscle after prolonged exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of prolonged exercise on human quadriceps muscle contractile function and homogenate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-adenosinetriphosphatase activity. Ten untrained men cycled at 75 +/- 2% (SE) peak oxygen consumption until exhaustion. Biopsies were taken from the right vastus lateralis muscle at rest, exhaustion, and 20 and 60 min postexercise. Peak tension and half relaxation time of the left quadriceps muscle were measured during electrically evoked twitch and tetanic contractions and a maximal voluntary isometric contraction at rest, exhaustion, and 10, 20, and 60 min postexercise. At exhaustion, homogenate Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ adenosinetriphosphatase activity were reduced by 17 +/- 4 and 21 +/- 5%, respectively, and remained depressed after 60 min recovery (P exercise by 28 +/- 3, 45 +/- 6, 65 +/- 5%, respectively (P exercise reduced muscle Ca2+ uptake, but this did not cause a slower relaxation of evoked contractions. PMID:9262447

Booth, J; McKenna, M J; Ruell, P A; Gwinn, T H; Davis, G M; Thompson, M W; Harmer, A R; Hunter, S K; Sutton, J R

1997-08-01

220

Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

2003-12-01

221

Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

2001-06-01

222

Exercise-Induced Urticaria  

MedlinePLUS

... I get hives during exercise? You should stop exercising as soon as you notice the hives. If ... exercise? You probably don't have to quit exercising. Most symptoms can be controlled by taking the ...

223

[Exercise addiction].  

PubMed

Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

2013-01-01

224

Aerobic Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study, using a modified single systems design, attempted to answer the question: what effect does an occupational therapy aerobic exercise program have on adolescents with depression? The sample was comprised of four adolescent boys from a private psychiatric hospital. Their ages ranged from 12 to 18 years and all had a primary diagnosis of major depression. The program

Chestina B. Brollier; Natalie Hamrick; Beth Jacobson

1995-01-01

225

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

226

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

227

Treadmill Exercise Induces Neutrophil Recruitment into Muscle Tissue in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner. An Intravital Microscopy Study  

PubMed Central

Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase) mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process. PMID:24798414

Nunes-Silva, Albena; Bernardes, Priscila T. T.; Rezende, Barbara M.; Lopes, Fernando; Gomes, Elisa C.; Marques, Pedro E.; Lima, Paulo M. A.; Coimbra, Candido C.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Pinho, Vanessa

2014-01-01

228

Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training appeared to attenuate the increased Passive tilt-tolerance.

Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

2001-01-01

229

Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages  

PubMed Central

The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. PMID:22852050

Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A.; Luden, Nicholas D.; Smith, Alexia G.; Womack, Christopher J.; Saunders, Michael J.

2012-01-01

230

Recovery from cycling exercise: effects of carbohydrate and protein beverages.  

PubMed

The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO(2peak): 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285-300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO(2peak) + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. PMID:22852050

Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A; Luden, Nicholas D; Smith, Alexia G; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J

2012-07-01

231

Effect of Exercise Speed and Isokinetic Feedback on the Middle and Lower Serratus Anterior Muscles during Push-up Exercises  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study assessed the use of different exercise speeds and isokinetic feedback on the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles during push-up exercises. [Subjects] Ten male workers voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up exercises under three conditions. Surface electrodes were placed on the dominant right side of the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles. [Results] The middle and lower SA muscle activities under condition 2 were significantly decreased when compared with those under conditions 1 and 3. The middle SA activity under condition 3 was significantly increased when compared with that under condition 1. [Conclusion] This study suggests that proper selection of push-up exercise speed may be necessary for selective strengthening of the SA and that isokinetic feedback information obtained using an accelerator can help in selective strengthening of the middle SA. PMID:24926123

Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

232

Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1989-01-01

233

Operation Restore Hope: Strengthening Multilateral Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States' 1994 National Security Strategy emphasized the strengthening of the United Nations' (UN) capability to conduct multilateral operations. This thesis analyzes U.S. policy decisions made during the 1992- 1994 Somali crisis and Operation Re...

J. M. Alexander

2013-01-01

234

Strengthening the Global Financing Architecture for  

E-print Network

Strengthening the Global Financing Architecture for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child was commissioned by the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH), and prepared by SEEK, maternal, newborn and child health: options for action Table of Contents Abbreviations

Klein, Ophir

235

27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds....

2011-04-01

236

27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In...

2013-04-01

237

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Quadriceps Tendon Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, many surgeons have chosen the quadriceps tendon (QT) as an autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, there have not been biomechanical studies that quantitatively evaluated knee function after reconstruction using a QT autograft. Purpose To measure the 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics and in situ graft forces after reconstruction with a QT autograft compared with a quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis (QSTG) tendon autograft. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten human cadaveric knees (age, 54–64 years) were tested in 3 conditions: (1) intact, (2) ACL deficient, and (3) after ACL reconstruction using a QT or QSTG autograft. With use of a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system, knee kinematics and in situ forces in the ACL and autografts were obtained at 5 knee flexion angles under externally applied loads: (1) 134-N anterior tibial load, (2) 134-N anterior tibial load with 200-N axial compression, and (3) 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal tibial torque. Results Under the anterior tibial load, both autografts restored anterior tibial translation to within 2.5 mm of the intact knee and in situ forces to within 20 N of the intact ACL at 15°, 30°, and 60°. Adding compression did not change these findings. With the combined rotatory load, the anterior tibial translation and graft in situ forces were again not significantly different from the intact ACL. There were no significant differences between the grafts under any experimental condition. Conclusion Reconstruction of the ACL with a QT autograft restored knee function to similar levels as that reconstructed with a QSTG autograft under loads simulating clinical examinations. Clinical Relevance The positive biomechanical results of this cadaveric study lend support to the use of a QT autograft for ACL reconstruction, as it could restore knee function immediately after surgery under applied loads that mimic clinical examinations. PMID:24401682

Sasaki, Norihiro; Farraro, Kathryn F.; Kim, Kwang E.; Woo, Savio L-Y.

2014-01-01

238

Sonography of the quadriceps muscle: Examination technique, normal anatomy, and traumatic lesions  

PubMed Central

Lesions of the quadriceps muscle (QM) are frequently seen by sonographers, and in most cases they are the result of sports-related trauma. An accurate assessment of the severity of the lesion is essential, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete. In most cases, careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination are sufficient for making the diagnosis and indicating the most suitable imaging studies for each case. Clinical assessment alone, however, may not be sufficient for distinguishing contusions from small, partial tears or for estimating the size of a tear. Therefore, at least in patients who are professional athletes, imaging studies are necessary to plan appropriate therapy that will allow prompt functional recovery. Muscles cannot be visualized with conventional radiography, but it is used routinely in prepubertal patients because it can detect apophyseal detachments, which are the most frequent muscle lesion in this age group. Radiography is also useful when myositis ossificans is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging, thanks to its excellent tissue contrast, allows simultaneous assessment of muscle, joint, and bone planes. It remains a second-line study due to its high cost and relatively low availability. It is also associated with various contraindications, the most important of which is the presence of a cardiac pacemaker. Ultrasonography has a number of advantages, including widespread availability, absence of contraindications, and low cost. It can also be used for dynamic studies of the muscle during contraction and relaxation, and if doubts arise, scans can easily be obtained of the contralateral muscle for comparison purposes. These qualities make it an excellent tool for follow-up of patients with QM lesions, when follow-up is necessary. This article reviews the anatomy of the QM, the technique used for standard ultrasound examination of this muscle, its normal appearance on ultrasound, and the sonographic characteristics of the most common traumatic lesions that affect it. PMID:23396806

Pasta, G.; Nanni, G.; Molini, L.; Bianchi, S.

2010-01-01

239

Optimisation of Shear Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams  

E-print Network

theory (SFT) (Loov, 1998) and the modified compression field theory (MCFT) (Vecchio and Collins, 1986) have been adapted to predict the capacity of CFRP strap strengthened beams (Hoult and Lees, 2009b; Lees et al., 2002; Yapa, 2011). Finite... these solutions. So optimisation can play a role in reducing the length of time for the evaluation process (hereafter referred to as ‘evaluation’). The MCFT and the SFT will be used as examples of evaluation methods for unstrengthened and CFRP strengthened beams...

Yapa, Hiran D.; Lees, Janet M.

2014-05-21

240

There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death  

E-print Network

/or dying from heart disease Reduce high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure Alleviates menstrual cramps. Boost the immune system Exercise strengthens your heart and lungs. Exercise pressure. Obesity doubles the risk of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2

Paxton, Anthony T.

241

Design of a Device to Exercise Hip Extensor Muscles in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have weak hip extensor muscles and gait-related difficulties. Current therapeutic techniques do not provide sufficient exercise for this muscle group. In addition to calisthenics, therapists use a traditional tricycle to strengthen leg muscles, yet the mechanics of traditional tricycles are not effective in exercising hip extensor muscles. A new therapeutic tricycle was designed specifically

Glade H. Howell; Don R. Brown; Donald S. Bloswick; Jeffrey Bean; Judith L. Gooch

1993-01-01

242

Interval training guidance system with music and wireless group exercise motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interval training is a well known exercise protocol which helps strengthen and improve one's cardiovascular fitness. It interleaves high intensity exercises with rest periods. Despite the known benefits, proper scheduling and completion of interval training routines are not easy to perform. For example, without expensive equipment such as a treadmill, there is almost no way to figure out one's speed

Myung-kyung Suh; Kyujoong Lee; Ani Nahapetian; Majid Sarrafzadeh

2009-01-01

243

Augmenting Exercise Systems with Virtual Exercise Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhering to an exercise program is a challenge for everybody who wants to build a healthier body and lifestyle through physical\\u000a exercise. We have developed an Virtual Exercise Environment (VEE) that augments stationary exercise equipment with virtual\\u000a reality techniques to make exercising more enjoyable. Our VEE system consists of a recording system to capture video, distance\\u000a and incline data about

Wei Xu; Jaeheon Jeong; Jane Mulligan

2009-01-01

244

The muscle oxidative regulatory response to acute exercise is not impaired in less advanced COPD despite a decreased oxidative phenotype.  

PubMed

Already in an early disease stage, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are confronted with impaired skeletal muscle function and physical performance due to a loss of oxidative type I muscle fibers and oxidative capacity (i.e. oxidative phenotype; Oxphen). Physical activity is a well-known stimulus of muscle Oxphen and crucial for its maintenance. We hypothesized that a blunted response of Oxphen genes to an acute bout of exercise could contribute to decreased Oxphen in COPD. For this, 28 patients with less advanced COPD (age 65 ± 7 yrs, FEV1 59 ± 16% predicted) and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed an incremental cycle ergometry test. The Oxphen response to exercise was determined by the measurement of gene expression levels of Oxphen markers in pre and 4h-post exercise quadriceps biopsies. Because exercise-induced hypoxia and oxidative stress may interfere with Oxphen response, oxygen saturation and oxidative stress markers were assessed as well. Regardless of oxygen desaturation and absolute exercise intensities, the Oxphen regulatory response to exercise was comparable between COPD patients and controls with no evidence of increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, the muscle Oxphen regulatory response to acute exercise is not blunted in less advanced COPD, regardless of exercise-induced hypoxia. Hence, this study provides further rationale for incorporation of exercise training as integrated part of disease management to prevent or slow down loss of muscle Oxphen and related functional impairment in COPD. PMID:24587251

Slot, Ilse G M; van den Borst, Bram; Hellwig, Valéry A C V; Barreiro, Esther; Schols, Annemie M W J; Gosker, Harry R

2014-01-01

245

Transcriptome Analysis in Venom Gland of the Predatory Giant Ant Dinoponera quadriceps: Insights into the Polypeptide Toxin Arsenal of Hymenopterans  

PubMed Central

Background Dinoponera quadriceps is a predatory giant ant that inhabits the Neotropical region and subdues its prey (insects) with stings that deliver a toxic cocktail of molecules. Human accidents occasionally occur and cause local pain and systemic symptoms. A comprehensive study of the D. quadriceps venom gland transcriptome is required to advance our knowledge about the toxin repertoire of the giant ant venom and to understand the physiopathological basis of Hymenoptera envenomation. Results We conducted a transcriptome analysis of a cDNA library from the D. quadriceps venom gland with Sanger sequencing in combination with whole-transcriptome shotgun deep sequencing. From the cDNA library, a total of 420 independent clones were analyzed. Although the proportion of dinoponeratoxin isoform precursors was high, the first giant ant venom inhibitor cysteine-knot (ICK) toxin was found. The deep next generation sequencing yielded a total of 2,514,767 raw reads that were assembled into 18,546 contigs. A BLAST search of the assembled contigs against non-redundant and Swiss-Prot databases showed that 6,463 contigs corresponded to BLASTx hits and indicated an interesting diversity of transcripts related to venom gene expression. The majority of these venom-related sequences code for a major polypeptide core, which comprises venom allergens, lethal-like proteins and esterases, and a minor peptide framework composed of inter-specific structurally conserved cysteine-rich toxins. Both the cDNA library and deep sequencing yielded large proportions of contigs that showed no similarities with known sequences. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the venom gland transcriptome of the New World giant ant D. quadriceps. The glandular venom system was dissected, and the toxin arsenal was revealed; this process brought to light novel sequences that included an ICK-folded toxins, allergen proteins, esterases (phospholipases and carboxylesterases), and lethal-like toxins. These findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology, behavior and venomics of hymenopterans. PMID:24498135

Chong, Cheong-Meng; Leung, Siu Wai; Prieto-da-Silva, Alvaro R. B.; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves P.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Radis-Baptista, Gandhi

2014-01-01

246

Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps Strength Capacity in Professional Soccer Players with Different Conventional Isokinetic Muscle Strength Ratios  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength imbalance can be an important factor in hamstrings muscle strain. A hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio based on concentric peak torque values (Hcon:Qcon) has traditionally been used to describe the potential for knee-joint destabilization. Because certain standard actions in soccer are explosive, the analysis of the H/Q strength ratio based on the rate of torque development (Hrtd:Qrtd) might also be useful in the evaluation of joint stability. The objective of this study was to compare the Hrtd:Qrtd between professional soccer players with heterogeneous values of Hcon:Qcon. Thirty-nine professional soccer players took part in the following procedures on different days: 1) Familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, and 2) Two maximal isometric actions and five maximal concentric actions at 60°·s-1 for hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q). Participants were ranked according to their Hcon:Qcon ratio. The median third was excluded to form a high torque group (HTG), and a low torque group (LTG). Peak isometric (H) and concentric (H and Q) torques and rate of torque development (H) were significantly greater in the HTG group. Similarly, Hcon:Qcon (0.68 ± 0.02 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03) and Hrtd:Qrtd (0.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.43 ± 0.16) were significantly greater in the HTG group than in the LTG group. There was no significant correlation between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd. It can be concluded that Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms. Thus, the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd to an athlete’s individual evaluation might be different. Key pointsSoccer players with high (0.66-0.70) and low (0.50-0.54) conventional concentric hamstrings:quadriceps ratios (Hcon:Qcon) tend to demonstrate similar profiles (i.e., high and low, respectively) in their rate of the torque development H/Q ratio (Hrtd:Qrtd).The lack of a significant relationship between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd suggests that these ratios are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms.Preseason screening programs that monitor hamstrings:quadriceps ratios should recognize that the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrfd:Qrfd to an athlete’s individual evaluation might be different. PMID:24149348

Greco, Camila C.; Da Silva, Wendell L.; Camarda, Sergio R.A.; Denadai, Benedito S.

2012-01-01

247

Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1993-01-01

248

Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.  

PubMed

The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. PMID:24814689

McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

2014-12-01

249

Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1991-01-01

250

Muscle Injury after Repeated Bouts of Voluntary and Electrically Stimulated Exercise  

PubMed Central

Repeated bouts of eccentric exercise reduce the amount of exercise-induced muscle injury. Purpose This study sought to evaluate the importance of neural adaptations by comparing the repeated bout effect on muscle injury caused by voluntary and electrically stimulated eccentric exercise. Methods Sixteen subjects (nine men, seven women) were assigned into two groups; electrical stimulation (STIM) and voluntary (VOL). Each group performed 2 identical bouts of 80 eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris (QF) through a 90° arc at ?45°·s-1, separated by 7 wk. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the QF were obtained before and 3 d after each exercise bout. Injury was assessed by determining changes in T2 relaxation time and muscle volume 3 d after exercise, and changes in isometric force and ratings of soreness for 28 d after exercise. Results The initial bout of exercise caused significant changes in T2 relaxation time, isometric force, and ratings of soreness in both STIM and VOL groups (P < 0.05). After the repeated bout, significantly smaller changes were noted in soreness ratings (P < 0.05), mean change in T2 (P < 0.05), and percentage of the QF demonstrating an increase in T2 (P < 0.05) compared with the initial bout in both exercise groups. Conclusions A repeated-bout effect was observed after electrically stimulated exercise, and the magnitude of the effect was similar to that observed with voluntary exercise. This suggests that the primary mechanism for the reduction in muscle injury after repeated exercise bouts is not related to changes in muscle recruitment and is potentially related to structural changes within the muscles. PMID:18685531

BLACK, CHRISTOPHER D.; MCCULLY, KEVIN K.

2009-01-01

251

Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

252

Prenatal Exercise Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range,

Tiffany Field

253

Glutathione homeostasis in response to exercise training and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione plays a central role in the maintenance of tissue antioxidant defenses and in the regulation of redox sensitive signal transduction. In muscle cells, the level and redox status of GSH regulates activity of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-?B. Physical exercise may cause oxidation of GSH in tissues such as the blood, skeletal muscle and liver. Endurance training strengthened

Chandan K. Sen

1999-01-01

254

Exercise stress test  

MedlinePLUS

... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

255

Fisioterapia em pacientes com síndrome fêmoro-patelar: comparação de exercícios em cadeia cinética aberta e fechada  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of muscular strengthening in the functional recovery of patellofemoral syn- drome (PFS) patients. Twenty female patients with PFS were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) performing quadriceps femoris strengthening exercises in open kinetic chain (OKC) and Group 2 (G2) in closed kinetic chain (CKC), twice a week for

Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral; Ângela Maria de Oliveira Melim; Isabel de Camargo Neves Sacco; Amélia Pasqual Marques

2008-01-01

256

Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1993-01-01

257

Impaired exercise tolerance and skeletal muscle myopathy in sulfonylurea receptor-2 mutant mice  

PubMed Central

By sensing intracellular energy levels, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels help regulate vascular tone, glucose metabolism, and cardioprotection. SUR2 mutant mice lack full-length KATP channels in striated and smooth muscle and display a complex phenotype of hypertension and coronary vasospasm. SUR2 mutant mice also display baseline cardioprotection and can withstand acute sympathetic stress better than normal mice. We now studied response to a form of chronic stress, namely that induced by 4 wk of daily exercise on SUR2 mutant mice. Control mice increased exercise capacity by 400% over the training period, while SUR2 mutant mice showed little increase in exercise capacity. Unexercised SUR2 mutant showed necrotic and regenerating fibers in multiple muscle skeletal muscles, including quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and diaphragm muscles. Unlike exercised control animals, SUR2 mutant mice did not lose weight, presumably due to less overall exertion. Unexercised SUR2 mutant mice showed a trend of mildly reduced cardiac function, measured by fractional shortening, (46 ± 4% vs. 57 ± 7% for SUR2 mutant and control, respectively), and this decrease was not exacerbated by chronic exercise exposure. Despite an improved response to acute sympathetic stress and baseline cardioprotection, exercise intolerance results from lack of SUR2 KATP channels in mice. PMID:19675276

Stoller, Douglas; Pytel, Peter; Katz, Sophie; Earley, Judy U.; Collins, Keith; Metcalfe, Jamie; Lang, Roberto M.

2009-01-01

258

Emergency exercise methodology  

SciTech Connect

Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

Klimczak, C.A.

1993-03-01

259

Emergency exercise methodology  

SciTech Connect

Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

Klimczak, C.A.

1993-01-01

260

A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.  

PubMed

Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use. PMID:24666811

Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

2014-07-01

261

Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on fatigue recovery of the quadriceps.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at selected acupoints on enhancing the rate of muscle force recovery after strenuous knee extension/flexion exercise. Ten male and seven female healthy young adults participated in this study in which they performed isokinetic knee fatigue exercise on the Biodex System 3 ergometer on three separate days. After the familiarization trial on day 1, subjects underwent 15 min of either TEAS or pseudo-TEAS recovery treatment after the isokinetic exercise in the following two trials on days 2 and 3, respectively. The TEAS treatment was applied on four selected acupoints [Zusanli (ST36), Chenshan (BL57), Yanglingquan (GB34) and Sanyinjiao (SP6)] while the pseudo-TEAS treatment was applied to the points away from the true acupoints. Isometric knee extension peak torque was measured before and immediately after the test exercise, and again during the 15-min recovery period at 5-min intervals. Blood lactate and median power frequency (MF) of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were also measured at the same time points. The results indicated that the TEAS treatment was significantly more effective than the pseudo-TEAS treatment in enhancing the rate of muscle force recovery (knee extension peak torque recovery after 15 min, from 155 to 195 Nm in TEAS group and from 155 to 182 Nm in the pseudo-TEAS group), but had no effect on lactate removal and MF restitution rate. It is proposed that pain control is a plausible mechanism to explain the benefit of TEAS treatment. As TEAS is a non-invasive and simple treatment, it is feasible to apply it during and immediately after training. PMID:17546460

So, Raymond C H; Ng, Joseph K-F; Ng, Gabriel Y F

2007-08-01

262

Implications of group III and IV muscle afferents for high-intensity endurance exercise performance in humans  

PubMed Central

Abstract We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents on peripheral fatigue, central motor drive (CMD) and endurance capacity during high-intensity leg-cycling. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, seven males performed constant-load cycling exercise (318 ± 9 W; 80% of peak power output (Wpeak)) to exhaustion under placebo conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing spinal ?-opioid receptor-sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents. Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in pre- vs. post-exercise quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (?Qtw,pot). CMD was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. To rule out a direct central effect of fentanyl, we documented unchanged resting cardioventilatory responses. Compared to placebo, significant hypoventilation during the fentanyl trial was indicated by the 9% lower /, causing a 5 mmHg increase in end-tidal and a 3% lower haemoglobin saturation. Arterial pressure and heart rate averaged 8 and 10% lower, respectively, during the fentanyl trial and these differences progressively diminished towards end-exercise. Although initially similar, the percent change in CMD was 9 ± 3% higher at end-exercise with fentanyl vs. placebo (P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was shorter (6.8 ± 0.3 min vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 min) and end-exercise ?Qtw,pot was about one-third greater (–44 ± 2%vs.–34 ± 2%) following fentanyl vs. placebo. The rate of peripheral fatigue development was 67 ± 10% greater during the fentanyl trial (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that feedback from group III/IV muscle afferents limits CMD but also minimizes locomotor muscle fatigue development by stimulating adequate ventilatory and circulatory responses to exercise. In the face of blocked group III/IV muscle afferents, CMD is less inhibited but O2 transport compromised and locomotor muscle fatigability is exacerbated with a combined net effect of a reduced endurance performance. PMID:21878520

Amann, Markus; Blain, Gregory M; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

2011-01-01

263

Quadriceps tendon tear rupture in healthy patients treated with patellar drilling holes: clinical and ultrasonographic analysis after 36 months of follow-up  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: quadriceps tendon subcutaneous rupture is an uncommon injury affecting predominantly middle-aged men as a result of direct or indirect trauma; aim of this work is to evaluate clinical outcome and tendon morphology in patients treated surgically with transpatellar drilling suture. Methods: 20 patients (20 male) with an average age of 54 (42–59) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 36 months. Measurements of range of motion (ROM) and of tight circumference were collected. Lysholm and Rougraff Score were also performed. All the patients underwent a US evaluation the morphologic changes of the repaired tendon. Results: mean active ROM was 1°–117°; average difference in the circumference of the quadriceps was 2.6% 10 C and 3.3% 15 C. The mean Lysholm Score calculated was 88/100; the mean Rougraff Score 17/25. At ultrasonographic evaluation all tendons were continuous; heterotopic ossification was present in 18 quadriceps tendons. Thickness was augmented in 18 quadriceps tendons and in 5 patellar tendons. Vascularization was always conserved. Lateral subluxation of patella was reported in 1 case. Conclusions: patellar drilling holes repair is a non-demanding procedure, inexpensive and technically uncomplicated. US evaluation confirms tendon healing; tendon remodeling does not affect patient’s clinical outcome and quality of life. Level of incidence: IV PMID:25332935

Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Zanelli, Matteo; Aliani, Davide; Corsini, Tiziana; Pellegrini, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

264

The Independent and Interactive Effects of Navicular Drop and Quadriceps Angle on Neuromuscular Responses to a Weight-Bearing Perturbation with COMMENTARY and AUTHORS' RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

***Note: Figures may be missing from this format of the document Abstract: Little is known about the effects of static alignment on neuromuscular control of the knee during dynamic motion. To evaluate the isolated and combined effects of quadriceps angle (QA) and navicular drop (ND) on neuromuscular responses to a weight-bearing perturbation. Mixed- model, repeated-measures design. Sports medicine and athletic

Sandra J Shultz; Christopher R Carcia; Bruce M Gansneder; David H Perrin; Glenn N

265

Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.  

PubMed

The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

1995-01-01

266

Strengthening the K12 Teacher Workforce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent national reports, calling attention to the need to increase and enrich the nation's science and engineering talent pool, are placing an increased emphasis on expanding and strengthening the teacher workforce. This article offers information about and links to NSF initiatives in STEM teacher improvement and recruitment.

Prival, Joan

2007-10-24

267

UC Santa Cruz strengthens the educational, economic,  

E-print Network

UC Santa Cruz strengthens the educational, economic, and cultural fabric of the entire Santa Cruz community Partners in Community 280 non-profit organizations in Santa Cruz County rely on the StudentSearCh GrantS and ContraCtS $178 million top employer in Santa Cruz County--more than the next four lar

Wilmers, Chris

268

Strengthening Connections Between Mothers and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a program in a domestic violence shelter that focuses on strengthening the connections between mothers and children. The program draws on trauma theory, art therapy, and a recursive model of communication. The paper describes how psychoeducation about the physiological and psychological effects of trauma is helpful to the families. It illustrates how art therapy is used to

Bettina Stronach Buschel; Libbe Hurvitz Madsen

2006-01-01

269

Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

2014-01-01

270

Strengthening Families Program Class 1: Developmental Expectations  

E-print Network

behavior is essential for a child's healthy development.. Strengthening Families Program Parenting, Problem- solving, and Giving Directions Class 5: Limit Setting Class 6: Implementing the Behavior Plan and Maintaining Good Behavior This workshop is designed for parents. The course will address issues and ways

271

A Concept Design for Strengthening Learner Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes types and functions of student contact points in distance education, including academic counseling and library services; proposes a contouring and catchment method to determine the concentration of registered students and prospective candidates; and applies the method to Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) for strengthening

Khare, Pankaj

2000-01-01

272

27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.  

...TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.94 Strengthening bonds...effect is not sufficient, the principal may prepay the tax on beer as provided in subpart K of this part, or give a...

2014-04-01

273

Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

2007-01-01

274

Combined Home Exercise Is More Effective Than Range-of-Motion Home Exercise in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS); however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB) and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM) in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n = 9) or ROM (n = 10) program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P = 0.008) and BASFI (P = 0.028), and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P = 0.033). This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability. PMID:25276785

Chuang, Chih-Cheng; Tseng, Ching-Shiang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Jia

2014-01-01

275

Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

1992-01-01

276

Continuous Femoral Nerve Blocks: Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method (Bolus versus Basal) to Minimize Quadriceps Motor Block while Maintaining Sensory Block  

PubMed Central

Background Whether the method of local anesthetic administration for continuous femoral nerve blocks —basal infusion versus repeated hourly bolus doses —influences block effects remains unknown. Methods Bilateral femoral perineural catheters were inserted in volunteers (n = 11). Ropivacaine 0.1% was administered through both catheters concurrently: a 6-h continuous 5 ml/h basal infusion on one side and 6 hourly bolus doses on the contralateral side. The primary endpoint was the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle at Hour 6. Secondary end points included quadriceps MVIC at other time points, hip adductor MVIC, and cutaneous sensation 2 cm medial to the distal quadriceps tendon in the 22 h following local anesthetic administration initiation. Results Quadriceps MVIC for limbs receiving 0.1% ropivacaine as a basal infusion declined by a mean (SD) of 84% (19) compared with 83% (24) for limbs receiving 0.1% ropivacaine as repeated bolus doses between baseline and Hour 6 (paired t test P = 0.91). Intrasubject comparisons (left vs. right) reflected a lack of difference as well: the mean basal-bolus difference in quadriceps MVIC at Hour 6 was ?1.1% (95% CI ?22.0 to 19.8%). The similarity did not reach our a priori threshold for concluding equivalence, which was the 95% CI falling within ± 20%. There were similar minimal differences in the secondary endpoints during local anesthetic administration. Conclusions This study did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that varying the method of local anesthetic administration —basal infusion versus repeated bolus doses —influences continuous femoral nerve block effects to a clinically significant degree. PMID:21394001

Charous, Matthew T.; Madison, Sarah J.; Suresh, J.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Mariano, Edward R.; Donohue, Michael C.; Dutton, Pascual H.; Ferguson, Eliza J.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

2011-01-01

277

Sport & Exercise General Information  

E-print Network

of your ability, fitness level or motivation to exercise the service has something to help you getSport & Exercise General Information Distinctly Active www.hw.ac.uk/sports Find us on Facebook at Centre for Sport and Exercise at Heriot-Watt University Follow us on Twitter Contact us: Sport & Exercise

Howie, Jim

278

Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

Elrick, Harold

1996-01-01

279

Electromyographic Evaluation of Closed and Open Kinetic Chain Knee Rehabilitation Exercises  

PubMed Central

The use of closed kinetic chain knee rehabilitation exercises has been advocated in recent years. The primary reason cited for employing closed kinetic chain exercises is that these exercises result in less anteroposterior (A/P) shear force at the knee joint, when compared with traditionally used open kinetic chain exercises. The purpose of this study was to determine the electromyographical (EMG) activity ratio of quadriceps to hamstrings occurring in the following exercises: unilateral one quarter squats, leg extensions (N-K Table), lateral step-ups, and movements on the Fitter (Fitter International, Inc), Stair-master 4000 (Randal Sports/Medical Products, Inc), and slideboard. Ten female student-athletes participated in this study. EMG surface electrodes were applied over the rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. The subjects completed three maximum isometric contractions for both muscle groups to obtain baseline EMG data. They then performed repetitions of each exercise. These movements were videotaped simultaneously with a stationary shuttered video camera operating at 30 Hz. A computer program was used to analyze the videotaped performances for knee joint range of motion (ROM). Three trials of data were averaged. Baseline EMG activity was used to determine percentage of maximum EMG activity for each exercise. There were significant differences (p.<01) among the exercises for the following dependent variables: ROM, maximum angle, percent of maximum contraction, time of contraction, and total EMG (EMG area under the curve). This study suggests that the five closed kinetic chain exercises studied result in minimal A/P shear forces at the knee joint. ImagesINGINGINGING PMID:16558199

Graham, Victoria L.; Gehlsen, Gale M.; Edwards, Jennifer A.

1993-01-01

280

Effect of triceps surae and quadriceps muscle fatigue on the mechanics of landing in stepping down in ongoing gait.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue of triceps surae and quadriceps muscles in stepping down in ongoing gait. We expected that the subjects would compensate for muscle fatigue to prevent potential loss of balance in stepping down. A total of 10 young participants walked over a walkway at a self-selected velocity to step down a height difference of 10-cm halfway. Five trials were performed before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Participants performed two fatigue protocols: one for ankle muscle fatigue and another for knee muscle fatigue. Kinematics of and ground reaction forces on the leading leg were recorded. Fatigue did not cause a change in the frequency of heel or toe landing. Our results indicate that in stepping down fatigue effects are compensated by redistributing work to unfatigued muscle groups and by gait changes aimed at enhancing balance control, which was however only partially successful. PMID:24697241

Barbieri, F A; Gobbi, L T B; Lee, Y J; Pijnappels, M; van Dieën, J H

2014-06-01

281

Anatomic reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in children and adolescents using a pedicled quadriceps tendon graft.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has recently become a popular procedure for children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability. Nevertheless, high complication rates of up to 26% have been reported. The traditionally used technique requires patellar bone tunnels that may place the proportionately smaller patella at higher risk of fracture. Because of the adjacent physis of the femoral insertion, anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL has the risk of injury to the growth plate. This technical report therefore presents a technique for anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL in a skeletally immature population using a pedicled superficial quadriceps tendon graft, hardware-free patellar graft attachment, and anatomic femoral fixation distal to the femoral physis. The advantages of this technique include avoidance of bony patellar complications, an anatomically truer reconstruction, a single incision, and sparing of the hamstring tendons for reconstruction of any future ligamentous injuries. PMID:24904782

Nelitz, Manfred; Williams, Sean Robert M

2014-04-01

282

Extra articular arthroscopic release in post-traumatic stiff knees: a prospective study of endoscopic quadriceps and patellar release.  

PubMed

Knee stiffness due to mismanaged trauma is still common in underdeveloped countries. Many patients with distal femoral fractures, patellar injuries or other local trauma present with intra-articular and extra-articular adhesions between the quadriceps and anterior femur. Nineteen knees with post trauma stiffness due to combined intra- and extra- articular aetiology were taken up for arthroscopic aided release after failing an aggressive physiotherapy protocol. Ultrasound was used to identify the extra-articular adhesions. The intra-articular part of the release was done by a standard protocol involving the release of all infrapatellar, suprapatellar and gutter adhesions, and then the extra-articular proximal adhesions were released by using special long periosteal elevators and arthroscopic scissors. We were able to release the adhesions as high as 9 inches above the patella, and in one case bony ankylosis between the patella and the femur was arthroscopically osteotomised (after 11 years of stiffness). Delay before surgery averaged 2.7 years (6 months-11.3 years). Mean active flexion at one year follow-up improved from 27.3 degrees to 119.3 degrees (average increase: 92 degrees). Mean preoperative extension lag reduced from 6 degrees to 1 degrees postoperatively. No CPM machine was available, and patients had to undergo daily manual and assisted therapy, with appropriate analgesia. Overall patient satisfaction was excellent; one patient developed a supracondylar fracture (infected old fracture with bone loss and severe contracture) and was retrospectively a wrong case selection. Arthroscopic aided quadriceps adhesion release is a good option in cases of neglected trauma; results are excellent even without sophisticated CPM machines, and the periosteal elevators needed are cheap and indigenous. PMID:16152854

Dhillon, Mandeep S; Panday, Awadesh K; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nagi, Onkar N

2005-04-01

283

Food and exercise calculator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A food and exercise calculating aid enables an individual to quickly determine how much of a selected exercise is necessary to burn off the calories consumed by a selected food item. Nutritional information for various food items and metabolic equivalent information for various exercises are stored in memories. The user accesses the memories for selected foods and exercises, as well as for the user's weight, and the aid calculates the exercise time duration necessary for the selected food.

2005-07-12

284

Local bone mineral density, muscle strength, and exercise in adolescent boys: a comparative study of two groups with different muscle strength and exercise levels.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of physical activity and muscle strength on bone mineral density (BMD) of the tuberositas tibiae in adolescent boys. Two groups with different exercise levels were compared. The high activity group consisted of 20 subjects (age 15.9 +/- 0.3) from a junior ice hockey team. The reference group consisted of 24 volunteers (age 15.9 +/- 0.3) not training for more than 3 hours per week. The groups were matched for age, weight, and pubertal stage. BMDs (g/cm2) of the tuberositas tibiae and proximal tibia were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Quadriceps strength was significantly higher in the high activity group (P < 0.01). Univariate correlations were measured between tuberositas tibiae BMD and pubertal stage, weight, height, BMI, fat mass, lean body mass, quadriceps strength, and hamstrings strength in the high activity group and the reference group, respectively. Quadriceps strength was estimated to be the best significant predictor of BMD of the tuberositas tibiae in the reference group. A multivariate analysis confirmed this result. In the high activity group, there was no significant predictor of BMD of the tuberositas tibiae. There was no significant difference in BMD at this site when comparing the two groups. However, five of the boys in the high activity group had a former history of Mb Osgood-Schlatter with a significantly lower BMD of the tuberositas tibiae than the rest of the boys in that group. After exclusion of these boys, the remaining 15 boys were matched against 20 boys from the reference group using the previous criteria. These 15 boys then showed a significantly higher BMD of the tuberositas tibiae (P < 0.05) but not of the proximal tibia than the 20 boys in the reference group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates site-specific increments of tuberositas tibiae BMD in adolescent ice hockey players unless they are affected by the negative effects on BMD by Mb Osgood-Schlatter. These increments seem primarily to be associated with forceful muscle contractions related to high quadriceps strength and not greater weight-bearing loading. Muscle strength seems to positively affect BMD of the tuberositas tibiae in adolescents, but only up to a certain level, above which additional muscle strength has no effect. PMID:8661480

Nordström, P; Nordström, G; Thorsen, K; Lorentzon, R

1996-06-01

285

Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.  

PubMed

Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population. PMID:24111365

Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

2013-01-01

286

Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS) – a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the past, effortful exercises were considered inappropriate for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) due to concern that they would escalate abnormalities including spasticity and abnormal movement patterns. Current scientific evidence indicates that these concerns were unfounded and that therapeutic interventions focused on muscle strengthening can lead to improved functional ability. However, few studies have examined the potential

Eileen G Fowler; Loretta M Knutson; Sharon K DeMuth; Mia Sugi; Kara Siebert; Victoria Simms; Carolee J Winstein

2007-01-01

287

OXIDE DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys (e.g. the INCOLOY{reg_sign} MA956 alloy) are known for their excellent high temperature properties and are prime candidate materials for the construction of very high temperature heat exchangers that will be used in Vision 21 power plants. The main limitation of these materials is their poor weldability. Commercially available ODS tubing also tends to exhibit relatively

Mark A

2001-01-01

288

Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics  

SciTech Connect

A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and composite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400{degrees}C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts, or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A.J.

1991-03-07

289

Dispersion-strengthened copper-niobium composites  

SciTech Connect

GlidCop dispersion-strengthened copper is a family of engineered alloys which combine high strength, high thermal and electrical conductivities, and outstanding resistance to softening following exposure to elevated temperatures. A proprietary process based on GlidCop dispersion-strengthened copper technology improves mechanical properties through the addition of niobium. Two grades have been developed: Al-60 + NB1000 and Al-15 + NB1000. Each composite contains 10% niobium by weight, in the form of uniformly dispersed particles. The technology produces a uniform distribution of niobium in the internally oxidized, dispersion-strengthened copper powder. This powder can be consolidated in the same manner as conventional GlidCop Powder to produce a variety of mill shapes. The addition of 10% niobium to the Al-60 matrix increases strength and hardness with only minimal reduction in electrical conductivity. The room-temperature properties of Al-60 + NB1000 following exposure to 980 C (1,800 F), are compared with the properties of some commonly used RWMA welding materials which have also been exposed to elevated temperatures. While Al-60 + NB1000 has outstanding as-extruded mechanical properties, the cold workability of this material is limited. A cold-workable composite using the lower aluminum oxide Al-15 + NB1000 indicate that the properties of the as-extruded bar are improved by cold work, specifically drawing.

Troxell, J. [SCM Metal Products Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

290

Doctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS)  

E-print Network

1 Doctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS) What is GHRCAPS? The Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS to the national and international development of global health research by recruiting and training

Barthelat, Francois

291

Postdoctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS)  

E-print Network

1 Postdoctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS) What is GHRCAPS? The Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS to the national and international development of global health research by recruiting and training

Barthelat, Francois

292

Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Straps  

E-print Network

Shear deficient reinforced concrete (RC) structures can be effectively strengthened using external prestressed carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) straps. Due to the presence of the external elastic straps, a strengthened beam can continue...

Yapa, Hiran D.; Lees, Janet M.

2013-07-13

293

YogaTechniques to Lengthen, Strengthen &  

E-print Network

. Leadership, Empowerment, and Employees Waiting for Motivation: Join us for presentation, case study choose Motivation observations Teamwork: what does it look like? Instantly become a better this is NOT for me? Discover your fitness personality and find the best exercise activities for you so that you can

Scott, Robert A.

294

Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code  

E-print Network

Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code Jonathon T. Giffin, Mihai Christodorescu,mihai,lpkruger}@cs.wisc.edu #12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code 2 Problem 1 Detect malicious modifications to code #12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code

Miller, Barton P.

295

Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code  

E-print Network

Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code Jonathon T. Giffin, Mihai Christodorescu,mihai,lpkruger}@cs.wisc.edu #12;#12;#12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self-Checksumming via Self-Modifying Code 4 Self-Checksumming · Program contains code to checksum parts of its own code. #12;6 December 2005 Strengthening Self

Miller, Barton P.

296

Psychologic aspects of exercise.  

PubMed

Physicians are well aware of the health benefits of exercise, but probably less cognizant of the many psychologic benefits of regular exercise. In recent years more attention has been paid to the psychologic effects of exercise, and much evidence can be found in the literature to support these beneficial effects. Psychologic states such as anxiety, distress, depression, and coronary-prone behavior have been found to be reduced by regular aerobic exercise. Exercise has also been shown to elevate mood, increase intellectual functioning, and improve self-concept. In encouraging their patients to exercise, physicians can more effectively motivate them by following certain psychologic principles, thereby ensuring greater compliance and adherence to the exercise program. Doing an objective fitness assessment establishes a baseline and creates a stimulus for awareness for the patient. The resulting exercise prescription will more likely be followed if the physician helps the patient establish realistic goals, and understand the minimums of exercise that can still lead to improvement, the exercise physiology behind the prescription, and the physical and psychologic gains to be made from exercise. It can also be extremely helpful if the physician individualizes the program to make it convenient and fun, provides supervision and ample positive reinforcement, and teaches by example, that is, not only be a proponent of exercise, but a participant. In spite of the many benefits of exercise, there are certain psychologic liabilities as a result of excessive exercise. Negative states such as exercise addiction, overtraining, and burnout can be attributed to excess exercise, but they are also often a result or symptom of other psychologic problems. By being aware and knowledgeable, the physician can intervene in this system to help the individual confront the real problems and maintain his or her participation in the sport or exercise program. PMID:2015642

Anthony, J

1991-01-01

297

Comparison between the Effects of Horseback Riding Exercise and Trunk Stability Exercise on the Balance of Normal Adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of horseback riding exercise and trunk stability exercise on static and dynamic balance in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two normal adults residing in communities were randomly divided into a horseback riding exercise group and a trunk stability exercise group, and they conducted exercise for eight weeks. [Results] Sway times of the COG (center of gravity) decreased significantly, and the A-P (anterior-posterior) and M-L (medial-lateral) velocities significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway times of the COG after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the horseback riding exercise group showed larger decreases than the trunk stability exercise group. [Conclusion] In terms of the musculoskeletal factor, horseback riding may result in functional improvement and increased stability, and it may stimulate proprioceptive sense input in neurological terms. It is therefore considered a composite exercise method that may strengthen the two factors simultaneously.

Kim, Hyeon Su; Lee, Chae-Woo; Lee, In-Sil

2014-01-01

298

Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD.  

PubMed

Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190- -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29-150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A; Tanner, Rebecca J; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

2014-11-01

299

34 CFR 609.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program? 609...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General... What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program? The...

2010-07-01

300

Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ?7/10 points). Conclusions The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported. PMID:24760166

Ishigaki, Erika Y.; Ramos, Lidiane G.; Carvalho, Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

2014-01-01

301

Posterior Rotator Cuff Strengthening Using Theraband(R) in a Functional Diagonal Pattern in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers  

PubMed Central

The deceleration phase of the pitching mechanism requires forceful eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff. Because traditional isotonic strengthening may not be specific to this eccentric pattern, a more effective and functional means of strengthening the posterior rotator cuff is needed. Twelve collegiate baseball pitchers performed a moderate intensity isotonic dumbbell strengthening routine for 6 weeks. Six of the 12 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group and placed on a Theraband® Elastic Band strengthening routine in a functional-diagonal pattern to emphasize the eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff, in addition to the isotonic routine. The control group (n = 6) performed only the isotonic exercises. Both groups were evaluated on a KIN-COM® isokinetic dynamometer in a functional diagonal pattern. Pretest and posttest average eccentric force production of the posterior rotator cuff was compared at two speeds, 60 and 180°/s. Data were analyzed with an analysis of covariance at the .05 level with significance at 60°/s. Values at 180°/s, however, were not significant. Eccentric force production at 60°/s increased more during training in the experimental group (+19.8%) than in the control group (-1.6%). There was no difference in the two groups at 180°/s; both decreased (8 to 15%). Theraband was effective at 60°/s in functional eccentric strengthening of the posterior rotator cuff in the pitching shoulder. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558251

Page, Phillip A.; Lamberth, John; Abadie, Ben; Boling, Robert; Collins, Robert; Linton, Russell

1993-01-01

302

Statistics for Chemists: Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

Wehrens, Ron

2011-03-25

303

Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm  

MedlinePLUS

... your lungs shrink (get smaller) while you are exercising. This makes it difficult to breathe. If you ... may help lessen the symptoms of EIB. Avoid exercising in extremely cold temperatures or when you have ...

304

Exercise and Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... made up of daily tasks, both occupational and leisure activities that are usually affected by arthritis. Exercise ... of exercise are 1) therapeutic/rehabilitative; 2) recreational/leisure; and 3) competitive/elite. Finding the right balance ...

305

Clinical Applications for Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

Goldstein, David

1989-01-01

306

Rotator Cuff Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... Hint: This is like the backhand swing in tennis.) Lower the arm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ... Hint: This is like the forehand swing in tennis.) Lower the forearm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ...

307

Exercise-Induced Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise. It makes sense that cigarette smoke and pollen could trigger asthma symptoms, but why exercise? Cold, ... and nose should help. If air pollution or pollen also trigger asthma symptoms, your child may want ...

308

Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

2007-11-01

309

Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and knee function 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison between bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing clinical studies have not proven which graft is to be preferred in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.\\u000a In recent years, bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons have been the most frequently used graft types. Muscle strength\\u000a deficit is one of the consequences after ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in\\u000a hamstring and quadriceps muscle

Riitta Lautamies; Arsi Harilainen; Jyrki Kettunen; Jerker Sandelin; Urho M. Kujala

2008-01-01

310

Forces Acting on the Patella during Maximal Voluntary Contraction of the Quadriceps femoris Muscle at Different Knee Flexion\\/Extension Angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

From knee extension moments measured with a dynamometer, the quadriceps muscle force, the patellar ligament force and the reaction force in the patellofemoral joint at various knee angles (0–90°) were estimated. The information needed to calculate the combined effect of both patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint on the mechanical advantage of the muscle was obtained from lateral-view radiographs of autopsy knees.The

W. A. Weijs; E. K. Kouwenhoven; J. Verburg

1987-01-01

311

Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review  

PubMed Central

Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. ‘Smile’ is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

312

A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of different exercise programs for patients with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available and scientific evidence is necessary for choosing the optimal strategy of treatment for each patient. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, sex, and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial. PMID:23306415

Golightly, Yvonne M; Allen, Kelli D; Caine, Dennis J

2012-11-01

313

Stretch Band Exercise Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

2007-01-01

314

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

315

Exercise-induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is common in asthmatic children and adolescents. Since it may cause limitations to daily life activities in up to 30%, mastering EIA is important in asthma management.EIA consists of bronchial obstruction occurring immediately, or soon after, physical exercise as a result of increased respiratory water and heat loss due to increased ventilation during exercise, with the subsequent

Kai-Håkon Carlsen; Karin C. L Carlsen

2002-01-01

316

Exercise and Your Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

317

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

318

Exercising with Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... Keep a positive attitude l Maintain a healthy body weight Three types of exercise are best if you ... Examples of flexibility exercises include upper- and lower-body stretching, yoga, and tai ... support and protect joints. Weight-bearing exercises, such as weight lifting, fall into ...

319

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

320

The time course and magnitude of blood flow changes in the human quadriceps muscles following isometric contraction.  

PubMed Central

Blood velocities in the human femoral artery were measured using pulsed bidirectional Doppler-ultrasound equipment before, during and after single isometric contractions of the quadriceps muscle group. After contraction periods lasting more than 20 s (long) and of tensions from 10% up to 75% of maximal voluntary contraction (m.v.c.), an increase in blood velocities of seven to eight times the resting level was observed. Estimated maximal volume flow to the whole leg during the post-contraction hyperaemic phase calculated from these blood velocity measurements and vessel diameter (measured with echo-ultrasound equipment) was in two of the subjects 2.4 l/min (female) and 4.4 l/min (male), respectively. In the latter, this estimate fitted very well with results obtained using a venous thermo-dilution method. When using computer tomography to estimate the volume of the quadriceps muscle group, the calculated maximum flow to this muscle group in the post-contraction hyperaemic phase was approximately 175 (female) and 185 (male) ml/min. 100 ml muscle, respectively. This was about forty times the estimated resting volume flow to this muscle of 4.7 (female) and 4.5 (male) ml/min. 100 ml muscle. The length of the post-contraction hyperaemia after short (less than 10 s) contraction periods was 12-13 s, by which time velocities had reached 25% above the precontraction level. After long contractions, the corresponding values were 23-25 s. By contrast, previous plethysmographic observations by others indicate that postcontraction hyperaemias following long contractions last 10-15 min. There was a marked difference between the times taken to reach maximal velocity in the hyperaemic phase when comparing short and long contractions. Maximal velocity was reached four to six cardiac cycles following short periods of contraction but during the very first heart beat after long periods of contractions. The present observations are compatible with the hypothesis that locally released metabolites or hormones play a dominant role in the regulation of the post-contraction hyperaemia. Since during the short contraction periods maximal velocity was reached only after some seconds, whereas with the longer contraction periods it was reached during the first heart beat, it is suggested that these metabolites are released at some distance from the resistance vessels and that some time is needed for diffusion. PMID:3795098

Wesche, J

1986-01-01

321

The economics of intense exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests

David O. Meltzer; Anupam B. Jena

2010-01-01

322

Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.

Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Tomsic, M. [Plastronic, Inc., Troy, OH (United States); Sinha, U. [Southwire Company, Carollton, GA (United States)

1997-12-31

323

Acute Post-Exercise Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Is Not Correlated with Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy in Young Men  

PubMed Central

Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n?=?23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index ?=?26.4±0.9 kg•m2) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-13C6] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001) above rest 60–180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P?=?0.037) 180–360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (?1.9–24.7%) (P<0.001) after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1–3 h (r?=?0.02), 3–6 h (r?=?0.16) or the aggregate 1–6 h post-exercise period (r?=?0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r?=?0.42, P?=?0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT. PMID:24586775

Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K.; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J.; Phillips, Stuart M.

2014-01-01

324

Exercise: the first prescription for Cubans of all ages.  

PubMed

Regular physical exercise improves quality of life and benefits the body's organs and systems: it tones and strengthens muscles; improves joint function; contributes to healthier heart and lungs; increases resistance to fatigue, and thus capacity for both physical and mental exertion; helps combat anxiety, depression and stress; improves sleep patterns; and is an important factor in maintaining healthy weight. It also provides a simple way of sharing with family and friends, even an opportunity for improving intergenerational communication and relations. PMID:24487676

García, Osvaldo

2014-01-01

325

Hypnotically Assisted Diaphragmatic Exercises in the Treatment of Stuttering: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0–4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy

Yalcin Kaya; Assen Alladin

2012-01-01

326

Strength-Training Exercise in Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Principles, Procedures, and Directions for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysphagia rehabilitation, historically, has focused a great deal on various compensations during swallowing to prevent aspiration\\u000a and\\/or improve safety and efficiency. Exercise, in general, has been a part of the dysphagia rehabilitation landscape. However,\\u000a heightened discussions in the field regarding best practices for exercise training, particularly strengthening, raise more\\u000a questions than answers. The intent of this paper is to (1)

Lori M. Burkhead; Christine M. Sapienza; John C. Rosenbek

2007-01-01

327

Anatomically anchored template-based level set segmentation: application to quadriceps muscles in MR images from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a semi-automated segmentation method for magnetic resonance images of the quadriceps muscles. Our method uses an anatomically anchored, template-based initialization of the level set-based segmentation approach. The method only requires the input of a single point from the user inside the rectus femoris. The templates are quantitatively selected from a set of images based on modes in the patient population, namely, sex and body type. For a given image to be segmented, a template is selected based on the smallest Kullback-Leibler divergence between the histograms of that image and the set of templates. The chosen template is then employed as an initialization for a level set segmentation, which captures individual anatomical variations in the image to be segmented. Images from 103 subjects were analyzed using the developed method. The algorithm was trained on a randomly selected subset of 50 subjects (25 men and 25 women) and tested on the remaining 53 subjects. The performance of the algorithm on the test set was compared against the ground truth using the Zijdenbos similarity index (ZSI). The average ZSI means and standard deviations against two different manual readers were as follows: rectus femoris, 0.78?±?0.12; vastus intermedius, 0.79?±?0.10; vastus lateralis, 0.82?±?0.08; and vastus medialis, 0.69?±?0.16. PMID:20049623

Prescott, Jeffrey W; Best, Thomas M; Swanson, Mark S; Haq, Furqan; Jackson, Rebecca D; Gurcan, Metin N

2011-02-01

328

Relationship between quadriceps femoris muscle volume and muscle torque at least 18 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate motor unit recruitment in the quadriceps femoris (QF) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and repair. Subjects included 24 patients at ? 18 months after ACL reconstruction and 22 control subjects with no history of knee injury. A series of cross-sectional magnetic resonance images were obtained to compare the QF of patients' injured side with that of their uninjured sides and that of uninjured control subjects. Muscle torque per muscle volume was calculated as isokinetic peak torque divided by QF muscle volume (cm(3)). The mean muscle torque per unit volume of the injured side of patients was not significantly different from that of the uninjured side or control subjects (one-way ANOVA) Results of the present study were contrary to the results of a previous study that evaluated patients at ? 12 months after ACL reconstruction. The present study found that high-threshold motor unit recruitment was restored at ? 18 months after ACL reconstruction. Thus, clinicians must develop techniques that increase the recruitment of high-threshold motor units in the QF from the period immediately after the injury until approximately 18 months after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21599756

Konishi, Y; Oda, T; Tsukazaki, S; Kinugasa, R; Fukubayashi, T

2012-12-01

329

Effect of a short time concentric versus eccentric training program on electromyography activity and peak torque of quadriceps.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum strength of the knee extensors were assessed. Eighteen physically healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years, body height 177 ± 4 cm, body mass 73 ± 7 kg) performed four weeks of unilateral CON isokinetic training for the quadriceps of the dominant leg on a REV9000 dynamometer. At the end of the fourth week, the sample was divided into two groups, with one group performing additional four weeks of unilateral ECC training and the other continuing with CON training. The training sessions consisted of three sets of ten maximal repetitions at a velocity of 60ºs-1, three days per week for eight weeks. The results showed that CON and ECC groups improved the peak torque in all types of contractions. Also, both groups presented increases in the avgEMG for VL, VM and RF. The present investigation showed that CON training elicited increases of the ISO peak torque and VM avgEMG in the CON contraction. Additionally, significant gains were reported after the ECC training on the VM avgEMG in all contractions and RM avgEMG in CON contraction. PMID:25114726

Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, Carlos; Abade, Eduardo; Sampaio, Jaime

2014-06-28

330

Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring eccentric isokinetic strength and unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines: (a) on peak torque, total external work and joint angle at peak torque of the hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic leg flexion; (b) on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios; as well as (c) to determine whether static and dynamic routines elicit similar responses. A total of 49 active adults completed the following intervention protocols in a randomised order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control condition), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, eccentric isokinetic peak torque, the angle of peak torque and total external work were assessed with participants prone at 1.04 and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Unilateral strength ratios of the knee were also recorded. Measures were compared via a fully-within-groups factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no main effects for eccentric isokinetic peak torque, angle of peak torque, total external work and unilateral H/Q strength ratios. The results suggest that dynamic and static stretching has no influence on eccentric strength profile and unilateral H/Q strength ratios and hence both forms of stretching do not reduce these two primary risk factors for muscle injury. PMID:23230900

Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz De Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

2013-01-01

331

Effect of a Short Time Concentric Versus Eccentric Training Program on Electromyography Activity and Peak Torque of Quadriceps  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum strength of the knee extensors were assessed. Eighteen physically healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years, body height 177 ± 4 cm, body mass 73 ± 7 kg) performed four weeks of unilateral CON isokinetic training for the quadriceps of the dominant leg on a REV9000 dynamometer. At the end of the fourth week, the sample was divided into two groups, with one group performing additional four weeks of unilateral ECC training and the other continuing with CON training. The training sessions consisted of three sets of ten maximal repetitions at a velocity of 60ºs-1, three days per week for eight weeks. The results showed that CON and ECC groups improved the peak torque in all types of contractions. Also, both groups presented increases in the avgEMG for VL, VM and RF. The present investigation showed that CON training elicited increases of the ISO peak torque and VM avgEMG in the CON contraction. Additionally, significant gains were reported after the ECC training on the VM avgEMG in all contractions and RM avgEMG in CON contraction. PMID:25114726

Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, Carlos; Abade, Eduardo; Sampaio, Jaime

2014-01-01

332

Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families  

PubMed Central

The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9–12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families. PMID:20871785

Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

2010-01-01

333

Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load. PMID:24610539

Sar?fak?o?lu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Y?ld?r?m; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Sava?; K?z?ler, Ali R?za

2014-10-01

334

Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect  

PubMed Central

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

335

Articulating Support for Horizontal Resistive Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile mechanical device provides support for a user engaged in any of a variety of resistive exercises in a substantially horizontal orientation. The unique features and versatility of the device promise to be useful in bedrest studies, rehabilitation, and specialized strength training. The device affords a capability for selectively loading and unloading of portions of the user s body through its support mechanisms, so that specific parts of the body can be trained with little or no effect on other parts that may be disabled or in the process of recovery from injury. Thus, the device is ideal for rehabilitation exercise programs prescribed by physicians and physical therapists. The capability for selective loading and support also offers potential benefits to strength and conditioning trainers and athletes who wish to selectively strengthen selected parts. The principal innovative aspect of the device is that it supports the subject s weight while enabling the subject, lying substantially horizontally, to perform an exercise that closely approximates a full standing squat. The device includes mechanisms that support the subject in such a way that the hips are free to translate both horizontally and vertically and are free to rotate about the line connecting the hips. At the same time, the shoulders are free to translate horizontally while the upper back is free to rotate about the line connecting the shoulders. Among the mechanisms for hip motion and support is a counterbalance that offsets the weight of the subject as the subject s pelvis translates horizontally and vertically and rotates the pelvis about the line connecting the hips. The counterbalance is connected to a pelvic support system that allows these pelvic movements. The subject is also supported at the shoulder by a mechanism that can tilt to provide continuous support of the upper back while allowing the rotation required for arching the back as the pelvis is displaced. The shoulder support also affords a capability for horizontal motion, and acts as the point of attachment of a load that is provided for squat and heel-raise exercises. The device is compatible with any resistive-exercise machine that provides bilateral loading via a moving cable or other mechanical linkage. The hip-translation and shoulder-translation and -rotation degrees of freedom of the supports can be locked individually or in combination in order to support the subject as necessary for exercises other than the standing squat. If necessary, for such exercises, the load can be applied directly to the subject by use of various attachments. In addition to the aforementioned heel raise, such exercises include the upright row, leg press, curls, extension of the triceps, front raise, lateral raise, and rear raise.

Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.

2005-01-01

336

Levels of Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Jumping rope Martial arts, such as karate Running Sports such as soccer, ice or field hockey, basketball, swimming, tennis Vigorous dancing Cross-country skiing Muscle-strengthening Games such as ...

337

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

338

Understanding Exercise Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise dependence represents a condition in which an individual exercises excessively, often to the detriment of his or\\u000a her physical and psychological health and wellbeing. Despite substantial investigation of this phenomenon, researchers have\\u000a only recently developed conceptually sound diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence, and have yet to determine a suitably\\u000a convincing mechanism or explanation for its onset and development. Likewise,

Jeremy Adams

2009-01-01

339

Solutions for the Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For all the exercises in the book we provide solutions. These solutions are intended to help those who actively work on the\\u000a exercises to check the correctness of their solutions. In the spirit of Leonardo da Vinci’s saying “Studying without passion\\u000a damages the brain!”, we want to encourage the reader to really work on the exercises before peeking into the

Wolfgang Ertel

340

EVA Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California.

1990-01-01

341

EVA Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights, at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California

1990-01-01

342

Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

Loerch, Linda H.

2010-01-01

343

Exercise for the Overweight Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

Work, Janis A.

1990-01-01

344

The Invisible Benefits of Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether—and why—people underestimate how much they enjoy exercise. Design: Across four studies, 279 adults predicted how much they would enjoy exercising, or reported their actual feelings after exercising. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures were predicted and actual enjoyment ratings of exercise routines, as well as intention to exercise. Results: Participants significantly underestimated how much they would

Matthew B. Ruby; Elizabeth W. Dunn; Andrea Perrino; Randall Gillis; Sasha Viel

2011-01-01

345

Myoglobin O2 desaturation during exercise. Evidence of limited O2 transport.  

PubMed Central

The assumption that cellular oxygen pressure (PO2) is close to zero in maximally exercising muscle is essential for the hypothesis that O2 transport between blood and mitochondria has a finite conductance that determines maximum O2 consumption. The unique combination of isolated human quadriceps exercise, direct measures of arterial, femoral venous PO2, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect myoglobin desaturation enabled this assumption to be tested in six trained men while breathing room air (normoxic, N) and 12% O2 (hypoxic, H). Within 20 s of exercise onset partial myoglobin desaturation was evident even at 50% of maximum O2 consumption, was significantly greater in H than N, and was then constant at an average of 51 +/- 3% (N) and 60 +/- 3% (H) throughout the incremental exercise protocol to maximum work rate. Assuming a myoglobin PO2 where 50% of myoglobin binding sites are bound with O2 of 3.2 mmHg, myoglobin-associated PO2 averaged 3.1 +/- .3 (N) and 2.1 +/- .2 mmHg (H). At maximal exercise, measurements of arterial PO2 (115 +/- 4 [N] and 46 +/- 1 mmHg [H]) and femoral venous PO2 (22 +/- 1.6 [N] and 17 +/- 1.3 mmHg [H]) resulted in calculated mean capillary PO2 values of 38 +/- 2 (N) and 30 +/- 2 mmHg(H). Thus, for the first time, large differences in PO2 between blood and intracellular tissue have been demonstrated in intact normal human muscle and are found over a wide range of exercise intensities. These data are consistent with an O2 diffusion limitation across the 1-5-microns path-length from red cell to the sarcolemma that plays a role in determining maximal muscle O2 uptake in normal humans. PMID:7560083

Richardson, R S; Noyszewski, E A; Kendrick, K F; Leigh, J S; Wagner, P D

1995-01-01

346

Exercise and Children's Health: A Little Counseling Can Pay Lasting Dividends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regular exercise is important for children's and adolescents' health maintenance, facilitating weight control, strengthening bones, and improving cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. Active childhoods help promote lifetime fitness. Physicians can assess children's weight and activity levels during routine exams. With simple…

Ganley, Theodore; Sherman, Carl

2000-01-01

347

[Institutional strengthening and updating of the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico (results and instrumentalization 2010-2012)].  

PubMed

In order to strengthen the academic and social management of the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico, from the draft paper presented to run for Vice President of the corporation, in 2007 I proposed to the plenary of the institution to develop a planning exercise strategy, in fact supporting the achievement of that objective. The idea behind the proposal, which was supported by most scholars, started from the consideration that although the Academy has always been an area of excellence for the advancement of medicine in the country, it was now necessary to strengthen, modernize and give a new direction to its work, on the basis of an exercise analysis and background checks, work, commitment and vision, under a inclusive, plural and agreed strategy with the academic body of the corporation, i.e. through a designed planning exercise. The result of this surely positive effort is presented in the following pages. To this end, part of the initial project description illustrates the process of technical and methodological development, the lines of action considered as priorities by academics, and details involving its realization. This planning strategy project yielded three specific conclusions: (i) the necessity for a functional reorganization proposal of the Academy's structure; (ii) the need for a self-sustainability financial project to fortify the economic capacity of the Academy; and (iii) the need for an updated project on technological communication of the Academy. PMID:21412397

Ruiz de Chávez, Manuel H; Kershenobich, David; Mansilla Olivares, Armando; Mancilla Ramírez, Javier; Kuri Morales, Pablo; Del Valle Muñoz, Alejandro

2011-01-01

348

Nineteenth century exercise clinics for the treatment of scoliosis.  

PubMed

Scoliosis is the abnormal lateral curvature and rotation of the spine. In the past this deformity has been linked with moral depravity, as in the case of Richard III. Treatment for scoliosis began with Hippocrates's use of boards and axial distortion. Today, bracing and surgery are used either to correct the deformity or to prevent further progression. In the past, however, exercise regimens have been used in the belief that strengthening back muscles would reduce curvature progression. This approach was pioneered by Per Henrik Ling in the early nineteenth century and was continued by his followers Mathius Roth and Franz Berwald and, most notably, by Gustav Zander. Even today a few clinics, particularly in Eastern Europe, still use exercise in the treatment of scoliosis. Whether it is effective remains debatable, but even if progression is not prevented the patient's general health will benefit from an exercise regimen. PMID:25318403

Elsaesser, S; Butler, A R

2014-09-01

349

Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail that has been possible to date. The beam is produced by using third-generation insertion devices in a 7 GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1100 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high power devices is very high and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm{sup 2}. Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop{reg_sign}, a dispersion strengthened copper, is the desired material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

Ryding, D.G.; Allen, D.; Lee, R.

1996-08-01

350

Strengthening bioterrorism prevention: global biological materials management.  

PubMed

The anthrax attacks of 2001 demonstrated that bioterrorism poses a significant threat to U.S. national security. This threat is increasing as a result of the rapid expansion in scale and technical capabilities of the global biotechnology industry, which is broadening the availability of materials, technologies, and expertise needed to produce a biological weapon and is lowering the barriers to biological weapons terrorism and proliferation. At the same time, there has been a rise of sophisticated yet loosely networked transnational terrorist groups that have shown an interest in bioterrorism. The United States must confront this convergence. Although the U.S. government pursues many different biodefense programs to bolster its ability to detect and respond to a bioterrorist attack, these efforts must be augmented with preventive measures to meet today's international challenges. U.S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 of April 2004 defines "Prevention and Protection" as one of the four essential pillars of the U.S. response to the bioterrorist threat. However, while bioscience and policy experts have proposed a variety of preventive initiatives, the creation of such programs has been slow and limited. Global biological materials management, which would focus on identifying and protecting those biological materials at the greatest risk of being used maliciously, is one potential solution. Such an approach would augment current U.S. biodefense efforts, provide the international community an effective means of mitigating the global threat of bioterrorism, and strengthen the international community's battle against emerging infectious disease. PMID:17608597

Salerno, Reynolds M; Hickok, Lauren T

2007-06-01

351

Strengthening blood programs in developing countries.  

PubMed

The lack of an adequate and safe blood supply is a major limitation to health care in the developing world. It is estimated that about 80% of the worlds' population has access to only 20% of the world's blood supply. When experts from the developed world attempt to provide assistance to blood programs in the developing world, this must be done with respect for the situation and the people who often work under difficult conditions. Important factors in the potential to strengthen blood availability and safety are government support, a national blood policy, the nature and leadership of the blood organization, transfusion medicine expertise, and hospital relations. A key first step is to carry out a needs assessment of the policies, governmental support, organizations, public attitudes about blood donation, and personnel and operations involved in providing the current blood supply. The important facets of the assessment are: the tool itself, the manner in which the assessment is conducted, and the presentation of the results. The assessment should provide recommendations for infrastructure, operations, standard procedures, testing strategies, training programs, types of donors and donor recruitment, budgeting, quality systems, and hospital relations. A sound assessment provides the groundwork and strategy for moving forward. Technical assistance from developed world experts to colleagues in the developing world can be extremely valuable in improving blood availability, safety, and the quality of blood services in the developing world. PMID:23954415

McCullough, Terri Konstenius; McCullough, Jeffrey

2013-12-01

352

Exercise and diabetes.  

PubMed

Diet and exercise form the foundation of a healthy lifestyle. These are especially important for people living with diabetes mellitus, as they are the most practical non-pharmacological means by which patients may significantly improve their blood glucose levels. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity (both short and long term), lowers blood sugar levels, reduces body fat and improves cardiovascular (CV) function. Because of this, exercise offers enormous benefit to patients with diabetes. Blood glucose levels can significantly drop during and after physical activities, due to the increased utilisation of glucose as a fuel during exercise and the up-regulation of glucose transport into working muscles. Therefore, patients (especially those with type 1 diabetes) must account for the effects of exercise and adjust their medications and nutrition accordingly. Improvements in real-time continuous glucose monitoring and optimisation of basal insulin dosing may offer significant benefit to preventing hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes who regularly exercise. Diverse exercise programmes and devices can also assist patients in monitoring their activities as well as motivating them to achieve their exercise goals. For patients with type 1 diabetes, questions such as how much, how long, how strenuous and what kind of exercise must be addressed in order for healthcare professionals to offer maximum benefit to their patients. Additionally, since patients with type 2 diabetes often have other significant co-morbidities such as obesity and CV disease, care providers must evaluate each patient's risk factors before designing an exercise programme. Several publications in the last year have addressed these issues and may serve as a valuable resource to provide safe and effective recommendations to patients and their healthcare providers. To be included in the Exercise and Diabetes chapter for the 2010 YEARBOOK, we reviewed leading peer-reviewed manuscripts that were published in the period July 2009 to June 2010. PubMed was used in the initial screening of articles. PMID:21323815

Zisser, H; Gong, P; Kelley, C M; Seidman, J S; Riddell, M C

2011-02-01

353

Strengthening and softening mechanisms in nanocrystalline materials under superplastic deformation  

E-print Network

Strengthening and softening mechanisms in nanocrystalline materials under superplastic deformation-strain-rate superplastic deformation. In the framework of the model, the strengthening occurs due to the effects of triple and their triple junctions gives rise to local softening in nanocrystalline samples under superplastic deformation

Ovid'ko Ilya A.

354

Strengthening families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the arguments for the central role of families, defined very broadly, and we emphasise the importance of efforts to strengthen families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS. We draw on work conducted in the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS's Learning Group 1: Strengthening Families, as well as published data and

Linda M. Richter; Lorraine Sherr; Michele Adato; Mark Belsey; Upjeet Chandan; Chris Desmond; Scott Drimie; Mary Haour-Knipe; Victoria Hosegood; Jose Kimou; Sangeetha Madhavan; Vuyiswa Mathambo; Angela Wakhweya

2009-01-01

355

Fire insulation schemes for FRP-strengthened concrete slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, widespread deterioration of civil infrastructure has been a catalyst for the application of externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets for reinforcement or strengthening of concrete structures. However, the performance of these FRP strengthening systems in fire is a serious concern, and this represents a critical obstacle to the widespread implementation of FRP repair techniques in buildings.

Brea Williams; Luke Bisby; Venkatesh Kodur; Mark Green; Ershad Chowdhury

2006-01-01

356

Flexural Strengthening of Steel Bridges with High Modulus CFRP Strips  

E-print Network

Flexural Strengthening of Steel Bridges with High Modulus CFRP Strips David Schnerch1 and Sami Rizkalla, F.ASCE2 Abstract: Acceptance of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer CFRP materials for strengthening concrete structures, together with the recent availability of higher modulus CFRP strips, has resulted

357

Multithreaded Programming Can Strengthen an Operating Systems Course  

E-print Network

Multithreaded Programming Can Strengthen an Operating Systems Course Ching-Kuang Shene Department@mtu.edu Abstract Today, virtually all operating systems support multithreaded programming. In fact, threads multithreaded programming to strengthen an operating sys- tems course. More precisely, the lecture hours

Shene, Ching-Kuang

358

Breast Cancer, Exercise and Acupuncture  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Breast Cancer, Exercise and Acupuncture HealthDay November 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Acupuncture Breast Cancer Exercise and Physical Fitness Transcript Exercise therapy and ...

359

The effects of topical Arnica on performance, pain and muscle damage after intense eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if topical Arnica is effective in reducing pain, indicators of inflammation and muscle damage, and in turn improve performance in well-trained males experiencing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty well-trained males matched by maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2 Max) completed a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Topical Arnica was applied to the skin superficial to the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles immediately after a downhill running protocol designed to induce DOMS. Topical Arnica was reapplied every 4 waking hours for the duration of the study. Performance measures (peak torque, countermovement and squat jump), pain assessments (visual analogue scale (VAS) and muscle tenderness) and blood analysis (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, myoglobin and creatine kinase) were assessed at seven time points over five days (pre-, post-, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the downhill run). Participants in the topical Arnica group reported less pain as assessed through muscle tenderness and VAS 72 hours post-exercise. The application of topical Arnica did not affect any performance assessments or markers of muscle damage or inflammation. Topical Arnica used immediately after intense eccentric exercise and for the following 96 hours did not have an effect on performance or blood markers. It did however demonstrate the possibility of providing pain relief three days post-eccentric exercise. PMID:23947690

Pumpa, Kate L; Fallon, Kieran E; Bensoussan, Alan; Papalia, Shona

2014-01-01

360

Effects of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on intramyocellular lipid concentration and high energy phosphates.  

PubMed

Eccentric exercise is known to cause changes to the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle and, in turn, may alter the ability of the muscle to store and utilise intracellular substrates such as intramyocellular lipid (IMCL). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) results in IMCL accumulation. Six males (31 ± 6 years; mean ± SD, and 72.3 ± 9.7 kg body mass) performed 300 unilateral, maximal, isokinetic, eccentric contractions (Ecc) (30° s(-1)) of the quadriceps on an isokinetic dynamometer, followed immediately by an equal amount of work by the contralateral leg but with concentric action (Con). Phosphate compounds and IMCL content of the vastus lateralis of both legs were measured using (31)P and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IMCL content was higher in Ecc than Con 24 h post but the reverse was evident 48 h post-exercise (P = 0.046). A significant time × trial interaction for resting [P(i)] (P = 0.045), showed increases in Ecc across time but no change in Con. A significant main effect of trial (P = 0.002) was apparent indicating the Ecc leg had marked metabolic dysfunction. The P(i)/PCr ratio showed a significant effect of trial (P = 0.001) with an increase evident in Ecc leg, primarily due to increases in [P(i)]. The present study highlights changes in IMCL content of skeletal muscle following EIMD. PMID:20706732

Hughes, Jonathan D; Johnson, Nathan A; Brown, Stephen J; Sachinwalla, Toos; Walton, David W; Stannard, Stephen R

2010-12-01

361

Heat Loss Calculation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class exercise from Kirk Garrison is intended for construction students learning about home insulation and heating. The class will learn to calculate heat loss in a home by using an online home heat loss calculator. This exercise document includes student worksheets. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Garrison, Kirk

2012-03-27

362

Exercise, Mobility and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elderly population is growing both in size and in proportion of the total population. The costs to the community of the elderly being in poor health are also growing proportionately. The beneficial effects of exercise on various phys- iological and psychological parameters in the elderly have been well established. The effects of exercise on the mobility and independence of

Monica J. Daley; Warwick L. Spinks

2000-01-01

363

Exercise Adherence. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses exercise adherence, noting its vital role in maximizing the benefits associated with physical activity. Information is presented on the following: (1) factors that influence adherence to self-monitored programs of regular exercise (childhood eating habits, and psychological, physical, social, and situational factors); (2)…

Sullivan, Pat

364

Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

Mills, Brett D.; And Others

365

Exercise through Menopause.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

Stuhr, Robyn M.

2002-01-01

366

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)  

E-print Network

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need a web link to MolProbity (with Java), and the file 1JIRon1S83_Arg66_supr.kin download- ed from the kinemage.biochem.duke.edu BCH681 web site, or from Sakai. Part 1: MolProbity Go to the MolProbity web

Richardson, David

367

Exercise in Behavioral Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the preventive and rehabilitative applications of exercise and literature on exercise adherence from the past 10 years are briefly reviewed. Although there is now substantial evidence that a low level of physical activity is associated with decreased life expectancy for both men and women and contributes independently to the development of many prevalent chronic diseases, most adults and

Patricia M. Dubbert

1992-01-01

368

Exercise Against Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

1998-01-01

369

Physical exercise and health.  

PubMed

Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals. PMID:25172071

Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

2014-09-01

370

Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS) – a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention  

PubMed Central

Background In the past, effortful exercises were considered inappropriate for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) due to concern that they would escalate abnormalities including spasticity and abnormal movement patterns. Current scientific evidence indicates that these concerns were unfounded and that therapeutic interventions focused on muscle strengthening can lead to improved functional ability. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness exercises in this patient population. Methods/design The rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of a stationary cycling intervention for children with CP are outlined here. Sixty children with spastic diplegic CP between the ages of 7 and 18 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of I, II, or III will be recruited for this study. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention (cycling) or a control (no cycling) group. The cycling intervention will be divided into strengthening and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise phases. During the strengthening phase, the resistance to lower extremity cycling will be progressively increased using a uniquely designed limb-loaded mechanism. The cardiorespiratory endurance phase will focus on increasing the intensity and duration of cycling. Children will be encouraged to exercise within a target heart rate (HR) range (70 – 80% maximum HR). Thirty sessions will take place over a 10–12 week period. All children will be evaluated before (baseline) and after (follow-up) the intervention period. Primary outcome measures are: knee joint extensor and flexor moments, or torque; the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM); the 600 Yard Walk-Run test and the Thirty-Second Walk test (30 sec WT). Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design and protocol for Pediatric Endurance and Limb Strengthening (PEDALS); a Phase I randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a stationary cycling intervention for children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:17374171

Fowler, Eileen G; Knutson, Loretta M; DeMuth, Sharon K; Sugi, Mia; Siebert, Kara; Simms, Victoria; Azen, Stanley P; Winstein, Carolee J

2007-01-01

371

Exercise and osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

2009-01-01

372

Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n = 18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7?yr) participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72?h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue) between the two menstrual cycle phases were small. PMID:24151587

Sipaviciene, Saule; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Kliziene, Irina; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas

2013-01-01

373

Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the indices of glutathione antioxidant system and oxidative damage level in resistance trained and untrained subjects and to assess the antioxidant action of alpha-lipoic acid in trained men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. Thirteen trained and twenty untrained men (NT) participated in the comparative study. Then trained men were randomly assigned to T(CON) group (control) or T(ALA) group (alpha-lipoic acid, 600 mg . day(-1), for 8 days) and performed isometric/isokinetic effort of quadriceps muscles. The study has shown the significantly higher erythrocyte levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in T(CON) than NT but no differences in plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (PC). However, total thiol (TT) concentration was two-fold lower in T(CON) than NT group. alpha-Lipoic acid variously influenced the post-exercise levels of GSH (+40%), GR (-24%) and GPx (+29%), but markedly reduced by over 30% the resting and post-exercise TBARS and PC in T(ALA) compared with T(CON). TT concentration significantly increased in T(ALA) but it did not reach the high level which was found in untrained group. It is concluded that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation diminishes oxidative damage. It does not abolish differences in glutathione antioxidant system between untrained and trained subjects but modulates a pro-antioxidant response to the muscle-damaging exercise. PMID:19617657

Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Szygula, Z; Witkowski, K; Stefaniak, T; Dziubek, W

2009-06-01

374

"It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

2000-01-01

375

Implications of group III and IV muscle afferents for high-intensity endurance exercise performance in humans.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents on peripheral fatigue, central motor drive (CMD) and endurance capacity during high-intensity leg-cycling. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, seven males performed constant-load cycling exercise (318 ± 9 W; 80% of peak power output (W(peak))) to exhaustion under placebo conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing spinal ?-opioid receptor-sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents. Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in pre- vs. post-exercise quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (?Q(tw,pot)). CMD was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. To rule out a direct central effect of fentanyl, we documented unchanged resting cardioventilatory responses. Compared to placebo, significant hypoventilation during the fentanyl trial was indicated by the 9% lower V(E)/V(CO(2)), causing a 5 mmHg increase in end-tidal P(CO(2)) and a 3% lower haemoglobin saturation. Arterial pressure and heart rate averaged 8 and 10% lower, respectively, during the fentanyl trial and these differences progressively diminished towards end-exercise. Although initially similar, the percent change in CMD was 9 ± 3% higher at end-exercise with fentanyl vs. placebo (P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was shorter (6.8 ± 0.3 min vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 min) and end-exercise ?Q(tw,pot) was about one-third greater (-44 ± 2% vs. -34 ± 2%) following fentanyl vs. placebo. The rate of peripheral fatigue development was 67 ± 10% greater during the fentanyl trial (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that feedback from group III/IV muscle afferents limits CMD but also minimizes locomotor muscle fatigue development by stimulating adequate ventilatory and circulatory responses to exercise. In the face of blocked group III/IV muscle afferents, CMD is less inhibited but O(2) transport compromised and locomotor muscle fatigability is exacerbated with a combined net effect of a reduced endurance performance. PMID:21878520

Amann, Markus; Blain, Gregory M; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

2011-11-01

376

Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

2000-01-01

377

OXIDE DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING  

SciTech Connect

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys (e.g. the INCOLOY{reg_sign} MA956 alloy) are known for their excellent high temperature properties and are prime candidate materials for the construction of very high temperature heat exchangers that will be used in Vision 21 power plants. The main limitation of these materials is their poor weldability. Commercially available ODS tubing also tends to exhibit relatively poor circumferential creep strength due to current processing practices resulting in a fine grain size in the transverse direction. Thus far, these two characteristics of the ODS tubing have restricted its use to mostly non-pressure containing applications. The objectives of this program are to develop: (a) an MA956 tube with sufficient circumferential creep strength for long term use as heat exchanger tubing for very high temperatures; (b) a welding technique(s) for producing adequate joints between an MA956 tube and an MA956 tube, and an MA956 tube and an INCONEL 601 tube; (c) the bending strain limits, below which recrystallization will not occur in a MA956 tube during normal operation; and (d) the high temperature corrosion limits for the MA956 alloy with respect to working-fluid side and fireside environments. Also, this program seeks to generate data for use by heat exchanger designers and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and perform an analysis of the mechanical property, tube bending, and corrosion data in order to determine the implications on the design of a very high temperature heat exchanger (T>1093 C/2000 F). After one year, work is currently being conducted on increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, developing joining techniques for this material, determining the tube bending strain limits, and establishing the high temperature corrosion parameters for the MA956 alloy in environments expected to be present in Vision 21 power plants. Work in these areas will is continuing into the next fiscal year, with success anticipated to produce innovative developments that will allow the reliable use of ODS alloys for heat exchanger tubing, as well as a variety of applications previously not possible with metallic materials.

Harper, Mark A.

2001-11-06

378

Muscle heat production and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s?1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise is repeated muscle heat production is not changed, but muscle aerobic energy turnover is elevated and anaerobic energy production is reduced during the first minutes of exercise. PMID:11691886

Krustrup, Peter; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Quistorff, Bj?rn; Bangsbo, Jens

2001-01-01

379

Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20?minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity. PMID:24879888

Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

2014-10-01

380

A guide to exercise prescription.  

PubMed

Exercise is a fundamental component of good health. The American College of Sports Medicine and "Exercise is Medicine" recommend treating exercise as a vital sign, and assessing and prescribing physical activity at every medical visit. Meeting the recommended goals of physical activity results in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. Physicians can improve health by prescribing exercise. PMID:24209719

Crookham, Jason

2013-12-01

381

Exercise: Issues for prescribing psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise has been associated with many psychological and physiological benefits. Increasing numbers of psychologists wish to prescribe exercise for their clients. The article warns that to do so requires special training. The author reviews the issues involved in exercise prescription: benefits and risks, nonadherence, exercise ignorance, safety, professional domain violations, ethical responsibility, and legal liability. The review concludes with recommendations

Mary Clearing-sky

1988-01-01

382

[Female physiology during exercise].  

PubMed

Physiological responses and adaptations of women to exercise are influenced by her genetically determined morphological and functional characteristics, and by her level of physical fitness. Physiological responses of women during submaximal and maximal exercise differ quantitatively from those of men but adaptations to training are qualitatively similar in both. Studies demonstrate that differences between the sexes in performance of athletic events that require high aerobic or anaerobic capacity are due, to a large extent, to differences in body structure and composition: the average woman is smaller and lighter and has less muscle mass than the average man. These characteristics influence physiologic responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. This article describes physiological responses of women during exercise in relation to her sex related morphological characteristics, and the adaptations that occur with physical training. PMID:2270262

Rivera Brown, A M

1990-04-01

383

Adventures in Exercise Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

Fitzpatrick, Kathleen A.

2004-09-01

384

Exercise in Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students expressed strong positive feelings about inquiry-based teaching methods the authors developed and implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Inquiry-based learning resulted in a higher order of learning not typically o

Mason, Cheryl L.; Dipasquale, Dana M.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.

2003-03-01

385

Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-11.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25365815

Lee, George

2014-01-01

386

Hand and Finger Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

387

Exercise for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and ...

388

Exercise and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the ... until a bone breaks. Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. It is more common in women, but men ...

389

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOEpatents

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

390

Solid state welding of dispersion-strengthened nickel alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-step solid state welding cycle applied to carefully prepared surfaces of an unrecrystallized alloy prevents loss of parent-metal strength at weld joint of dispersion-strengthened, nickel-chromium alloy.

Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J.

1971-01-01

391

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOEpatents

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01

392

Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

2014-06-01

393

Exercise interventions: defusing the world's osteoporosis time bomb.  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The associated health care costs are growing in parallel with increases in elderly populations, and it is expected that the number of osteoporotic fractures will double over the next 50 years. The best way to address osteoporosis is prevention. Some interventions to maximize and preserve bone mass have multiple health benefits and are cost-effective. For example, modifications to diet and lifestyle can help to prevent osteoporosis, and could potentially lead to a significant decrease in fracture rates; and exercise is a valuable adjunct to programmes aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis. Practising exercise at a young age helps maximize the mineral density of bones while they are still growing and maturing, and continuing to excercise minimizes bone loss later in life. Not only does exercise improve bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, balance, flexibility and leads to better overall health. Walking, aerobic exercise, and t'ai chi are the best forms of exercise to stimulate bone formation and strengthen the muscles that help support bones. Encouraging physical activity at all ages is therefore a top priority to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:14758410

Kai, Ming Chan; Anderson, Mary; Lau, Edith M. C.

2003-01-01

394

[Adaptive changes of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training].  

PubMed

To explore adaptive changes of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training as well as to collect basic data of molecular mechanisms of adaption to anaerobic exercise training among this fish, we investigated the influences of 4 weeks of anaerobic exercise training on the behavior, morphology, growth, muscle biochemical components and metabolic enzyme activities of the Zebrafish. Our results indicated that individual's daily activity level declined after 4 weeks training and they preferred to swim together more frequently. Both body length and weight gain decreased, allowing the fish to adapt to the increased locomotion. Similarly, glycogen in muscles increased and exercise endurance also strengthened due to the enhancement of energy storage. Moreover, although the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle has increased, the activity of citrate synthase (CS) decreased. Taken together, these results suggest that both the ability of anaerobic exercise and anaerobic metabolism of Zebrafish can in fact be enhanced by training, and the tangible changes that we could measure were retained, but only for a limited time. PMID:23775994

Liu, Ming-jing; Wang, Zhi-jian

2013-06-01

395

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2014-07-01

396

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2011-07-01

397

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2012-07-01

398

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2013-07-01

399

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2010-07-01

400

Diabetes mellitus and exercise.  

PubMed

The study deals with the subject of exercise in diabetic patients, with particular emphasis on acute physical stress in type--I and type--II diabetics. The principal task was to define metabolic changes as they occur in the diabetic subjected to acute stress induced by exercise, in comparison with non-diabetics; metabolic changes during prolonged stress as well as during the period of rest; and finally, to propose, on the basis of authors' experimental results and detailed literature research, appropriate rules of procedure for prescriptive exercise for the individual patient. There were 120 subjects divided into 8 groups. Using primarily a bicycle ergometer, the members of the individual groups were subjected to physical stress of various intensity and duration. A detailed analysis of each subject's metabolic response was performed, involving an assessment of 35 physiological and biochemical parameters, with main focus on determining biochemical changes. The study results are presented in detail both with respect to the metabolic response to a given stress in individual groups and comparatively for individual parameters with regard to specific stress rates and groups. Significant differences were found in the metabolic responses concerning the following parameters: acid-base balance, potassium, triglycerols, glucose, cholesterol, FFA, free glycerol, lactate, uric acid. On the basis of the results of experimental measurements, the following algorithm has been designed for prescribing exercise to diabetics: appropriate motivation; determination of the type of exercise; determination of the intensity of exercise; determination of the duration of exercise; respecting related contraindications and complications. A conclusion has been made that provided all possible risks and contraindications as well as prescription guidelines are respected, exercise is to be considered one of the basic principles of diabetes management. PMID:3673832

Rybka, J

1987-01-01

401

Exercise-Induced Hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The consequences of physical activity on the brain can readily be integrated into a hormetic framework. Whereas low- to moderate-intensity\\u000a exercise exerts positive effects on the body, excessive exercise can be detrimental for somatic health. Here we review the\\u000a evidence linking physical activity with cellular and functional modifications in different organ systems, with a focus on\\u000a the dose-response characteristics of

Alexis M. Stranahan; Mark P. Mattson

402

Secure Cabin Exercise Briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a simulation exercise designed to determine the estimated time required to configure a commercial aircraft cabin for safe transit of atmospheric turbulence. Simulations are to be carried out in a number of wide-body and narrow-body aircraft cabins using professional cabin crews and paid passenger subjects. A number of variables are considered including passenger load, flight attendant compliment, cabin class and cabin activities. Various scenarios are also being played out in the exercises.

Bogue, Rod

2003-01-01

403

Hypertension and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In normal children, the physiologic blood pressure response to exercise is complex, involving increases in stroke volume and\\u000a heart rate, changes in peripheral resistance, and a response to sympathetic output. With dynamic exercise, the increase in\\u000a cardiac output is accompanied by a continuous steep rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, a small decrease in diastolic\\u000a blood pressure, and

Rae-Ellen W. Kavey

404

Inverted Troughs Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.

Comet

2004-01-29

405

Virtual Five Animals Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Virtual Five Animals Exercise is an interactive game which is an important part of Virtual Olympic Museum for the Games of\\u000a the XXIX Olympiad. Users can learn and imitate Five Animals Exercise without any interactive device. To do these, we make\\u000a use of motion capture data to drive the virtual human motion, and use template matching method to recognize users’

Yue Qi; Xu-kun Shen; Qin-ping Zhao

2006-01-01

406

May Exercise Prevent Addiction?  

PubMed Central

Amphetamines exert their persistent addictive effects by activating brain's reward pathways, perhaps through the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (and/or in other places). On the other hand, there is a relationship between dopamine and all behavioural aspects that involve motor activity and it has been demonstrated that exercise leads to an increase in the synthesis and release of dopamine, stimulates neuroplasticity and promotes feelings of well-being. Moreover, exercise and drugs of abuse activate overlapping neural systems. Thus, our aim was to study the influence of chronic exercise in the mechanism of addiction using an amphetamine-induced conditioned-place-preference in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated in groups with and without chronic exercise. Chronic exercise consisted in a 8 week treadmill running program, with increasing intensity. The conditioned place preference test was performed in both groups using a procedure and apparatus previously established. A 2 mg.kg-1 amphetamine or saline solution was administered intraperitonially according to the schedule of the conditioned place preference. Before conditioning none of the animals showed preference for a specific compartment of the apparatus. The used amphetamine dose in the conditioning phase was able to produce a marked preference towards the drug-associated compartment in the group without exercise. In the animals with exercise a significant preference by the compartment associated with saline was observed. These results lead us to conclude that a previous practice of regular physical activity may help preventing amphetamine addiction in the conditions used in this test. PMID:21886560

Fontes-Ribeiro, C. A; Marques, E; Pereira, F. C; Silva, A. P; Macedo, T. R. A

2011-01-01

407

Exercise and glucose control.  

PubMed

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 20 years. The American Diabetes Association recommends regular exercise and maintenance of healthy body weight as important in prevention of T2DM, and exercise is also a cornerstone of treatment regimens for persons already diagnosed with T2DM. T2DM most commonly develops via progressive insulin resistance, a state that has been shown to be caused through several pathways, three of which are discussed in this review. First, the accumulation of lipid intermediates in skeletal muscle under conditions of sustained energy surplus can impair insulin signaling downstream of insulin binding to its receptor. Second, several inflammatory mediators have been shown to negatively affect insulin signaling and gene expression of glucose transporters. Third, oxidative stress induces insulin resistance by creating an environment that interferes with insulin signaling in several ways. Exercise can improve insulin sensitivity by opposing each of these three mechanisms of insulin resistance, as well as providing an avenue for muscle glucose uptake that bypasses insulin, and as such, has the capacity to serve as an important preventative measure. Furthermore, in persons with T2DM, the capacity of muscle contraction to stimulate glucose uptake in a manner that is independent of insulin establishes exercise as a powerful "medicine" in its treatment. Exercise, therefore, serves an important role in prevention and treatment of T2DM. PMID:25034542

Buresh, R

2014-08-01

408

Exercise and fetal health.  

PubMed

This is a brief review of current information dealing with the impact of maternal exercise on the well-being of the human embryo and fetus. It discusses the theoretical concerns and exercise variables involved in the interaction between exercise and fetal health and focuses on five areas of fetal health where some information is available describing the interaction in the human. These include embryonic development, fetoplacental growth, prematurity, indices of fetal stress/distress, and condition during labor and at birth. It concludes that well-conditioned women who continue a regular running or aerobics regimen in the peri-conceptual period and throughout pregnancy at levels that exceed current guidelines do not experience an increase in the incidence of failure to conceive, abortion, congenital abnormalities, abnormal placentation, premature rupture of the membranes or preterm labor. Although all their fetuses demonstrate a brisk elevation in heart rate post-exercise throughout pregnancy, they have a significant reduction in the incidence of 4 clinical markers of fetal stress/distress during labor. In addition, at the time of delivery, their % body fat is less than that of the control offspring (11 vs 16%) which accounts for over 70% of the observed 300 g reduction in birthweight. Finally, there is little evidence to suggest that the other exercise regimens studied to date have an adverse effect on fetal health. PMID:1875038

Clapp, J F

1991-01-01

409

Development of a framework to measure health profession regulation strengthening.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a framework to evaluate the progress and impact of a multi-year US government initiative to strengthen nursing and midwifery professional regulation in sub-Saharan Africa. The framework was designed as a capability maturity model, which is a stepwise series of performance levels that describe the sophistication of processes necessary to achieve an organization's objectives. A model from the field of software design was adapted to comprise the key functions of a nursing and midwifery regulatory body and describe five stages of advancing each function. The framework was used to measure the progress of five countries that received direct assistance to strengthen regulations and to benchmark the status of regulations in the 17 countries participating in the initiative. The framework captured meaningful advancements in regulatory strengthening in the five supported countries and the level of regulatory capacity in participating countries. The project uses the framework to assess yearly progress of supported countries, track the overall impact of the project on national and regional nursing regulation, and to identify national and regional priorities for regulatory strengthening. It is the first of its kind to document and measure progress toward sustainably strengthening nursing and midwifery regulation in Africa. PMID:24863957

McCarthy, Carey F; Kelley, Maureen A; Verani, Andre R; St Louis, Michael E; Riley, Patricia L

2014-10-01

410

NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

2014-03-19

411

Antioxidants in exercise nutrition.  

PubMed

Physical exercise may be associated with a 10- to 20-fold increase in whole body oxygen uptake. Oxygen flux in the active peripheral skeletal muscle fibres may increase by as much as 100- to 200-fold during exercise. Studies during the past 2 decades suggest that during strenuous exercise, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is elevated to a level that overwhelms tissue antioxidant defence systems. The result is oxidative stress. The magnitude of the stress depends on the ability of the tissues to detoxify ROS, that is, antioxidant defences. Antioxidants produced by the body act in concert with their exogenous, mainly dietary, counterparts to provide protection against the ravages of reactive oxygen as well as nitrogen species. Antioxidant supplementation is likely to provide beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative tissue damage. While universal recommendations specifying types and dosages of antioxidants are difficult to make, it would be prudent for competitive athletes routinely engaged in strenuous exercise to seek an estimate of individual requirement. A new dimension in oxidant biology has recently unfolded. Although excessive oxidants may cause damage to tissues, lower levels of oxidants in biological cells may act as messenger molecules enabling the function of numerous physiological processes. It is plausible that some exercise-induced beneficial effects are actually oxidant-mediated. Such developments call for an even more careful analysis of the overall significance of types and amounts of antioxidants in diet. While these complexities pose significant challenges, experts agree that if used prudently, oxidants and antioxidants may serve as potent therapeutic tools. Efforts to determine individual needs of athletes and a balanced diet rich in antioxidant supplements are highly recommended. PMID:11708399

Sen, C K

2001-01-01

412

Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and decreased regeneration in the mouse femoral Quadriceps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical unloading of muscle during spaceflight in microgravity is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber type composition, gene expression, and reductions in regenerative muscle growth. Although limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time, up to two weeks of spaceflight. Here we report on how 30-day, long-term, mechanical unloading in microgravity affects mouse muscle of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle morphology observed in histological sections shows signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei and low density of myofibrils, their separation and fragmentation. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appears to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed muscle fibers. Many of them however showed evidence of apoptosis and degradation of synthesized fibrils, suggesting long-term unloading in microgravity affects late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals showed normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new muscle fibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Myofiber nuclei stress responses in spaceflight animals was detected by positive nuclear immunolocalization of c-jun and c-myc proteins. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscle was localized with pax-7, MyoD and MCad immunostaining, and did not appear altered in microgravity. In summary, long-term spaceflight in microgravity causes significant atrophy and degeneration of the femoral Quadriceps muscle group, and it may interfere with muscle regenerative processes by inducing apoptosis in newly formed myofibers during their differentiation phase.

Grigoryan, Eleonora; Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Blaber, Elizabeth; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Markitantova, Yulia

413

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter

414

Exercises in Math Readiness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arriving at college, many individuals may find themselves in the need of some instructional tools to refresh their memories on various mathematical concepts. Fortunately for those individuals (and their teachers), the Exercises in Math Readiness website contains materials that will ease this process. Created by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Saskatchewan, the site contains exercises of varying difficulty that will take users through such topics as geometry, trigonometry, algebra, and exponential functions. Teachers will also want to look at the section that offers them some specific instructions on how the site might best be used with students. Additionally, the materials here are available in French, Georgian, and Russian.

Rempel, Stephan

415

Mercenaria Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Invertebrate Anatomy Online exercise, featuring the hard-shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria (quahog), is part of an Internet laboratory manual for courses in Invertebrate Zoology. This exercise features an introduction to Mollusca and a step-by-step dissection guide, including hand-drawn figures, defined terms, and detailed explanations of form and function. Students will learn about the external anatomy (shell), muscles, mantle skirts, mantle cavity, mantle folds, siphons, gills, labial palps, hemal system, exhalant chamber, excretory system, digestive system, nervous system, and reproductive system.

Fox, Richard; Online, Invertebrate A.

416

Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

2012-01-01

417

Psychology of Sport & Exercise Psychology of Sport & Exercise  

E-print Network

and gender roles in sport and exercise Past studies are mostly based on the models of Bem (1981) and Eccles stereotypes and gender roles on participation and performance in sport and exercise: Review and future stereotypes and gender roles on participation and performance in sport and exercise: Review and future

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, M C

2012-09-01

419

Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements  

SciTech Connect

Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rowland, R.A. (Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Chemical Preparedness Div.)

1991-01-01

420

Exercise for Stress and Anxiety  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise can begin to stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, but anxiety disorders , which affect 40 million adults, are the most common psychiatric illnesses in the ...

421

ISS Update: SPRINT Exercise Program  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Ph.D., NASA Lead Exercise Physiology Scientist, about the SPRINT exercise program used by the crew members aboard the Inter...

422

Weelchair exercise roller product design  

E-print Network

Inspired by bicycle training rollers, a wheelchair exercise roller (an exercise machine for the application of wheelchair users) was designed from conception of idea to alpha prototype. Background and market data was ...

Su, Benjamin W

2005-01-01

423

Thermogravity system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermogravimetry system designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 PPM water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.

Herbell, T. P.

1972-01-01

424

Thermogravimetry system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermogravimetry system, designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials, is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 p.p.m. water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.

Herbell, T. P.

1972-01-01

425

Mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum alloys  

SciTech Connect

Oxide dispersion strengthened molybdenum, Mo-ODS, developed by a proprietary powder metallurgy process, exhibits a creep rupture life at 0.65T{sub m} (1,600 C) of three to five orders of magnitude greater than unalloyed molybdenum, while maintaining ductile fracture behavior at temperatures significantly below room temperature. In comparison, the creep rupture life of the Mo-50Re solid solution strengthened alloy at 1,600 C is only an order of magnitude greater than unalloyed molybdenum. The results of microstructural characterization and thermal stability and mechanical property testing are discussed.

Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

1998-03-01

426

Dynamic inter-limb resistance exercise device for long-duration space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Essential for fitness on Earth, resistive exercise is even more important for astronauts, who must maintain muscle and bone strength in the absence of gravity. To meet this need, designers and scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, Life Science Division, have worked to develop more effective exercise devices for long-duration exposure to microgravity. One of these concepts is the Inter-Limb Resistance Device which allows the subject to exercise one limb directly against another, strengthening muscle groups in the arms, legs, and back. It features a modular harness with an inelastic cable and instrumented pulley. Forces similar to other high resistance exercise equipment are generated. Sensors in the pulley measure force and velocity for performance feedback display and data acquisition. This free-floating apparatus avoids vibration of sensitive experiments on board spacecraft. Compact with low mass, this hardware is also well suited for a 'safe haven' from radiation on board Space Station Freedom, and may prove useful in confined environments on Earth, such as Antarctic stations, submarines, and other underwater habitats. Potential spin-offs of this technology include products for personal strengthening and cardiovascular conditioning, rehabilitation of hospital patients, fitness exercise for the disabled, and retraining after sports injuries.

Schwandt, Douglas F.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.

1991-01-01

427

Effects of Sling Exercise Therapy on Trunk Muscle Activation and Balance in Chronic Hemiplegic Patients  

PubMed Central

Weakening of trunk muscles in stroke patients hinders functional ability, safety and balance. To confirm whether strengthening trunk muscles could facilitate rehabilitation of stroke patients, we investigated the effectiveness of sling exercise therapy (SET) using closed kinetic chain exercises to activate trunk muscles and improve balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients with chronic hemiplegia were equally divided into 2 groups, a SET group and a control group that performed regular exercises on a mat with the assistance of a table. Patients in both groups exercised for 30?min, three times per week for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography, whereas balance was measured using the Berg Balance Scale, Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Technique, Timed Up & Go test, and BioRescue before and after the 4-week experimental period. [Results] Trunk muscle activity and balance before and after intervention in both groups were significantly different. However, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Although SET was not more effective than regular exercise, significant improvement was observed before and after SET. Therefore, SET can be considered effective in strengthening trunk muscles in stroke patients with chronic hemiplegia. PMID:24926126

Lee, Jin Soo; Lee, Hong Gyun

2014-01-01

428

Is exercise a 'good thing'?  

PubMed

Exercise has emerged as a central concern in longevity and good health in the past 25 years, partly due to national pride, partly to business entrepreneurship and partly to scientific fact. There is still little hard evidence that exercise can prevent cardiovascular diseases. Any attempts at sound enquiry into the effects of exercise are hampered by the lack of specific regimens and reliable measuring devices. On the other hand, there is considerable morbidity associated with injudicious exercise activities. PMID:21274251

Godfrey, C M

1986-01-01

429

Is the voluntary control of exercise in man necessary for the ventilatory response?  

PubMed Central

The ventilatory response to electrically induced exercise (EEL) was studied in eighteen normal subjects and compared with the response to performing the same exercise voluntarily (EV). EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles so as to cause a pushing movement at 1 HZ against a spring load; this produced no pain or discomfort. Matching of EV to EEL was achieved by subjects copying a tension signal recorded during EEL and displayed on a storage oscilloscope. There were no differences between the resting states measured before either form of exercise. The ventilatory response (change in ventilation as a ratio of the change in CO2 elimination) was similar in the two types of exercise. The increases in ventilation and CO2 elimination were greater with EEL. Small but significant increases in the gas exchange ratio and serum lactate were found for EEL but not for EV, suggesting an increase in anaerobic metabolism in EEL. End-tidal PCO2 showed little change in either form of exercise. In some runs end-tidal PCO2 rose, but insufficiently to account for the ventilatory response as judged by the response to inhaled CO2. In two subjects arterial blood samples showed small and inconsistent changes in both Pa,CO2 and PaO2 for EV and EEL. pH and base excess changes also were consistent with more anaerobiosis with EEL compared to EV. The first ten breaths of exercise were used to study the on transient. In EV, expiratory duration shortened and ventilation increased significantly on the first breath but CO2 elimination did not increase until the second breath; in EEL, these variables did not change significantly until the second breath. For the remainder of the on transient the pattern of the ventilatory response was similar for EV and EEL. By the end of the on transient both EV and EEL had reached approximately 80% of their final steady-state values. These results suggest that a normal ventilatory response can occur in the absence of a drive to exercise from the cortex. PMID:6436481

Adams, L; Garlick, J; Guz, A; Murphy, K; Semple, S J

1984-01-01

430

Exercise-induced asthma.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced asthma is the phenomenon of transient airflow obstruction, typically 5 to 15 minutes after physical exertion. The increased airway resistance produces a 15% or greater decrease in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second, or in peak expiratory flow rate. Exercise-induced asthma occurs in 90% of individuals with asthma, representing 12% to 15% of the population world-wide. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among athletes ranges between 3% and 11%. Several theories of the etiology exist: respiratory heat or water loss (or both), hyperventilation causing discharge of bronchospastic chemical mediators or rebound rewarming of the blood in airway tissues. Treatment is either by pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic means, but medication continues to be the cornerstone of therapy for exercise-induced asthma. beta 2-Specific agonists remain the drugs of choice. Cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium are alternatives to the beta 2-agonists, and the combined use of the two classes of agents can provide additive benefits. PMID:9594485

Wilkerson, L A

1998-04-01

431

Transition: driving and exercise.  

PubMed

There are many social aspects to consider at the time of transition of adolescents with epilepsy. The role of both pediatric and adult health care providers includes education and guidance within the larger framework of family, society, and country. This section focuses on driving and exercise considerations for those undergoing transition. PMID:25209086

Nashef, Lina; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Camfield, Carol; Camfield, Peter; Nabbout, Rima

2014-08-01

432

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hypothetical Miocene exercise is designed to bring together knowledge of marine sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy to illustrate how climate changes related to Milankovitch orbital forcing can be used to refine the time scale, determine the timing of events, and estimate rates ("astrochronology").

Elrick, Maya

433

Does Motivation Affect Exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the state of Indiana, 20-29 percent of residents are obese. Being obese may impact social experiences and health conditions. This research seeks to investigate whether motivation affects an individual’s ability to engage in an exercise program. This research will utilize a convenience sample of 10 overweight, sedentary individuals living in northwest Indiana. Each of these 10 individuals will be

Angelica Brown