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1

Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

2001-01-01

2

Comparative Study of Hamstring and Quadriceps Strengthening Treatments in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohsen; Alenazi, Aqeel M.

2014-01-01

3

Effects of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strengthening on Crouch Gait in Children With Spastic Diplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose. Despite evidence of weakness in children with cerebral palsy, the use of strength training in this population remains contro- versial. Subjects. Fourteen children with spastic diplegia, ranging in age from 6 to 14 years rX= 9.1, SD= 2.9, participated in a bilateral quadriceps femoris muscle strengthening program. Methods. The children exercised three times per week for 6

Diane L Damiano; Luke E Kelly; Christopher L Vaughn

4

Quadriceps strength training using two forms of bilateral exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of quadriceps strength training in 15 women using bilateral constant resistance computerized exercise equipment that enabled only concentric contractions. To facilitate this investigation, data from an experimental control group (n = 14), using bilateral variable resistance exercise equipment which enables both concentric and eccentric muscle contractions, and a nonexercise control group (n = 17) were incorporated into the study design. Through a random selection process, subjects were assigned to one of three groups that participated in this 10-week study. Analysis, including univariate and multivariate statistical techniques, revealed no significant changes in strength between the two experimental groups. However, compared with the nonexercise group, there were significant increases in strength in the experimental exercise groups; yet, these increases were significant in both groups only on the right legs. In addition, the development of transient knee pain in two subjects engaged in both concentric and eccentric exercise training required their removal from the study. This finding, in concert with previous experimental evidence of an association between eccentric exercise and the development of transient pain, must be integrated into future studies. Results suggest that further investigation is necessary to reveal the neurologic or biomechanical factors which may result in unequal training stimuli to the limbs with bilateral strength training on various types of equipment. PMID:2802959

Gerberich, S G; Erickson, D; Serfass, R; Beard, B; Poulson, E; Ross, S; Wasser-Scott, P; Dauwalter, T; Olson, C; Lewis, S

1989-10-01

5

The Effects of Quadriceps Strength Following Static and Dynamic Whole Body Vibration Exercise.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown performance benefits from including whole-body vibration (WBV) whether as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when utilized as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared to static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial, however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic vs. static squats performed during WBV results in increases in quadriceps force production via dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. PMID:25268289

Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

2014-09-29

6

Effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on electromyographyic activity of quadriceps in untrained healthy females  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate muscle damage indicators and electromyography activities of quadriceps muscles at 25° of hip flexion in untrained healthy females after an eccentric exercise induced muscle fiber damage. Methods: A total of 14 healthy females participated in this pre-experimental study. The subjects performed maximal eccentric quadriceps contractions at 25? of hip flexion. Maximum voluntary extensor isometric and concentric moments, angle of maximum moment for concentric contractions, perceived pain intensity, and pain pressure threshold were examined before, immediately, 48 hours, 120 hours and 14 days after eccentric exercise. Additionally, electromyography of three parts of quadriceps muscle, knee flexion range of motion and thigh circumference were measured before and after eccentric exercise. Results: Significant reductions in maximum isometric moment and maximum concentric moment were observed at angular velocity of 60? per sec immediately after eccentric exercise (p<0.05). Both maximum isometric moment and maximum concentric moment recovered to the baseline 48 hours after eccentric exercise. Increased pain intensity and decreased knee joint range of motion manifested 48 hours after eccentric exercise. Pain pressure threshold for the quadriceps was higher 14 days after exercise as compared to 48 and 120 hours (p<0.05). No significant changes observed in electromyography and thigh circumference (p>0.05). Conclusion: Eccentric exercise performed at 25? of hip flexion resulted in muscle fiber injuries within the quadriceps muscle. However, electromyography of quadriceps muscle was not significantly different than the baseline. The result indicates that hip joint position may modify the effect of eccentric exercise on muscle activation. PMID:25695012

Rezaei, Mandana; Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Ismael; Jamshidi, Ali A.; Vassaghi-Gharamaleki, Behnoush; Hedayatpour, Nosratollah; Havaei, Naser

2014-01-01

7

Assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in women after injury induced by maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise with low angular speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to propose a model for exer- cise-induced muscle injury by way of a maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise at low angular speed, and assess the time course of functional recovery of the injured quadriceps femoris muscle from the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and electrical activity (root mean square - RMS and median frequency -

Fábio Viadanna Serrão; Paula Regina Mendes da Silva Serrão; Bernd Foerster; Alberto Tannús; Vanessa Monteiro Pedro; Tania F. Salvini

2007-01-01

8

Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

2001-01-01

9

The effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds.  

PubMed

[Purpose] We assessed the effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) over time. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy participants were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, and control. The subjects in the aerobic group walked on a treadmill for 40?min at 6.5?km/h. The subjects in the strength group performed circuit training that included bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, triceps extension, and shoulder press based on the perceived exertion for 40?min. The subjects in the control group rested without any exercise in a quiet room for 40?min. The PPTs of 5 potential muscle trigger points before exercise, and immediately after 10 and 40?min of exercise or rest were measured using an electronic algometer (JTECH Medical, USA). The Friedman's, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests were performed using SPSS 18.0 (IBM, Korea). [Results] The PPTs of all subjects decreased after 10?min of exercise, but the difference was not statistically significant. The PPTs of the control group decreased after 40?min. Furthermore, the PPTs of 3 muscles increased after 40?min of aerobic exercise and of 6 muscles after 40?min of strengthening exercise. No significant difference in PPTs was noted among the groups. [Conclusion] The results show that 40?min is a more appropriate exercise time, although the efficacy of controlling pain did not differ between strengthening exercise and aerobic exercise. PMID:25140106

Lee, Han Suk

2014-07-01

10

Control of the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis after exercise in trained and untrained human quadriceps muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of differences in exercise intensity on the time constant (t\\u000ac) of phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis after exercise and the relationships betweent\\u000ac and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in endurance-trained runners (n = 5) and untrained controls (n = 7) (average VO2max = 66.2 and 52.0 ml · min–1 · kg–1, respectively). To measure the metabolism of

Hideyuki Takahashi; Mitsuharu Inaki; Koichi Fujimoto; Shigeru Katsuta; Izumi Anno; Mamoru Nütsu; Yuji Itai

1995-01-01

11

Effect of Lumbar Stabilization and Dynamic Lumbar Strengthening Exercises in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises and lumbar dynamic strengthening exercises on the maximal isometric strength of the lumbar extensors, pain severity and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Methods Patients suffering nonspecific LBP for more than 3 months were included prospectively and randomized into lumbar stabilization exercise group (n=11) or lumbar dynamic strengthening exercise group (n=10). Exercises were performed for 1 hour, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. The strength of the lumbar extensors was measured at various angles ranging from 0° to 72° at intervals of 12°, using a MedX. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) were used to measure the severity of LBP and functional disability before and after the exercise. Results Compared with the baseline, lumbar extension strength at all angles improved significantly in both groups after 8 weeks. The improvements were significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group at 0° and 12° of lumbar flexion. VAS decreased significantly after treatment; however, the changes were not significantly different between the groups. ODQ scores improved significantly in the stabilization exercise group only. Conclusion Both lumbar stabilization and dynamic strengthening exercise strengthened the lumbar extensors and reduced LBP. However, the lumbar stabilization exercise was more effective in lumbar extensor strengthening and functional improvement in patients with nonspecific chronic LBP. PMID:23525973

Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Ha; Kim, Ha Jeong; Cho, Young Ki; Lee, Kwang Hee; Kim, Jung Hoo; Choi, Yoo Jung

2013-01-01

12

Role-playing exercises to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe how role-playing exercises can be used to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems in emergency management. Through role-playing exercises, the participants gain experience with adapting to changing demands and risk relative to challenges to their ability to predict future risk, adapt, and recover from harmful events. Role-playing exercises at the same time enable

Rogier Woltjer; Jiri Trnka; Jonas Lundberg; Björn Johansson

2006-01-01

13

SPINAL SEGMENTAL STABILIZATION EXERCISES COMBINED WITH TRADITIONAL STRENGTHENING EXERCISE PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Low back pain which lasts for more than 12 weeks is considered chronic lumbar pain. It is the most common diagnosis in physiatry. Numerous highly controlled randomized studies have proved a beneficial effect of the exercises on all symptoms of chronic low back pain. Classic kinesytherapy program does not include strengthening of the deep layer of abdominal and paravertebral

Milica Mirjana Dragan

14

Exercise for patients with osteoporosis: management of vertebral compression fractures and trunk strengthening for fall prevention.  

PubMed

Maintenance of bone health and quality requires mechanical strain, but the mechanical force needs to be within the bone's biomechanical competence. In osteoporosis, compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious. Therefore, absence of pain does not necessarily indicate absence of vertebral microfracture and deformity. Further, patients with previous vertebral fractures are at risk for further vertebral fractures and their associated morbidity. Exercise is a part of the comprehensive management of patients with osteoporosis and has been associated with improvement of quality of life and lowered risk of future fracture. The exercise prescription needs to match the needs of the patient. If exercise is not prescribed properly, then it may have negative consequences. In general, an exercise program, therapeutic or recreational, needs to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness. As with pharmacotherapy, therapeutic exercises need to be individualized on the basis of musculoskeletal status and an individual's exercise interest. In osteoporosis, axial strength and stability are of primary importance. In particular, a spinal extensor strengthening program should be performed with progressive measured resistance as tolerated. To address falls and fractures, an exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strength training. Proper dosing of oral cholecalciferol and calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strengthening exercises. Finally, a coordinated approach, such as the Spinal Proprioception Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program, can improve back extensor strength, the level of physical activity, and locomotion, and reduce back pain and fear and risk of falls. PMID:23174554

Sinaki, Mehrsheed

2012-11-01

15

PERCEIVED LOADING AND MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES: COMPARISON OF ELASTIC RESISTANCE AND MACHINE EXERCISES  

PubMed Central

Objective: Decreased hip muscle strength is frequently reported in patients with hip injury or pathology. Furthermore, soccer players suffering from groin injury show decreased strength of hip muscles. Estimating 10?repetition maximum can be time?consuming and difficult, thus, using the Borg category rating 10 scale (Borg CR10 scale) can be a useful tool for estimating the intensity of exercise. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the feasibility of the use of the Borg CR10 scale for rating strength training intensity of the hip abductor and hip adductor muscles, and 2) to compare hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). Methods: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ?2), moderate (Borg >2–<5), heavy (Borg ?5–<7) and near maximum (Borg ?7). Results: Moderate to strong associations were observed between perceived loading and nEMG obtained during the adduction exercise with elastic resistance (r=0.8±0.3) as well as in machine (r=0.69±0.55) and the abduction exercise with elastic resistance (r=0.66±0.29) as well as in machine (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during resistance training of the hip adductor and hip abductor muscles. Although elastic resistance and exercise machine seem equally effective for recruiting muscle activity of the hip adductors, the elastic resistance condition was able to demonstrate greater muscle recruitment than the exercise machine during hip abduction. PMID:24377067

Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian; Sundstrup, Emil; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.

2013-01-01

16

Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensities.  

PubMed

A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important in optimizing performance and preventing injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence-based recommendations are important for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg CR10 levels 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during 7 strengthening exercises and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises-press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row, and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus, and one-arm row at Borg 8-predominantly activated the lower trapezius over the upper trapezius (activation difference [?] 13-30%). Likewise, several of the exercises-push-up plus, shoulder press, and press-up at Borg 3 and 8-predominantly activated the serratus anterior over the upper trapezius (?18-45%). The middle trapezius was activated over the upper trapezius by one-arm row and prone abduction (?21-30%). Although shoulder press and push-up plus activated the serratus anterior over the lower trapezius (?22-33%), the opposite was true for prone flexion, one-arm row, and prone abduction (?16-54%). Only the press-up and push-up plus activated both the lower trapezius and the serratus anterior over the upper trapezius. In conclusion, several of the investigated exercises both at low and high intensities predominantly activated the serratus anterior and lower and middle trapezius, respectively, over the upper trapezius. These findings have important practical implications for exercise prescription for optimal shoulder function. For example, both workers with neck pain and athletes at risk of shoulder impingement (e.g., overhead sports) should perform push-up plus and press-ups to specifically strengthen the serratus anterior and lower trapezius. PMID:22076101

Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

2012-09-01

17

Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair. PMID:23955186

Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan

2013-10-01

18

Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in congestive heart failure?  

PubMed Central

Aims The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. Methods and results We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with a rest condition, 10 min after incremental maximal cycle exercise, twitch quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation fell in both groups (CHF 14.1% ± 18.1%, p = 0.037; Control: 20.8 ± 11.0%, p < 0.001; no significant difference between groups). There was no significant change in quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction voluntary force. The difference in the motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex between rest and exercise conditions at 10 min, normalised to the peripheral action potential, also fell significantly in both groups (CHF: 27.3 ± 38.7%, p = 0.037; Control: 41.1 ± 47.7%, p = 0.024). However, the fall in MEP was sustained for a longer period in controls than in patients (p = 0.048). Conclusions The quadriceps is more susceptible to fatigue, with a similar fall in TwQ occurring in CHF patients at lower levels of exercise. This is associated with no change in voluntary activation but a lesser degree of depression of quadriceps motor evoked potential. PMID:22795722

Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Dayer, Mark J.; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Swallow, Elisabeth B.; Porcher, Raphael; Vazir, Ali; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Polkey, Michael I.

2013-01-01

19

Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:25642098

Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

20

Home-Based Leg Strengthening Exercise Improves Function One Year After Hip Fracture: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine the effectiveness of a short term leg strengthening exercise program compared to attentional control on improving strength, walking abilities, and function one year after hip fracture. Design Randomized controlled pilot study. Setting Interventions occurred in patients’ homes. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (n=26) six months post hip fracture at baseline. Intervention Exercise and control participants received interventions by physical therapists twice weekly for 10 weeks. The exercise group received high intensity leg strengthening exercises. The control group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and mental imagery. Measurements Isometric force production of lower extremity muscles; usual and fast gait speed, six minute walk (6-MW) distance, modified physical performance test (mPPT), and SF-36 physical function. Results The primary endpoint was at one year post fracture. Isometric force production (p<.01), usual and fast gait speed (p=.02 & .03, respectively), 6-MW (p<.01), and mPPT (p<.01) improved at one year post fracture with exercise. Effect sizes were 0.79 for strength, 0.81 for mPPT scores, 0.56 for gait speed, 0.49 for 6-MW, and 0.30 for SF-36 scores. More patients in the exercise group made meaningful changes in gait speed and 6-MW distance than control patients (?2: p=.004). Conclusion A 10-week home-based progressive resistance exercise program was sufficient to achieve moderate to large effects on physical performance and quality of life and may offer an alternative intervention mode for hip fracture patients who are unable to leave home at 6 months after the fracture. The effects were maintained at 3 months after completion of the training program. PMID:20929467

Mangione, Kathleen K.; Craik, Rebecca L.; Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Tomlinson, Susan S.; Hofmann, Mary T.

2010-01-01

21

[Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].  

PubMed

Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome. PMID:25741921

Karahasano?lu, ?lker; Yolo?lu, Osman; Kerimo?lu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet U?ur

2015-04-01

22

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios in college football players: A high velocity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios were assessed on 60 in tercollegiate football players at functional speeds of 90, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec on the Cybex II. The ratio rose as velocity of exercise increased and the quadriceps was stronger than the hamstrings at all speeds. The flexor\\/extensor ratio differed bilaterally at all speeds with ratio lower for the dominant knee.The study helped establish

Maureen G. Stafford; William A. Grana

1984-01-01

23

Preferential reduction of quadriceps over respiratory muscle strength and bulk after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: In the absence of complications, recipients of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have normal pulmonary function but the impact of the procedure on the strength and bulk of respiratory and limb muscles has not been studied. Methods: Twelve stable patients who had undergone lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis 48 months earlier (range 8–95) and 12 normal subjects matched for age, height, and sex were studied. The following parameters were measured: standard lung function, peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometry, diaphragm surface area by computed tomographic (CT) scanning, diaphragm and abdominal muscle thickness by ultrasonography, twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and quadriceps cross section by CT scanning, and lean body mass. Diaphragm mass was computed from diaphragm surface area and thickness. Results: Twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, diaphragm mass, and abdominal muscle thickness were similar in the two groups but quadriceps strength and cross section were decreased by nearly 30% in the patients. Patients had preserved quadriceps strength per unit cross section but reduced quadriceps cross section per unit lean body mass. The cumulative dose of corticosteroids was an independent predictor of quadriceps atrophy. Peak oxygen uptake showed positive correlations with quadriceps strength and cross section in the two groups, but peak oxygen uptake per unit quadriceps strength or cross section was reduced in the patient group. Conclusions: The diaphragm and abdominal muscles have preserved strength and bulk in patients transplanted for cystic fibrosis but the quadriceps is weak due to muscle atrophy. This atrophy is caused in part by corticosteroid therapy and correlates with the reduction in exercise capacity. PMID:15333856

Pinet, C; Scillia, P; Cassart, M; Lamotte, M; Knoop, C; Melot, C; Estenne, M

2004-01-01

24

Presynaptic modulation of quadriceps arthrogenic muscle inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI) impedes rehabilitation following knee joint injury by preventing activation of the quadriceps. AMI has been attributed to neuronal reflex activity in which altered afferent input originating from the injured joint results in a diminished efferent motor drive to the quadriceps muscles. Beginning to understand the mechanisms responsible for muscle inhibition following joint injury is vital to

Riann M. Palmieri; Arthur Weltman; Jeffrey E. Edwards; James A. Tom; Ethan N. Saliba; Danny J. Mistry; Christopher D. Ingersoll

2005-01-01

25

Influence of Resistance Exercise Training to Strengthen Muscles across Multiple Joints of the Lower Limbs on Dynamic Balance Functions of Stroke Patients.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training for strengthening muscles across multiple joints on the dynamic balance function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects in the training group (n=14) and the control group (n=14) received conservative physical therapy for 30 minutes per day, five days per week, for a period of six weeks. The training group additionally performed three sets (eight to 10 repetitions per set) of resistance exercise at 70% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to strengthen muscles across multiple joints. The control group did the same exercises for the same duration but without resistance. To assess dynamic balance function, before and after the intervention, we measured antero-posterior (A-P) and medio-lateral (M-L) sway distances, the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the timed up and go (TUG) times. [Results] Compared to pre-intervention values, the BBS score showed significant increases in both groups, and A-P and M-L sway distances and TUG times showed significant decreases in both groups. Changes in A-P and M-L sway distances, BBS scores, and TUG times were significantly different between the muscle training group and the control group. [Conclusion] Training involving muscle strength across multiple joints is an effective intervention for improvement of dynamic balance function of stroke patients. PMID:25202193

Son, Sung Min; Park, Myung Kyu; Lee, Na Kyung

2014-08-01

26

Correction of Camptocormia Using a Cruciform Anterior Spinal Hyperextension Brace and Back Extensor Strengthening Exercise in a Patient With Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by cardinal motor features including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, freezing gait, and fatigue. Of these, postural instability in the form of hyperflexion of the thoracolumbar spine upon standing and walking that disappears on recumbent positioning is called camptocormia. Many different trials have been conducted on the treatment of camptocormia, including physiotherapy, corsets, medications, and deep brain stimulation. However, there is insufficient evidence as to which treatment modality is the most valid in terms of effectiveness, cost, safety, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we present a patient whose symptom of camptocormia was effectively resolved using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension (CASH) brace and back extensor strengthening exercise which was modified through follow-ups based on a short-term outpatient setting for proper application with minimal discomfort. The patient was satisfied with the amount of correction provided by the brace and exercise.

Ye, Byung Kook; Kim, Yong Wook

2015-01-01

27

Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. METHODS: This pilot study assessed the compliance

Raymond J Walls; Gavin McHugh; Donal J O'Gorman; Niall M Moyna; John M O'Byrne

2010-01-01

28

Concentric and Eccentric Time-Under-Tension during Strengthening Exercises: Validity and Reliability of Stretch-Sensor Recordings from an Elastic Exercise-Band  

PubMed Central

Background Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation. Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of total, single repetition, and contraction-phase specific TUT during shoulder abduction exercises, based on data from a stretch-sensor attached to an elastic exercise band. Methods A concurrent validity and interrater reliability study with two raters was conducted. Twelve participants performed five sets of 10 repetitions of shoulder abduction exercises with an elastic exercise band. Exercises were video-recorded to assess concurrent validity between TUT from stretch-sensor data and from video recordings (gold standard). Agreement between methods was calculated using Limits of Agreement (LoA), and the association was assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients. Interrater reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2.1). Results Total, single repetition, and contraction-phase specific TUT – determined from video and stretch-sensor data – were highly correlated (r>0.99). Agreement between methods was high, as LoA ranged from 0.0 to 3.1 seconds for total TUT (2.6% of mean TUT), from -0.26 to 0.56 seconds for single repetition TUT (6.9%), and from -0.29 to 0.56 seconds for contraction-phase specific TUT (13.2-21.1%). Interrater reliability for total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific TUT was high (ICC>0.99). Interrater agreement was high, as LoA ranged from -2.11 to 2.56 seconds for total TUT (4.7%), from -0.46 to 0.50 seconds for single repetition TUT (9.7%) and from -0.41 to 0.44 seconds for contraction-phase specific TUT (5.2-14.5%). Conclusion Data from a stretch-sensor attached to an elastic exercise band is a valid measure of total and single repetition time-under-tension, and the procedure is highly reliable. This method will enable clinicians and researchers to objectively quantify if home-based exercises are performed as prescribed, with respect to time-under-tension. PMID:23825696

Skovdal Rathleff, Michael; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas

2013-01-01

29

Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

2015-01-01

30

Intra- and intermuscular variation in human quadriceps femoris architecture assessed in vivo  

PubMed Central

Despite the functional importance of the human quadriceps femoris in movements such as running, jumping, lifting and climbing, and the known effects of muscle architecture on muscle function, no research has fully described the complex architecture of this muscle group. We used ultrasound imaging techniques to measure muscle thickness, fascicle angle and fascicle length at multiple regions of the four quadriceps muscles in vivo in 31 recreationally active, but non-strength-trained adult men and women. Our analyses revealed a reasonable similarity in the superficial quadriceps muscles, which is suggestive of functional similarity (at least during the uni-joint knee extension task) given that they act via a common tendon. The deep vastus intermedius (VI) is architecturally dissimilar and therefore probably serves a different function(s). Architecture varies significantly along the length of the superficial muscles, which has implications for the accuracy of models that assume a constant intramuscular architecture. It might also have consequences for the efficiency of intra- and intermuscular force transmission. Our results provide some evidence that subjects with a given architecture of one superficial muscle, relative to the rest of the subject sample, also have a similar architecture in other superficial muscles. However, this is not necessarily true for vastus lateralis (VL), and was not the case for VI. Therefore, the relative architecture of one muscle cannot confidently be used to estimate the relative architecture of another. To confirm this, we calculated a value of whole quadriceps architecture by four different methods. Regardless of the method used, we found that the absolute or relative architecture of one muscle could not be used as an indicator of whole quadriceps architecture, although vastus medialis, possibly in concert with VL and the anterior portion of VI, could be used to provide a useful snapshot. Importantly, our estimates of whole quadriceps architecture show a gender difference in whole quadriceps muscle thickness, and that muscle thickness is positively correlated with fascicle angle whereas fascicle length is negatively, although weakly, correlated with fascicle angle. These results are supportive of the validity of estimates of whole quadriceps architecture. These data are interpreted with respect to their implications for neural control strategies, region-specific adaptations in muscle size in response to training, and gender-dependent differences in the response to exercise training. PMID:16928199

Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas D; Zhou, Shi

2006-01-01

31

Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercises You Can Do at Home These are simple exercises you can do at home to improve ... Find Programs & Services Make a Donation Find a Location View Events Calendar Read the News View Daily ...

32

... strengthen the fight to end violence against women, and ensure that all women can exercise their right to live in safety in a peaceful society. In Quebec, women make  

E-print Network

... strengthen the fight to end violence against women, and ensure that all women can exercise and health. ...continue the struggle for better gun control, given the abolition of the long-gun registry and the further weakening of controls by the current federal government at the behest of the gun lobby. Firearms

Toronto, University of

33

Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

2001-01-01

34

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

2014-01-01

35

Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

Erdem, Devrim; ?ayli, Ömer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

2006-02-01

36

A Study on the Differences of Quadriceps Femoris Activities by Knee Alignment during Isometric Contraction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study attempted to identify how genu varum or valgum affects the electromyographic activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during knee isometric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two healthy young adults were enrolled in this study. They were enrolled and classified into three groups by knee alignment conditions: the genu varum, genu valgum, and control groups. [Methods] The electromyographic activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were calculated using the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. The participants contracted their quadriceps during isometric contraction at 30 and 60° of knee flexion. [Results] The genu varum group had more activity in the vastus medialis than in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, whereas the genu valgum group had more activity in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris than in the vastus medialis. There was a significant difference in the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis by angle of knee flexion degree only in the genu valgum. There were no significant differences in any of the three groups in terms of the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the rectus femoris by angle of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The quadriceps femoris was used for different strategies according to knee alignment during isometric contraction at 30 and 60°. This study suggests that rehabilitation training programs used to strengthen the quadriceps should consider the knee alignment conditions of the target subjects. PMID:25435677

Park, Seol; Ko, Yu-Min; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Park, Ji-Won

2014-01-01

37

Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

Exercise - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... now Download now Publication Stretching for People with MS Illustrated manual showing range of motion, stretching, and ...

38

Post-exercise alcohol ingestion exacerbates eccentric-exercise induced losses in performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute alcohol intake on muscular performance in both the exercising and non-exercising legs in the days following\\u000a strenuous eccentric exercise was investigated to ascertain whether an interaction between post-exercise alcohol use and muscle\\u000a damage causes an increase in damage-related weakness. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the\\u000a quadriceps muscles of one leg on an

Matthew J. Barnes; Toby Mündel; Stephen R. Stannard

2010-01-01

39

Electrical stimulation of the thigh muscles after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Effects of electrically elicited contraction of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles on gait and on strength of the thigh muscles.  

PubMed

The effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the strength of the thigh muscles and on gait were examined in ten patients after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional exercise, or volitional exercise alone. A four-week course of electrically elicited co-contraction of the thigh muscles resulted in significant attenuation of the characteristic loss of strength of the quadriceps as compared with volitional exercise. There was no significant difference between groups in any measure of performance of the hamstring muscles. In the group that received neuromuscular electrical stimulation, the values for cadence, walking velocity, stance time of the involved limb, and flexion-excursion of the knee during stance were significantly different from those of the volitional exercise group. Flexion-excursion of the knee during stance was directly and significantly correlated with strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Flexion of the knee during stance was qualitatively different in the involved extremity as compared with the uninvolved extremity in all patients. There is a rapid flexion of the knee at weight acceptance that is maintained throughout stance and probably reflects stabilization of the joint by muscular coactivation to compensate for weakness of the quadriceps. The patients who received neuromuscular electrical stimulation had stronger quadriceps muscles and more normal gait patterns than those in the volitional exercise group. PMID:1874764

Snyder-Mackler, L; Ladin, Z; Schepsis, A A; Young, J C

1991-08-01

40

Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. ?1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. ?8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. ?12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. ?6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

2013-01-01

41

Loss of quadriceps muscle oxidative phenotype and decreased endurance in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.  

PubMed

Being well-established in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), skeletal muscle dysfunction and its underlying pathology have been scarcely investigated in patients with mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that a loss of oxidative phenotype (oxphen) associated with decreased endurance is present in the skeletal muscle of patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. In quadriceps muscle biopsies from 29 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] 58 ± 16%pred, body mass index [BMI] 26 ± 4 kg/m(2)) and 15 controls (BMI 25 ± 3 kg/m(2)) we assessed fiber type distribution, fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA), oxidative and glycolytic gene expression, OXPHOS protein levels, metabolic enzyme activity, and levels of oxidative stress markers. Quadriceps function was assessed by isokinetic dynamometry, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, exercise capacity by an incremental load test, and physical activity level by accelerometry. Compared with controls, patients had comparable fat-free mass index, quadriceps strength, and fiber CSA, but quadriceps endurance was decreased by 29% (P = 0.002). Patients with COPD had a clear loss of muscle oxphen: a fiber type I-to-II shift, decreased levels of OXPHOS complexes IV and V subunits (47% and 31%, respectively; P < 0.05), a decreased ratio of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/phosphofructokinase (PFK) enzyme activities (38%, P < 0.05), and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (40%; P < 0.001) vs. increased PFK (67%; P < 0.001) gene expression levels. Within the patient group, markers of oxphen were significantly positively correlated with quadriceps endurance and inversely with the increase in plasma lactate relative to work rate during the incremental test. Levels of protein carbonylation, tyrosine nitration, and malondialdehyde protein adducts were comparable between patients and controls. However, among patients, oxidative stress levels were significantly inversely correlated with markers of oxphen and quadriceps endurance. Reduced muscle endurance associated with underlying loss of muscle oxphen is already present in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD without muscle wasting. PMID:22815389

van den Borst, Bram; Slot, Ilse G M; Hellwig, Valéry A C V; Vosse, Bettine A H; Kelders, Marco C J M; Barreiro, Esther; Schols, Annemie M W J; Gosker, Harry R

2013-05-01

42

Quadriceps muscle activation and radiographic osteoarthritis following ACL revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Quadriceps strength and activation may play an important role in the recovery from ACL revision surgery. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to describe quadriceps strength and central activation ratio (CAR) and correlate with radiographic findings in patients\\u000a with ACL revision surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-one patients who were on average 47.5 ± 21.1 months [range: 14–85 months] post-revision ACL reconstruction. We performed\\u000a knee joint physical examination

Joseph M. Hart; Kimberly A. Turman; David R. Diduch; Jennifer A. Hart; Mark D. Miller

2011-01-01

43

Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs on Developing Quadriceps and Hamstrings Strength of Young Male Professional Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

2013-01-01

44

Quantification method affects estimates of voluntary quadriceps activation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quantification method on estimates of voluntary quadriceps muscle activation. Twenty-two people with no history of serious lower extremity injuries underwent voluntary quadriceps activation testing at 60 degrees of knee flexion. Estimates of quadriceps activation were derived with: (1) a formula based on the interpolated twitch technique (ITT); (2) the central activation ratio (CAR); and (3) a modified central activation ratio. Predictive equations were developed that describe the relationships between the three methods. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were observed between the estimates of voluntary quadriceps muscle activation obtained using the three methods (ITT percent activation = 93.0 +/- 6.4%, CAR = 95.9 +/- 3.8%, modified CAR = 98.5 +/- 4.1%). Excellent correlation (r = 0.995) was observed between ITT-based percent activation and the CAR method. The associations between these methods and the modified CAR approach were weaker. Quantification method affects activation estimates. The equations developed will assist scientists in accurately comparing the results of studies that use different methods of quantifying activation. PMID:20229578

Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

2010-06-01

45

Contractile impairment after quadriceps strength training via electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural and muscular changes associated with electrical stimulation (ES) training and subsequent detraining. Twenty healthy active men were randomized to receive (intervention group) or not (control group) 4 weeks of ES strength training followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Quadriceps ES training sessions (20 minutes per session, 4 sessions per week) were completed under isometric loading conditions. Quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength, activation level, maximal electromyographic (EMG) activity, and excitation-contraction coupling properties were assessed before training, after training, and after detraining. Maximal voluntary contraction strength did not change after training but significantly increased after detraining (+21.5%; p < 0.05). Activation level (+7.3%) and maximal EMG activity (+27.9%) increased significantly after training and remained elevated after detraining (p < 0.05). Vastus lateralis M-wave amplitude did not change during the study period, whereas quadriceps contractile properties were significantly impaired after training but then recovered to pre-training values after detraining. We conclude that the maximal force-generating capacity of the quadriceps was unchanged after 4 weeks of ES strength training because of the interplay between neural (increased activation) and muscular (contractile impairment) changes. On the other hand, recovered contractile function and preserved activation after 4 weeks of detraining resulted in significant MVC strength increases. Quadriceps strength training via ES may induce overreaching and delayed adaptations and therefore should be used with caution. These findings may help in conceiving effective ES strength training programs for physically active subjects. PMID:20072053

Zory, Raphael F; Jubeau, Marc M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

2010-02-01

46

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Quadriceps in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Palliative Chemotherapy: A Randomized Phase II Study  

PubMed Central

Background A reduced exercise capacity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therapeutic exercise can be beneficial and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the quadriceps muscles may represent a practical approach. The primary aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of NMES of the quadriceps to patients with NSCLC used alongside palliative chemotherapy. Secondary aims explored aspects of safety and efficacy of NMES in this setting. Methods Patients with advanced NSCLC due to receive first-line palliative chemotherapy were randomized to usual care with or without NMES. They were asked to undertake 30 minute sessions of NMES, ideally daily, but as a minimum, three times weekly. For NMES to be considered acceptable, it was predetermined that ?80% of patients should achieve this minimum level of adherence. Qualitative interviews were held with a subset of patients to explore factors influencing adherence. Safety was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass, and physical activity level were assessed at baseline and after three cycles of chemotherapy. Results 49 patients (28 male, median (IQR) age 69 (64?75) years) participated. Of 30 randomized to NMES, 18 were eligible for the primary endpoint, of whom 9 (50% [90% CI, 29 to 71]) met the minimum level of adherence. Adherence was enhanced by incorporating sessions into a daily routine and hindered by undesirable effects of chemotherapy. There were no serious adverse events related to NMES, nor significant differences in quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass or physical activity level between groups. Conclusions NMES is not acceptable in this setting, nor was there a suggestion of benefit. The need remains to explore NMES in patients with cancer in other settings. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 42944026 www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN42944026 PMID:24386491

Maddocks, Matthew; Halliday, Vanessa; Chauhan, Alpna; Taylor, Victoria; Nelson, Annmarie; Sampson, Cathy; Byrne, Anthony

2013-01-01

47

Effects of Open and Closed Kinetic Chains of Sling Exercise Therapy on the Muscle Activity of the Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle is critical in patellofemoral pain syndrome. The quadriceps muscle supplies the power for dynamic patellar movement, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) enable the patella to stabilize during tracking. We followed the theories about open and closed kinetic chain exercises to design two exercises, sling open chain knee extension (SOCKE) exercise and sling closed chain knee extension (SCCKE) exercise. The purpose of our study was to research the changes in quadriceps muscle activity during both exercises. [Methods] Electromyographic analysis was used to explore the different effects of the two exercises. The MVC% was calculated for the VMO and VL during exercise for analysis. [Results] We found that the mean MVC% values of the VMO and VL during the SOCKE exercise were higher than those during the SCCKE exercise. The ratio of the VMO to VL was 1.0 ± 0.19 during the SOCKE exercise and 1.11 ± 0.15 during the SCCKE exercise. [Conclusions] The SOCKE exercise is targeted at quadriceps muscle training and has a recruitment effect on the VMO. The beneficial effect of the SOCKE exercise is better than that of the SCCKE exercise. PMID:25276016

Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

2014-01-01

48

Lactate content and pH in muscle samples obtained after dynamic exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzes were made on muscle samples taken from the lateral part of the m. quadriceps femoris of man (lactate, pyruvate, and pH) on venous blood (lactate, pyruvate) and on capillary blood (pH). Samples were taken at rest, immediately after termination of dynamic exercise and during 20 min recovery from exhaustive dynamic exercise.

K. Sahlin; R. C. Harris; B. Nylind; E. Hultman

1976-01-01

49

Primary Tuberculous Pyomyositis of Quadriceps Femoris in an Immunocompetent Individual  

PubMed Central

Primary tuberculous pyomyositis is a rare manifestation of musculoskeletal tuberculosis especially in immunocompetent individuals without a focus of tuberculosis in the body and the underlying bone disease. It can cause a diagnostic dilemma for a physician and surgeon because of its similar presentation to soft tissue sarcomas, hematomas, and myopathies. We present a case of a 45-year-old immunocompetant gentleman with a thigh swelling with sepsis due to pyomyositis of the quadriceps requiring a multimodal management of drainage of abscess, debridement of devitalized muscle, antitubercular drugs, and physiotherapy. In a tubercular endemic country, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose this disease which can be cured completely. PMID:24367732

Modi, M. A.; Mate, A. D.; Nasta, A. M.; Gvalani, A. K.

2013-01-01

50

Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft.  

PubMed

Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella. PMID:25264506

Saper, Michael G; Shneider, David A

2014-08-01

51

The quadriceps muscle is used for IM injections in the rat and  

E-print Network

The quadriceps muscle is used for IM injections in the rat and guinea pig. The needle should or hamster because the amount of material that can be injected in- to its limited muscle mass is so small), and the maximum volume adminis- tered should be 0.05ml per site. The quadriceps is the muscle of choice

Scott, Robert A.

52

Anterior-posterior and rotational displacement of the tibia elicited by quadriceps contraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior-posterior displacement and rotation of the tibia elicited by isolated loading of the quadriceps mus cle was determined as a function of joint angle and muscle load using a computerized radiographic tech nique. Data collected from 12 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees demonstrated that quadriceps contraction can result in significant (<7 mm) anterior displacement of the tibia in the range of

Shunji Hirokawa; Moshe Solomonow; Yun Lu; Zong-Ping Lou; Robert DAmbrosia

1992-01-01

53

Preoperative quadriceps femoris neuromuscular electrical stimulation in total knee arthroplasty : a clinical and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have asymmetrical muscle weakness due to neuromuscular activation deficits and muscle atrophy. Quadriceps muscle (QFM) strength declines after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with associated functional impairment. The ultimate purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on quadriceps muscle strength and functional recovery after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA

Raymond John Walls

2009-01-01

54

Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans.  

PubMed

We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

2010-08-01

55

Pre-operative quadriceps strength predicts IKDC2000 scores 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Quadriceps strength deficits are ubiquitous after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Deficits prior to surgery can influence knee function post-operatively. Inhibition contributes to quadriceps strength deficits after an ACL injury. Body mass index, meniscal injury, and sex influence functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of pre-operative quadriceps strength and post-operative knee function and to investigate how other pre-operative factors may influence this relationship. Methods After an ACL injury, subjects received pre-operative rehabilitation and performed quadriceps strength testing. Subjects underwent reconstruction and post-operative rehabilitation. Six months after ACL reconstruction, subjects completed the International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 subjective form (IKDC2000). Linear regression models were developed using IKDC2000 scores at 6 months after ACL reconstruction as the dependent variable. Results Fifty-five subjects had complete pre-operative data and IKDC2000 scores at 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Pre-operative involved quadriceps strength was a significant predictor for IKDC2000 scores 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Sex, meniscal injury, pre-operative BMI, and pre-operative involved quadriceps activation ratio were not significant predictors in the regression model. Conclusions Pre-operative quadriceps strength can predict IKDC2000 scores 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Deficits in pre-operative quadriceps strength influence self-reported function 6 months after surgery. Factors that are known to influence quadriceps strength and self-reported outcomes do not influence the relationship between pre-operative quadriceps strength and post-operative IKDC2000 scores. PMID:23022031

Logerstedt, David; Lynch, Andrew; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2012-01-01

56

[Reconstruction of quadriceps femoris muscle function with muscle transfer].  

PubMed

Femoral nerve palsy, mostly of iatrogen cause, leads to paresis of quadriceps muscle with complete loss of knee extension. Therapeutical options include neurolysis, nerve reconstruction or functional muscle transplantations. Another concept is the transfer of hamstring muscles as described in post polio surgery. We describe our experience of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle transfer for reconstruction of knee extension. From 2003 to 2007 seven patients (mean age 43) with complete loss of knee extension after femoral nerve lesion were treated. Nerve palsy was caused by direct lesion, traction, hematoma after collapse, lesion of lumbosacral plexus and an unclear muscle dystrophy. Indication for muscle transfer was due to long standing muscle paresis. All patients received a transfer of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle/tendon into the quadriceps tendon. Patients were immobilised in a cast for 6 weeks in extended knee position. Weight bearing started after 8 weeks. Operations went uneventfully. All patients were able to extend the knee postoperatively against gravity and were able to climb stairs without help. 4 Patients had complete knee extension, 2 had a lack of 20 degrees , one of 30 degrees. Daily routine was possible in all cases. No instability of knee joints occurred postoperatively. In a nerve lesion close to the muscle a nerve reconstruction should be aimed. If not performed or with unsuccessful outcome, muscle transfer is a good option to restore function. All recent studies describe good to excellent results with stable knees, allowing the patient to manage daily routine without assistance and to climb stairs up and down. Long term complications such as dislocation of patella or genu recurvatum were not observed in our patients. The latter results as typical complication in polio from weakening knee flexion through biceps femoris transfer, if the gastrocnemius muscle is not forceful enough. However in an isolated femoral nerve lesion this will rarely occur. PMID:20235008

Fansa, H; Meric, C

2010-08-01

57

'MYNI's orthosis': a self-adjustable, dynamic knee extension orthosis for quadriceps weakness in haemophilia rehabilitation.  

PubMed

In developing countries like India, where walking is the primary, preferred and feasible mode of transport, the implications following quadriceps weakness poses a serious threat to ones functional independence. This has been a challenge for professionals while ambulating individuals with haemophilia, where quadriceps weakness is very common. Although external splinting has been understood for many years, as a means of support in haemophilia, there is still a dearth of knowledge in making an appropriate splint to assist or to take over the weak quadriceps during ambulation. This newly designed 'MYNI's orthosis' helps in versatile ways in addition to assisting the weak quadriceps. It provides prolonged stretch to contracted tissue, allows for being used as a serial cast in improving the knee range and is cosmetically acceptable. Above all, it is user-friendly, thus enhancing compliance and superior outcome in haemophilic knee rehabilitation. PMID:15569171

Manigandan, C; Bedford, E; Kumar, S; Nathan, V; Peter, B K; Premkumar, J Charles

2004-11-01

58

Preferential quadriceps activation in female athletes with incremental increases in landing intensity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. PMID:21844610

Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Schmitt, Laura C; Uhl, Timothy L; Hewett, Timothy E

2011-08-01

59

Preferential Quadriceps Activation in Female Athletes With Incremental Increases in Landing Intensity  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. PMID:21844610

Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

60

Early Motion After Quadriceps and Patellar Tendon RepairsOutcomes With Single-Suture Augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Complications of immobilization after quadriceps and patellar tendon repairs include decreased patellar mobility, limited flexion, persistent pain, muscle weakness, and patella baja. In contrast, early motion limits muscle atrophy, accelerates tendon healing, and prevents joint stiffness.Hypothesis: Quadriceps and patellar tendon repairs protected with a “relaxing suture” are strong enough to safely permit early motion, full weightbearing, and brace-free ambulation.Study

Jesse L. West; James S. Keene; Lee D. Kaplan

2008-01-01

61

In vivo strain of the medial vs. lateral quadriceps tendon in patellofemoral pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is thought to be related to patellar maltracking due to imbalances in the knee extensor. However, no study has evaluated the in vivo biomechanical properties of the quadriceps tendon in PFP syndrome. Our purpose was to compare the biomechanical properties of the quadriceps tendons in vivo and noninvasively in patients with PFP syndrome to those of control subjects. The null hypothesis was that the quadriceps tendons of PFP subjects would have significantly decreased strain compared with control subjects. Fourteen subjects (7 control, 7 PFP) performed voluntary ramp isometric contractions to a range of torque levels, while quadriceps tendon elongation was measured using ultrasonography. Tendon strain was calculated for the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) portion of the quadriceps tendon and compared between subjects (control vs. PFP) and within subjects (VMO vs. VL). PFP subjects showed significantly less VMO tendon strain than control subjects (P<0.001), but there was no difference in VL tendon strain between PFP and control subjects (P=0.100). Relative weakness of the VMO is the most likely cause of the decreased tendon strain seen in subjects with PFP. VMO weakness not only explains the decreased medial tendon strain but also explains the presence of increased lateral patellar translation and lateral patellar spin (distal pole rotates laterally) reported in the literature in this population. This technique can potentially be used in a clinical setting to evaluate quadriceps tendon properties and infer the presence of muscle weakness in PFP. PMID:19541742

Wilson, Nicole A; Press, Joel M; Zhang, Li-Qun

2009-08-01

62

Lumbopelvic Joint Manipulation and Quadriceps Activation of People With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Quadriceps weakness and inhibition are impairments associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Lumbopelvic joint manipulation has been shown to improve quadriceps force output and inhibition, but the duration of the effect is unknown. Objective: To determine whether quadriceps strength and activation are increased and maintained for 1 hour after high-grade or low-grade joint mobilization or manipulation applied at the lumbopelvic region in people with PFPS. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-eight people with PFPS (age = 24.6±8.9 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.2 cm, mass = 78.4 ± 16.8 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: lumbopelvic joint manipulation (grade V), side-lying lumbar midrange flexion and extension passive range of motion (grade II) for 1 minute, or prone extension on the elbows for 3 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Quadriceps force and activation were measured using the burst superimposition technique during a seated isometric knee extension task. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to compare changes in quadriceps force and activation among groups over time (before intervention and at 0, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after intervention). Results: We found no differences in quadriceps force output (F5,33,101,18 = 0.65, P = .67) or central activation ratio (F4.84,92.03 = 0.38, P= .86) values among groups after intervention. When groups were pooled, we found differences across time for quadriceps force (F2.66,101.18 = 5.03, P = .004) and activation (F2.42,92.03 = 3.85, P = .02). Quadriceps force was not different at 0 minutes after intervention (t40 = 1.68, P = .10), but it decreased at 20 (t40 = 2.16, P = .04), 40 (t40 = 2.87, P = .01) and 60 (t40 = 3.04, P = .004) minutes after intervention. All groups demonstrated decreased quadriceps activation at 0 minutes after intervention (t40 = 4.17, P <.001), but subsequent measures were not different from preintervention levels (t40 range, 1.53–1.83, P >.09). Conclusions: Interventions directed at the lumbopelvic region did not have immediate effects on quadriceps force output or activation. Muscle fatigue might have contributed to decreased force output and activation over 1 hour of testing. PMID:22488227

Grindstaff, Terry L.; Hertel, Jay; Beazell, James R.; Magrum, Eric M.; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Fan, Xitao; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

2012-01-01

63

Quadriceps activation normative values and the affect of subcutaneous tissue thickness.  

PubMed

Calculation of the central activation ratio (CAR) using the superimposed burst technique (SIB) is widely used. 0.95 is considered a normal value of the CAR in healthy subjects, but it has not been objectively examined. Since an electrical stimulation penetrates the subcutaneous tissue, the intensity of electrical stimulation may vary depending on the subcutaneous tissue thickness. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps with the knee at 90°. Once the MVIC reached a plateau, an electrical stimulation was manually delivered to the quadriceps. Quadriceps CAR was quantified using the equation: CAR=MVIC/MVIC+SIB torque. Quadriceps subcutaneous thickness was measured using ultrasound imaging and skinfolder pinch calipers. CAR values were estimated at 0.95 ± 0.04 for dominant and 0.93 ± 0.05 for non-dominant limbs. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed that there were negative correlations for quadriceps torque output (Nm/kg) and subcutaneous tissue thickness measured by ultrasound imaging (dominant: r=-0.54, p<0.001; non-dominant: r=-0.53, p<0.001). We found no relationship between CAR and subcutaneous tissue thickness. A CAR of 0.95 may be considered full activation in healthy young adults, and CAR in healthy adults generated by the SIB technique may not be dependent on subcutaneous thickness. PMID:20947373

Park, Jihong; Hopkins, J Ty

2011-02-01

64

Dynamic analysis of anterior tibial translation during isokinetic quadriceps femoris muscle concentric contraction exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a knee motion analyser, we have studied anterior tibial translation under a range of loading conditions in normal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knees. Anterior displacement in excess of that observed in passive knee flexion was noted in a static Lachman test. Anterior tibial displacement in normal knees increased steadily as the knee was extended from 60° flexion

S Kizuki; K Shirakura; M Kimura; N Fukasawa; E Udagawa

1995-01-01

65

Altered contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in people with spinal cord injury following functional electrical stimulated cycle training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: A longitudinal training study. Objectives: To assess if contractile speed and fatigability of paralysed quadriceps muscles in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) can be altered by functional electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometry (FES-LCE) training. Settings: The Sint Maartenskliniek rehabilitation centre and the University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Methods: Contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle were studied

H. L. Gerrits; A de Haan; A. J. Sargeant; A. J. Dallmeijer; M. T. E. Hopman

2000-01-01

66

“Central” Quadriceps Tendon Harvest With Patellar Bone Plug: Surgical Technique Revisited  

PubMed Central

The objective of this article is to review the surgical technique for quadriceps tendon graft harvest while highlighting an additional technical note that has not been previously emphasized. The quadriceps tendon typically inserts eccentrically on the superior pole of the patella. By shifting the soft-tissue harvest to a location just off the medial edge of the tendon, the adjoining patellar bone plug will be centered on the superior pole of the patella, reducing the risk of an iatrogenic patellar fracture. PMID:24400194

Scully, William F.; Wilson, David J.; Arrington, Edward D.

2013-01-01

67

Simultaneous Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture following Long-Term Low-Dose Nasal Corticosteroid Application  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare injury, which was previously only described in slightly more than 100 cases in the English literature. Occurrence after minor trauma is predominantly associated with certain medical conditions including chronic diseases and long-term use of certain drugs. We report the case of a 61-year-old healthy patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following minor trauma. Medical history was completely clear except of a long-term nasal corticosteroid medication due to allergic rhinitis. PMID:23984143

Ettinger, Max; Krettek, Christian

2013-01-01

68

Changes in magnetic resonance images in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the time-course of changes in transverse relaxation time (T2) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps muscle after a single session of eccentric exercise, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on six healthy male volunteers before and at 0, 7, 15, 20, 30 and 60 min and 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 168 h after exercise. Although there

Hideyuki Takahashi; Shin-ya Kuno; Toshikazu Miyamoto; Hiroshi Yoshioka; Mitsuharu Inaki; Hiroshi Akima; Shigeru Katsuta; Izumi Anno; Yuji Itai

1994-01-01

69

The Relationship between Quadriceps Thickness, Radiological Staging, and Clinical Parameters in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical parameters, radiological staging and evaluated ultrasound results of quadriceps muscle thickness in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects] The current study comprised 75 patients (51 female, 24 male) with a mean age of 57.9±5.2?years (range 40–65 years) and a diagnosis of osteoarthritis in both knees. [Methods] Knee radiographs were evaluated according to the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Clinical evaluation performed with the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the 50-meter walking test, and the 10-step stair test. The thickness of the muscle layer of the quadriceps femoris (M. vastus intermedius and M. rectus femoris) was measured with high-resolution real-time ultrasonography. [Results] The results of this study showed a significant negative correlation between quadriceps thickness and age, duration of disease, stage of knee OA, and VAS, WOMAC, 50-m walking test, and 10-step stair test scores. [Conclusion] The evaluation of quadriceps muscle thickness with ultrasound can be considered a practical and economical method in the diagnosis and follow-up of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013299

Koca, Irfan; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Ozkur, Ayhan

2014-01-01

70

The Effect of Postsurgical Edema of the Knee Joint on Reflex Inhibition of the Quadriceps Femoris  

E-print Network

The purpose of this case study was to investigate reflex inhibition of the quadriceps femoris in a subject with postsurgical edema of the left knee. The subject was a 45-year-old male with a traumatic knee injury with resultant edema who underwent...

McDonough, Andrew L.; Weir, Joseph P.

1996-01-01

71

Quadriceps function, proprioceptive acuity and functional performance in healthy young, middle-aged and elderly subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: muscle functions to generate force-producing movement and also has a role in proprioception. If ageing compromises these sensorimotor functions of muscle, the ability of older subjects to detect and correct postural sway may be impeded, resulting in impairment of functional performance. Method: to see if age-related changes occurred and, if so, what their effects might be. Quadriceps strength, proprioception,

MICHAEL V. HURLEY; JOANNE REES; DI J. NEWHAM

1998-01-01

72

Angle and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0° (terminal extension), 10°, 30°, 50°, 70°, and 90° flexion. Knee extensor

Danny M. Pincivero; Yuliya Salfetnikov; Robert M. Campy; Alan J. Coelho

2004-01-01

73

Modeling Variability of Force During Isometric Contractions of the Quadriceps Femoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors modeled variability of force during continuous isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. Twenty adults (aged 25 ± 6 years old) performed isometric leg extensions Target forces were 11 percentages of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC), ranging from 2 to 95%, and 5 absolute levels, from 25 to 225 N. The authors used standard deviation of absolute force, coefficient of

Evangelos A. Christou; Michael Grossman; Les G. Carlton

2002-01-01

74

Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.  

PubMed

Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(?1), 3.14 rad · s(?1) and 5.24 rad · s(?1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length. PMID:25517892

Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

2015-06-01

75

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1990-01-09

76

Light Rail Transit Strengthening  

E-print Network

Light Rail Transit Improving mobility Easing congestion Strengthening our communities Central Corridor Communicating to the Public During Major Construction May 25, 2011 #12;2 Light Rail Transit;Light Rail Transit Central Corridor Route and Stations 3 · 18 new stations · 9.8 miles of new double

Minnesota, University of

77

Strengthening Nurses' Moral Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specifically addressed here is the suggestion from the Synergy Model that the nurses' competency of advocacy and moral agency practiced within a synergistic relationship would strengthen not only patients' outcomes but also nurses' moral agency. Within the Synergy Model, the competency of advocacy and moral agency is defined as working on another's behalf and representing the concerns of the patient,

Carolyn Hayes

78

Strengthening America's Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

2000-01-01

79

The patella ligament insertion angle influences quadriceps usage during walking of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.  

PubMed

Following ACL injury a reduction in the peak knee flexion moment during walking (thought to be created by a decrease of quadriceps contraction) has been described as an adaptation to reduce anterior tibial translation (ATT) relative to the femur. However, the amount of ATT caused by quadriceps contraction is influenced by the patellar ligament insertion angle (PLIA). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that quadriceps usage during walking correlates to individual anatomical variations in the extensor mechanism as defined by PLIA. PLIA and gait were measured for ACL-deficient knees, using subjects' contralateral knees as controls. In ACL-deficient knees, PLIA was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.59) to peak knee flexion moment (balanced by net quadriceps moment), while no correlation was found in contralateral knees. Reduction in peak flexion moment in ACL-deficient knees compared to their contralateral knees was distinctive in subjects with large PLIA, possibly to avoid excessive ATT. These results suggest that subject-specific anatomic variability of knee extensor mechanism may account for the individual variability previously observed in adaptation to a quadriceps reduction strategy following ACL injury. The average (+/-1 SD) PLIA of ACL-deficient knees (21.1 +/- 3.4 degrees) was less than the average PLIA of contralateral knees (23.9 +/- 3.1 degrees). This altered equilibrium position of the tibiofemoral joint associated with reduced PLIA and adaptations of gait patterns following ACL injury may be associated with degenerative changes in the articular cartilage. In the future, individually tailored treatment and rehabilitation considering individuals' specific extensor anatomy may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:17593539

Shin, Choongsoo S; Chaudhari, Ajit M; Dyrby, Chris O; Andriacchi, Thomas P

2007-12-01

80

Quadriceps oxygenation changes during walking and running on a treadmill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation was investigated on volunteers as well as muscular dystrophy patients during a walking test, and on volunteers during a free running by a continuous wave near infrared instrument. The data were analyzed using an oxygenation index independent on pathlength changes. Walking did not significantly affect the oxygenation of volunteers and patients. A relative deoxygenation was found only during free running indicating an unbalance between oxygen supply and tissue oxygen extraction. Preliminary measurements of exercising muscle oxygen saturation were performed by a 110 MHz frequency-domain, multisource instrument.

Quaresima, Valentina; Pizzi, Assunta; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Ferrari, Adriano; de Angelis, Marco; Ferrari, Marco

1995-04-01

81

Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based

Shufang Dong; Ke-Qian Lu; Jian Qiao Sun; Katherine Rudolph

2006-01-01

82

Influence of aerobic cycle exercise training on patellar tendon cross-sectional area in older women.  

PubMed

Nine to 12 weeks of resistance exercise training in young individuals induces quadriceps muscle (?6%) and region-specific patellar tendon (4-6%) hypertrophy. However, 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (?1?h total exercise time) in older individuals (60-78 years) induces quadriceps muscle hypertrophy (9%) without impacting patellar tendon size. The current study examined if a different loading paradigm using cycle exercise would promote patellar tendon hypertrophy or alter the internal tendon properties, measured with magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity, in older individuals. Nine women (70?±?2 years) completed 12 weeks of aerobic upright cycle exercise training (?28?h total exercise time). Aerobic exercise training increased (P?quadriceps muscle size (11?±?2%) and VO2max (30?±?9%). Mean patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) (2?±?1%) and signal intensity (-1?±?2%) were unchanged (P?>?0.05) over the 12 weeks of training. Region-specific CSA was unchanged (P?>?0.05) at the proximal (-1?±?3%) and mid regions (2?±?2%) of the tendon but tended (P?=?0.069) to increase at the distal region (5?±?3%). Region-specific signal intensity differed along the tendon but was unchanged (P?>?0.05) with training. Although more studies are needed, exercise-induced patellar tendon hypertrophy, compared with skeletal muscle, appears to be attenuated in older individuals, while the loading pattern associated with aerobic exercise seems to have more impact than resistance exercise in promoting patellar tendon hypertrophy. PMID:22092782

Standley, R A; Harber, M P; Lee, J D; Konopka, A R; Trappe, S W; Trappe, T A

2013-06-01

83

Enhancing Relationships Strengthening Commitment  

E-print Network

through the "down" times. Shared goals, values and dreams clearly help keep a relationship alive and vital stress reliever. Exercise control. It's natural to feel fear and anger during a crisis. There are ways to the crisis can help you maintain control. Support each other. Because some crises have a snowball effect

Leistikow, Bruce N.

84

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

85

The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinson's Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Exercise is recommended for every patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effectiveness of two different forms of exercise for PD, Tai Chi and combined stretching-strengthening exercise, was compared. Methods Patients with mild-to-moderate PD were recruited to join either the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group (n=7), the Tai Chi group (n=9), or the control (nonintervention) group (n=7). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 8 weeks. The Tai Chi exercise was led by certified instructors based on a Tai-Chi-for-arthritis program. The combined stretching-strengthening exercise comprised folk dancing, stepping, and elastic-band exercises. The subjects' functional fitness, parkinsonian symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and depression were evaluated. Results Both exercise groups yielded better results in their overall functional fitness after the intervention. However, no improvement with exercise was found for parkinsonian symptoms, as evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. With respect to the domains of QoL, the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group fared better in the social domain of QoL, and the Tai Chi group fared better in the emotional domain, while QoL and depression worsened in the control group. The postintervention QoL was improved relative to the control condition only for the Tai Chi group. Although the exercise interventions did not have any effect on depression, the control group was associated with a significant deterioration. Conclusions Exercise improved the functional fitness and QoL of PD patients, with Tai Chi yielding better results in QoL and favorable results in functional fitness. These findings suggest that Tai Chi could be a good exercise strategy for patients with PD. PMID:24285965

Cheon, Sang-Myung; Chae, Bo-Kyung; Sung, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Geon Cheol

2013-01-01

86

Use of Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Recovery of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Force Production in Patients Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose, Electrical stimulation has been shown to be e$ec- tive in aiding the recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle force production after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The actual dosage of stimulation (training intem'ty) has not been well described. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a dose-response curve for electrical stimulation regimens designed to improve quadriceps femoris muscle

Lynn Snyder-Mackler; Anthony Delitto; Susan W Stralka; Sherri L Bailey

87

Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis  

PubMed Central

The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

2014-01-01

88

Preserved function and reduced angiogenesis potential of the quadriceps in patients with mild COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about limb muscle abnormalities in mild COPD. Inactivity and systemic inflammation could play a role in the development of limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The objective of the present study was to characterize quadriceps function, enzymatic activities and morphometry, levels of plasma inflammatory markers and physical activity levels in daily life (PAdl) in patients with mild COPD (GOLD 1). Methods Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area (MTCSA), quadriceps strength, endurance, fiber-type distribution, capillarity, pro-angiogenesis factors (VEGF-A, angiopoietin I and II) and muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in 37 patients with mild COPD and 19 controls. Systemic inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-?, Fibrinogen, SP-D) and PAdl were assessed. Results MTCSA, quadriceps strength and endurance were not different between COPD and controls. Capillarity and muscle oxidative capacity were all preserved in mild COPD. Reduced pro-angiogenesis factor mRNA expression was seen in COPD. The level of moderately active intensity (>3 METs) was significantly lower in mild COPD and, in multiple regression analyses, the level of physical activity was a determinant of muscle oxidative capacity and capillarization. No between-group differences were found regarding muscle oxidative stress while circulating IL-6 levels were elevated in mild COPD. Conclusions The quadriceps muscle function was preserved in mild COPD although a reduced potential for angiogenesis was found. The reduced level of daily activities and evidence of systemic inflammation in these individuals suggest that these factors precede the development of overt limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. PMID:24438094

2014-01-01

89

Knee extensor torque and quadriceps femoris EMG during perceptually-guided isometric contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine superficial quadriceps femoris (QF) EMG and torque at perceived voluntary contraction efforts. Thirty subjects (15 males, 15 females) performed 9, 5 s, sub-maximal contractions at prescribed levels of perceived voluntary effort at points 1–9 on an 11-point scale (0–10), in a random order. Surface electromyograms (EMG) of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus

D. M. Pincivero; A. J. Coelho; R. M. Campy; Y. Salfetnikov; E. Suter

2003-01-01

90

Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch of maximal voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch has been observed for electrically and voluntarily activated human muscle.\\u000a However, especially for voluntary contractions, the latter observation has only been made for adductor pollicis and the ankle\\u000a joint muscles, but not for large muscles like quadriceps femoris. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the\\u000a effects of active muscle stretch

Daniel Hahn; Wolfgang Seiberl; Ansgar Schwirtz

2007-01-01

91

Ultrasound characteristics of the patellar and quadriceps tendons among young elite athletes.  

PubMed

Tendons adapt in response to sports-specific loading, but sometimes develop tendinopathy. If the presence of ultrasound changes like hypoechoic areas and neovascularization in asymptomatic tendons precede (and predict) future tendon problems is unknown. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between the development of ultrasound changes in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and symptoms of jumper's knee, as well to examine the medium-term effects of intensive training on tendon thickness among adolescent athletes. Elite junior volleyball athletes were followed with semi-annual ultrasound and clinical examinations (average follow-up: 1.7 years). Of the 141 asymptomatic athletes included, 22 athletes (35 patellar tendons) developed jumper's knee. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a baseline finding of a hypoechoic tendon area (odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 9.2) increased the risk of developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Patellar tendon thickness among healthy athletes did not change (Wilk's lambda, P?=?0.07) while quadriceps tendon thickness increased (P?=?0.001). In conclusion, ultrasound changes at baseline were risk factors for developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Also, among healthy athletes, we observed a 7-11% increase in quadriceps tendon thickness, while there was no increase in patellar tendon thickness. PMID:24612006

Visnes, H; Tegnander, A; Bahr, R

2015-04-01

92

Carbide strengthened refractory metals  

SciTech Connect

High temperature creep strength is the primary design criterion for refractory metal alloys being considered for application in space nuclear power systems. The strength improvement exhibited by these alloys, which contain a reactive metal component and to which intentional carbon additions have been made, is generally attributed to a reactive metal carbide precipitate. One exception is the tantalum base alloy ASTAR-811C, where only the dimetal carbide of tantalum has been detected. Melting, primary and secondary working, and heat treatment operations have all been shown to influence the carbide precipitate size/morphology. This paper discusses the various carbide strengthened Group Va and VIa refractory metal alloys, and presents mechanical property data which illustrates the influence of: alloy base, [bold reactive] [bold metal]/[bold carbon] atom ratio, and thermal mechanical processing history, on high temperature creep properties.

Buckman, R.W. Jr. (Refractory Metals Technology, P.O. Box 18415, Pittsburgh, Pennaylvania 15236 (United States))

1993-01-10

93

Iron supplementation improves progressive fatigue resistance during dynamic knee extensor exercise in iron-depleted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tissue iron depletion may negatively affect endurance performance and muscle fatigability. Objective: We investigated tissue-level iron depletion and pro- gressive fatigue of the quadriceps during dynamic knee-extension exercise in young women. Design: Twenty iron-depleted (serum ferritin < 20 ? g\\/L), nonane- mic (hemoglobin > 110 g\\/L) women (x - ± SEM age: 29.1 ± 1.2 y) received iron (iron

Tom D Brutsaert; Sonia Hernandez-Cordero; Juan Rivera; Tracey Viola; Gail Hughes; Jere D Haas

94

Preactivation of the quadriceps muscle could limit cranial tibial translation in a cranial cruciate ligament deficient canine stifle.  

PubMed

Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency is the leading cause of lameness of the canine stifle. Application of tension in the quadriceps muscle could trigger cranial tibial translation in case of CrCL rupture. We replaced the quadriceps muscle and the gastrocnemius muscle by load cells and turn-buckles. First, eight canine limbs were placed in a servo-hydraulic testing machine, which applied 50% of body weight (BW). In a second phase, the CrCL was transected, and the limbs were tested in a similar manner. In a third phase, a quadriceps pretension of 15% BW was applied and limbs were again tested in a similar manner. Cranial tibial translation was significantly decreased in CrCL deficient stifles (p?quadriceps pretension was applied. These findings indicate that quadriceps pretension could play a role in the stability of a CrCL deficient stifle and should then be considered in rehabilitation programs and conservative treatment of CrCL rupture in dogs. PMID:25487559

Ramirez, Juan M; Lefebvre, Michael; Böhme, Beatrice; Laurent, Cédric; Balligand, Marc

2015-02-01

95

Spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament during treatment for chronic renal failure.  

PubMed Central

The quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament rupture rarely, even when under great stress or trauma, but can rupture spontaneously in patients with chronic diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and renal disease. Several factors probably combine to weaken the tendon, including an impoverished local vascular supply, repeated microtrauma and secondary hypoparathyroidism with osteodystrophy. In the three cases reported here, one of which was bilateral, the patients were being treated for chronic renal disease; surgical repair of the tendons led to sound healing and a return to normal function of the joints. PMID:6861063

Loehr, J.; Welsh, R. P.

1983-01-01

96

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and in extreme cases, death. Because compulsive exercise is closely related to eating disorders, help can be found at community agencies specifically ...

97

A stepwise procedure to test contractility and susceptibility to injury for the rodent quadriceps muscle  

PubMed Central

In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Biological markers can also be used in measuring muscle injury, such as increased creatine kinase levels in the blood, but these are not always correlated with loss in muscle function (i.e. loss of force production). This is even true of histological findings from animals, which provide a “direct measure” of damage, but do not account for loss of function. The most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force. To date, animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle. Here we describe an in vivo animal model for the quadriceps, with abilities to measure torque, produce a reliable muscle injury, and follow muscle recovery within the same animal over time. We also describe a second model used for direct measurement of force from an isolated quadriceps muscle in situ. PMID:25530979

Pratt, Stephen J.P.; Lovering, Richard M.

2014-01-01

98

Bilateral quadriceps rupture: results with and without platelet-rich plasma.  

PubMed

This article presents a 46-year-old man with bilateral atraumatic quadriceps rupture that occurred while he was descending stairs. The patient underwent surgery the day after the accident. In the left knee, quadriceps reinsertion was performed using a conventional technique. In the right knee, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), both in its liquid and semisolid patterns, was added intraoperatively. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluations were performed 1, 6, and 24 months postoperatively. At 6 and 24 months postoperatively, clinical and functional evaluations also were performed. Clinical examination showed no differences between the knees, and functional scores were the same for both knees. Ultrasonographic evaluation showed bilateral persistent tendon thickening and gross echotexture abnormalities, with no side-to-side differences. Magnetic resonance imaging showed signals of vascularized granulation tissue in both knees, which was more evident in the right (PRP) knee at 1 month postoperatively, along with a better signal of scar tissue in the right knee at 6 and 24 months postoperatively. The use of PRP yielded no better clinical or functional results than the lack of its use. However, a more intense and significant reparative healing process occurred where the PRP was used, thus suggesting a more rapid completion of the healing process, although this effect seems to remain only a radiographic finding with no clinical correlation. PMID:24200458

Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Vadalà, Antonio; Morelli, Federico; Iorio, Raffaele; Ciompi, Alessandro; Vetrano, Mario; Argento, Giuseppe; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Di Sanzo, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Andrea

2013-11-01

99

Treatment of knee contracture in cerebral palsy by hamstring lengthening, posterior capsulotomy, and quadriceps mechanism shortening.  

PubMed

Results of surgery to correct fixed flexion contracture of the knee and improve voluntary knee extension in 39 knees in 20 children (11 females, 9 males; mean age 12 years 8 months, age range 5 to 20 years) with cerebral palsy were analyzed. All patients had neuromotor disease and 18 children had spastic diplegia or quadriplegia. All patients could initiate voluntary knee extension but lacked full passive extension. Five patients (10 knees) were free walkers with a mean motor severity index of 19 and mean fixed knee contracture of 20 degrees. Fifteen patients (29 knees) were not free walkers and 13 were wheelchair ambulators. They had a mean motor severity index of 8 and mean fixed knee contractures of 30 degrees. Surgical procedures included various combinations of hamstring lengthening and/or posterior capsulotomy to allow free passive knee extension, with or without quadriceps mechanism shortening, to enhance voluntary extension. The best results were in patients who had hamstring lengthening, posterior capsulotomy, and quadriceps mechanism shortening. PMID:11769265

Beals, R K

2001-12-01

100

Influence of Local Cooling on Proprioceptive Acuity in the Quadriceps Muscle  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the influence of cooling on proprioceptive acuity as reflected in the ability to discriminate weights. Design and Setting: Participants were trained to perform a weight-discrimination task. Their ability to correctly report small increments in weight was compared before and after local cooling (a 20-minute application of a crushed-ice pack) of the quadriceps muscle group. Data were collected at a university research laboratory. Subjects: Twenty young, physically active adults (undergraduate students; 14 men, 6 women; mean age, 22.1 ± 2.6 years). Measurements: We calculated overall performance in the weight-discrimination task (percentage of discrimination correct) for each participant to estimate the differential threshold (ie, minimal increment in weight that yields a probability of 75% correct responses). Results: Before local cooling, participants discriminated increments in the order of 4% to 10% from the standard weight (mean threshold, 0.17 ± 0.06 kg). After local cooling, the discriminative performance remained, on average, very similar to that seen before cooling (mean threshold, 0.17 ± 0.08 kg; paired t test: t = 0.24, P = .81). Only a small group of participants (n = 5) showed evidence of a decreased ability to discriminate weight after cooling. Conclusions: The perception of force signals required for weight discrimination does not appear to be affected by local cooling of the quadriceps muscle group. This finding provides additional evidence for the relative safety of cold applications and their effect on proprioceptive perceptual abilities. PMID:12937450

Estephan, Lorein; Legendre, Martine; Sulpher, Stéphanie

2001-01-01

101

Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that exercise interventions are more effective than no exercise control and to compare the effectiveness of different exercise interventions in relieving pain and improving function in patients with lower limb osteoarthritis. Data sources Nine electronic databases searched from inception to March 2012. Study selection Randomised controlled trials comparing exercise interventions with each other or with no exercise control for adults with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Data extraction Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcomes extracted were pain intensity and limitation of function. Trial sequential analysis was used to investigate reliability and conclusiveness of available evidence for exercise interventions. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to combine both direct (within trial) and indirect (between trial) evidence on treatment effectiveness. Results 60 trials (44 knee, two hip, 14 mixed) covering 12 exercise interventions and with 8218 patients met inclusion criteria. Sequential analysis showed that as of 2002 sufficient evidence had been accrued to show significant benefit of exercise interventions over no exercise control. For pain relief, strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening plus aerobic, aquatic strengthening, and aquatic strengthening plus flexibility, exercises were significantly more effective than no exercise control. A combined intervention of strengthening, flexibility, and aerobic exercise was also significantly more effective than no exercise control for improving limitation in function (standardised mean difference ?0.63, 95% credible interval ?1.16 to ?0.10). Conclusions As of 2002 sufficient evidence had accumulated to show significant benefit of exercise over no exercise in patients with osteoarthritis, and further trials are unlikely to overturn this result. An approach combining exercises to increase strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity is likely to be most effective in the management of lower limb osteoarthritis. The evidence is largely from trials in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Protocol registration PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/) No CRD42012002267. PMID:24055922

2013-01-01

102

HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING INDUCES MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SKELETAL MUSCLES  

PubMed Central

In the present study we investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on fibre composition and metabolism of two specific muscles of mice: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism. PMID:24744502

Toti, L.; Bartalucci, A.; Ferrucci, M.; Fulceri, F.; Lazzeri, G.; Lenzi, P.; Soldani, P.; Gobbi, P.; La Torre, A.

2013-01-01

103

Treadmill Training Increases SIRT-1 and PGC-1? Protein Levels and AMPK Phosphorylation in Quadriceps of Middle-Aged Rats in an Intensity-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effects of running at 0.8 or 1.2?km/h on inflammatory proteins (i.e., protein levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, and NF-?B) and metabolic proteins (i.e., protein levels of SIRT-1 and PGC-1?, and AMPK phosphorylation) in quadriceps of rats. Male Wistar rats at 3 (young) and 18 months (middle-aged rats) of age were divided into nonexercised (NE) and exercised at 0.8 or 1.2?km/h. The rats were trained on treadmill, 50?min per day, 5 days per week, during 8 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, muscles were removed, homogenized, and analyzed using biochemical and western blot techniques. Our results showed that: (a) running at 0.8?km/h decreased the inflammatory proteins and increased the metabolic proteins compared with NE rats; (b) these responses were lower for the inflammatory proteins and higher for the metabolic proteins in young rats compared with middle-aged rats; (c) running at 1.2?km/h decreased the inflammatory proteins and increased the metabolic proteins compared with 0.8?km/h; (d) these responses were similar between young and middle-aged rats when trained at 1.2?km. In summary, the age-related increases in inflammatory proteins, and the age-related declines in metabolic proteins can be reversed and largely improved by treadmill training. PMID:25002755

Oliveira, Nara R. C.; Marques, Scherolin O.; Luciano, Thais F.; Pauli, José R.; Moura, Leandro P.; Caperuto, Erico; Pieri, Bruno L. S.; Engelmann, Julia; Scaini, Gisele; Streck, Emilio L.; Lira, Fabio S.; Pinho, Ricardo A.; Ropelle, Eduardo R.; Silva, Adelino S. R.; De Souza, Cláudio T.

2014-01-01

104

Treadmill training increases SIRT-1 and PGC-1 ? protein levels and AMPK phosphorylation in quadriceps of middle-aged rats in an intensity-dependent manner.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of running at 0.8 or 1.2 km/h on inflammatory proteins (i.e., protein levels of TNF- ? , IL-1 ? , and NF- ? B) and metabolic proteins (i.e., protein levels of SIRT-1 and PGC-1 ? , and AMPK phosphorylation) in quadriceps of rats. Male Wistar rats at 3 (young) and 18 months (middle-aged rats) of age were divided into nonexercised (NE) and exercised at 0.8 or 1.2 km/h. The rats were trained on treadmill, 50 min per day, 5 days per week, during 8 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, muscles were removed, homogenized, and analyzed using biochemical and western blot techniques. Our results showed that: (a) running at 0.8 km/h decreased the inflammatory proteins and increased the metabolic proteins compared with NE rats; (b) these responses were lower for the inflammatory proteins and higher for the metabolic proteins in young rats compared with middle-aged rats; (c) running at 1.2 km/h decreased the inflammatory proteins and increased the metabolic proteins compared with 0.8 km/h; (d) these responses were similar between young and middle-aged rats when trained at 1.2 km. In summary, the age-related increases in inflammatory proteins, and the age-related declines in metabolic proteins can be reversed and largely improved by treadmill training. PMID:25002755

Oliveira, Nara R C; Marques, Scherolin O; Luciano, Thais F; Pauli, José R; Moura, Leandro P; Caperuto, Erico; Pieri, Bruno L S; Engelmann, Julia; Scaini, Gisele; Streck, Emilio L; Lira, Fabio S; Pinho, Ricardo A; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Silva, Adelino S R; De Souza, Cláudio T

2014-01-01

105

Group III and IV muscle afferents contribute to ventilatory and cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise in humans.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of somatosensory feedback on cardioventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in five men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects performed the same leg cycling exercise (50/100/150/325 ± 19 W, 3 min each) under placebo conditions (interspinous saline, L(3)-L(4)) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing central projection of spinal opioid receptor-sensitive muscle afferents. Quadriceps strength was similar before and after fentanyl administration. To evaluate whether a cephalad migration of fentanyl affected cardioventilatory control centers in the brain stem, we compared resting ventilatory responses to hypercapnia (HCVR) and cardioventilatory responses to arm vs. leg cycling exercise after each injection. Similar HCVR and minor effects of fentanyl on cardioventilatory responses to arm exercise excluded direct medullary effects of fentanyl. Central command during leg exercise was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. No differences between conditions were found in resting heart rate (HR), ventilation [minute ventilation (VE)], or mean arterial pressure (MAP). Quadriceps electromyogram, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), and plasma lactate were similar in both conditions at the four steady-state workloads. Compared with placebo, a substantial hypoventilation during fentanyl exercise was indicated by the 8-17% reduction in VE/CO(2) production (VCO(2)) secondary to a reduced breathing frequency, leading to average increases of 4-7 Torr in end-tidal PCO(2) (P < 0.001) and a reduced hemoglobin saturation (-3 ± 1%; P < 0.05) at the heaviest workload (?90% maximal VO(2)) with fentanyl. HR was reduced 2-8%, MAP 8-13%, and ratings of perceived exertion by 13% during fentanyl vs. placebo exercise (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the essential contribution of muscle afferent feedback to the ventilatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses to rhythmic exercise in humans, even in the presence of unaltered contributions from other major inputs to cardioventilatory control. PMID:20634355

Amann, Markus; Blain, Gregory M; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

2010-10-01

106

Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete  

PubMed Central

In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

1995-01-01

107

Effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training and motor skills training on strength of children with meningomyelocele: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant citations, six met the inclusion criteria. Each was rated using the systematic review guidelines of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. Two studies examined changes in quadriceps muscle torque following electrical stimulation, three investigated upper extremity exercise training, and one evaluated quadriceps strength after motor skills training. Although the limited evidence suggests improvements in strength when using these interventions, much of the evidence is of low methodological quality and all studies were published more than 10 years ago. Further research is needed regarding various strength-training interventions for children with meningomyelocele and the relationship between increased strength and improved activity and participation. PMID:19916827

Dagenais, Liese M; Lahay, Erin R; Stueck, Kailey A; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R

2009-01-01

108

Exercise addiction.  

PubMed

This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start. PMID:23329605

Landolfi, Emilio

2013-02-01

109

Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

2012-01-01

110

A Stochastic Model of Knee Angle in Response to Electrical Stimulation of the Quadriceps and Hamstrings Muscles  

E-print Network

1 A Stochastic Model of Knee Angle in Response to Electrical Stimulation of the Quadriceps to Electrical Stimulation ABSTRACT A novel stochastic model of knee angle in response to stimulation. The purpose of this model is to generate more realistic electrically stimulated knee movements

Popovic, Milos R.

111

Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

2012-01-01

112

Enhancing Muscle Force and Femur Compressive Loads via Feedback-Controlled Stimulation of Paralyzed Quadriceps in Humans  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare paralyzed quadriceps force properties and femur compressive loads in an upright functional task during conventional constant-frequency stimulation and force feedback-modulated stimulation. Design Crossover trial. Setting Research laboratory. Participants Twelve men and one woman with motor complete SCI. Intervention Subjects performed 2 bouts of 60 isometric quadriceps contractions while supported in a standing frame. On separate days subjects received constant-frequency stimulation at 20 Hz (CONST) or frequency-modulated stimulation (FDBCK). During FDBCK, a computer algorithm responded to each 10% reduction in force with a 20% increase in stimulation frequency. Main Outcome Measure A biomechanical model was used to derive compressive loads upon the femur, with a target starting dose of load equal to 1.5 times body weight. Results Peak quadriceps force and fatigue index were higher for FDBCK than CONST (p<0.05). Within-train force decline was greater during FDBCK bouts but mean force remained above CONST values (p<0.05). As fatigue developed during repetitive stimulation, FDBCK was superior to CONST for maintenance of femur compressive loads (p<0.05). Conclusions Feedback-modulated stimulation in electrically-activated stance is a viable method to maximize the physiologic performance of paralyzed quadriceps muscle. Compared to CONST, FDBCK yielded compressive loads that were closer to a targeted dose of stress with known osteogenic potential. Optimization of muscle force with FDBCK may be a useful tactic for future training-based anti-osteoporosis protocols. PMID:21272720

Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Littmann, Andrew E.; Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; McHenry, Colleen L.; Shields, Richard K.

2010-01-01

113

Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity  

PubMed Central

Summary Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velocity increased. Studies that analysed the H/Q ratio with gravity corrected isokinetic strength testing reported between 1967 and 2004 were included in our review and analysis. Keywords were hamstrings/quadriceps, isokinetics, peak torque and gravity corrected. Medline and Smart databases were searched combined with cross-checked bibliographic reference lists of the publications to determine studies to be included. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 1568 subjects (1145 male, 423 female). Males demonstrated a significant correlation between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R = 0.634, p < 0.0001), and a significant difference in the isokinetic H/Q ratio at the lowest angular velocity (47.8 ± 2.2% at 30°/s) compared to the highest velocity (81.4 ± 1.1% at 360°/s, p < 0.001). In contrast, females did not demonstrate a significant relationship between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R = 0.065, p = 0.77) or a change in relative hamstrings strength as the speed increased (49.5 ± 8.8% at 30°/s; 51.0 ± 5.7% at 360°/s, p = 0.84). Gender differences in isokinetic H/Q ratios were not observed at slower angular velocities. However, at high knee flexion/extension angular velocities, approaching those that occur during sports activities, significant gender differences were observed in the H/Q ratio. Females, unlike males, do not increase hamstrings to quadriceps torque ratios at velocities that approach those of functional activities. PMID:17875402

Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.

2012-01-01

114

Muscular adaptations to fatiguing exercise with and without blood flow restriction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the muscular adaptations to low-load resistance training performed to fatigue with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Middle-aged (42-62 years) men (n = 12) and women (n = 6) completed 18 sessions of unilateral knee extensor resistance training to volitional fatigue over 6 weeks. One limb trained under BFR, and the contralateral limb trained without BFR [free flow (FF)]. Before and after the training, measures of anterior and lateral quadriceps muscle thickness (MTh), strength, power and endurance were assessed on each limb. The total exercise training volume was significantly greater for the FF limb compared with the BFR limb (P<0·001). Anterior quadriceps thickness and muscle function increased following the training in each limb with no differences between limbs. Lateral quadriceps MTh increased significantly more (P<0·05) in the limb trained under BFR (BFR: 3·50 ± 0·61 to 3·67 ± 0·62 cm; FF: 3·49 ± 0·73 to 3·56 ± 0·70 cm). Low-load resistance training to volitional fatigue both with and without BFR is viable options for improving muscle function in middle-aged individuals. However, BFR enhanced the hypertrophic effect of low-load training and reduced the volume of exercise needed to elicit increases in muscle function. PMID:24612120

Fahs, Christopher A; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Kim, Daeyeol; Abe, Takashi; Beck, Travis W; Feeback, Daniel L; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

2015-05-01

115

Effects of a short proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching bout on quadriceps neuromuscular function, flexibility, and vertical jump performance.  

PubMed

The inclusion of relatively long bouts of stretching (repeated static stretches of ?30 seconds) in the warm-up is usually associated with a drop in muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel self-administered proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) paradigm with short periods of stretching and contraction on quadriceps neuromuscular function, vertical jump performance, and articular range of motion (ROM). Twelve healthy men (age: 27.7 ± 7.3 years, height: 178.4 ± 10.4 cm, weight: 73.8 ± 16.9 kg) volunteered to participate in a PNF session and a control session separated by 2-7 days. The PNF stretching lasted 2 minutes and consisted of 4 sets of 5-second isometric hamstring contraction immediately followed by 5 seconds of passive static stretch of the quadriceps immediately followed by 5 seconds isometric quadriceps contraction for each leg. For the control session, the participants were asked to walk at a comfortable speed for 2 minutes. Active ROM of knee flexion, vertical jump performance, and quadriceps neuromuscular function were tested before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the intervention. The PNF stretching procedure did not affect ROM, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation level, M-wave and twitch contractile properties that could be attributed to PNF stretching. The present self-administered PNF stretching of the quadriceps with short (5-second) stretches is not recommended before sports where flexibility is mandatory for performance. PMID:22505131

Place, Nicolas; Blum, Yannick; Armand, Stéphane; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Behm, David G

2013-02-01

116

Strength stimuli on the quadriceps femoris influences the physiological tremor of the index finger  

E-print Network

The influence of fatiguing stimuli applied to the quadriceps femoris on the tremor of the index finger on sixteen healthy subjects has been investigated, by measuring the acceleration and the electromyography activity of the extensor digitorum at two different speeds. No significant changes in the basal condition could be measured at 0.52 rad/s. However, at 1.05 rad/s the tremor amplitude (12.23%, p<0.05) and the electromyography activity (20.19%, p<0.05) increased in the time domain. In the frequential domain, the peak associated to the acceleration increased in 26.30% (p<0.05), while the electromiography activity experienced an increase of 81.34% (p<0.05). The largest change in frequency took place in the range 7-17 Hz. The discussion of the results leads to the conclusion that the supraespinal mechanism is responsible for the measured effect.

Lainez, Miguel J A; Gallach, Jose E; Moras, Gerard; Ranz, Daniel; Toca-Herrera, Jose L

2008-01-01

117

An artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the tibia.  

PubMed

No permanent, reliable artificial tendon exists clinically. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device as a versatile connector, fixed at one end to a muscle, and adaptable at the other end to inert implants such as prosthetic bones or to bone anchors. The objective of this study was to evaluate four configurations of the device to replace the extensor mechanism of the knee in goats. Within muscle, the four groups had: (A) needle-drawn uncoated bundles, (B) needle-drawn coated bundles, (C) barbed uncoated bundles, and (D) barbed coated bundles. The quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon were removed from the right hind limb in 24 goats. The four groups (n?=?6 for each) were randomly assigned to connect the quadriceps muscle to the tibia (with a bone plate). Specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated controls both for mechanical testing and histology at 90 days post-surgery. In strength testing, maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated control) were 1,288?±?123?N (vs. 1,387?±?118?N) for group A, 1,323?±?144?N (vs. 1,396?±?779?N) for group B, 930?±?125?N (vs. 1,337?±?126?N) for group C, and 968?±?109?N (vs. 1,528?±?146?N) for group D (mean?±?SEM). The strengths of the OrthoCoupler™ legs in the needled device groups were equivalent to unoperated controls (p?=?0.6), while both barbed device groups had maximum forces significantly lower than their controls (p?=?0.001). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:21520259

Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Stringer, Keith; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

2011-11-01

118

An Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia  

PubMed Central

No permanent, reliable artificial tendon exists clinically. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device as a versatile connector, fixed at one end to a muscle, and adaptable at the other end to inert implants such as prosthetic bones or to bone anchors. The objective of this study was to evaluate four configurations of the device to replace the extensor mechanism of the knee in goats. Within muscle, the four groups had: (A) needle-drawn uncoated bundles, (B) needle-drawn coated bundles, (C) barbed uncoated bundles, and (D) barbed coated bundles. The quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon were removed from the right hind limb in 24 goats. The four groups (n=6 for each) were randomly assigned to connect the quadriceps muscle to the tibia (with a bone plate). Specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated controls both for mechanical testing and histology at 90 days post-surgery. In strength testing, maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated control) were 1288±123 N (vs. 1387±118 N) for group A, 1323±144 N (vs. 1396±779 N) for group B, 930±125 N (vs. 1337±126 N) for group C, and 968±109 N (vs. 1528±146 N) for group D (mean ± SEM). The strengths of the OrthoCoupler™ legs in the needled device groups were equivalent to unoperated controls (p=0.6), while both barbed device groups had maximum forces significantly lower than their controls (p=0.001). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:21520259

Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Stringer, Keith; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

2011-01-01

119

Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain walking speed in older men and women?  

PubMed

Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that the capability to produce rapid neuromuscular activation during maximal effort leg muscle contractions will be shown to be an independent predictor of mobility function in older men and women after accounting for muscle size and adiposity, body composition and age. Twenty six older men and eighteen older women (aged 70-85years) participated in this study. Mobility function was assessed by the 400-m walk test. Neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle group was assessed by surface electromyography ("rate of EMG rise"). Thigh muscle cross sectional area and adiposity were assessed by computed tomography. In males, univariate regression analysis revealed strong associations between walking speed and a number of predictors including age (p<0.01), muscle area (p<0.01), intermuscular adipose tissue area (p<0.01), and rate of EMG rise (p<0.001). Subsequent multiple regression analysis with all variables accounted for 72% of the variability in walking speed (p<.0001), with age and rate of EMG rise as the dominant variables in the model. In females, univariate analysis showed a significant association only between walking speed and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounted for only 44% of the variability in walking speed, and was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The present findings indicate that the capability to rapidly activate the quadriceps muscle group is an important factor accounting for inter-individual variability of walking speed among older men, but not among older women. This research is important for informing the design of assessments and interventions that seek to detect and prevent impairments that contribute to age-related mobility disability. PMID:24703887

Clark, David J; Reid, Kieran F; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M; Ring, Sarah A; Wu, Samuel S; Fielding, Roger A

2014-07-01

120

Interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate determined with MSNA during exercise in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to use the microdialysis technique to simultaneously measure the interstitial concentrations of several putative stimulators of the exercise pressor reflex during 5 min of intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans (n = 7). Exercise resulted in approximately a threefold (P < 0.05) increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 13 +/- 3 beats/min (P < 0.05) and 20 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and blood pressure, respectively. During recovery, all reflex responses quickly returned to baseline. Interstitial lactate levels were increased (P < 0.05) from rest (1.1 +/- 0.1 mM) to exercise (1. 6 +/- 0.2 mM) and were further increased (P < 0.05) during recovery (2.0 +/- 0.2 mM). Dialysate phosphate concentrations were 0.55 +/- 0. 04, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.48 +/- 0.03 mM during rest, exercise, and recovery, respectively, and were significantly elevated during exercise. At the onset of exercise, dialysate K(+) levels rose rapidly above resting values (4.2 +/- 0.1 meq/l) and continued to increase during the exercise bout. After 5 min of contractions, dialysate K(+) levels had peaked with an increase (P < 0.05) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 meq/l and subsequently decreased during recovery, not being different from rest after 3 min. In contrast, H(+) concentrations rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) from resting levels (69.4 +/- 3.7 nM) during quadriceps exercise and continued to decrease with a mean decline (P < 0.05) of 16.7 +/- 3.8 nM being achieved after 5 min. During recovery, H(+) concentrations rapidly increased and were not significantly different from baseline after 1 min. This study represents the first time that skeletal muscle interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate have been measured in conjunction with MSNA, heart rate, and blood pressure during intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans. These data suggest that interstitial K(+) and phosphate, but not lactate and H(+), may contribute to the stimulation of the exercise pressor reflex.

MacLean, D. A.; Imadojemu, V. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

2000-01-01

121

Reproducibility and validity of the quadriceps muscle integrated electromyogram threshold during incremental cycle ergometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle aims of this research were, firstly, to determine if the relationship between integrated electromyography (iEMG) and exercise intensity was linear or threshold-like, and secondly, to determine if the relationship between iEMG and exercise intensity was repeatable on different test occasions. A group of 20 trained male subjects participated in the study. Each subject completed two incremental exercise tests

A. D. Taylor; R. Bronks

1995-01-01

122

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... often result in long-term damage. Instead of building muscle, too much exercise actually destroys muscle mass, especially if the body isn't getting enough nutrition, forcing it to break down muscle for energy. Girls who exercise compulsively may disrupt the balance ...

123

Volcanological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which builds on knowledge gained in previous homework exercises located at the same site, asks students in an undergraduate class at Tulane University to answer some basic questions about volcanoes, and to determine the volcanic hazards associated with Mt. Rainier, Washington; Montserrat, West Indies; and Long Valley Caldera, California by searching the World Wide Web.

Stephen Nelson

124

Raymond Wilcox StrengtheningCommunications  

E-print Network

Raymond Wilcox StrengtheningCommunications amongFutureEngineering Leaders AlumnusandCollegeofEngineering NationalAdvisoryBoardmember Raymond Wilcox(BSEME'68)came totheUniversityofMichiganfromFlorida in1964,"said Wilcox,whoretiredin2008asthepresi- dentandchiefexecutiveofficerofChevron Phillips

Daly, Samantha

125

Strengthening the EH through Performance  

E-print Network

of protecting against environmental factors that may adversely impact human health or the ecological balancesStrengthening the EH through Performance Standards . Bohan, Ph.D., MS, MSEH, R.S. OK Environmental are Where we need to be National Environmental Public Health Performance Standards (NEnvPHPS) Background

126

Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

2015-01-01

127

Effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening in a neck pain: a patient with klippel-feil syndrome.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2-3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6-7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-12-01

128

Effects of Cervical Deep Muscle Strengthening in a Neck Pain: A Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2–3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6–7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-01-01

129

Influence of patellar ligament insertion angle on quadriceps usage during walking in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.  

PubMed

Reduced quadriceps contraction has been suggested as an adaptation to prevent anterior tibial translation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees. This theory has been supported by a recent study that peak knee flexion moment (thought to be created by a decrease of quadriceps contraction) during walking was negatively correlated with patellar ligament insertion angle (PLIA) in ACL-deficient knees, but not in contralateral, uninjured knees. In addition, the PLIA was significantly smaller in ACL-deficient knees than in contralateral, uninjured knees. However, it is unknown whether ACL reconstruction restores the PLIA or whether the relationship between the PLIA and knee flexion moments previously observed in ACL-deficient knees disappears. This study tested the following hypotheses: (1) The PLIA of ACL-reconstructed knees is significantly smaller than the PLIA of uninjured contralateral knees; (2) Peak knee flexion moment (balanced by net quadriceps moment) during walking is negatively correlated with the PLIA in ACL-reconstructed knees. The PLIA of 24 ACL-reconstructed and contralateral knees were measured using MRI, and peak knee flexion moments during walking were measured. Results showed that the PLIA of ACL-reconstructed (22.9 +/- 4.4 degrees) knees was not significantly smaller (p = 0.09, power = 0.99) than the PLIA of contralateral (24.1 +/- 4.8 degrees) knees. Peak knee flexion moment was not correlated with the PLIA following ACL reconstruction (R2 = 0.016, power = 0.99). However, the magnitude of the knee flexion moment remained significantly lower in ACL-reconstructed knees. In summary, this study has shown that the PLIA of ACL-reconstructed knees returned to normal and that patients no longer adapt their gait in response to the PLIA, though quadriceps function did not return to normal levels. PMID:19025774

Shin, Choongsoo S; Chaudhari, Ajit M; Dyrby, Chris O; Andriacchi, Thomas P

2009-06-01

130

Spontaneous Rupture of the Patellar Tendon and the Contralateral Quadriceps Tendon, Associated with Lupus Erythematosus: Analysis of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon is a rare injury. A case of a 67-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus under corticosteroid treatment for the last 10 years, who sustained spontaneous rupture of the patellar tendon and the contralateral quadriceps tendon, is herein presented. The patient was operated bilaterally, had an optimal outcome considering his age and the comorbidities, and was followed up for 24 months. PMID:23198218

Karadimas, Efthimios J.; Kotzamitelos, Dimitrios; Kakagia, Despoina D.; Hatziyiannakis, Athanasios

2011-01-01

131

Changes in quadriceps and hamstring cocontraction following landing instruction in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Study Design Pretest/posttest controlled laboratory study. Objectives To determine changes in the neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings following instructions aimed at improving knee flexion during a single-limb landing task in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Background Clinicians advise patients who have undergone ACLR to increase knee flexion during landing tasks to improve impact attenuation. Another long-standing construct underlying such instruction involves increasing cocontraction of the hamstrings with the quadriceps to limit anterior shear of the tibia on the femur. The current study examined whether cocontraction of the knee musculature changes following instruction to increase knee flexion during landing. Methods Thirty-four physically active subjects with unilateral ACLR participated in a 1-time testing session. The kinetics and kinematics of single-leg landing on the surgical limb were analyzed before and after instruction to increase knee flexion and reduce the impact of landing. Vastus lateralis and biceps femoris activities were analyzed using surface electromyography and normalized to a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Cocontraction indices were integrated over the weight-acceptance phase of landing. Results Following instruction, peak knee flexion increased (preinstruction mean ± SD, 56° ± 11°; postinstruction, 77° ± 12°; P<.001) and peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased (preinstruction, 3.50 ± 0.42 body mass; postinstruction, 3.06 ± 0.44 body mass; P<.001). Cocontraction also decreased following instruction (preinstruction, 30.88% ± 17.68% MVIC; postinstruction, 23.74% ± 15.39% MVIC; P<.001). The change in cocontraction was correlated with a decrease in hamstring activity (preinstruction, 23.79% ± 12.88% MVIC; postinstruction, 19.72% ± 13.92% MVIC; r = 0.80; P<.001). Conclusion Landing instruction produced both a statistically and clinically significant change in landing mechanics in persons post-ACLR. Conscious improvement of the absorptive power of the surgical limb was marked by decreased hamstring activity and cocontraction during single-limb landing. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(4):273-280. Epub 13 Feb 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5335. PMID:25679342

Elias, Audrey R C; Hammill, Curt D; Mizner, Ryan L

2015-04-01

132

Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories  

MedlinePLUS

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

133

Postural response to vibration of triceps surae, but not quadriceps muscles, differs between people with and without knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Although proprioceptive impairments are reported in knee osteoarthritis (OA), there has been little investigation of the underlying causes. Muscle spindles make an important contribution to proprioception. This study investigated whether function of quadriceps, triceps surae, and tibialis anterior muscle spindles is altered in individuals with knee OA. Thirty individuals with knee OA (17 females, 66?±?7 [mean?±?SD] years) and 30 healthy asymptomatic controls (17 females, 65?±?8 years) stood comfortably and blindfolded on a force plate. Mechanical vibration (60?Hz) was applied bilaterally over the quadriceps, triceps surae, or tibialis anterior muscles for the middle 15?s (Vibration) of a 45?s trial (preceded and followed by 15?s Baseline and Recovery periods). Two trials were recorded for each muscle site. Mean anterior-posterior displacement of centre of pressure was analysed. Although there were no differences between groups for trials with vibration applied to the quandriceps or tibialis anterior, participants with knee OA were initially perturbed more by triceps surae vibration and accommodated less to repeated exposure than controls. This indicates that people with knee OA have less potential to detect or compensate for disturbed input to triceps surae, possibly due to an inability to compensate using muscles spindles in the quadriceps muscle. PMID:24797419

Shanahan, Camille J; Wrigley, Tim V; Farrell, Michael J; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W

2014-08-01

134

Exercise response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

1975-01-01

135

Minimally invasive reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) for the treatment of patellar instability has received increased attention over the past few years. Most operative techniques use hamstring grafts fixed with bone tunnels and/or anchors on the patella. Despite good clinical results using these techniques, complications such as implant breakage, patellar fractures through bone tunnels, and loss of knee motion have occurred. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using a strip of quadriceps tendon. With the use of specially designed instruments, the graft is harvested through a 3-cm transverse incision at the proximal pole of the patella. The tendon strip is then dissected distally on the patella, left attached, and diverged 90° medially underneath the medial prepatellar tissue. The graft is fixed on the femur in 20° of knee flexion in a bone tunnel with a bioabsorbable interference screw (adults) or a bone anchor (children). We think that this technique presents a valuable alternative to common hamstring techniques for primary MPFL reconstruction in children and adults, as well as for MPFL revision surgery. PMID:25126496

Fink, Christian; Veselko, Matjaz; Herbort, Mirco; Hoser, Christian

2014-06-01

136

Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on fatigue recovery of the quadriceps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at selected acupoints\\u000a on enhancing the rate of muscle force recovery after strenuous knee extension\\/flexion exercise. Ten male and seven female\\u000a healthy young adults participated in this study in which they performed isokinetic knee fatigue exercise on the Biodex System\\u000a 3 ergometer on three

Raymond C. H. So; Joseph K.-F. Ng; Gabriel Y. F. Ng

2007-01-01

137

Strengthening of Bridge Headstocks with External PostTensioning: Design Issues and Strengthening Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been need to strengthen headstocks in bridges due to increased traffic loading and aging of bridges. External post-tensioning is a viable solution for such strengthening. While the behaviour of structures strengthening by external post-tensioning for flexure is well understood, there is limited knowledge on the shear strengthening. In this paper, the application of external post-tensioning for shear strengthening

Thiru Aravinthan; Tim Heldt

138

Adaptive Force Regulation of Muscle Strengthening Rehabilitation Device With Magnetorheological Fluids  

PubMed Central

In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

2008-01-01

139

Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids.  

PubMed

In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

2006-03-01

140

Burnishing Techniques Strengthen Hip Implants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.

2010-01-01

141

Effects of prior exercise on oxygen uptake and phosphocreatine kinetics during high-intensity knee-extension exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

A prior bout of high-intensity square-wave exercise can increase the temporal adaptation of pulmonary oxygen uptake () to a subsequent bout of high-intensity exercise. The mechanisms controlling this adaptation, however, are poorly understood. We therefore determined the dynamics of intramuscular [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) simultaneously with those of in seven males who performed two consecutive bouts of high-intensity square-wave, knee-extensor exercise in the prone position for 6 min with a 6 min rest interval. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transmit-receive surface coil under the quadriceps muscle allowed estimation of [PCr]; was measured breath-by-breath using a custom-designed turbine and a mass spectrometer system. The kinetics of the second exercise bout were altered compared with the first such that (a) not only was the instantaneous rate of change (at a given level of ) greater but the phase II ? was also reduced – averaging 46.6 ± 6.0 s (bout 1) and 40.7 ± 8.4 s (bout 2) (mean ± s.d.) and (b) the magnitude of the later slow component was reduced. This was associated with a reduction of, on average, 16.1 % in the total exercise-induced [PCr] decrement over the 6 min of the exercise, of which 4.0 % was due to a reduction in the slow component of [PCr]. There was no discernable alteration in the initial rate of [PCr] change. The prior exercise, therefore, changed the multi-compartment behaviour towards that of functionally first-order dynamics. These observations demonstrate that the responses relative to the work rate input for high-intensity exercise are non-linear, as are, it appears, the putative phosphate-linked controllers for which [PCr] serves as a surrogate. PMID:11711581

Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Kowalchuk, J M; Howe, F A; Griffiths, J R; Whipp, B J

2001-01-01

142

Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage.  

PubMed

Massage therapy is commonly used during physical rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to ameliorate pain and promote recovery from injury. Although there is evidence that massage may relieve pain in injured muscle, how massage affects cellular function remains unknown. To assess the effects of massage, we administered either massage therapy or no treatment to separate quadriceps of 11 young male participants after exercise-induced muscle damage. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the quadriceps (vastus lateralis) at baseline, immediately after 10 min of massage treatment, and after a 2.5-hour period of recovery. We found that massage activated the mechanotransduction signaling pathways focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), potentiated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling [nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?)], and mitigated the rise in nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) (p65) nuclear accumulation caused by exercise-induced muscle trauma. Moreover, despite having no effect on muscle metabolites (glycogen, lactate), massage attenuated the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and reduced heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) phosphorylation, thereby mitigating cellular stress resulting from myofiber injury. In summary, when administered to skeletal muscle that has been acutely damaged through exercise, massage therapy appears to be clinically beneficial by reducing inflammation and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22301554

Crane, Justin D; Ogborn, Daniel I; Cupido, Colleen; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

2012-02-01

143

Rethinking health research capacity strengthening  

PubMed Central

Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an NIH-funded HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain under-articulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing 1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, 2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborating in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and 3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

Vasquez, Emily; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

2013-01-01

144

Sonography of the quadriceps muscle: Examination technique, normal anatomy, and traumatic lesions  

PubMed Central

Lesions of the quadriceps muscle (QM) are frequently seen by sonographers, and in most cases they are the result of sports-related trauma. An accurate assessment of the severity of the lesion is essential, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete. In most cases, careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination are sufficient for making the diagnosis and indicating the most suitable imaging studies for each case. Clinical assessment alone, however, may not be sufficient for distinguishing contusions from small, partial tears or for estimating the size of a tear. Therefore, at least in patients who are professional athletes, imaging studies are necessary to plan appropriate therapy that will allow prompt functional recovery. Muscles cannot be visualized with conventional radiography, but it is used routinely in prepubertal patients because it can detect apophyseal detachments, which are the most frequent muscle lesion in this age group. Radiography is also useful when myositis ossificans is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging, thanks to its excellent tissue contrast, allows simultaneous assessment of muscle, joint, and bone planes. It remains a second-line study due to its high cost and relatively low availability. It is also associated with various contraindications, the most important of which is the presence of a cardiac pacemaker. Ultrasonography has a number of advantages, including widespread availability, absence of contraindications, and low cost. It can also be used for dynamic studies of the muscle during contraction and relaxation, and if doubts arise, scans can easily be obtained of the contralateral muscle for comparison purposes. These qualities make it an excellent tool for follow-up of patients with QM lesions, when follow-up is necessary. This article reviews the anatomy of the QM, the technique used for standard ultrasound examination of this muscle, its normal appearance on ultrasound, and the sonographic characteristics of the most common traumatic lesions that affect it. PMID:23396806

Pasta, G.; Nanni, G.; Molini, L.; Bianchi, S.

2010-01-01

145

Sonography of the quadriceps muscle: Examination technique, normal anatomy, and traumatic lesions.  

PubMed

Lesions of the quadriceps muscle (QM) are frequently seen by sonographers, and in most cases they are the result of sports-related trauma. An accurate assessment of the severity of the lesion is essential, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete. In most cases, careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination are sufficient for making the diagnosis and indicating the most suitable imaging studies for each case. Clinical assessment alone, however, may not be sufficient for distinguishing contusions from small, partial tears or for estimating the size of a tear. Therefore, at least in patients who are professional athletes, imaging studies are necessary to plan appropriate therapy that will allow prompt functional recovery. Muscles cannot be visualized with conventional radiography, but it is used routinely in prepubertal patients because it can detect apophyseal detachments, which are the most frequent muscle lesion in this age group. Radiography is also useful when myositis ossificans is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging, thanks to its excellent tissue contrast, allows simultaneous assessment of muscle, joint, and bone planes. It remains a second-line study due to its high cost and relatively low availability. It is also associated with various contraindications, the most important of which is the presence of a cardiac pacemaker. Ultrasonography has a number of advantages, including widespread availability, absence of contraindications, and low cost. It can also be used for dynamic studies of the muscle during contraction and relaxation, and if doubts arise, scans can easily be obtained of the contralateral muscle for comparison purposes. These qualities make it an excellent tool for follow-up of patients with QM lesions, when follow-up is necessary. This article reviews the anatomy of the QM, the technique used for standard ultrasound examination of this muscle, its normal appearance on ultrasound, and the sonographic characteristics of the most common traumatic lesions that affect it. PMID:23396806

Pasta, G; Nanni, G; Molini, L; Bianchi, S

2010-06-01

146

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Quadriceps Tendon Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, many surgeons have chosen the quadriceps tendon (QT) as an autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, there have not been biomechanical studies that quantitatively evaluated knee function after reconstruction using a QT autograft. Purpose To measure the 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics and in situ graft forces after reconstruction with a QT autograft compared with a quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis (QSTG) tendon autograft. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten human cadaveric knees (age, 54–64 years) were tested in 3 conditions: (1) intact, (2) ACL deficient, and (3) after ACL reconstruction using a QT or QSTG autograft. With use of a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system, knee kinematics and in situ forces in the ACL and autografts were obtained at 5 knee flexion angles under externally applied loads: (1) 134-N anterior tibial load, (2) 134-N anterior tibial load with 200-N axial compression, and (3) 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal tibial torque. Results Under the anterior tibial load, both autografts restored anterior tibial translation to within 2.5 mm of the intact knee and in situ forces to within 20 N of the intact ACL at 15°, 30°, and 60°. Adding compression did not change these findings. With the combined rotatory load, the anterior tibial translation and graft in situ forces were again not significantly different from the intact ACL. There were no significant differences between the grafts under any experimental condition. Conclusion Reconstruction of the ACL with a QT autograft restored knee function to similar levels as that reconstructed with a QSTG autograft under loads simulating clinical examinations. Clinical Relevance The positive biomechanical results of this cadaveric study lend support to the use of a QT autograft for ACL reconstruction, as it could restore knee function immediately after surgery under applied loads that mimic clinical examinations. PMID:24401682

Sasaki, Norihiro; Farraro, Kathryn F.; Kim, Kwang E.; Woo, Savio L-Y.

2014-01-01

147

Quadriceps muscle weakness and atrophy are associated with a differential epigenetic profile in advanced COPD.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle dysfunction and atrophy. We assessed whether quadriceps muscle weakness and atrophy are associated with a differential expression profile of epigenetic events in patients with advanced COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). In vastus lateralis (VL) of sedentary severe COPD patients (n=41), who were further subdivided into those with (n=25) and without (n=16) muscle weakness and healthy controls (n=19), expression of muscle-enriched miRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), growth and atrophy signalling markers, total protein and histone acetylation, transcription factors, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligases and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared with controls, in VL of all COPD together and in muscle-weakness patients, expression of miR-1, miR-206 and miR-27a, levels of lysine-acetylated proteins and histones and acetylated histone 3 were increased, whereas expression of HDAC3, HDAC4, sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) were decreased, Akt (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) expression did not differ, follistatin expression was greater, whereas myostatin expression was lower, serum reponse factor (SRF) expression was increased and fibre size of fast-twitch fibres was significantly reduced. In VL of severe COPD patients with muscle weakness and atrophy, epigenetic events regulate muscle differentiation rather than proliferation and muscle growth and atrophy signalling, probably as feedback mechanisms to prevent those muscles from undergoing further atrophy. Lysine-hyperacetylation of histones may drive enhanced protein catabolism in those muscles. These findings may help design novel therapeutic strategies (enhancers of miRNAs promoting myogenesis and acetylation inhibitors) to selectively target muscle weakness and atrophy in severe COPD. PMID:25628226

Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Ausin, Pilar; Roca, Josep; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

2015-06-01

148

Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session  

PubMed Central

The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension) + hamstrings (leg curl) (QH) or hamstrings (leg curl) + quadriceps (leg extension) (HQ). Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02) with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04). These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl order. PMID:22371654

Balsamo, Sandor; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; de Farias, Gleyverton Landim; Petruccelli, Zeno; de Santana, Frederico dos Santos; Martins, Otávio Vanni; de Aguiar, Fernando; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; de Souza, Jéssica Cardoso; Prestes, Jonato

2012-01-01

149

Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training appeared to attenuate the increased Passive tilt-tolerance.

Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

2001-01-01

150

Maple Exercises  

E-print Network

Systems. 1.1 On Line. In this introductory section we will pose no exercises, but instead, will detail how to use Maple to ... ing Maple's le management. For example ... document that opens is hyperlinked to all sorts of information about Maple, ...

1998-01-21

151

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Stephen Nelson

152

Eating & Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PheT interactive, downloadable simulation allows students to Explore issues such as calories in food, how to burn calories, and the relationship between calories and weight by choosing diet and exercise and keeping an eye on your weight.Sample earning goals, teaching ideas, and translated versions are available.

2008-01-01

153

Maple Exercises  

E-print Network

Systems. 1.1 On Line. In this introductory section we will pose no exercises, but instead, will detail how to use ... ing Maple's le management. For example .... pvac,system : These two commands cause Maple to load, from its Share Library, a.

1998-01-21

154

Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages  

PubMed Central

The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. PMID:22852050

Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A.; Luden, Nicholas D.; Smith, Alexia G.; Womack, Christopher J.; Saunders, Michael J.

2012-01-01

155

Transcriptome Analysis in Venom Gland of the Predatory Giant Ant Dinoponera quadriceps: Insights into the Polypeptide Toxin Arsenal of Hymenopterans  

PubMed Central

Background Dinoponera quadriceps is a predatory giant ant that inhabits the Neotropical region and subdues its prey (insects) with stings that deliver a toxic cocktail of molecules. Human accidents occasionally occur and cause local pain and systemic symptoms. A comprehensive study of the D. quadriceps venom gland transcriptome is required to advance our knowledge about the toxin repertoire of the giant ant venom and to understand the physiopathological basis of Hymenoptera envenomation. Results We conducted a transcriptome analysis of a cDNA library from the D. quadriceps venom gland with Sanger sequencing in combination with whole-transcriptome shotgun deep sequencing. From the cDNA library, a total of 420 independent clones were analyzed. Although the proportion of dinoponeratoxin isoform precursors was high, the first giant ant venom inhibitor cysteine-knot (ICK) toxin was found. The deep next generation sequencing yielded a total of 2,514,767 raw reads that were assembled into 18,546 contigs. A BLAST search of the assembled contigs against non-redundant and Swiss-Prot databases showed that 6,463 contigs corresponded to BLASTx hits and indicated an interesting diversity of transcripts related to venom gene expression. The majority of these venom-related sequences code for a major polypeptide core, which comprises venom allergens, lethal-like proteins and esterases, and a minor peptide framework composed of inter-specific structurally conserved cysteine-rich toxins. Both the cDNA library and deep sequencing yielded large proportions of contigs that showed no similarities with known sequences. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the venom gland transcriptome of the New World giant ant D. quadriceps. The glandular venom system was dissected, and the toxin arsenal was revealed; this process brought to light novel sequences that included an ICK-folded toxins, allergen proteins, esterases (phospholipases and carboxylesterases), and lethal-like toxins. These findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology, behavior and venomics of hymenopterans. PMID:24498135

Chong, Cheong-Meng; Leung, Siu Wai; Prieto-da-Silva, Álvaro R. B.; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves P.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

2014-01-01

156

Resting and active motor thresholds versus stimulus–response curves to determine transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity in quadriceps femoris  

PubMed Central

Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely-used investigative technique in motor cortical evaluation. Recently, there has been a surge in TMS studies evaluating lower-limb fatigue. TMS intensity of 120-130% resting motor threshold (RMT) and 120% active motor threshold (AMT) and TMS intensity determined using stimulus–response curves during muscular contraction have been used in these studies. With the expansion of fatigue research in locomotion, the quadriceps femoris is increasingly of interest. It is important to select a stimulus intensity appropriate to evaluate the variables, including voluntary activation, being measured in this functionally important muscle group. This study assessed whether selected quadriceps TMS stimulus intensity determined by frequently employed methods is similar between methods and muscles. Methods Stimulus intensity in vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles was determined by RMT, AMT (i.e. during brief voluntary contractions at 10% maximal voluntary force, MVC) and maximal motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude from stimulus–response curves during brief voluntary contractions at 10, 20 and 50% MVC at different stimulus intensities. Results Stimulus intensity determined from a 10% MVC stimulus–response curve and at 120 and 130% RMT was higher than stimulus intensity at 120% AMT (lowest) and from a 50% MVC stimulus–response curve (p??0.05). Conclusions Similar optimal stimulus intensity and maximal MEP amplitudes at 20 and 50% MVC and the minimal risk of residual fatigue at 20% MVC suggest that a 20% MVC stimulus–response curve is appropriate for determining TMS stimulus intensity in the quadriceps femoris. The higher selected stimulus intensities at 120-130% RMT have the potential to cause increased coactivation and discomfort and the lower stimulus intensity at 120% AMT may underestimate evoked responses. One muscle may also act as a surrogate in determining optimal quadriceps femoris stimulation intensity. PMID:24655366

2014-01-01

157

Current ISS Exercise Countermeasures: Where are we now?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current International Space Station (ISS) crew schedules include 1.5 h/d for completion of resistive exercise and 1 h/d of aerobic exercise , 6 d/wk. While ISS post flight decrements in muscle strength, bone m ineral density, and aerobic capacity improved in some crewmembers, de conditioning was still evident even with this volume of exercise. Res ults from early ISS expeditions show maximum loss in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and pelvis in excess of 1.5% per month, with all crewmembers demonstrating significant bone loss in one or more re gions. Similarly, post flight muscle strength losses in the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups exceeded 30% in the immediate post miss ion period in some crewmembers. Measures of aerobic capacity early in the mission show average decrements of 15%, but with onboard aerobic exercise capability, the crew has been able to "train up" over the co urse of the mission. These findings are highly variable among crewmem bers and appear to be correlated with availability and reliability of the inflight resistive exercise device (RED), cycle ergometer, and t readmill. This suite of hardware was installed on ISS with limited op erational evaluation in groundbased test beds. As a result, onorbit hardware constraints have resulted in inadequate physical stimulus, d econditioning, and increased risk for compromised performance during intra and extravehicular activities. These issues indicate that the c urrent ISS Countermeasures System reliability or validity are not ade quate for extendedduration exploration missions. Learning Objective: A better understanding of the status of ISS exercise countermeasures , their ability to protect physiologic systems, and recommendations for exploration exercise countermeasures.

Hayes, J. C.; Loerch, L.; Davis-Street, J.; Haralson, Cortni; Sams, C.

2006-01-01

158

Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists  

PubMed Central

Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

2014-01-01

159

Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

2014-01-01

160

Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings and functional ability of anterior cruciate deficient knees in recreational athletes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that increasing the hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) isokinetic strength ratio will, in the short term, improve the functional ability of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. METHODS: The isokinetic muscular characteristics at a speed of 60 degrees s-1 and 180 degrees s-1 of 46 recreational athletes with an arthroscopically confirmed ACL tear were determined using the Cybex II+ isokinetic dynamometer. The variables tested included peak torque, endurance ratio, total work output, and explosive power. Functional ability was scored with the Cincinnati rating system, measuring the severity of pain and swelling, the degree of giving way, and the overall ability to walk, run, ascent and descent stairs, jump and twist. RESULTS: Among all muscular characteristics, the H:Q ratio at 180 degrees s-1 at 30 degrees of knee flexion was shown to have the highest correlation to the functional score (r = 0.6249, P < 0.001). All variables involving hamstring strength were shown to be significantly correlated to the functional ability score (P < 0.01), while none of the variables involving quadriceps strength showed significant correlation with the functional ability of the injured knee. CONCLUSIONS: The H:Q ratio is strongly correlated to the functional ability of ACL deficient knees in Chinese recreational athletes. It could be used as an additional measure to guide in the decision making process in the management of ACL deficient knees. PMID:8799604

Li, R C; Maffulli, N; Hsu, Y C; Chan, K M

1996-01-01

161

Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris) were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90?min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

Wang, Ping; Qi, Zhengtang; Cui, Di; Ding, Shuzhe

2015-01-01

162

Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1991-01-01

163

An exercise programme for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Home exercise programmes and exercise programmes carried out in a clinical setting are commonly advocated for the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), a very common lesion of the arm with a well-defined clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to describe the use and effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes in the treatment of LET. Eccentric exercises: Slow progressive eccentric exercises for LET should be performed with the elbow in extension, forearm in pronation, and wrist in extended position (as high as possible). However, it is unclear how the injured tendon, which is loaded eccentrically, returns to the starting position without experiencing concentric loading and how the "slowness" of eccentric exercises should be defined. Nor has the treatment regimen of the eccentric exercises of a supervised exercise programme been defined. Stretching exercises: Static stretching is defined as passively stretching a given muscle-tendon unit by slowly placing and maintaining it in a maximal position of stretch. We recommend the position should be held for 30–45 s, three times before and three times after eccentric exercises during each treatment session with a 30 s rest interval between each procedure. The treatment region of static stretching exercises when a supervised exercise programme is performed is unknown. Discussion: A well designed trial is needed to study the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for LET consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises. The issues relating to the supervised exercise programme should be defined so that therapists can replicate the programme. PMID:16306504

Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulou, K; Johnson, M

2005-01-01

164

Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

165

Prenatal Exercise Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range,

Tiffany Field

166

EMG Analysis of Lower Extremity Muscles in Three Different Squat Exercises  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to come across an exercise that increases the Hamstring contraction levels so that it may protect the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Previous studies have postulated that changing the projection of the center of gravity behind the feet will decrease the translation of the tibia, therefore protect the ACL. Muscle activity of the quadriceps, hamstring and soleus muscles in healthy subjects was measured with an EMG during three different squat tasks with differences of support of body weight and the center of gravity. The subjects were nine healthy female recreational athletes with no history of any pathological knee condition or musculoskeletal system disorder. There was no significant difference in the activities of the four muscles (Vastus Medialis; Hamstring: Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris; and Soleus); and there was a similar pattern in the activity between those muscles in the exercises. In addition, VM values were considerably higher than the Hamstring and soleus activity levels. There was no significant difference between one squat from another and among the phases (0–30°, 30–60° or 60–90°) of knee flexion. These results suggest that even when changing the projection of the center of gravity, the activity of the quadriceps is high compared to the hamstring and soleus muscles.

Urabe, Yukio; Tanaka, Kosuke

2006-01-01

167

An electromyographic exploratory study comparing the difference in the onset of hamstring and quadriceps contraction in patients with anterior knee pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic anterior knee pain in teenagers and young adults is a common condition. Patellar maltracking has been considered as a causative factor. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the timing of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the medial and lateral hamstring and quadriceps muscles of patients with anterior knee pain compared to asymptomatic

Sunit Patil; John Dixon; Lisa C. White; Alex P. Jones; Anthony C. W. Hui

2011-01-01

168

Nitrergic Proprioceptive Afferents Originating from Quadriceps Femoris Muscle are Related to Monosynaptic Ia-Motoneuron Stretch Reflex Circuit in the Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

  1. The aim of the present study was to examine the occurrence of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the stretch reflex circuit pertaining to the quadriceps femoris muscle in the dog.2. Immunohistochemical processing for neuronal nitric oxide synthase and histochemical staining for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase were used to demonstrate the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase

Jozef Maršala; Nadežda Luká?ová; Dalibor Kolesár; Karolína Kuchárová; Martin Maršala

2006-01-01

169

The splenius capitis muscle of the rat, architecture and histochemistry, afferent and efferent innervation as compared with that of the quadriceps muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The splenius muscle of the rat was investigated with regard to its structure and innervation. The latter was compared with that of the quadriceps muscle. The results can be summarized as follows: The splenius muscles of both sides form a bipennate muscle plate connecting the occipital bone with the spinous process of the second thoracic vertebra. The lateral parts of

J. Pfister; W. Zenker

1984-01-01

170

Quadriceps tendon tear rupture in healthy patients treated with patellar drilling holes: clinical and ultrasonographic analysis after 36 months of follow-up  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: quadriceps tendon subcutaneous rupture is an uncommon injury affecting predominantly middle-aged men as a result of direct or indirect trauma; aim of this work is to evaluate clinical outcome and tendon morphology in patients treated surgically with transpatellar drilling suture. Methods: 20 patients (20 male) with an average age of 54 (42–59) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 36 months. Measurements of range of motion (ROM) and of tight circumference were collected. Lysholm and Rougraff Score were also performed. All the patients underwent a US evaluation the morphologic changes of the repaired tendon. Results: mean active ROM was 1°–117°; average difference in the circumference of the quadriceps was 2.6% 10 C and 3.3% 15 C. The mean Lysholm Score calculated was 88/100; the mean Rougraff Score 17/25. At ultrasonographic evaluation all tendons were continuous; heterotopic ossification was present in 18 quadriceps tendons. Thickness was augmented in 18 quadriceps tendons and in 5 patellar tendons. Vascularization was always conserved. Lateral subluxation of patella was reported in 1 case. Conclusions: patellar drilling holes repair is a non-demanding procedure, inexpensive and technically uncomplicated. US evaluation confirms tendon healing; tendon remodeling does not affect patient’s clinical outcome and quality of life. Level of incidence: IV PMID:25332935

Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Zanelli, Matteo; Aliani, Davide; Corsini, Tiziana; Pellegrini, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

171

Exercise and Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise and Asthma Health Issues Listen Exercise and Asthma Article Body Almost every child (and adult) with ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

172

Exercise and Physical Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise videos/DVDs made for older people. • Add music to the exercises if it helps the person with Alzheimer’s disease. Dance to the music if possible. • Break exercises into simple, easy-to- ...

173

Exercise stress test  

MedlinePLUS

... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

174

Exercise-Induced Urticaria  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

175

Exercise and Shoulder Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... the painful limb and should seek immediate medical attention. They should select other forms of exercise to ... cautions people to avoid exercise/activities that cause increased pain lasting an hour or more after exercise. ...

176

Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1993-01-01

177

Effect of fluid ingestion on neuromuscular function during prolonged cycling exercise  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effects of fluid ingestion on neuromuscular function during prolonged cycling exercise. Methods: Eight well trained subjects exercised for 180 minutes in a moderate environment at a workload requiring ?60% maximal oxygen uptake. Two conditions, fluid (F) and no fluid (NF) ingestion, were investigated. Results: During maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), prolonged cycling exercise reduced (p<0.05) the maximal force generating capacity of quadriceps muscles (after three hours of cycling) and root mean square (RMS) values (after two hours of cycling) with no difference between the two conditions despite greater body weight loss (p<0.05) in NF. The mean power frequency (MPF) for vastus lateralis muscle was reduced (p<0.05) and the rate of force development (RFD) was increased (p<0.05) only during NF. During cycling exercise, integrated electromyographic activity and perceived exertion were increased in both conditions (p<0.05) with no significant effect of fluid ingestion. Conclusions: The results suggest that fluid ingestion did not prevent the previously reported decrease in maximal force with exercise duration, but seems to have a positive effect on some indicators of neuromuscular fatigue such as mean power frequency and rate of force development during maximal voluntary contraction. Further investigations are needed to assess the effect of change in hydration on neural mechanisms linked to the development of muscular fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:15793075

Vallier, J; Grego, F; Basset, F; Lepers, R; Bernard, T; Brisswalter, J

2005-01-01

178

Exercising with Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... everyone. In fact, studies show that people with osteoarthritis benefit from regular exercise and physical activity. For people with osteoarthritis, regular exercise can help: l Maintain healthy and ...

179

Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

180

Optimisation of Shear Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams  

E-print Network

/05/2014 Keywords: concrete structures/rehabilitation, reclamation & renovation/ research & development ICE Publishing: All rights reserved Engineering and Computational Mechanics Volume 167 Issue EM2 Optimisation of shear strengthened reinforced concrete beams Yapa...

Yapa, Hiran D.; Lees, Janet M.

2014-05-21

181

78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...evidence on regulatory systems performance; and...national regulatory systems strengthening efforts. This Cooperative Agreement is expected...investments in regulatory systems. C. Eligibility...a Single Source Cooperative Agreement....

2013-06-25

182

Anatomic reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in children and adolescents using a pedicled quadriceps tendon graft.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has recently become a popular procedure for children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability. Nevertheless, high complication rates of up to 26% have been reported. The traditionally used technique requires patellar bone tunnels that may place the proportionately smaller patella at higher risk of fracture. Because of the adjacent physis of the femoral insertion, anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL has the risk of injury to the growth plate. This technical report therefore presents a technique for anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL in a skeletally immature population using a pedicled superficial quadriceps tendon graft, hardware-free patellar graft attachment, and anatomic femoral fixation distal to the femoral physis. The advantages of this technique include avoidance of bony patellar complications, an anatomically truer reconstruction, a single incision, and sparing of the hamstring tendons for reconstruction of any future ligamentous injuries. PMID:24904782

Nelitz, Manfred; Williams, Sean Robert M

2014-04-01

183

Combined Home Exercise Is More Effective Than Range-of-Motion Home Exercise in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS); however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB) and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM) in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n = 9) or ROM (n = 10) program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P = 0.008) and BASFI (P = 0.028), and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P = 0.033). This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability. PMID:25276785

Chuang, Chih-Cheng; Tseng, Ching-Shiang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Jia

2014-01-01

184

Extended Healing Validation of an Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia: 180-day Study  

PubMed Central

Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to nonliving materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contra lateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1400± 93N (vs. 1179± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p = 0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p = 0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

Melvin, Alan J.; Litsky, Alan S.; Mayerson, Joel L.; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

2011-01-01

185

Extended healing validation of an artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the Tibia: 180-day study.  

PubMed

Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

2012-07-01

186

Effect of resistance training on muscle use during exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the effect of resistance training on exercise-induced contrast shift in magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was hypothesized that a given load could be lifted after training with less muscle showing contrast shift, thereby suggesting less muscle was used to perform the exercise. Nine males trained the left quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle 2 days/wk for 9 wk using 3-6 sets of 12 knee extensions each day. The right QF served as a control. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in MR images evoked by each of three bouts of exercise (5 sets of 10 knee extensions with a load equal to 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum pretraining load that could be lifted for 5 sets of 10 repetitions) were quantified pre- and posttraining. MR image contrast shift was quantified by determining QF cross-sectional area (CSA) showing increased spin-spin relaxation time. One repetition maximum increased 14% in the left trained QF and 7% in the right untrained QF. Left QF CSA increased 5%, with no change in right QSF CSA. Left QF CSA showing contrast shift was less after each bout of the exercise test posttraining. This was also true, to a lesser extent, for the right QF at the higher two loads. The results suggest that short-term resistance training reduces MR image contrast shift evoked by a given effort, thereby reflecting the use of less muscle to lift the load. Because this response was evident in both trained and contralateral untrained muscle, neural factors are suggested to be responsible. The consequence of this adaptation could be to increase 'stress' per unit area of active muscle during the course of training and thereby evoke hypertrophy.

Ploutz, Lori L.; Tesch, Per A.; Biro, Ronald L.; Dudley, Gary A.

1994-01-01

187

Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

1992-01-01

188

Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

Elrick, Harold

1996-01-01

189

Bone Mechanotransduction May Require Augmentation in Order to Strengthen the Senescent Skeleton  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise is thought to hold promise as a non-invasive countermeasure against skeletal fragility arising from post-menopausal and age-related osteoporosis. Importantly, mechanical loading and exercise are capable of increasing bone size via periosteal expansion, which by far, is the most effective means of strengthening the structure of a given bone. The focus of this review was to therefore explore whether exercise has the potential to increase periosteal modeling and bone size in the senescent skeleton. A survey of exercise trials in humans suggests that exercise interventions that enhance periosteal modeling in the young skeleton fail to do the same in the elderly skeleton. Underlying this ineffectiveness, in vitro studies indicate that aging lowers basal levels of cell function and degrades bone mechanotransduction at a variety of levels from altered second messenger signaling to gene expression driving proliferation and/or differentiation. Given these age-related alterations, the ultimate efficacy of an exercise intervention may depend upon concurrent supplementation that directly address deficits in signaling and/or cell function. In this context, in vivo animal models of mechanical loading that simulate the muted periosteal adaptation in the elderly hold potential to examine the efficacy of countermeasures. Preliminary in vivo experiments suggest that pharmacologically counteracting age-related deficits in cellular function can restore exercise induced periosteal modeling in the senescent skeleton to levels observed in young animals. If the safety and efficacy of this strategy were to be confirmed for human use, it would enable the utilization of exercise as a viable countermeasure against skeletal fragility at senescence. PMID:22240208

Srinivasan, Sundar; Gross, Ted S.; Bain, Steven D.

2012-01-01

190

Increased hypoxic ventilatory sensitivity during exercise in man: are neural afferents necessary?  

PubMed

1. The acute ventilatory response to 3 min periods of hypoxia (AHR) was examined in nine patients with clinically complete spinal cord transection (T4-T7) during (a) rest and (b) electrically induced leg exercise (EEL). 2. EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps muscles so as to cause the legs to extend at the knee against gravity. End-tidal PCO2 was held constant 1-2 mmHg above resting values throughout both protocols. 3. On exercise, the average increase in metabolic CO2 production (VCO2 +/- S.E.M.) was 41 +/- 5 ml min-1. Venous lactate levels did not rise with exercise. 4. Baseline euoxic ventilation did not increase significantly with EEL, but there was a consistent and highly significant increase in the ventilatory response to hypoxia during EEL (mean delta AHR +/- S.E.M. of 1.6 +/- 0.21 min-1). 5. We conclude that an increase in hypoxic sensitivity during exercise can occur in the absence of volitional control of exercise and in the absence of afferent neural input from the limbs. PMID:8071884

Pandit, J J; Bergstrom, E; Frankel, H L; Robbins, P A

1994-05-15

191

Muscle fibre characteristics and lactate responses to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To examine the proportions of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibres and the degree of muscle fibre atrophy and hypertrophy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to lactate responses to exercise, and to determine to what extent any abnormalities found might be due to inactivity.?METHODS—Quadriceps needle muscle biopsies were obtained from 105 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and the proportions of type 1 and 2 fibres and fibre atrophy and hypertrophy factors were determined from histochemical preparations, using a semiautomated image analysis system. Forty one randomly selected biopsies were also examined by electron microscopy. Lactate responses to exercise were measured in the subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET).?RESULTS—Inactivity would be expected to result in a shift to type 2 fibre predominance and fibre atrophy, but type 1 predominance (23%) was more common than type 2 predominance (3%), and fibre atrophy was found in only 10.4% of cases. Patients with increased lactate responses to exercise did have significantly fewer type 1 muscle fibres (p<0.043 males, p<0.0003 females), but there was no evidence that this group was less active than the patients with normal lactate responses. No significant ultrastructural abnormalities were found.?CONCLUSION—Muscle histometry in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome generally did not show the changes expected as a result of inactivity. However, patients with abnormal lactate responses to exercise had a significantly lower proportion of mitochondria rich type 1 muscle fibres.?? PMID:9527150

Lane, R.; Barrett, M.; Woodrow, D.; Moss, J.; Fletcher, R.; Archard, L.

1998-01-01

192

Lower limb joint angular position and muscle activity during elliptical exercise in healthy young men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity joint angular position and muscle activity during elliptical exercise using different foot positions and also during exercise on a lateral elliptical trainer. Sixteen men exercised on a lateral elliptical and on a standard elliptical trainer using straight foot position, increased toe-out angle, and a wide step. Motion capture and electromyography systems were used to obtain 3D lower extremity joint kinematics and muscle activity, respectively. The lateral trainer produced greater sagittal and frontal plane knee range of motion (ROM), greater peak knee flexion and extension, and higher vastus medialis activation compared with other conditions (P < .05). Toe-out and wide step produced the greatest and smallest peak knee adduction angles, respectively (P < .05). The lateral trainer produced greater sagittal and frontal plane hip ROM and greater peak hip extension and flexion compared with all other conditions (P < .05). Toe-out angle produced the largest peak hip external rotation angle and lowest gluteus muscle activation (P < .05). Findings from this study indicate that standard elliptical exercise with wide step may place the knee joint in a desirable frontal plane angular position to reduce medial knee loads, and that lateral elliptical exercise could help improve quadriceps strength but could also lead to larger knee contact forces. PMID:25268277

Paquette, Max R; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; DeVita, Paul; Hoekstra, Joseph; Pearsall, David

2015-02-01

193

Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.  

PubMed

Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population. PMID:24111365

Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

2013-01-01

194

Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

2008-07-01

195

The effect of an augmentation patella prosthesis versus patelloplasty on revision patellar kinematics and quadriceps tendon force: an ex vivo study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 2 revision reconstructive interventions on patellofemoral joint mechanics in comparison to control. We flexed 8 cadaver knee specimens from 0 degrees to 60 degrees of flexion in a test rig designed to simulate weight-bearing flexion and extension (Oxford rig). Quadriceps tendon extensor force and patellar kinematics were recorded for control total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (normal primary TKA with patella resurfaced) and then for each of the 2 revision patellar interventions (after patelloplasty of typical revision knee patellar bone defect to leave a simple bony shell, and after TKA with augmentation patella resurfacing). Our results demonstrate that patellar kinematics and quadriceps extensor force are optimized when the patella is reconstructed to normal anteroposterior thickness. PMID:18534488

Mountney, John; Wilson, David R; Paice, Michael; Masri, Bassam A; Greidanus, Nelson V

2008-12-01

196

An EMG comparative analysis of quadriceps during isoinertial strength training using nonlinear scaled wavelets.  

PubMed

High-speed resistance training is used to increase power; however, momentum can reduce the effectiveness of high-speed (HS) training when using weight-stack (WS) machines. This study used a non-linear scaled wavelet analysis to assess differences between pneumatic (P) and WS during seven HS or controlled speed (CS) repetitions. Vastus medialis (VM) and lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) EMG data were collected during leg extension exercises performed by five regular weight-trainers (mean age±SD, 23.2±2.9years). Data were analyzed using continuous wavelet analysis to assess temporal Intensity distribution across eight frequency bands. Significant differences occurred due to speed for all muscles (p<.0001). P produced higher Intensity than WS for all muscles during HS (p<.0001), and VM and RF during CS (p<.001). The CON phase produced higher Intensity than ECC for the vasti muscles during CS (p<.0003), and VM and RF during HS (p<.0001). Intensity increased across repetitions plateauing earlier for the vasti than RF during CS. Regardless of the machine, Intensity levels peaked between the 25-53Hz and 46-82Hz (2nd and 3rd wavelets) bands. The results indicate that when the objective is increasing power through isoinertial training, P machines at HS appear to be the most effective alternative. PMID:25553560

Napoli, Nicholas J; Mixco, Anthony R; Bohorquez, Jorge E; Signorile, Joseph F

2015-04-01

197

Exercise for Depression: Efficacy, Safety and Clinical Trial Implications  

PubMed Central

Exercise is gaining interest as a treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD).Though not yet fully established as an efficacious therapy for psychiatric disorders, exercise has well-established benefits for physcial health and overall well-being. However, there are potential health risks to exercise that need to be considered before recommending physical activity to a patient. We present the case of a 48 year-old woman who develolped significant elevations in creatine kinase and liver enzyme levels after three work-out sessions consisting of cardiovascular training on an elliptical machine and weightlifting. The elevations resolved with rest, then recurred when the patient again began exercising. These elevations occurred while the patient was participating in a double-blind, placebo-control phase II clinical trial of an experimental medication for MDD. This case highlights several aspects of the appropriate implementation of exercise recommendations in the psychiatric setting. Initiation of exercise regimens is not prohibited in clinical trials, and may be self-initiated by the depressed patient or recommended by the treating physician. This case also highlights that the value of placebo controls in clinical trials of experimental treatments applies to safety as well as efficacy factors. Exercise as a treatment for depression carries both potential benefit for depressive symptoms and risk for adverse events. The design of clinical trials would be strengthened by consideration of these effects of exercise in the future. PMID:19015630

Dunlop, Boadie W.; Self, Rachel L.

2015-01-01

198

AVALIAÇÃO ISOCINÉTICA DE QUADRÍCEPS E ÍSQUIOS-TIBIAIS NOS ATLETAS DE JIU-JITSU Quadriceps and Hamstrings Isokinetic evaluation in Jujitsu Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ju-jitsu is a self-defence martial art based on the principle of defeating the adversary by surrendering to him and subjugating him by his own force. Athletes of contact sports such as soccer, basketball and mainly the fights like the ju-jitsu have in common frequent knee injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic

Myrla Izaías Gomes; Eluciene Maria Santos

199

Motor unit recruitment when neuromuscular electrical stimulation is applied over a nerve trunk compared with a muscle belly: quadriceps femoris.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be delivered over a nerve trunk or muscle belly and both can generate contractions through peripheral and central pathways. Generating contractions through peripheral pathways is associated with a nonphysiological motor unit recruitment order, which may limit the efficacy of NMES rehabilitation. Presently, we compared recruitment through peripheral and central pathways for contractions of the knee extensors evoked by NMES applied over the femoral nerve vs. the quadriceps muscle. NMES was delivered to evoke 10 and 20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction torque 2-3 s into the NMES (time(1)) in two patterns: 1) constant frequency (15 Hz for 8 s); and 2) step frequency (15-100-15 Hz and 25-100-25 Hz for 3-2-3 s, respectively). Torque and electromyographic activity recorded from vastus lateralis and medialis were quantified at the beginning (time(1)) and end (time(2); 6-7 s into the NMES) of each pattern. M-waves (peripheral pathway), H-reflexes, and asynchronous activity (central pathways) during NMES were quantified. Torque did not differ regardless of NMES location, pattern, or time. For both muscles, M-waves were ?7-10 times smaller and H-reflexes ?8-9 times larger during NMES over the nerve compared with over the muscle. However, unlike muscles studied previously, neither torque nor activity through central pathways were augmented following 100 Hz NMES, nor was any asynchronous activity evoked during NMES at either location. The coefficient of variation was also quantified at time(2) to determine the consistency of each dependent measure between three consecutive contractions. Torque, M-waves, and H-reflexes were most variable during NMES over the nerve. In summary, NMES over the nerve produced contractions with the greatest recruitment through central pathways; however, considering some of the limitations of NMES over the femoral nerve, it may be considered a good complement to, as opposed to a replacement for, NMES over the quadriceps muscle for maintaining muscle quality and reducing contraction fatigue during NMES rehabilitation. PMID:22556395

Bergquist, A J; Wiest, M J; Collins, D F

2012-07-01

200

Recovery of damaged skeletal muscle in mdx mice through low-intensity endurance exercise.  

PubMed

The lack of dystrophin in mdx mice leads to cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration processes. Various strategies have been proposed in order to reduce the muscle-wasting component of muscular dystrophy, including implementation of an exercise programme. The aim of this study was to examine how low-intensity endurance exercise affects the degeneration-regeneration process in dystrophic muscle of male mdx mice. Mice were subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise by running on a motorized Rota-Rod for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Histomorphological analysis showed a significant reduction of measured inflammatory-necrotic areas in both gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle of exercised mdx mice as compared to matched sedentary mdx mice. The degenerative-regenerative process was also evaluated by examining the protein levels of connexin 39 (Cx39), a specific gene expressed in injured muscles. Cx39 was not detected in sedentary wild type mice, whereas it was found markedly increased in sedentary mdx mice, revealing active muscle degeneration-regeneration process. These Cx39 protein levels were significantly reduced in muscles of mdx mice exercised for 30 and 40 days, revealing together with histomorphological analysis a strong reduction of degeneration process in mice subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise. Muscles of exercised mdx mice did not show significant changes in force and fatigue resistance as compared to sedentary mdx mice. Overall in this study we found that specific low-intensity endurance exercise induces a beneficial effect probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. PMID:23868681

Frinchi, M; Macaluso, F; Licciardi, A; Perciavalle, V; Coco, M; Belluardo, N; Morici, G; Mudò, G

2014-01-01

201

Changes in Voluntary Activation Assessed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during Prolonged Cycling Exercise  

PubMed Central

Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13±9%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (25±11%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (?8%, P<0.05 and ?14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y.

2014-01-01

202

Strengthening Citizen Agency and Accountability Through ICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, namely mobile phones) in support of citizen agency and its potential in calling authorities to account. We focused on Eastern Africa and we used a mixed methodology, which allowed us to explore the current uses of ICT to strengthen accountability and to forecast the growth of mobile phones' adaption in

Giacomo Zanello; Paul Maassen

2011-01-01

203

Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

2007-01-01

204

Strengthening Connections Between Mothers and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a program in a domestic violence shelter that focuses on strengthening the connections between mothers and children. The program draws on trauma theory, art therapy, and a recursive model of communication. The paper describes how psychoeducation about the physiological and psychological effects of trauma is helpful to the families. It illustrates how art therapy is used to

Bettina Stronach Buschel; Libbe Hurvitz Madsen

2006-01-01

205

A Concept Design for Strengthening Learner Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes types and functions of student contact points in distance education, including academic counseling and library services; proposes a contouring and catchment method to determine the concentration of registered students and prospective candidates; and applies the method to Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) for strengthening

Khare, Pankaj

2000-01-01

206

Flexural Strengthening of Prestressed Bridge Slabs  

E-print Network

Flexural Strengthening of Prestressed Bridge Slabs with FRP Systems Tarek Hassan Ph.D. Candidate prestressed concrete members. Half-scale models of a prestressed concrete bridge were constructed and tested were investigated including near surface mounted Leadline bars, C-Bars, CFRP strips and externally

207

Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD.  

PubMed

Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190- -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29-150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A; Tanner, Rebecca J; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

2014-11-01

208

Exercise and Cystic Fibrosis (CF)  

MedlinePLUS

... mean finding an exercise partner. Third, are they cardiovascular exercises or do they exercise your heart and ... the heart and lungs are watched for problems. Cardiovascular exercises: Activities that use lots of muscles and ...

209

Exercise and immunity  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise slows down the release of stress-related hormones. Stress increases the chance of illness. While exercise is ... through the body and increase the presence of stress-related hormones. Studies have shown that the people who benefit ...

210

Getting Exercise in College  

MedlinePLUS

... in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once ... ways to boost your heart rate and promote cardiovascular health. Exercise can also help lower blood pressure ...

211

Anxiety, Depression, and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and clinical investigations of the effects of acute and chronic exercise on state anxiety or tension and depression are reviewed. Proposed explanations for the association of exercise with improved mood states are also discussed.

Patricia M. Mihevic

1981-01-01

212

Clinical Applications for Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

Goldstein, David

1989-01-01

213

Statistics for Chemists: Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

Wehrens, Ron

214

Boolean Raster Well Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary This is a paper and pencil exercise using boolean raster grids. The exercise gives students a better understanding of how the GIS software works. ...

Enrique Gomezdelcampo

215

Exercise and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... calcium and vitamin D. l Include regular weight-bearing exercise in your lifestyle. l Stop smoking. l ... be stronger if you are physically active. Weight-bearing exercises, done three to four times a week, ...

216

Diet and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your discharge from the hospital, ...

217

Exercise Tips for Travelers  

MedlinePLUS

... laptop, you might also include your favorite exercise DVD. stop along the way. If you’re traveling ... nih.gov/Go4Life • Order the free Go4Life exercise DVD and Workout to Go . • Read more tips for ...

218

Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in the Quadriceps Using Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity in Young Females  

PubMed Central

Purpose Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans. Methods A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years) and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years) performed two knee extensions: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 s, and (2) at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays. Results Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, p<0.01) was found during the sustained 60% MVC, probably as a result of simultaneous motor unit synchronization and a decrease in muscle fiber CV during the fatiguing task. Conclusions Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:25880369

Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Fisher, Beth; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Clijsen, Ron; Cescon, Corrado

2015-01-01

219

The highest antagonistic coactivation of the vastus intermedius muscle among quadriceps femoris muscles during isometric knee flexion.  

PubMed

Although the possibility that the vastus intermedius (VI) muscle contributes to flexion of the knee joint has been suggested previously, the detail of its functional role in knee flexion is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the antagonist coactivation of VI during isometric knee flexion. Thirteen men performed 25-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 90°, 120°, and 150° knee joint angles. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the four individual muscles in the quadriceps femoris (QF) was recorded and normalized by the EMG signals during isometric knee extension at MVC. Cross-talk on VI EMG signal was assessed based on the median frequency response to selective cooling of hamstring muscles. Normalized EMG of the VI was significantly higher than that of the other synergistic QF muscles at each knee joint angle (all P<0.05) with minimum cross-talk from the hamstrings to VI. There were significant correlations between the EMG signal of the hamstrings and VI (r=0.55-0.85, P<0.001). These results suggest that VI acts as a primary antagonistic muscle of QF during knee flexion, and that VI is presumably a main contributor to knee joint stabilization. PMID:23489717

Saito, Akira; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

220

Effect of a Short Time Concentric Versus Eccentric Training Program on Electromyography Activity and Peak Torque of Quadriceps  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum strength of the knee extensors were assessed. Eighteen physically healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years, body height 177 ± 4 cm, body mass 73 ± 7 kg) performed four weeks of unilateral CON isokinetic training for the quadriceps of the dominant leg on a REV9000 dynamometer. At the end of the fourth week, the sample was divided into two groups, with one group performing additional four weeks of unilateral ECC training and the other continuing with CON training. The training sessions consisted of three sets of ten maximal repetitions at a velocity of 60ºs-1, three days per week for eight weeks. The results showed that CON and ECC groups improved the peak torque in all types of contractions. Also, both groups presented increases in the avgEMG for VL, VM and RF. The present investigation showed that CON training elicited increases of the ISO peak torque and VM avgEMG in the CON contraction. Additionally, significant gains were reported after the ECC training on the VM avgEMG in all contractions and RM avgEMG in CON contraction. PMID:25114726

Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, Carlos; Abade, Eduardo; Sampaio, Jaime

2014-01-01

221

Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans.  

PubMed

Inadequate cerebral O? availability has been proposed to be an important contributing factor to the development of central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that supraspinal processes of fatigue would be increased after locomotor exercise in acute hypoxia compared to normoxia, and that such change would be related to reductions in cerebral O? delivery and tissue oxygenation. Nine endurance-trained cyclists completed three constant-load cycling exercise trials at ?80% of maximal work rate: (1) to the limit of tolerance in acute hypoxia; (2) for the same duration but in normoxia (control); and (3) to the limit of tolerance in normoxia. Throughout each trial, prefrontal cortex tissue oxygenation and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAV) were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy and trans-cranial Doppler sonography, respectively. Cerebral O? delivery was calculated as the product of arterial O? content and MCAV. Before and immediately after each trial, twitch responses to supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. Exercise time was reduced by 54%in hypoxia compared to normoxia (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 8.1 ± 2.9 min; P<0.001). Cerebral O? delivery,cerebral oxygenation and maximum O? uptake were reduced whereas muscle electromyographic activity was increased in hypoxia compared to control (P <0.05).Maximum voluntary force and potentiated quadriceps twitch force were decreased below baseline after exercise in each trial;the decreases were greater in hypoxia compared to control (P<0.001), but were not different in the exhaustive trials (P>0.05). Cortical voluntary activation was also decreased after exercise in all trials, but the decline in hypoxia (?18%) was greater than in the normoxic trials (?5-9%)(P <0.05). The reductions in cortical voluntary activation were paralleled by reductions in cerebral O? delivery. The results suggest that curtailment of exercise performance in acute severe hypoxia is due, in part, to failure of drive from the motor cortex, possibly as a consequence of diminished O? availability in the brain. PMID:22473785

Goodall, Stuart; González-Alonso, José; Ali, Leena; Ross, Emma Z; Romer, Lee M

2012-06-01

222

Effects of Neck Exercise on High-School Students’ Neck–Shoulder Posture  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the effects of deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise on the neck–shoulder posture, and the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles of high-school students. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 seventeen-year-old female high-school students who complained about bad posture and chronic neck–shoulder pain. They were randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise and a control group of 15 subjects, who performed a basic stretching exercise. [Methods] The experimental group of 15 subjects performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise consisting of low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscle, and the control group of 15 subjects performed a basic stretching exercise consisting of seven motions. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in head tilt angle, neck flexion angle, forward shoulder angle, and the result of the cranio-cervical flexion test after the training. In contrast, the control group showed no statistically significant changes in these measures following the training. When the results of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found for all items between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Strengthening cranio-cervical flexor muscles is important for the adjustment of neck posture, and maintaining their stability is required to improve neck-shoulder posture. PMID:24259804

Lee, Myoung-Hyo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sang

2013-01-01

223

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

224

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

225

Stretch Band Exercise Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

2007-01-01

226

Advanced resistive exercise device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

227

Prenatal exercise research.  

PubMed

In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

Field, Tiffany

2012-06-01

228

Diabetes and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar level should be before and after exercise. If your blood sugar level is too low or too high right ... diabetes Talk to your doctor about the right exercise for you. Check your blood sugar level before and after exercising. Check your feet ...

229

Diabetes and exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... you take medicines that lower your blood sugar, exercise can make your blood sugar go too low. Talk to your doctor or ... sugar again right after exercise, and later on. Exercise can cause your blood sugar to drop for up to 12 hours after ...

230

Easy Exercises for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... or coach first to be sure these exercises are OK for you. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: July 2012 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Exercise Log How Can I Get Motivated to Exercise? What's A Good Workout for a Busy Schedule? Dynamic Stretching (Video) Pilates T'ai Chi ...

231

Exercise and Your Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

232

Exercise as psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of exercise as a psychotherapeutic agent is reviewed. The benefits of exercise are considered to impact both physiological processes and psychological factors such as self-esteem and more efficacious self-talk. The possibility of the use of exercise as an adjunct to both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is suggested.

Peter T. Spencer

1990-01-01

233

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

234

Acute Post-Exercise Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Is Not Correlated with Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy in Young Men  

PubMed Central

Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n?=?23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index ?=?26.4±0.9 kg•m2) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-13C6] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001) above rest 60–180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P?=?0.037) 180–360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (?1.9–24.7%) (P<0.001) after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1–3 h (r?=?0.02), 3–6 h (r?=?0.16) or the aggregate 1–6 h post-exercise period (r?=?0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r?=?0.42, P?=?0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT. PMID:24586775

Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K.; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J.; Phillips, Stuart M.

2014-01-01

235

Strength-Training Exercise in Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Principles, Procedures, and Directions for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysphagia rehabilitation, historically, has focused a great deal on various compensations during swallowing to prevent aspiration\\u000a and\\/or improve safety and efficiency. Exercise, in general, has been a part of the dysphagia rehabilitation landscape. However,\\u000a heightened discussions in the field regarding best practices for exercise training, particularly strengthening, raise more\\u000a questions than answers. The intent of this paper is to (1)

Lori M. Burkhead; Christine M. Sapienza; John C. Rosenbek

2007-01-01

236

Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

2011-01-01

237

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

238

Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences. PMID:24525556

Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S

2014-02-01

239

Bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening in a Real Fire   

E-print Network

FRP strengthening is critically dependent upon the bonding adhesive. The adhesive used is typically an ambient cure epoxy with a glass transition temperature as low as 60ºC. This paper describes the performance of bonded FRP strengthening within...

Stratford, Tim J; Gillie, Martin; Chen, J; Usmani, Asif

240

Postdoctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS)  

E-print Network

1 Postdoctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS) What is GHRCAPS? The Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS to the national and international development of global health research by recruiting and training

Barthelat, Francois

241

Doctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS)  

E-print Network

1 Doctoral Bursaries Available Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS) What is GHRCAPS? The Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHRCAPS to the national and international development of global health research by recruiting and training

Barthelat, Francois

242

Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Straps  

E-print Network

Shear deficient reinforced concrete (RC) structures can be effectively strengthened using external prestressed carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) straps. Due to the presence of the external elastic straps, a strengthened beam can continue...

Yapa, Hiran D.; Lees, Janet M.

2013-07-13

243

Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

Siwowski, Tomasz; ?ó?towski, Piotr

2012-06-01

244

Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg?1 min?1 in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean ± s.e.m.) 24 ± 2 years, height 180 ± 2 cm, weight 74 ± 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2,max) 5.1 ± 0.1 l min?1 participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at ?76% of V?O2,max and at V?O2,max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26–27 l min?1), mean blood pressure (MAP) (?87 mmHg), systemic VC, systemic oxygen delivery and pulmonary V?O2 (?4 l min?1) attained similar values regardless of exercise mode. The distribution of cardiac output was modified depending on the musculature engaged in the exercise. There was a close relationship between VC and V?O2 in arms (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) and legs (r = 0.98, P < 0.05). Peak arm VC (63.7 ± 5.6 ml min?1 mmHg?1) was attained during double poling, while peak leg VC was reached at maximal exercise with the diagonal technique (109.8 ± 11.5 ml min?1 mmHg?1) when arm VC was 38.8 ± 5.7 ml min?1 mmHg?1. If during maximal exercise arms and legs had been vasodilated to the observed maximal levels then mean arterial pressure would have dropped at least to 75–77 mmHg in our experimental conditions. It is concluded that skeletal muscle vascular conductance is restrained during whole body exercise in the upright position to avoid hypotension. PMID:15121799

Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; van Hall, G; Holmberg, H -C; Rosdahl, H; Saltin, B

2004-01-01

245

Dispersion strengthened superalloys by mechanical alloying  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process called “mechanical alloying” has been developed which produces homogeneous composite particles with an intimately\\u000a dispersed, uniform internal structure. Materials formed by hot consolidation of this powder achieve the long-sought combination\\u000a of dispersion strengthening and age-hardening in a high temperature alloy. While the process is amenable to making a variety\\u000a of alloys, its first use has been to

John S. Benjamin

1970-01-01

246

Effect of evidence-based trunk stability exercises on the thickness of the trunk muscles.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of four spine stability exercises on the thickness of the internal and external oblique abdominal muscles, the transverses abdominis, and the multifidus muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy adults were enrolled and randomly allocated to four groups. Ten participants performed bridge exercises (BE) while lying on their back; 10 others performed the same exercises with their right legs up (BERL); another 10 performed the same exercises on their side (SBE); and the remaining 10 performed them in a quadruped position with left arm and right leg lifts (QLARL). The participants performed the exercises three times a week for five weeks. The thicknesses of the muscles before and after the interventions were measured using ultrasound. [Results] The results show that the normal bridge exercise significantly thickened the TrA; BERL, the LM; QLARL, the IO; and SBE, the EO and the IO. [Conclusion] All four spine stability exercises were effective. The normal bridge exercise and BERL selectively strengthened the local muscles at the early stage of the treatment. We consider SBE and QLARL should be used in the later stages of treatments because they strengthen both the local and global muscles. PMID:25729194

Yang, Hoe-Song; Lee, Yeon-Seop; Jin, Sun-Ae

2015-02-01

247

Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load. PMID:24610539

Sar?fak?o?lu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Y?ld?r?m; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Sava?; K?z?ler, Ali R?za

2014-10-01

248

Strengthening care of injured children globally  

PubMed Central

Abstract Part of the solution to the growing problem of child injury is to strengthen the care that injured children receive. This paper will point out the potential health gains to be made by doing this and will then review recent advances in the care of injured children in individual institutions and countries. It will discuss how these individual efforts have been aided by increased international attention to trauma care. Although there are no major, well-funded global programmes to improve trauma care, recent guidance documents developed by WHO and a broad network of collaborators have stimulated increased global attention to improving planning and resources for trauma care. This has in turn led to increased attention to strengthening trauma care capabilities in countries, including needs assessments and implementation of WHO recommendations in national policy. Most of these global efforts, however, have not yet specifically addressed children. Given the special needs of the injured child and the high burden of injury-related death and disability among children, clearly greater emphasis on childhood trauma care is needed. Trauma care needs assessments being conducted in a growing number of countries need to focus more on capabilities for care of injured children. Trauma care policy development needs to better encompass childhood trauma care. More broadly, the growing network of individuals and groups collaborating to strengthen trauma care globally needs to engage a broader range of stakeholders who will focus on and champion the improvement of care for injured children. PMID:19551257

Abantanga, Francis; Goosen, Jacques; Joshipura, Manjul; Juillard, Catherine

2009-01-01

249

SHEAR STRENGTHENING USING CFRP SHEETS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE GIRDERS  

E-print Network

SHEAR STRENGTHENING USING CFRP SHEETS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE GIRDERS IN MANITOBA, CANADA R-seven year old bridge in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Shear strengthening of the prestressed concrete girders strengthened with CFRP sheets. Four prestressed concrete beams are tested to failure at each end to determine

250

Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

2014-01-01

251

Peripheral and central fatigue after muscle-damaging exercise is muscle length dependent and inversely related.  

PubMed

Healthy untrained men performed 10 series of 12 knee eccentric extension repetitions (EE) at 160 degrees /s. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction force of the quadriceps muscle, the maximal rate of electrically induced torque development (RTD) and relaxation (RTR), isokinetic concentric torque at 30 degrees /s, the electrostimulation-induced torque at 20 and 100Hz frequencies were established before and after EE at shorter and longer muscle lengths. Besides, voluntary activation (VA) index and central activation ratio (CAR) were tested. There was more peripheral fatigue than central after EE. We established more central fatigue as well as low frequency fatigue at a shorter muscle length compared to the longer muscle length. Relative RTD as well as relative RTR, improved after EE and did not depend on the muscle length. Finally, central fatigue is inversely significantly related with the eccentric torque reduction during eccentric exercise and with the changes in muscle torque induced by low frequency stimulation. PMID:20347333

Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Sipaviciene, Saule

2010-08-01

252

48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy...Transportation Management. 970...Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy...Transportation Management. In...STRENGTHENING FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY...TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT...

2010-10-01

253

48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy...Transportation Management. 970...Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy...Transportation Management. In...STRENGTHENING FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY...TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT...

2011-10-01

254

34 CFR 609.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program? 609...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General... What is the Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program? The...

2010-07-01

255

Articulating Support for Horizontal Resistive Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile mechanical device provides support for a user engaged in any of a variety of resistive exercises in a substantially horizontal orientation. The unique features and versatility of the device promise to be useful in bedrest studies, rehabilitation, and specialized strength training. The device affords a capability for selectively loading and unloading of portions of the user s body through its support mechanisms, so that specific parts of the body can be trained with little or no effect on other parts that may be disabled or in the process of recovery from injury. Thus, the device is ideal for rehabilitation exercise programs prescribed by physicians and physical therapists. The capability for selective loading and support also offers potential benefits to strength and conditioning trainers and athletes who wish to selectively strengthen selected parts. The principal innovative aspect of the device is that it supports the subject s weight while enabling the subject, lying substantially horizontally, to perform an exercise that closely approximates a full standing squat. The device includes mechanisms that support the subject in such a way that the hips are free to translate both horizontally and vertically and are free to rotate about the line connecting the hips. At the same time, the shoulders are free to translate horizontally while the upper back is free to rotate about the line connecting the shoulders. Among the mechanisms for hip motion and support is a counterbalance that offsets the weight of the subject as the subject s pelvis translates horizontally and vertically and rotates the pelvis about the line connecting the hips. The counterbalance is connected to a pelvic support system that allows these pelvic movements. The subject is also supported at the shoulder by a mechanism that can tilt to provide continuous support of the upper back while allowing the rotation required for arching the back as the pelvis is displaced. The shoulder support also affords a capability for horizontal motion, and acts as the point of attachment of a load that is provided for squat and heel-raise exercises. The device is compatible with any resistive-exercise machine that provides bilateral loading via a moving cable or other mechanical linkage. The hip-translation and shoulder-translation and -rotation degrees of freedom of the supports can be locked individually or in combination in order to support the subject as necessary for exercises other than the standing squat. If necessary, for such exercises, the load can be applied directly to the subject by use of various attachments. In addition to the aforementioned heel raise, such exercises include the upright row, leg press, curls, extension of the triceps, front raise, lateral raise, and rear raise.

Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.

2005-01-01

256

Effect of the Frequency and Duration of Land-based Therapeutic Exercise on Pain Relief for People with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the influence of land-based exercise frequency and duration on pain relief for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] The systematic review included randomized controlled trials that investigated this influence, which were identified by searches of PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The exercise groups in the identified trials were categorized according to their type, frequency, and duration of exercise, and subgroup analyses were performed. [Results] Data integration of 17 studies (23 exercise groups) revealed a significant effect and a medium effect size. In subgroups involving strengthening exercise programs of ?9 weeks duration, heterogeneity was found between subjects who performed up to 3 sessions/week and those who performed ?4 sessions/week. In subgroups involving strengthening exercise programs of up to 3 sessions/week, there was heterogeneity between subjects who exercised for up to 8 weeks and those who exercised for ?9 weeks. Heterogeneity was not confirmed in aerobic exercise subgroups. [Conclusion] Differences in exercise frequency and duration influence pain relief in effects of strengthening exercises but do not influence the effect size of aerobic exercise for people with knee OA. PMID:25140076

Tanaka, Ryo; Ozawa, Junya; Kito, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Hideki

2014-01-01

257

The Effect of an Inclined Ankle on the Activation of the Abductor Hallucis Muscle during Short Foot Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of an inclined ankle on the activation of the abductor hallucis muscle during short foot exercises. [Subjects] We recruited 14 healthy volunteers who were free of pain, and did not suffer from arthritis or osteomuscular problems related to the foot or ankle. [Methods] The subjects performed short foot exercises and short inclined foot exercises with 30° passive ankle dorsiflexion. [Results] The exercise with an inclined foot showed a significantly larger activation of the abductor hallucis than that shown during the neutral short foot exercises. [Conclusion] These results suggest that passive ankle dorsiflexion during short foot exercise for strengthening the abductor hallucis is a more effective clinical treatment exercise. PMID:24764646

Heo, Hyo-Jin; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-01-01

258

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft: intermediate-term clinical outcome after 24–36 months  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although known as a possible graft option for decades, quadriceps tendon grafts have often been termed a second-line graft option. We report a consecutive case series using this method as the primary treatment line. The rationale for this study was to evaluate the midterm results of this method in a prospective and consecutive case series. The primary study question was to determine the clinical results 24–36 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft fixed with bioabsorbable cross-pins. Materials and methods The study population included 55 patients, of whom 24 were female (43.6%). The mean age at the index procedure was 31.7 years (15–58 years). All patients received an ACL construction using a bone block-free quadriceps tendon graft fixed with resorbable cross-pins. The postoperative regimen included partial weight-bearing for 3 weeks and flexion limited to 90° for six weeks; an orthosis was not used. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months (24.3–38.5 months) after the index procedure. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score and examination form was assessed, as well as the Lysholm and Gillquist score and the Tegner activity index. The Rolimeter arthrometer was used to assess the anterior laxity of the knee. Results Graft harvesting was possible in all cases; a bony extension was never required. On average, graft length was measured at 8.8 cm (7.5–10 cm). The mean IKDC subjective score at follow-up was 80.44 points (55.17–100 points, standard deviation [SD] 12.05). The mean preinjury Tegner activity index was 4.98 (2–7) compared to a mean value of 4.16 (2–7, SD 0.8) at follow-up. There was a mean loss of 0.82 index points. The average Lysholm and Gillquist score was 89 points (65–100, SD 17.7). Of the results, 89.1% were in the good or very good groups; in one case (1.8%), the result was poor, while the rest were fair. Conclusion ACL reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft achieved satisfactory results in a midterm review. PMID:24379730

Schulz, Arndt P; Lange, Vivien; Gille, Justus; Voigt, Christine; Fröhlich, Susanne; Stuhr, Markus; Jürgens, Christian

2013-01-01

259

Exercise and children's health.  

PubMed

Every child and adolescent needs exercise, which is a risk-free investment for current and future health. Physicians can help parents and children understand the importance of exercise and help them select safe, enjoyable, age-appropriate activities. This article discusses current literature regarding exercise and its effects on children's health, including nutrition and cardiovascular issues. It also reviews the epidemiology and treatment of injuries in young athletes, including preventative measures. PMID:12831683

Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J; Flynn, John M

2002-12-01

260

Diabetes and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

While everyone can benefit from exercise, those who have diabetes derive even more benefit than most other people. Many people\\u000a are aware of the benefits of exercise, but have difficulty incorporating physical activity into their lifestyles. The goal\\u000a of this chapter is to review and discuss the practical aspects of using exercise to prevent and manage diabetes.

Scott Going; Betsy Dokken

261

Exercise and freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do most people fail to exercise regularly? In light of theory and research, this paper shows that fitness activity is an affront to people’s sense of freedom; thus, it becomes a freedom-killing and leisure-killing activity. People fail to exercise because they cannot overcome the issue of freedom about exercise. Further, unlike other leisure activities, fitness activity also fails to

Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

2009-01-01

262

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

263

Home-Based Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... at a prescribed pace. Balance-strengthening and general fitness The success of any balance-retraining program depends in part on good general fitness. Progressive fitness programs increase energy and reduce stress. ...

264

How the principles of exercise physiology influence pelvic floor muscle training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians have used pelvic floor muscle training as a behavioral treatment for urinary incontinence for the past 50 years. Various protocols for training these muscles have been tested. Evidence has shown that strengthening the pelvic floor muscle can diminish, and sometimes eliminate, involuntary urine loss. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles of exercise physiology and the

Vicki Y. Johnson

2001-01-01

265

The influence of ice slushy on voluntary contraction force following exercise-induced hyperthermia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on central fatigue and force decline in exercised and nonexercised muscles and whether ingestion of ice slushy (ICE) ameliorates fatigue. Eight participants (5 males, 3 females) completed 45 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) with elbow flexors and knee extensors at baseline and following an exercise-induced rectal temperature (Trec) of 39.3 ± 0.2 °C. Percutaneous electrical muscle stimulation was superimposed at 15, 30 and 44 s during MVICs to assess muscle activation. To increase Trec to 39.3 °C, participants cycled at 60% maximum power output for 42 ± 11 min in 40 °C and 50% relative humidity. Immediately prior to each MVIC, participants consumed 50 g of ICE (-1 °C) or thermoneutral drink (38 °C, CON) made from 7.4% carbohydrate beverage. Participants consumed water (19 °C) during exercise to prevent hypohydration. Voluntary muscle force production and activation in both muscle groups were unchanged at Trec 39.3 °C with ICE (knee extensors: 209 ± 152 N) versus CON (knee extensors: 255 ± 157 N, p = 0.19). At Trec 39.3 °C, quadriceps mean force (232 ± 151 N) decreased versus baseline (302 ± 180 N, p < 0.001) and mean voluntary activation was also decreased (by 15% ± 11%, p < 0.001). Elbow flexor mean force decreased from 179 ± 67 N to 148 ± 65 N when Trec was increased to 39.3 °C (p < 0.001) but mean voluntary activation was not reduced at 39.3 °C (5% ± 25%, p = 0.79). After exercise-induced hyperthermia, ICE had no effect on voluntary activation or force production; however, both were reduced from baseline in the exercised muscle group. Peripheral fatigue was greater than the central component and limited the ability of an intervention designed to alter central fatigue. PMID:24971678

Burdon, Catriona A; Easthope, Christopher S; Johnson, Nathan A; Chapman, Phillip G; O'Connor, Helen

2014-07-01

266

Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

Loerch, Linda H.

2010-01-01

267

Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.  

PubMed

The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming. PMID:10165942

Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

1997-01-01

268

Role of manual therapy with exercise regime versus exercise regime alone in the management of non-specific chronic neck pain.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of manual therapy with exercise regime versus exercise regime alone in the management of non-specific chronic neck pain. In this 62 subjects randomized controlled trial 31 subjects in group A received manual therapy (manipulation) with supervised exercise regime whilst 31 subjects in group B performed only supervised exercise regime for the period of 3 weeks. Both groups had a home exercise program consisted of strengthening exercises for neck/scapuluar stability, stretching and general range of motion exercises for neck with advice regarding posture awareness and correction for 3 months. The results suggested significant reduction in pain intensity level in both groups; over 3 weeks and 12 weeks' time period in relation to baseline on visual analog scale (p=0.001). Similarly, statistically significant improvements noticed in Neck Disability Index (NDI) (p=0.0001) in both groups while looking at baseline data with reference to 12 weeks' time period. On closer inspection, the manual therapy (manipulation) with exercise regime appeared as a favorable treatment preference compared with exercise regime alone. PMID:25410083

Akhter, Saeed; Khan, Muhammad; Ali, Syed Shahzad; Soomro, Rabial Rani

2014-11-01

269

Athletic Trainers and Exercise Physiologists  

MedlinePLUS

... courses every 5 years. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) also offers certifications for exercise physiologists. ACSM ... Society of Exercise Physiologists The American College of Sports Medicine Committee on Accreditation for the Exercise Sciences O* ...

270

Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.  

PubMed

Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper. PMID:25857990

Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

2015-07-10

271

Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.  

PubMed

Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

2012-01-01

272

The effects of topical Arnica on performance, pain and muscle damage after intense eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if topical Arnica is effective in reducing pain, indicators of inflammation and muscle damage, and in turn improve performance in well-trained males experiencing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty well-trained males matched by maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2 Max) completed a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Topical Arnica was applied to the skin superficial to the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles immediately after a downhill running protocol designed to induce DOMS. Topical Arnica was reapplied every 4 waking hours for the duration of the study. Performance measures (peak torque, countermovement and squat jump), pain assessments (visual analogue scale (VAS) and muscle tenderness) and blood analysis (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, myoglobin and creatine kinase) were assessed at seven time points over five days (pre-, post-, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the downhill run). Participants in the topical Arnica group reported less pain as assessed through muscle tenderness and VAS 72 hours post-exercise. The application of topical Arnica did not affect any performance assessments or markers of muscle damage or inflammation. Topical Arnica used immediately after intense eccentric exercise and for the following 96 hours did not have an effect on performance or blood markers. It did however demonstrate the possibility of providing pain relief three days post-eccentric exercise. PMID:23947690

Pumpa, Kate L; Fallon, Kieran E; Bensoussan, Alan; Papalia, Shona

2014-01-01

273

Behavior of CFRPC strengthened reinforced concrete beams with varying degrees of strengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of experimental and analytical studies on the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by the external bonding of high-strength, light-weight carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRPC) laminates to the tension face of the beam. Four sets of beams, three with different amounts of CFRPC reinforcement by changing the width of CFRPC laminate, and one without

V. p. v. Ramana; T. Kant; S. e. Mortonsupbsu; P. k. Dutta; A. Mukherjee; Y. m. Desai

2000-01-01

274

Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. We report 2 studies that test this hypothesis in…

Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

2011-01-01

275

Exercise Against Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

1998-01-01

276

Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

Mills, Brett D.; And Others

277

Rotator Cuff Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... you finish doing all 4 exercises, put an ice pack on your shoulder for 20 minutes. It's best to use a plastic bag with ice cubes in it or a bag of frozen peas, not gel packs. If you do all 4 exercises 3 to ...

278

Exercise through Menopause.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

Stuhr, Robyn M.

2002-01-01

279

Exercise and Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... fuel or energy value of food. Cardiovascular Exercise: Exercise designed to promote a healthy heart and blood vessels. If you have further questions, contact your obstetrician–gynecologist. FAQ045: Designed as an aid to patients, this document sets forth current information and opinions ...

280

Exercise and Respiration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will investigate the process of respiration by investigating the question: How does exercise affect the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled? They will use bromothymol blue to time how fast it changes color before and after exercising. They will be guided into an understanding of the process of cellular respiration.

admin admin

2011-10-07

281

Diabetes and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset

N. S. Peirce

1999-01-01

282

Neurobiology of Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including motor learning in the spinal cord. These adaptations in the central nervous system have

Rod K. Dishman; Hans-Rudolf Berthoud; Frank W. Booth; Carl W. Cotman; V. Reggie Edgerton; Monika R. Fleshner; Simon C. Gandevia; Fernando Gomez-Pinilla; Benjamin N. Greenwood; Charles H. Hillman; Arthur F. Kramer; Barry E. Levin; Timothy H. Moran; Amelia A. Russo-Neustadt; John D. Salamone; Jacqueline D. Van Hoomissen; Charles E. Wade; David A. York; Michael J. Zigmond

2006-01-01

283

Diabetes and exercise (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to ... day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person ... sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

284

Robotics laboratory exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report new laboratory exercises in robotic manipulation, computer vision, artificial intelligence, and mechatronics, four areas that are central to any robotics curriculum. The laboratory exercises supply the student with hands-on experience that complements classroom lectures and software development. Through this experience, the student confronts the hard realities of robot systems and learns to deal with them. Such hands-on

E. Krotkov

1996-01-01

285

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)  

E-print Network

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need a web link to MolProbity (with Java), and the file 1JIRon1S83_Arg66_supr.kin download- ed from the kinemage.biochem.duke.edu BCH681 web site, or from Sakai. Part 1: MolProbity Go to the MolProbity web

Richardson, David

286

Physical exercise and health.  

PubMed

Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals. PMID:25172071

Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

2014-09-01

287

Integrative biology of exercise.  

PubMed

Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis provoking widespread perturbations in numerous cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by or are a response to the increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscles. To meet this challenge, multiple integrated and often redundant responses operate to blunt the homeostatic threats generated by exercise-induced increases in muscle energy and oxygen demand. The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses, and recent discoveries offer perspectives on the mechanisms by which muscle "communicates" with other organs and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on health and performance. PMID:25417152

Hawley, John A; Hargreaves, Mark; Joyner, Michael J; Zierath, Juleen R

2014-11-01

288

Manual Physical Therapy, Cervical Traction, and Strengthening Exercises in Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: A Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: A case series of consecutive patients with cervical radiculopathy. Background: A multitude of physical therapy interventions have been proposed to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy. However, outcome studies using consistent treatment approaches on a well-defined sample of patients are lacking. The purpose of this case series is to describe the outcomes of a consecutive series

Joshua A. Cleland; Julie M. Whitman; Julie M. Fritz; Jessica A. Palmer

2005-01-01

289

Using exercises to improve public health preparedness in Asia, the Middle East and Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Exercises are increasingly common tools used by the health sector and other sectors to evaluate their preparedness to respond to public health threats. Exercises provide an opportunity for multiple sectors to practice, test and evaluate their response to all types of public health emergencies. The information from these exercises can be used to refine and improve preparedness plans. There is a growing body of literature about the use of exercises among local, state and federal public health agencies in the United States. There is much less information about the use of exercises among public health agencies in other countries and the use of exercises that involve multiple countries. Results We developed and conducted 12 exercises (four sub-national, five national, three sub-regional) from August 2006 through December 2008. These 12 exercises included 558 participants (average 47) and 137 observers (average 11) from 14 countries. Participants consistently rated the overall quality of the exercises as very good or excellent. They rated the exercises lowest on their ability to identifying key gaps in performance. The vast majority of participants noted that they would use the information they gained at the exercise to improve their organization’s preparedness to respond to an influenza pandemic. Participants felt the exercises were particularly good at raising awareness and understanding about public health threats, assisting in evaluating plans and identifying priorities for improvement, and building relationships that strengthen preparedness and response across sectors and across countries. Participants left the exercises with specific ideas about the most important actions that they should engage in after the exercise such as improved planning coordination across sectors and countries and better training of health workers and response personnel. Conclusions These experiences suggest that exercises can be a valuable, low-burden tool to improve emergency preparedness and response in countries around the world. They also demonstrate that countries can work together to develop and conduct successful exercises designed to improve regional preparedness to public health threats. The development of standardized evaluation methods for exercises may be an additional tool to help focus the actions to be taken as a result of the exercise and to improve future exercises. Exercises show great promise as tools to improve public health preparedness across sectors and countries. PMID:25063987

2014-01-01

290

Application for Bridge Strengthening Monitoring Based on FBG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deflection reasons for long-span prestressed concrete box-girder (LPCB) bridge are still ambiguous. This paper pointed out some outstanding advantages of using fiber optical sensing (FOS) technology in old LPCB Bridge strengthening monitoring. According to certain existing old LPCB Bridge strengthening monitoring example,it presented some direct and indirect monitoring indexes that should be contained in the old strengthening monitoring. The

Chen Biao; Li Sheng

2010-01-01

291

Magnesium carbonate precipitate strengthened aerobic granules.  

PubMed

Aerobic granules were precipitated internally with magnesium carbonate to enhance their structural stability under shear. The strengthened granules were tested in continuous-flow reactors for 220days at organic loadings of 6-39kg/m(3)/day, hydraulic retention times of 0.44-19h, and temperatures of 10 or 28°C. The carbonate salt had markedly improved the granule strength without significant changes in granule morphology or microbial communities (with persistent strains Streptomyces sp., Rhizobium sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Nitratireductor sp.), or sacrifice in biological activity for organic degradation. MgCO3 precipitated granules could be used in continuous-flow reactor for wastewater treatment at low cost and with easy processing efforts. PMID:25727761

Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Yu-You

2015-05-01

292

cAMP levels in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle after an acute bout of aerobic exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study examined whether exercise duration was associated with elevated and/or sustained elevations of postexercise adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by measuring cAMP levels in skeletal muscle for up to 4 h after acute exercise bouts of durations that are known to either produce (60 min) or not produce (10 min) mitochondrial proliferation after chronic training. Treadmill-acclimatized, but untrained, rats were run at 22 m/min for 0 (control), 10, or 60 min and were killed at various postexercise (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) time points. Fast-twitch white and red (quadriceps) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles were quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and assayed for cAMP with a commercial kit. Unexpectedly, cAMP contents in all three muscles were similar to control (nonexercise) at most (21 of 30) time points after a single 10- or 60-min run. Values at 9 of 30 time points were significantly different from control (P < 0.05); i.e., 3 time points were significantly higher than control and 6 were significantly less than control. These data suggest that the cAMP concentration of untrained skeletal muscle after a single bout of endurance-type exercise is not, by itself, associated with exercise duration.

Sheldon, A.; Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

1993-01-01

293

Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods/Design A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index – normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2. Data will be published after the study is completed. PMID:24716713

2014-01-01

294

Evaluating the performance of skewed prestressed concrete bridge after strengthening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this paper are to explain the application of repairing and strengthening methods on the damaged members of the bridge structure, to analyze the static and dynamic structural response under static and dynamic loads after strengthening, and to evaluate the structural performance after application of strengthening method. The repairing and strengthening methods which are used in this study include treatment of the cracks, thickening the web of box girder along the bridge length and adding internal pre-stressing tendons in the thickening web, and construct reinforced concrete cross beams (diaphragms) between two box girders. The results of theoretical analysis of static and dynamic structural responses after strengthening show that the tensile stresses are decreased and become less than the allowable limit values in the codes. The values of vertical deflection are decreased after strengthening. The values of natural frequencies after strengthening are increased, indicating that the strengthening method is effective to reduce the vibration of the bridge structure. Therefore, the strengthening methods are effective to improve the bearing capacity and elastic working state of the bridge structure and to increase the service life of the bridge structure.

Naser, Ali; Zonglin, Wang

2013-06-01

295

Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates  

SciTech Connect

Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

Sim, Jongsung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hongseob [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

2005-07-01

296

Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect  

PubMed Central

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

297

Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.  

PubMed

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

298

Implications of group III and IV muscle afferents for high-intensity endurance exercise performance in humans.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents on peripheral fatigue, central motor drive (CMD) and endurance capacity during high-intensity leg-cycling. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, seven males performed constant-load cycling exercise (318 ± 9 W; 80% of peak power output (W(peak))) to exhaustion under placebo conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing spinal ?-opioid receptor-sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents. Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in pre- vs. post-exercise quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (?Q(tw,pot)). CMD was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. To rule out a direct central effect of fentanyl, we documented unchanged resting cardioventilatory responses. Compared to placebo, significant hypoventilation during the fentanyl trial was indicated by the 9% lower V(E)/V(CO(2)), causing a 5 mmHg increase in end-tidal P(CO(2)) and a 3% lower haemoglobin saturation. Arterial pressure and heart rate averaged 8 and 10% lower, respectively, during the fentanyl trial and these differences progressively diminished towards end-exercise. Although initially similar, the percent change in CMD was 9 ± 3% higher at end-exercise with fentanyl vs. placebo (P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was shorter (6.8 ± 0.3 min vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 min) and end-exercise ?Q(tw,pot) was about one-third greater (-44 ± 2% vs. -34 ± 2%) following fentanyl vs. placebo. The rate of peripheral fatigue development was 67 ± 10% greater during the fentanyl trial (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that feedback from group III/IV muscle afferents limits CMD but also minimizes locomotor muscle fatigue development by stimulating adequate ventilatory and circulatory responses to exercise. In the face of blocked group III/IV muscle afferents, CMD is less inhibited but O(2) transport compromised and locomotor muscle fatigability is exacerbated with a combined net effect of a reduced endurance performance. PMID:21878520

Amann, Markus; Blain, Gregory M; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

2011-11-01

299

Inferences from pulmonary O2 uptake with respect to intramuscular [phosphocreatine] kinetics during moderate exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

In the non-steady state of moderate intensity exercise, pulmonary O2 uptake (V?p,O2) is temporally dissociated from muscle O2 consumption (V?m,O2) due to the influence of the intervening venous blood volume and the contribution of body O2 stores to ATP synthesis. A monoexponential model of V?p,O2 without a delay term, therefore, implies an obligatory slowing of V?p,O2 kinetics in comparison to V?m,O2.During moderate exercise, an association of V?m,O2 and [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) kinetics is a necessary consequence of the control of muscular oxidative phosphorylation mediated by some function of [PCr]. It has also been suggested that the kinetics of V?p,O2 will be expressed with a time constant within 10 % of that of V?m,O2.V?p,O2 and intramuscular [PCr] kinetics were investigated simultaneously during moderate exercise of a large muscle mass in a whole-body NMR spectrometer. Six healthy males performed prone constant-load quadriceps exercise. A transmit-receive coil under the right quadriceps allowed determination of intramuscular [PCr]; V?p,O2 was measured breath-by-breath, in concert with [PCr], using a turbine and a mass spectrometer system.Intramuscular [PCr] decreased monoexponentially with no delay in response to exercise. The mean of the time constants (?PCr) was 35 s (range, 20–64 s) for the six subjects.Two temporal phases were evident in the V?p,O2 response. When the entire V?p,O2 response was modelled to be exponential with no delay, its time constant (??V?p,O2) was longer in all subjects (group mean = 62 s; range, 52–92 s) than that of [PCr], reflecting the energy contribution of the O2 stores.Restricting the V?p,O2 model fit to phase II resulted in matching kinetics for V?p,O2 (group mean ?V?p,O2= 36 s; range, 20–68 s) and [PCr], for all subjects.We conclude that during moderate intensity exercise the phase II ?V?p,O2 provides a good estimate of ?PCr and by implication that of V?m,O2 (?V?m,O2). PMID:10421675

Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Doyle, V L; Howe, F A; Griffiths, J R; Whipp, B J

1999-01-01

300

Effects of acute exercise on attenuated vagal baroreflex function during bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses in six healthy men, 24 h before and 24 h after a bout of leg exercise during 6 deg head-down bed rest to determine if depressed vagal baroreflex function associated with exposure to microgravity environments could be reversed by a single exposure to acute intense exercise. Baroreflex responses were measured before bed rest and on day 7 of bed rest. An exercise bout consisting of dynamic and isometric actions of the quadriceps at graded speeds and resistances was performed on day 8 of bed rest and measurements of baroreflex response were repeated 24 h later. Vagally-mediated cardiac responses were provoked with ramped neck pressure-suction sequences comprising pressure elevations to +40 mm Hg, followed by serial, R-wave triggered 15 mm Hg reductions, to -65 mm Hg. Baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationships were derived by plotting each R-R interval as a function of systolic pressure less the neck chamber pressure applied during the interval. Compared with pre-bed rest baseline measurements, 7 d of bed rest decreased the gain (maximum slope) of the baroreflex stimulus-response relationship by 16.8 +/- 3.4 percent (p less than 0.05). On day 9 of bed rest, 24 h after exercise, the maximum slope of the baroreflex stimulus-response relationship was increased (p less than 0.05) by 10.7 +/- 3.7 percent above pre-bed rest levels and 34.3 +/- 7.9 percent above bed rest day 7. Our data verify that vagally-mediated baroreflex function is depressed by exposure to simulated microgravity and demonstrate that this effect can be acutely reversed by exposure to a single bout of intense exercise.

Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Guell, Antonio; Marini, J.-F.

1992-01-01

301

Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

2000-01-01

302

Carbohydrate-protein drinks do not enhance recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of carbohydrate (CHO), carbohydrate-protein (CHO+PRO), or placebo (PLA) beverages on recovery from novel eccentric exercise. Female participants performed 30 min of downhill treadmill running (-12% grade, 8.0 mph), followed by consumption of a CHO, CHO+PRO, or PLA beverage immediately, 30, and 60 min after exercise. CHO and CHO+PRO groups (n=6 per group) consumed 1.2 g x kg body weight(-1) x hr(-1) CHO, with the CHO+PRO group consuming an additional 0.3 g x kg body weight(-1) x hr(-1) PRO. The PLA group (n=6) received an isovolumetric noncaloric beverage. Maximal isometric quadriceps strength (QUAD), lower extremity muscle soreness (SOR), and serum creatine kinase (CK) were assessed preinjury (PRE) and immediately and 1, 2, and 3 d postinjury to assess exercise-induced muscle injury and rate of recovery. There was no effect of treatment on recovery of QUAD (p= .21), SOR (p= .56), or CK (p= .59). In all groups, QUAD was reduced compared with PRE by 20.6%+/-1.5%, 17.2%+/-2.3%, and 11.3%+/-2.3% immediately, 1, and 2 d postinjury, respectively (p< .05). SOR peaked at 2 d postinjury (PRE vs. 2 d, 3.1+/-1.0 vs. 54.0+/-4.8 mm, p< .01), and serum CK peaked 1 d postinjury (PRE vs. 1 d, 138+/-47 vs. 757+/-144 U/L, p< .01). In conclusion, consuming a CHO+PRO or CHO beverage immediately after novel eccentric exercise failed to enhance recovery of exercise-induced muscle injury differently than what was observed with a PLA drink. PMID:18272930

Green, Michael S; Corona, Benjamin T; Doyle, J Andrew; Ingalls, Christopher P

2008-02-01

303

Exercise and osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

2009-01-01

304

PGC-1alpha is not mandatory for exercise- and training-induced adaptive gene responses in mouse skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC) 1alpha is required for exercise-induced adaptive gene responses in skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice performed a single treadmill-running exercise bout. Soleus and white gastrocnemius (WG) were obtained immediately, 2 h, or 6 h after exercise. Another group of PGC-1alpha KO and WT mice performed 5-wk exercise training. Soleus, WG, and quadriceps were obtained approximately 37 h after the last training session. Resting muscles of the PGC-1alpha KO mice had lower ( approximately 20%) cytochrome c (cyt c), cytochrome oxidase (COX) I, and aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) 1 mRNA and protein levels than WT, but similar levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha1, AMPKalpha2, and hexokinase (HK) II compared with WT mice. A single exercise bout increased phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and the level of HKII mRNA similarly in WG of KO and WT. In contrast, cyt c mRNA in soleus was upregulated in WT muscles only. Exercise training increased cyt c, COXI, ALAS1, and HKII mRNA and protein levels equally in WT and KO animals, but cyt c, COXI, and ALAS1 expression remained approximately 20% lower in KO animals. In conclusion, lack of PGC-1alpha reduced resting expression of cyt c, COXI, and ALAS1 and exercise-induced cyt c mRNA expression. However, PGC-1alpha is not mandatory for training-induced increases in ALAS1, COXI, and cyt c expression, showing that factors other than PGC-1alpha can exert these adaptations. PMID:18073319

Leick, Lotte; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Johansen, Sune T; Kiilerich, Kristian; Comes, Gemma; Hellsten, Ylva; Hidalgo, Juan; Pilegaard, Henriette

2008-02-01

305

Response of Biochemical Markers of Bone Metabolism to Exercise Intensity in Thoroughbred Horses  

PubMed Central

We studied the response of biochemical markers of bone metabolism to exercise intensity in horses. Four horses were walked on a mechanical walker for one week (pre-exercise). Then they performed low-speed exercise on a high-speed treadmill in the first week and medium-speed exercise in the second week and high-speed exercise in the third week of training. We measured two indices of bone resorption, serum hydroxyproline concentration and the urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, and serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration as an index of bone formation. Both indices of bone resorption gradually decreased during the experiment. Serum OC concentration did not change in the first week but was significantly lower in the second and the third weeks compared to in the pre-exercise period and in the first week. These results suggest that the low-speed exercise decreased bone resorption but did not affect bone formation, which possibly results in increasing bone mineral content and strengthening of bones. The high-speed exercise decreased bone formation and bone resorption, i.e., bone turnover was suppressed. The low-speed exercise may be preferable for increasing bone mineral content. PMID:24833958

INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; ASAI, Yo; AOKI, Fumiki; YOSHIMOTO, Kenji; MATSUI, Tohru; YANO, Hideo

2009-01-01

306

Exercise in neuromuscular disease.  

PubMed

In this review, the authors present an overview of the role of exercise in neuromuscular disease (NMD). The authors demonstrate that despite the different pathologies in NMDs, exercise is beneficial, whether aerobic/endurance or strength/resistive training. The authors analyze methodological flaws of existing studies and suggest improvements for future trial protocols. Finally, we discuss specialized exercise training of specific muscles, as well as new technologies adapted from other neurologic disorders, including body-weight-supported treadmill ambulation, robotic-assisted gait training, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. PMID:25520026

Anziska, Yaacov; Inan, Seniha

2014-11-01

307

Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Andrew Smith

308

Exercise in Individuals with CKD  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for

Kirsten L. Johansen; Patricia Painter

309

Menstrual cycle, exercise and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise training can have an impact on the menstrual cycle. If the exercise load is great enough it can lead to irregular or even the complete absence of menses, which has implications for reproductive health. Conversely, the menstrual cycle can affect exercise performance. Disruptions in hormonal balance throughout the menstrual cycle have been implicated in altered muscular strength, exercise endurance

Ellen A. Dawson; Thomas Reilly

2009-01-01

310

Exercise interventions: defusing the world's osteoporosis time bomb.  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The associated health care costs are growing in parallel with increases in elderly populations, and it is expected that the number of osteoporotic fractures will double over the next 50 years. The best way to address osteoporosis is prevention. Some interventions to maximize and preserve bone mass have multiple health benefits and are cost-effective. For example, modifications to diet and lifestyle can help to prevent osteoporosis, and could potentially lead to a significant decrease in fracture rates; and exercise is a valuable adjunct to programmes aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis. Practising exercise at a young age helps maximize the mineral density of bones while they are still growing and maturing, and continuing to excercise minimizes bone loss later in life. Not only does exercise improve bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, balance, flexibility and leads to better overall health. Walking, aerobic exercise, and t'ai chi are the best forms of exercise to stimulate bone formation and strengthen the muscles that help support bones. Encouraging physical activity at all ages is therefore a top priority to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:14758410

Kai, Ming Chan; Anderson, Mary; Lau, Edith M. C.

2003-01-01

311

Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

2014-06-01

312

Exercise in Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students expressed strong positive feelings about inquiry-based teaching methods the authors developed and implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Inquiry-based learning resulted in a higher order of learning not typically o

Cheryl L. Mason

2003-03-01

313

Exercise and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the ... until a bone breaks. Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. It is more common in women, but men ...

314

Depression and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the efficacy of antidepressants under a question mark, many depressed patients are turning to common sense remedies such as exercise. Increasing activity not only has physical effects that lift a depressive mood: it can be fun as well.

Jerome Sarris; David J Kavanagh; Robert U Newton

2008-01-01

315

Adventures in Exercise Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

Kathleen A. FitzPatrick

2004-09-01

316

Exercises in Physical Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Flinders University in Australia features two sets of exercises that accompany a course on physical oceanography. The basic exercises were originally intended to replace the need for the teacher's presence, but have since also proved useful in distance learning. Topics for these exercises include map projections ocean floor topography, properties of sea water, and water masses and tides. The advanced exercises were designed to give deeper insight into the material and to encourage investigation. Advanced topics include coastal upwelling, graphic display methods for ocean currents, averaging methods for vector time series, geostrophic currents, Rossby wave propagation, the depth of the permanent thermocline (the Sverdrup balance), Ekman layer dynamics, and the outflow of Mediterranean Water into the Atlantic Ocean. The site also features links to other oceanography websites.

Matthias Tomczak

317

Kids and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... of physical activity daily. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) offers these activity guidelines ... Active Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports Why Exercise Is Cool How We Play It's ...

318

Exercise for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... time running and playing. Parents should limit TV, video game and computer time. Parents can set a good example by being active themselves. Exercising together can be fun for everyone. Competitive sports can help kids stay fit. Walking or biking ...

319

Exercise and Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... the house seems impossible. Recent American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines suggest that exercise should be one ... area, click here . Learn more about rheumatologists and rheumatology health professionals . For more information The American College ...

320

Exercise for Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

... Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. Brisk walking or jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

321

Osteoporosis and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a common medical problem. Lifestyle measures to prevent or help treat existing osteoporosis often only receive lip service. The evidence for the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is reviewed.

J A Todd; R J Robinson

2003-01-01

322

PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L?1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L?1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

2012-01-01

323

Plume Delineation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to develop students ability to synthesize subsurface data and develop a model to explain a local groundwater contamination issue. Based on their groundwater model, they will make predictions as to location of the source area and the location of any potential human health risk. The exercise requires basic contour mapping skill, simple mathematical problem solving skills and a knowledge of Darcy's Law. Has minimal/no quantitative component

Steven Lev

324

Exercise Training and Prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The task of prescribing exercise in competitive athletes and in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more similar\\u000a than one might think, which makes life a bit easier when faced with patients with CVD who also choose to participate in vigorous,\\u000a competitive sports. Regardless of whether you are prescribing exercise for the athlete, or the patient-athlete, there are\\u000a two basic

Steven J. Keteyian; John R. Schairer

325

Inverted Troughs Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.

COMET

2004-01-29

326

Exercise, Heart and Health  

PubMed Central

Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (?35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial. PMID:21519508

2011-01-01

327

[Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction].  

PubMed

Terms exercise-induced asthma (EIA) or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are used to describe transient bronchoconstriction occurring during or immediately after vigorous exercise in some subjects. For the diagnosis of EIB it is necessary to show at least 10% decrease in FEV1 from baseline following physical exercise. The prevalence of EIB has been reported to be 12-15% in general population, 10-20% in summer olympic athletes, affecting up to 50-70% of winter athletes (particularly ski runners and skaters). There are two key theories explaining EIB: thermal and osmotic. Differential diagnosis of EIB should include chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases, vocal cord dysfunction, hyperventilation syndrome and poor physical fitness or overtraining. According to the ATS guidelines from 1999 for the diagnosis of EIB a standardized exercise on a treadmill or cycle ergometer test with stable environmental conditions regarding temperature and humidity of inhaled air, should be employed. Other laboratory tests assessing bronchial hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli including eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), mannitol, hypertonic saline, AMP or measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) are also successfully used. In the prevention of EIB include both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment. In patients with poorly controlled asthma intensification of anti-inflammatory treatment can decrease the frequency and severity of EIB. Short and long acting beta2-agonists, antileukotriene drugs can be used prior to exercise to prevent EIB. PMID:21190152

Hildebrand, Katarzyna

2011-01-01

328

Flexural Strengthening of Steel Bridges with High Modulus CFRP Strips  

E-print Network

in the possibility to also strengthen steel structures. Steel bridge girders and building frames may require for design is proposed that considers the bilinear behavior of a typical strengthened beam to the elastic been for thin-walled steel or aluminum structures. Aerospace and naval industries have made use

329

Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

Olson, Maril

2007-01-01

330

Shear capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beams: FRP debonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been undertaken on shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams by externally bonding fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. These studies have established clearly that such strengthened beams fail in shear mainly in one of two modes: FRP rupture; and FRP debonding, and have led to preliminary design proposals. This paper is concerned with the development of a simple,

J. F. Chen; J. G. Teng

2003-01-01

331

Local theorems in strengthened form for lattice random variables.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of some conditions which are sufficient for a sequence of independent integral-valued lattice random variables to satisfy a local theorem in strengthened form. A number of theorems giving the conditions under which the investigated sequence satisfies a local theorem in strengthened form are proven with the aid of lemmas derived by Kruglov (1968).

Mason, J. D.

1971-01-01

332

CONCRETE STRAIN DISTRIBUTION OF STRENGTHENED BEAMS WITH ADDITIONAL POSTTENSIONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Comparison of the concrete strain distribution results, at the maximum positive and negative moment sections, of two equal spans reinforced concrete tee beams, before and after strengthening with additional post-tensioned tendons are presented. Two series of strengthening beams were tested. Each series consists of two beams, with equal reinforcement ratio, and different tendon's profile namely; straight and deviated one.

Abdussalam M. Akasha; György Farkas

333

Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.  

PubMed

Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals. PMID:23421286

Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

2012-11-01

334

Strengthening bioterrorism prevention: global biological materials management.  

PubMed

The anthrax attacks of 2001 demonstrated that bioterrorism poses a significant threat to U.S. national security. This threat is increasing as a result of the rapid expansion in scale and technical capabilities of the global biotechnology industry, which is broadening the availability of materials, technologies, and expertise needed to produce a biological weapon and is lowering the barriers to biological weapons terrorism and proliferation. At the same time, there has been a rise of sophisticated yet loosely networked transnational terrorist groups that have shown an interest in bioterrorism. The United States must confront this convergence. Although the U.S. government pursues many different biodefense programs to bolster its ability to detect and respond to a bioterrorist attack, these efforts must be augmented with preventive measures to meet today's international challenges. U.S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 of April 2004 defines "Prevention and Protection" as one of the four essential pillars of the U.S. response to the bioterrorist threat. However, while bioscience and policy experts have proposed a variety of preventive initiatives, the creation of such programs has been slow and limited. Global biological materials management, which would focus on identifying and protecting those biological materials at the greatest risk of being used maliciously, is one potential solution. Such an approach would augment current U.S. biodefense efforts, provide the international community an effective means of mitigating the global threat of bioterrorism, and strengthen the international community's battle against emerging infectious disease. PMID:17608597

Salerno, Reynolds M; Hickok, Lauren T

2007-06-01

335

Exercise interventions to reduce fall-related fractures and their risk factors in individuals with low bone density: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Exercise can reduce falls and fall-related fractures in healthy individuals; however, evidence for individuals with low BMD\\u000a is limited. The results from this systematic review indicate that exercise interventions for individuals with low BMD to reduce\\u000a falls and fractures should include balance, muscle strengthening, and weight-bearing exercises.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate which exercise interventions are

D. C. J. de Kam; E. Smulders; V. G. M. Weerdesteijn; B. C. M. Smits-Engelsman

2009-01-01

336

Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and decreased regeneration in the mouse femoral Quadriceps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical unloading of muscle during spaceflight in microgravity is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber type composition, gene expression, and reductions in regenerative muscle growth. Although limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time, up to two weeks of spaceflight. Here we report on how 30-day, long-term, mechanical unloading in microgravity affects mouse muscle of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle morphology observed in histological sections shows signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei and low density of myofibrils, their separation and fragmentation. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appears to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed muscle fibers. Many of them however showed evidence of apoptosis and degradation of synthesized fibrils, suggesting long-term unloading in microgravity affects late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals showed normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new muscle fibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Myofiber nuclei stress responses in spaceflight animals was detected by positive nuclear immunolocalization of c-jun and c-myc proteins. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscle was localized with pax-7, MyoD and MCad immunostaining, and did not appear altered in microgravity. In summary, long-term spaceflight in microgravity causes significant atrophy and degeneration of the femoral Quadriceps muscle group, and it may interfere with muscle regenerative processes by inducing apoptosis in newly formed myofibers during their differentiation phase.

Grigoryan, Eleonora; Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Blaber, Elizabeth; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Markitantova, Yulia

337

Identifying exercise allergies: exercise-induced anaphylaxis and cholinergic urticaria.  

PubMed

Exercise-related allergies vary from the benign rash of cholinergic urticaria to life-threatening exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Rapid diagnosis is essential, but it can be difficult to tell the two conditions apart. The size of the wheals and the patient history provide the best clues. Giving epinephrine and taking steps to protect the patient's airway, breathing, and circulation are standard treatment for exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Effective management for less severe cases involves exercising with a partner, keeping self-injectable epinephrine on hand, and avoiding exercise before and after meals. Prophylactic antihistamines are more effective for cholinergic urticaria than for exercise-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:20086959

Terrell, T; Hough, D O; Alexander, R

1996-11-01

338

Peak and average rectified EMG measures: Which method of data reduction should be used for assessing core training exercises?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core strengthening and stability exercises are fundamental for any conditioning training program. Although surface electromyography (sEMG) is used to quantify muscle activity there is a lack of research using this method to investigate the core musculature and core stability. Two types of data reduction are commonly used for sEMG; peak and average rectified EMG methods. Peak EMG has been infrequently

A. E. Hibbs; K. G. Thompson; D. N. French; D. Hodgson; I. R. Spears

2011-01-01

339

Genetic impairment of AMPKalpha2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice.  

PubMed

Some studies suggest that the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important in regulating muscle glucose uptake in response to intense electrically stimulated contractions. However, it is unknown whether AMPK regulates muscle glucose uptake during in vivo exercise. We studied this in male and female mice overexpressing kinase-dead AMPKalpha2 (AMPK-KD) in skeletal and heart muscles. Wild-type and AMPK-KD mice were exercised at the same absolute intensity and the same relative intensity (30 and 70% of individual maximal running speed) to correct for reduced exercise capacity of the AMPK-KD mouse. Muscle glucose clearance was measured using 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose as tracer. In wild-type mice, glucose clearance was increased at 30 and 70% of maximal running speed by 40 and 350% in the quadriceps muscle and by 120 and 380% in gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. Glucose clearance was not lower in AMPK-KD muscles compared with wild-type regardless of whether animals were exercised at the same relative or the same absolute intensity. In agreement, surface membrane content of the glucose transporter GLUT4 was increased similarly in AMPK-KD and wild-type muscle in response to running. We also measured signaling of alternative exercise-sensitive pathways that might be compensatorily increased in AMPK-KD muscles. However, increases in phosphorylation of CaMKII, Trisk95, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 were not higher in AMPK-KD than in WT muscle. Collectively, these findings suggest that AMPKalpha2 signaling is not essential in regulating glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle during treadmill exercise and that other mechanisms play a central role. PMID:19654283

Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Rose, Adam J; Jeppesen, Jacob; Jensen, Thomas E; Treebak, Jonas T; Birk, Jesper B; Schjerling, Peter; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A

2009-10-01

340

Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball  

PubMed Central

Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball). Results and Discussion During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. Conclusion The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population. PMID:16053529

Lehman, Gregory J; Hoda, Wajid; Oliver, Steven

2005-01-01

341

Epilepsy and physical exercise.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

2015-02-01

342

Diabetes and exercise  

PubMed Central

Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. ??? PMID:10378067

Peirce, N. S.

1999-01-01

343

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises. BEATCALC will wake up your brain on Monday morning with a mental math exercise that will stimulate those gray cells. Each Monday you will receive instructions for an exercise that will enable you to do math computations mentally faster than a friend can do them on a calculator. For example, how about learning to square 65 or 95 mentally in quick time? You can beat that calculator! These exercises are designed for : (1) Foggy heads at work on Monday morning who need a mental jump-start for the week. (2) People who say "I never could do math" and need some math confidence. (3) Calculator cripples. Kids (and big kids) who need a calculator to do 8 times 9. (4) Individuals who have refused to think about numbers since fifth grade. Was it long division that did it? (5) Braggarts who would like to show up a colleague by doing math mentally faster than he/she can do it using a calculator. (6) Seniors who want to keep mentally alert by routinely exercising the noggin. (7) And other hardy and adventurous souls who can use a little mental stimulation. send email to beatcalc@aol.com in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE BEATCALC yourfirstname yourlastname

1997-01-01

344

Fish under exercise.  

PubMed

Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

2011-06-01

345

Acute postexercise effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose tolerance.  

PubMed

Impaired glucose tolerance was shown to be present 48 hr following muscle-damaging eccentric exercise. We examined the acute effect of concentric and muscle-damaging eccentric exercise, matched for intensity, on the responses to a 2-hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten men (27 ± 9 years, 178 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 11 kg, VO2max: 52.3 ± 7.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) underwent three OGTTs after an overnight 12 hr fast: rest (control), 40-min (5 × 8-min with 2-min interbout rest) of concentric (level running, 0%, CON) or eccentric exercise (downhill running, -12%, ECC). Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m. quadriceps femoris of both legs was measured before and after the running protocols. Downhill running speed was higher (level: 9.7 ± 2.1, downhill: 13.8 ± 3.2 km · hr(-1), p < .01). Running protocols had similar VO2max (p = .59), heart rates (p = .20) and respiratory exchange ratio values (p = .74) indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. Downhill running resulted in higher isometric force deficits (level: 3.0 ± 6.7, downhill: 17.1 ± 7.3%, p < .01). During OGTTs, area-under-the-curve for plasma glucose (control: 724 ± 97, CON: 710 ± 77, ECC: 726 ± 72 mmol · L-1 · 120 min, p = .86) and insulin (control: 24995 ± 11229, CON: 23319 ± 10417, ECC: 21842 ± 10171 pmol · L-1 · 120 min, p = .48), peak glucose (control: 8.1 ± 1.3, CON: 7.7 ± 1.2, ECC: 7.7 ± 1.1 mmol · L(-1), p = .63) and peak insulin levels (control: 361 ± 188, CON: 322 ± 179, ECC: 299 ± 152 pmol · L(-1), p = .30) were similar. It was concluded that glucose tolerance and the insulin response to an OGTT were not changed immediately by muscle-damaging eccentric exercise. PMID:24912197

Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Kelly, John Stephen Michael; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

2015-02-01

346

Respiratory and skeletal muscle strength in COPD: Impact on exercise capacity and lower extremity function  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We sought to quantify the impact of respiratory muscle and lower extremity strength on exercise capacity and lower extremity function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS In 828 persons with COPD, we assessed the impact of reduced respiratory (maximum inspiratory pressure, MIP) and lower extremity muscle strength (quadriceps, QS) on exercise capacity (6 Minute Walk Distance, 6MWT) and lower extremity function (LEF, Short Physical Performance Battery). Multiple regression analyses taking into account key covariates, including lung function and smoking, tested the associations between muscle strength and exercise and functional capacity. RESULTS For each ½ standard deviation (0.5 SD) decrement in QS, men walked 18.3 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI ?24.1 to ?12.4); women 25.1 meters less (95% CI ?31.1 to ?12.4). For each 0.5 SD decrement in MIP, men walked 9.4 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI – 15.2 to ?3.6); women 8.7 meters less (95% CI ?14.1 to ?3.4). For each 0.5 SD decrease in QS, men had a 1.32 higher odds (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.15) of poor LEF; women, 1.87 higher odds (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.27). Lower MIP (per 0.5 SD) was associated with increased odds of poor LEF in women (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39), but not in men (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.31). CONCLUSION In COPD, reduced respiratory and lower extremity muscle strength are associated with decreased exercise and functional capacity. Muscle weakness is likely an important component of impairment and disability in patients with COPD. PMID:21240003

Singer, Jonathan; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Iribarren, Carlos; Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.

2011-01-01

347

Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Afefy, Hamdy M.; Kassem, Nesreen M.; Fawzy, Tarek M.

2013-01-01

348

Elderly men and women benefit equally from prolonged resistance-type exercise training.  

PubMed

This study compares the effects of 6 months resistance-type exercise training (three times per week) between healthy elderly women (n = 24; 71±1 years) and men (n = 29; 70±1 years). Muscle mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-computed tomography), strength (one-repetition maximum), functional capacity (sit-to-stand time), muscle fiber characteristics (muscle biopsies), and metabolic profile (blood samples) were assessed. Leg lean mass (3% ± 1%) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (9% ± 1%) increased similarly in both groups. One-repetition maximum leg extension strength increased by 42% ± 3% (women) and 43% ± 3% (men). Following training, type II muscle fiber size had increased, and a type II muscle fiber specific increase in myonuclear and satellite cell content was observed with no differences between genders. Sit-to-stand time decreased similarly in both groups. Glycemic control and blood lipid profiles improved to a similar extent in both women and men. A generic resistance-type exercise training program can be applied for both women and men to effectively counteract the loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. PMID:23223011

Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van der Hoeven, Letty; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Nilwik, Rachel; van Loon, Luc J C

2013-07-01

349

34 CFR 608.1 - What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program...EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM General... What is the Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU)...

2010-07-01

350

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2010-07-01

351

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2012-07-01

353

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2013-07-01

354

40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your...strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first combined...

2011-07-01

355

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Dexter Perkins

356

Exercises in Math Readiness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arriving at college, many individuals may find themselves in the need of some instructional tools to refresh their memories of various mathematical concepts. Fortunately for those individuals (and their teachers), the Exercises in Math Readiness website contains materials that will ease this process. Created by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Saskatchewan, the site contains exercises of varying difficulty that will take users through such topics as geometry, trigonometry, algebra, and exponential functions. Teachers will also want to look at the section that offers them some specific instructions on how the site might best be used with students. Additionally, the materials here are available in French, Georgian, and Russian.

Rempel, Stephan

357

Mercenaria Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Invertebrate Anatomy Online exercise, featuring the hard-shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria (quahog), is part of an Internet laboratory manual for courses in Invertebrate Zoology. This exercise features an introduction to Mollusca and a step-by-step dissection guide, including hand-drawn figures, defined terms, and detailed explanations of form and function. Students will learn about the external anatomy (shell), muscles, mantle skirts, mantle cavity, mantle folds, siphons, gills, labial palps, hemal system, exhalant chamber, excretory system, digestive system, nervous system, and reproductive system.

Richard Fox

358

Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements  

SciTech Connect

Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rowland, R.A. (Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Chemical Preparedness Div.)

1991-01-01

359

Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

2012-01-01

360

BachelorofScience ExerciseScience  

E-print Network

movement by integrating the study areas of Anatomy, Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, and Motor Control nutrition · exercise prescription · therapy and rehabilitation · exercise physiology · fitnessBachelorofScience ExerciseScience N a m e : ______________________________________ I D

Seldin, Jonathan P.

361

Eye Exercises and Reading Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated with a total of 60 primary-grade children was the effectiveness in improving ocular motor control of three training programs: the Bender proprioceptive facilitative feedback exercises, the Marsden ball program, and perceptual exercises. (DB)

Heath, Earl J.; And Others

1976-01-01

362

Weelchair exercise roller product design  

E-print Network

Inspired by bicycle training rollers, a wheelchair exercise roller (an exercise machine for the application of wheelchair users) was designed from conception of idea to alpha prototype. Background and market data was ...

Su, Benjamin W

2005-01-01

363

Dynamic inter-limb resistance exercise device for long-duration space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Essential for fitness on Earth, resistive exercise is even more important for astronauts, who must maintain muscle and bone strength in the absence of gravity. To meet this need, designers and scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, Life Science Division, have worked to develop more effective exercise devices for long-duration exposure to microgravity. One of these concepts is the Inter-Limb Resistance Device which allows the subject to exercise one limb directly against another, strengthening muscle groups in the arms, legs, and back. It features a modular harness with an inelastic cable and instrumented pulley. Forces similar to other high resistance exercise equipment are generated. Sensors in the pulley measure force and velocity for performance feedback display and data acquisition. This free-floating apparatus avoids vibration of sensitive experiments on board spacecraft. Compact with low mass, this hardware is also well suited for a 'safe haven' from radiation on board Space Station Freedom, and may prove useful in confined environments on Earth, such as Antarctic stations, submarines, and other underwater habitats. Potential spin-offs of this technology include products for personal strengthening and cardiovascular conditioning, rehabilitation of hospital patients, fitness exercise for the disabled, and retraining after sports injuries.

Schwandt, Douglas F.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.

1991-01-01

364

OXIDE DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING  

SciTech Connect

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys (e.g. the INCOLOY{reg_sign} MA956 alloy) are known for their excellent high temperature properties and are prime candidate materials for the construction of very high temperature heat exchangers that will be used in Vision 21 power plants. The main limitation of these materials is their poor weldability. Commercially available ODS tubing also tends to exhibit relatively poor circumferential creep strength due to current processing practices resulting in a fine grain size in the transverse direction. Thus far, these two characteristics of the ODS tubing have restricted its use to mostly non-pressure containing applications. The objectives of this program are to develop: (a) an MA956 tube with sufficient circumferential creep strength for long term use as heat exchanger tubing for very high temperatures; (b) a welding technique(s) for producing adequate joints between an MA956 tube and an MA956 tube, and an MA956 tube and an INCONEL 601 tube; (c) the bending strain limits, below which recrystallization will not occur in a MA956 tube during normal operation; and (d) the high temperature corrosion limits for the MA956 alloy with respect to working-fluid side and fireside environments. Also, this program seeks to generate data for use by heat exchanger designers and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and perform an analysis of the mechanical property, tube bending, and corrosion data in order to determine the implications on the design of a very high temperature heat exchanger (T>1093 C/2000 F). After one year, work is currently being conducted on increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, developing joining techniques for this material, determining the tube bending strain limits, and establishing the high temperature corrosion parameters for the MA956 alloy in environments expected to be present in Vision 21 power plants. Work in these areas will is continuing into the next fiscal year, with success anticipated to produce innovative developments that will allow the reliable use of ODS alloys for heat exchanger tubing, as well as a variety of applications previously not possible with metallic materials.

Harper, Mark A.

2001-11-06

365

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOEpatents

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01

366

USING PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS TO EVALUATE AND STRENGTHEN INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY  

E-print Network

USING PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS TO EVALUATE AND STRENGTHEN INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute about the security of information systems for the decision makers of organizations. When organizations

367

Solid state welding of dispersion-strengthened nickel alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-step solid state welding cycle applied to carefully prepared surfaces of an unrecrystallized alloy prevents loss of parent-metal strength at weld joint of dispersion-strengthened, nickel-chromium alloy.

Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J.

1971-01-01

368

Strengthening Sustainable Manufacturing in The White House, Environmental Protection Agency  

E-print Network

manufacturing. Topics of discussion will include sustainable manufacturing, lean manufacturing, workforce issuesStrengthening Sustainable Manufacturing in Indiana The White House, Environmental Protection Agency to participate in an event with Matt Bogoshian, to discuss Sustainable Manufacturing, which was featured

Ginzel, Matthew

369

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOEpatents

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

370

Strengthening the Connection between Community Service and Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators often treat community service and diversity as distinct areas. The author argues that educators should seize upon the intersection of these two areas in order to strengthen students' capacity to engage with each.

Roper, Larry D.

2012-01-01

371

Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate if a specific exercise strategy, targeting the rotator cuff and scapula stabilisers, improves shoulder function and pain more than unspecific exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Design Randomised, participant and single assessor blinded, controlled study. Setting Department of orthopaedics in a Swedish university hospital. Participants 102 patients with long standing (over six months) persistent subacromial impingement syndrome in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed, recruited through orthopaedic specialists. Interventions The specific exercise strategy consisted of strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers in combination with manual mobilisation. The control exercise programme consisted of unspecific movement exercises for the neck and shoulder. Patients in both groups received five to six individual guided treatment sessions during 12 weeks. In between these supervised sessions the participants performed home exercises once or twice a day for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment score evaluating shoulder function and pain. Secondary outcomes were patients’ global impression of change because of treatment and decision regarding surgery. Results Most (97, 95%) participants completed the 12 week study. There was a significantly greater improvement in the Constant-Murley score in the specific exercise group than in the control exercise group (24 points (95% confidence interval 19 to 28.0) v 9 points (5 to 13); mean difference between group: 15 points (8.5 to 20.6)). Significantly more patients in the specific exercise group reported successful outcome (defined as large improvement or recovered) in the patients’ global assessment of change because of treatment: 69% (35/51) v 24% (11/46); odds ratio 7.6, 3.1 to 18.9; P<0.001. A significantly lower proportion of patients in the specific exercise group subsequently chose to undergo surgery: 20% (10/51) v 63% (29/46); odds ratio 7.7, 3.1 to 19.4; P<0.001). Conclusion A specific exercise strategy, focusing on strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers, is effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in patients with persistent subacromial impingement syndrome. By extension, this exercise strategy reduces the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression within the three month timeframe used in the study. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT01037673 PMID:22349588

2012-01-01

372

Writing for the Ear: Strengthening Oral Style in Manuscript Speeches  

E-print Network

Bruss, Kristine S. “Writing for the Ear: Strengthening Oral Style in Manuscript Speeches.” Communication Teacher 26 (2012): 76-81. Publisher’s official version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17404622.2011.644308. Open Access version: http... te . [This document contains the author’s accepted manuscript. For the publisher’s version, see the link in the header of this document.] Paper citation: Bruss, Kristine S. “Writing for the Ear: Strengthening Oral Style in Manuscript...

Bruss, Kristine S.

2012-04-01

373

Practice Exercises for Algebra Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercises posted on this web site offer an opportunity for students to evaluate how much they have retained in various subjects of Algebra. Topics covered include geometry, functions, vectors, and statistics. There are corresponding lessons and solutions to each practice exercise. Also, the site contains useful tools such as graphs and spreadsheet modeling exercises to help students better visualize and understanding algebra concepts.

374

Exercise and Fluid Balance Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

Schlicht, Jeff

2005-01-01

375

Exercising in a Safe Environment  

MedlinePLUS

... on Aging. l Work out with an exercise DVD such as the Go4Life DVD. Quick Tip Be alert to outdoor safety and ... tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise story. National Institute on ...

376

Exercise and the endothelial cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise is known to be effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Among the cardioprotectant mechanisms influenced by exercise, the endothelium is becoming recognised as a major target. Preservation of endothelial cell structure is vital for frictionless blood flow, prevention of macrophage and lipid infiltration and, ultimately, optimal vascular function. Exercise causes various kinds of mechanical, chemical

Susan A. Marsh; Jeff S. Coombes

377

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hypothetical Miocene exercise is designed to bring together knowledge of marine sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy to illustrate how climate changes related to Milankovitch orbital forcing can be used to refine the time scale, determine the timing of events, and estimate rates ("astrochronology").

maya elrick

378

Computer Exercises in Meteorology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

379

Graphic Correlation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphic correlation lab exercise. It uses real data from a peer-reviewed journal publication by Lucy Edwards (1989). (I have manipulated the data set a little bit.) Students can finish the activity in two hours or less.

Dan Stephen

380

How Exercise Can Help  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen the effects of arthritis, but they also might try getting ... We know that if a physician or a health care provider encourages someone to ... is important, that's a powerful tool to helping people stay up with an ...

381

Exercise and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness with health and biologic aging is complex and multifaceted, but there is general acknowl- edgment of its importance to major public health outcomes (1-12). Although many questions remain about mechanisms of effect and dose-response curves (13), a synthesis of the literature indicates many potentially positive effects of participation in physical activity

Maria Antoinette Fiatarone Singh

2004-01-01

382

LONGPRO Stream Modeling Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this exercise is to integrate modeling with field data. The activity includes links to a "virtual field trip" of maps and photographs. Data from a creek is included in the field trip and students use an Excel spreadsheet model to analyze the data.

Bill Locke

383

Sleep after Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

After moderate treadmill exercise, marked decreases in operant responding and in latency to onset of behavioral sleep occurs in cats. The sleep produced is characterized by enhancement of synchronized electroencephalographic activity with suppression of the desynchronized phase. The result is consistent with the theory that a function of synchronized sleep is to facilitate recovery from fatigue.

J. Allan Hobson

1968-01-01

384

Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

385

Slantwise Convection Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise examines an event that took place in the 24 hour time period beginning at 18Z, Dec 31, 2000 in southern British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington/Idaho, United States. This is a companion piece to the COMET Webcast, Slantwise Convection: An Operational Approach.

2014-09-14

386

Electromagnetic acupuncture to enhance the effects of manual acupuncture on recovery from muscle fatigue of the quadriceps.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate a new method of manual acupuncture that used a magnetic field to stimulate only one acupoint vertically. We developed an eight-channel electromagnetic acupuncture (EMA) system that uses a solenoid-type electrode to insert the manual acupuncture needle into a hole in an electrode. We used a manual acupuncture needle for magnetic induction in order to penetrate vertically and deeply into tissues. In order to confirm the usefulness of EMA, we investigated the effects of treatment on muscle fatigue after strenuous knee extension/flexion exercises that had been performed by three groups: the nonstimulation, the manual acupuncture, and the EMA groups. Electromyograms showed that the median frequency (MF) in the EMA group had rapidly recovered after 4 minutes (p = 0.608), but that the peak torque had not recovered to the normal state (p < 0.05). Thus, we confirmed that compared with manual acupuncture, EMA resulted in better recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:25441950

Kim, Soo-Byeong; Lee, Na-Ra; Park, Sun-Woo; Ahn, Soon-Jae; Heo, Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Yong-Heum

2014-10-01

387

Effectiveness of phototherapy incorporated into an exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease with a multifactor etiology involving changes in bone alignment, cartilage, and other structures necessary to joint stability. There is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) in the same apparatus for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the proposed study is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods/Design A double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial will be conducted involving patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Evaluations will be performed using functional questionnaires before and after the treatment protocols, in a reserved room with only the evaluator and participant present, and no time constraints placed on the answers or evaluations. The following functional tests will also be performed: stabilometry (balance assessment), dynamometry (muscle strength of gluteus medius and quadriceps), algometry (pain threshold), fleximeter (range of motion), timed up-and-go test (functional mobility), and the functional reach test. The participants will then be allocated to three groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: exercise program, exercise program?+?phototherapy, or exercise program?+?placebo phototherapy, all of which will last for eight weeks. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee. The study will support the practice based on evidence to the use of phototherapy in individuals with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee. Data will be published after the study is completed. Trial registration The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials, registration number NCT02102347, on 29 March 2014. PMID:24919587

2014-01-01

388

Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.

Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.

1997-01-01

389

Influence of water exercise and land stretching on salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in chronic low back pain patients.  

PubMed

Land stretching exercises are common exercise therapy for low back pain (LBP) patients. However, recently, water exercise became a popular rehabilitation for LBP patients, and many studies have reported the physical benefits of water exercise. This study compared the psychological and endocrinological effects of water exercise and land stretching by measuring salivary cortisol concentration and anxiety in chronic LBP patients. Seven volunteers (4 female and 3 male, mean age: 61.9 +/- 11.8 yrs) who suffered from chronic LBP (pain duration: 4.5 +/- 1.3 yrs) participated in the sessions of water exercise and land stretching programs (90 minutes) on different days. The land stretching program consisted mainly of stretching, and the water exercise program contained not only stretching, but also walking, jogging, muscle strengthening, swimming and relaxation. After both exercise programs, the subjective pain scores of the patients showed a significant decrease. Salivary cortisol concentrations were also significantly decreased during pre- to post-90 minute water exercise. (P < 0.05). With land stretching, salivary cortisol concentrations also decreased significantly (P < 0.05). State anxiety decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after both water exercise and land stretching compared with pre-exercise scores (P < 0.05), though no significant changes were found in the patients' trait anxiety scores. No significant correlation was found between salivary cortisol concentrations and state anxiety with water exercise and land stretching. The findings of the present study suggested both exercises showed similar tendencies, and had decreased salivary cortisol level and state anxiety. PMID:11037691

Sugano, A; Nomura, T

2000-07-01

390

Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior. PMID:25602145

Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

2014-12-01

391

Depression, diet and exercise.  

PubMed

Unhealthy lifestyle behaviour is driving an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that poor diet and a lack of exercise contribute to the genesis and course of depression. While studies examining dietary improvement as a treatment strategy in depression are lacking, epidemiological evidence clearly points to diet quality being of importance to the risk of depression. Exercise has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for depression, but this is not reflected in treatment guidelines, and increased physical activity is not routinely encouraged when managing depression in clinical practice. Recommendations regarding dietary improvement, increases in physical activity and smoking cessation should be routinely given to patients with depression. Specialised and detailed advice may not be necessary. Recommendations should focus on following national guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:25370279

Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael

2013-09-16

392

Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

Jim Miller

393

Exercise and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

By the year 2025, more than 25% of Canadians will be older than 65; and nearly half the population older than 65 has some degree of disability. With physiologic aging comes a gradual loss of functional capacity and independence that becomes a major health burden. Researchers have shown that lifelong, moderate levels of exercise are associated with increased longevity, enhanced physical function, and longer-lasting independent living. PMID:21221294

Taunton, J.; Rhodes, E.; Donnelly, M.; Warren, J.; O'Brien, S.

1992-01-01

394

[Exercise therapy and myopathies].  

PubMed

Since the first consensus papers published early in the 2000s, a growing number of recent publications has shown that adapted physical activity is not only safe in the context of myopathy but also potentially effective as a therapeutic tool. After a short recall of the different exercise modalities, the mechanical strain they induce and the expected muscular benefits, the present paper reviews the different studies related to exercise therapy in myopathic patients and provides a critical analysis of the topic. Myopathies are rare diseases with many different etiologies and a large number of training modalities which could be useful for the different muscular challenges have been proposed. We have chosen to focus on several specific training modalities and to discuss the results from the most recent papers. The purpose of this review is to, firstly, update physical training guidelines for patients with myopathy and, secondly, highlight some common pitfalls associated with this strategy. This is particularly important for medical and allied professionals involved in prescribing and managing exercise therapy protocols. PMID:19656541

Féasson, L; Verney, J; Kadi, F; Gautheron, V; Calmels, P; Millet, G Y

2010-03-01

395

NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

2014-03-19

396

Strut deformation in CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams.  

PubMed

Strut-and-tie model (STM) method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions). It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level. PMID:25197698

Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

2014-01-01

397

CFRP Mechanical Anchorage for Externally Strengthened RC Beams under Flexure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) sheets and plates from the concrete substrate is one of the major reasons behind premature failures of beams that are externally strengthened with such CFRP materials. To delay or prevent de-bonding and therefore enhancing the load carrying capacity of strengthened beams, several anchorage systems were developed and used. This paper investigates the use of CFRP mechanical anchorage of CFRP sheets and plates used to externally strengthen reinforced concrete beams under flexure. The pin-and-fan shape CFRP anchor, which is custom-made from typical rolled fiber sheets and bundles of loose fiber is used. Several reinforced concrete beams were casted and tested in standard four-point bending scheme to study the effectiveness of this anchorage system. The beams were externally strengthened in flexure with bonded CFRP sheets and plates and then fastened to the soffit of the beams’ using various patterns of CFRP anchors. It is observed that the CFRP plates begins to separate from the beams as soon as de-bonding occurs in specimens without CFRP anchors, while in beams with CFRP anchors de-bonding was delayed leading to increase in the load carrying capacity over the un-anchored strengthened beams.

Ali, Alnadher; Abdalla, Jamal; Hawileh, Rami; Galal, Khaled

398

NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION STRENGTHENS WEAK ELECTRICAL COUPLING IN MAMMALIAN BRAIN  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling that shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of receptormediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate-receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20–100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, while co-stimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate-receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (i) occurred despite increased input conductance, (ii) induced Ca2+-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (iii) required activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (iv) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and thus, (v) strengthened coupling mainly between non-adjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Han, Victor Z.; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Welsh, John P.

2014-01-01

399

Exercise in Individuals with CKD  

PubMed Central

There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for implementation of exercise in this population. Evidence from uncontrolled studies and from small randomized controlled trials shows that exercise training results in improved physical performance and functioning among patients with CKD. In addition, although there are no studies examining cardiovascular outcomes, several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress, may be improved with exercise training in this population. Although the current literature does not allow for definitive conclusions about whether exercise training slows the progression of kidney disease, no study has reported worsening of kidney function as a result of exercise training. In the absence of guidelines specific to the CKD population, recent guidelines developed for older individuals and patients with chronic disease should be applied to the CKD population. In sum, exercise appears to be safe in this patient population if begun at moderate intensity and increased gradually. Indeed, the evidence suggests that the risk of remaining inactive is higher. Patients should be advised to increase their physical activity when possible and referred to physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation programs when appropriate. PMID:22113127

Johansen, Kirsten L.; Painter, Patricia

2011-01-01

400

High temperature dispersion strengthening of NiAl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A potential high temperature strengthening mechanism for alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl was investigated. This study forms part of an overall program at NASA Lewis Research Center for exploring the potential of alloys based on NiAl for high temperature applications. An alloy containing 2.26 at% Nb and produced by hot extrusion of blended powders was examined in detail using optical and electron microscopy. Interdiffusion between the blended Nb and NiAl powders results in the formation of intermediate phases. A fine dispersion of precipitates of a hexagonal, ordered NiAlNb phases in a matrix of NiAl can be produced and this results in strengthening of the alloy by interfering with dislocation motion at high temperature. These precipitates are, however, found to coarsen during the high temperature (1300 K) deformation at slow strain rates and this may impose some limitatioins on the use of this strengthening mechanism.

Sherman, M.; Vedula, K.

1986-01-01

401

Therapeutic Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect on pain reduction and strengthening of the whole body vibration (WBV) in chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the study group (WBV with home based exercise) and control group (home based exercise only). They performed exercise and training for 8 weeks. Eleven patients in each group completed the study. Pain intensity was measured with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), functional scales were measured with Korean Western Ontario McMaster score (KWOMAC) and Lysholm Scoring Scale (LSS), quadriceps strength was measured with isokinetic torque and isometric torque and dynamic balance was measured with the Biodex Stability System. These measurements were performed before training, at 1 month after training and at 2 months after training. Results NRS was significantly decreased in each group, and change of pain intensity was significantly larger in the study group than in the control group after treatment. Functional improvements in KWOMAC and LSS were found in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups after treatment. Dynamic balance, isokinetic strength of right quadriceps and isometric strengths of both quadriceps muscles improved in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups after treatment. Isokinetic strength of left quadriceps did not improve in both groups after treatment. Conclusion In chronic knee OA patients, WBV reduced pain intensity and increased strength of the right quadriceps and dynamic balance performance. In comparison with the home based exercise program, WBV was superior only in pain reduction and similarly effective in strengthening of the quadriceps muscle and balance improvement. PMID:24020031

Park, Young Geun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin-Woo; Cha, Dong Yeon; Nam, Ki Yeun; Sim, Kyoung Bo; Chang, Jihea

2013-01-01

402

Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation. PMID:25177185

Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Björn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

2014-01-01

403

Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts  

DOEpatents

Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

404

Thermogravimetry system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermogravimetry system, designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials, is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 p.p.m. water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.

Herbell, T. P.

1972-01-01

405

Thermogravity system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermogravimetry system designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 PPM water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.

Herbell, T. P.

1972-01-01

406

Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

2009-01-01

407

Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

1998-01-01

408

[Exercise testing in respiratory medicine].  

PubMed

This document replaces the DGP recommendations published in 1998. Based on recent studies and a consensus conference, the indications, choice and performance of the adequate exercise testing method in its necessary technical and staffing setting are discussed. Detailed recommendations are provided: for arterial blood gas analysis and right heart catherterization during exercise, 6-minute walk test, spiroergometry, and stress echocardiography. The correct use of different exercise tests is discussed for specific situations in respiratory medicine: exercise induced asthma, monitoring of physical training or therapeutical interventions, preoperative risk stratification, and evaluation in occupational medicine. PMID:23325729

Meyer, F J; Borst, M M; Buschmann, H C; Ewert, R; Friedmann-Bette, B; Ochmann, U; Petermann, W; Preisser, A M; Rohde, D; Rühle, K-H; Sorichter, S; Stähler, G; Westhoff, M; Worth, H

2013-01-01

409

Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

Brown, Jim

1986-01-01

410

How to Strengthen Your Ankle After a Sprain  

MedlinePLUS

... of your other side, then you can begin cutting or twisting sports. Proprioceptive Exercises for Balance, Coordination ... use the "Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon" tool at the top of this page or contact ...

411

Do ACE Inhibitors Improve the Response to Exercise Training in Functionally Impaired Older Adults? A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Loss of muscle mass and strength with ageing is a major cause for falls, disability, and morbidity in older people. Previous studies have found that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may improve physical function in older people. It is unclear whether ACEi provide additional benefit when added to a standard exercise training program. We examined the effects of ACEi therapy on physical function in older people undergoing exercise training. Methods. Community-dwelling people aged ?65 years with functional impairment were recruited through general (family) practices. All participants received progressive exercise training. Participants were randomized to receive either 4 mg perindopril or matching placebo daily for 20 weeks. The primary outcome was between-group change in 6-minute walk distance from baseline to 20 weeks. Secondary outcomes included changes in Short Physical Performance Battery, handgrip and quadriceps strength, self-reported quality of life using the EQ-5D, and functional impairment measured using the Functional Limitations Profile. Results. A total of 170 participants (n = 86 perindopril, n = 84 placebo) were randomized. Mean age was 75.7 (standard deviation [SD] 6.8) years. Baseline 6-minute walk distance was 306 m (SD 99). Both groups increased their walk distance (by 29.6 m perindopril, 36.4 m placebo group) at 20 weeks, but there was no statistically significant treatment effect between groups (?8.6m [95% confidence interval: ?30.1, 12.9], p = .43). No statistically significant treatment effects were observed between groups for the secondary outcomes. Adverse events leading to withdrawal were few (n = 0 perindopril, n = 4 placebo). Interpretation. ACE inhibitors did not enhance the effect of exercise training on physical function in functionally impaired older people. PMID:24201696

Band, Margaret; Miller, Suzanne; Cvoro, Vera; Witham, Miles; Struthers, Allan; McConnachie, Alex; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; McMurdo, Marion

2014-01-01

412

Social Inequality: Computer Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Introduction to Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at inequality in the United States. This activity uses nine customized datasets on the DataCounts! website to aid students in writing about inequality using data. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Raymond D'Angelo

413

Carbon Dioxide Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

Randy Richardson

414

The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise  

PubMed Central

Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3–18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2–3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. PMID:22440321

Vincent, Heather K.; Raiser, Sara N.; Vincent, Kevin R.

2012-01-01

415

Exercise intervention research on persons with disabilities: what we know and where we need to go.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of the exercise intervention literature on persons with physical and cognitive disabilities. Electronic searches were conducted to identify research articles published from 1986 to 2006. Of the 80 physical activity/exercise interventions identified in the literature, only 32 were randomized controlled trials. The remaining studies were nonrandomized controlled trials with (n = 16) and without (n = 32) a control group. There was a mixture of exercise training modalities that involved aerobic (26%), strength (25%), and combined aerobic and strength (23%) exercises, but there were no overlapping studies using the same dose of exercise for any of the 11 disability groups. Almost half the studies targeted stroke (20%), multiple sclerosis (15%), and intellectual disability (13%), with significantly fewer studies targeting other disability groups. The current literature on exercise and disability is extremely broad in scope and has limited generalizability to any specific disability group. A new body of evidence is needed with stronger research designs that adhere to precise dosing characteristics for key health outcomes (e.g., pain/fatigue reduction, improved cardiorespiratory health). Multicenter trials will be needed for low-prevalence populations to strengthen research designs and increase generalizability of study findings. PMID:20068432

Rimmer, James H; Chen, Ming-De; McCubbin, Jeffrey A; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

2010-03-01

416

Real-time exercise load control using heart rate response during exercise on a stationary bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for exercise load control and estimation of energy expenditure during bicycle exercise. In this study, forty-eight healthy volunteers participated and were tested graded exercise test using ramp protocol and four interval training programs. To define the exercise intensity and workload, %HRmax was used for participants exercise prescription. Exercise load of

Kyungryul Chung; Sayup Kim

2011-01-01

417

Exercise Is More Effective than Diet Control in Preventing High Fat Diet-induced ?-Amyloid Deposition and Memory Deficit in Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice*?  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that some dietary patterns, specifically high fat diet (HFD), increase the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, interventions targeting HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions may be effective in preventing the development of AD. We previously demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic mice fed HFD showed worsening of cognitive function when compared with control APP mice on normal diet. Moreover, we reported that voluntary exercise ameliorates HFD-induced memory impairment and ?-amyloid (A?) deposition. In the present study, we conducted diet control to ameliorate the metabolic abnormality caused by HFD on APP transgenic mice and compared the effect of diet control on cognitive function with that of voluntary exercise as well as that of combined (diet control plus exercise) treatment. Surprisingly, we found that exercise was more effective than diet control, although both exercise and diet control ameliorated HFD-induced memory deficit and A? deposition. The production of A? was not different between the exercise- and the diet control-treated mice. On the other hand, exercise specifically strengthened the activity of neprilysin, the A?-degrading enzyme, the level of which was significantly correlated with that of deposited A? in our mice. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment (exercise and diet control) on memory and amyloid pathology was not significantly different from that of exercise alone. These studies provide solid evidence that exercise is a useful intervention to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in transgenic model mice of AD. PMID:22563077

Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Hayashida, Naoko; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

2012-01-01

418

FEA OF THE HORSETAIL CREEK BRIDGE STRENGTHENED WITH FRP LAMINATES  

E-print Network

beams. #12;In this paper, three-dimensional finite element bridge models using ANSYS software. Kachlakev, Thomas H. Miller, and Solomon C.S. Yim ABSTRACT A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model strengthening with FRP laminates. Nonlinear finite element analysis is performed using the ANSYS finite element

Yim, Solomon C.

419

Strengthening Password-Based Authentication Protocols Against Online Dictionary Attacks  

E-print Network

Strengthening Password-Based Authentication Protocols Against Online Dictionary Attacks Peng Wang1 attacks (dictionary attacks). Existing Strong Password-based Authentication and Key Agreement (SPAKA) proto- cols protect passwords from passive (eavesdropping-offline dictionary) at- tacks, but not from

Kim, Dae-Shik

420

Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Policy Reforms in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter there are a wide variety of issues related to strengthening institutional capacity for designing and implementing policy reforms in the Central Asian countries have been discussed. While countries in Central Asia are at various levels of the reform process, the issues related to human and institutional capacity for conducting research and analysis for enabling policy reforms remains

Suresh Babu; Debdatta Sengupta; Alisher Tashmatov

421

Interfacial shear stress concentration in FRP-strengthened beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an experimental programme designed to study the interfacial shear stress concentration at the plate curtailment of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP). Specifically, the study looks at the relationship between the CFRP plate thickness and the interfacial shear stress concentration at the plate curtailment, the failure

M. Maalej; Y. Bian

2001-01-01

422

VARIOUS FRP STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR RETROFITTING CONCRETE STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

concrete members. Three half-scale models of a prestressed concrete bridge were constructed and tested strengthening technique for prestressed concrete bridges is initiated by the request of the Highway Department characteristics of the most efficient techniques, a total of 24 concrete beams were constructed and tested under

423

Intergovernmental Approaches for Strengthening K-12 Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains an edited transcript of the Rockefeller Institute's October 29, 2007 symposium (Chicago, IL) entitled "Intergovernmental Approaches to Strengthen K-12 Accountability Systems" as well as a framework paper circulated in preparation for the symposium. The transcript begins with a list of the forty state and federal education…

Armour-Garb, Allison, Ed.

2007-01-01

424

Strengthening Computer Technology Programs. Special Publication Series No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers present examples of strategies used by developing institutions and historically black colleges to strengthen computer technology programs. "Promoting Industry Support in Developing a Computer Technology Program" (Albert D. Robinson) describes how the Washtenaw Community College (Ann Arbor, Michigan) Electrical/Electronics Department…

McKinney, Floyd L., Comp.

425

Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

Tripp, Paula J.

2010-01-01

426

Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

2011-01-01

427

Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

2010-01-01

428

Strengthening the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning via Experimentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, national policy experts have questioned the overall quality of educational research, and they have suggested that researchers strengthen their scientific methods by maximizing the use of experimental designs. To promote more rigorous methodology, we discuss several new and often-overlooked opportunities for incorporating…

LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.; Poling, Devereaux A.

2008-01-01

429

A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

2014-01-01

430

Fatigue behaviour analysis for the durability prequalification of strengthening mortars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative laboratory procedure used as a preliminary design stage for the pre-qualification of strengthening mortars applied to historical masonry buildings is described. In the analysis of the behaviour of masonry structures and their constituent materials, increasing importance has been assumed by the study of the long-term evolution of deformation and mechanical characteristics, which may be affected by both loading and environmental conditions. Through static and fatigue tests on mixed specimens historical brick-reinforced mortar it has been possible to investigate the durability of strengthening materials, in order to select, from a range of alternatives, the most suitable for the historical masonry. Cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of the historical brick-strengthening mortar system under static long-time loading. This methodology has proved useful in avoiding the errors associated with materials that are not mechanically compatible and guarantees the durability of strengthening work. The experimental procedure has been used effectively in the biggest restoration building site in Europe, the Royal Palace of Venaria, and it is in progress of carrying out at the Special Natural Reserve of the Sacro Monte di Varallo, in Piedmont (Italy).

Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.; Masera, D.

2011-07-01

431

Getting Into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For children with poor vocabulary development, reading is intimidating rather than exciting. That is why elementary and middle school teachers need this activity-filled guidebook--to improve students' independent word learning skills and strengthen their comprehension so they will tackle their schoolwork with confidence. Teachers will start by…

Lubliner, Shira

2005-01-01

432

Strengthening Global Security The central mission of the Laboratory  

E-print Network

, the nation's top-secret program to develop the atomic bomb. Since 1943, the Laboratory has strengthened our security. The Atomic Age Begins The conflict that darkened Europe in the late 1930s at first cast no shadow that derived its power from splitting the atom. HISTORY RESEARCH In the History Gallery The Town That Never Was

433

Strengthening effects of coherent interfaces in nanoscale metallic bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dislocation nucleation and propagation in a Cu–Ni bilayer with coherent (111) interface are examined using atomistic simulations. Nanoindentation model is applied to generate dislocations at and near the surface. Mechanisms of interactions between gliding dislocations and coherent interface are investigated. It is found that the interface acts as a strong barrier to dislocation propagation, which results in considerable strengthening of

Sergey N. Medyanik; Shuai Shao

2009-01-01

434

Strengthening Democracy and Personal Development through Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author states his belief that community based learning among adults can be a powerful force for encouraging personal development and for strengthening democracy in this multicultural, globally interdependent, battered world. To do so, however, it needs to pervade all the curricula, degree programs, learning contracts, and…

Chickering, Arthur W.

2008-01-01

435

Levers for Change: Opportunities to Strengthen California's High School Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary of a 28-page EdSource report highlights three powerful levers that state policymakers and local schools can use to strengthen high school curriculum. These levers are: (1) California's Academic Content Standards; (2) Eligibility to Attend the State's Public Universities, and (3) Career and Technical Education. It also…

EdSource, 2007

2007-01-01

436

State Council Resolutions on Further Strengthening Rural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several resolutions on strengthening work in rural education have been made in order to accelerate development of rural education in China, deepen reform of rural education, guarantee a well-off society, and harmonize rural and urban development. This article presents a detailed plan of actions for each resolution. The resolutions are enumerated…

Chinese Education and Society, 2005

2005-01-01

437

Strengthening Financial Management. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays examines strategies to strengthen financial management in the community colleges from the perspective of college finance and administrative support officers. Part I focuses on selected role functions that college business officers perform, containing "Integrating Academic Planning and Budgeting," by Byron N. McClenney and…

Campbell, Dale F., Ed.

1985-01-01

438

Strengthening Humanities in Community Colleges. National Assembly Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the deliberations and outcomes of the National Assembly on the Strengthening of the Humanities, this report contains recommendations for the improvement of humanities education in community colleges. The first article in the report, "Reviving the Humanities: Data and Direction," by Arthur M. Cohen and Florence B. Brawer, provides…

Yarrington, Roger, Ed.

439

Insights: The Right Way to Strengthen U.S. Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues and problems related to strengthening and maintaining United States leadership in high technology. Among the areas considered are industry/university cooperatives, graduate study, financial support, and state/federal government roles. Indicates that prospects for maintaining leadership are high provided issues related to human…

Stata, Ray

1983-01-01

440

33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Oil Facilities § 154.1055 Exercises...exercises (quarterly). (2) Spill management team tabletop exercises (annually...equipment. (ii) Annually for oil spill removal organization...

2011-07-01

441

33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Oil Facilities § 154.1055 Exercises...exercises (quarterly). (2) Spill management team tabletop exercises (annually...equipment. (ii) Annually for oil spill removal organization...

2010-07-01

442

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be ... exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree that physical activity is important for ...

443

Workout to Go: A Sample Exercise Routine  

MedlinePLUS

... Everyday Exercises from the National Institute on Aging (DVD) Join personal trainer Sandy Magrath and friends as ... do strength, balance, and fl exibility exercises. This DVD features exercises you can do at home, at ...

444

Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.  

PubMed

Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism. PMID:24384982

Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

2014-04-01

445

A Micro-Alloyed Ferritic Steel Strengthened by Nanoscale Precipitates  

SciTech Connect

A high strength ferritic steel with finely dispersive precipitates was investigated to reveal the fundamental strengthening mechanisms. Using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), fine carbides with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at the grain boundaries and the interior of grains. The dual precipitate structure of finely dispersive TiC precipitates in the matrix and coarse M23C6 at grain boundaries provides combined matrix and grain boundary strengthening. The calculated amount of precipitation strengthening by the carbides was approximately 450 ~ 630 MPa, depending on the average size of nanoscale precipitates. This value is two or three times higher than that of conventional Ti-bearing high strength hot-rolled sheet steels. Dislocation densities increased from 3.42×1013 m-2 to 1.69 × 1014 m-2, espectively, with increasing tensile strain from 5.5% to 22%. The effect of the particle size, particle distribution and intrinsic particle strength have been investigated through dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations and the relationship for resolved shear stress for single crystal under this condition has been presented using simulation data. The results show that the finely dispersive precipitates can strengthen the material by pinning the dislocations up to a certain shear stress and retarding the recovery as well as annihilation of dislocations. The DD results also show that strengthening is not only a function of the density of the nano-scale precipitates but also of their size.

Shen, Yongfeng; Wang, Chong M.; Sun, Xin

2011-10-25

446

Long term bed rest with and without vibration exercise countermeasures: effects on human muscle protein dysregulation.  

PubMed

The present investigation, the first in the field, was aimed at analyzing differentially, on individual samples, the effects of 55 days of horizontal bed rest, a model for microgravity, on myosin heavy and myosin light chain isoforms distribution (by SDS) and on the proteome (by 2-D DIGE and MS) in the vastus lateralis (VL), a mixed type II/I (?50:50%) head of the quadriceps and in the calf soleus (SOL), a predominantly slow (?35:65%) twitch muscle. Two separate studies were performed on six subjects without (BR) and six with resistive vibration exercise (RVE) countermeasures, respectively. Both VL and SOL underwent in BR decrements of ?15% in cross-sectional area and of ?22% in maximal torque that were prevented by RVE. Myosin heavy chain distribution showed increased type I and decreased type IIA in BR both in VL and in SOL, the opposite with RVE. A substantial downregulation of proteins involved in aerobic metabolism characterized both in SOL and VL in BR. RVE reversed the pattern more in VL than in SOL, whereas proteins involved in anaerobic glycolysis were upregulated. Proteins from the Z-disk region and from costamers were differently dysregulated during bed rest (both BR and RVE), particularly in VL. PMID:20957755

Moriggi, Manuela; Vasso, Michele; Fania, Chiara; Capitanio, Daniele; Bonifacio, Gaetano; Salanova, Michele; Blottner, Dieter; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Cerretelli, Paolo; Gelfi, Cecilia

2010-11-01

447

Muscle proteins during 60-day bedrest in women: impact of exercise or nutrition.  

PubMed

Almost no data exist regarding skeletal muscle responses to real or simulated spaceflight in women. We determined the impact of 60-day bedrest (BR, n=8), 60-day bedrest with exercise-training (BRE, n=8), and 60-day bedrest with a leucine-enriched, high-protein diet (BRN, n=8) on muscle protein composition. Vastus lateralis and soleus muscle biopsies were analyzed for global protein fractions (mixed, sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar) and force-specific proteins (myosin, actin, collagen). Concentrations (micrograms per milligram muscle wet weight) of these proteins were maintained (P>0.05) in BR, despite large changes in quadriceps (-21%) and triceps surae (-29%) volume. Neither countermeasure influenced muscle protein content in either muscle (P>0.05), despite exacerbation (BRN) or prevention (BRE) of atrophy. Pre-bedrest comparisons showed less myofibrillar protein in the soleus (-16%, P<0.05), primarily due to less myosin (-12%, P<0.05) and more collagen (234%, P<0.05) than the vastus lateralis. Muscle protein composition is tightly regulated in lower limb muscles of women, despite the most extreme weightlessness-induced atrophy reported in humans. In contrast, men who underwent prolonged unloading were unable to proportionally regulate atrophy of the soleus. These findings have implications for astronauts and clinical conditions of sarcopenia regarding the maintenance of muscle function and prevention of frailty. PMID:19229964

Lemoine, Jennifer K; Haus, Jacob M; Trappe, Scott W; Trappe, Todd A

2009-04-01

448

Exercise-induced dehydration does not alter time trial or neuromuscular performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of exercise-induced dehydration by ~4% body mass loss on 5-km cycling time trial (TT) performance and neuromuscular drive, independent of hyperthermia. 7 active males were dehydrated on 2 occasions, separated by 7 d. Participants remained dehydrated (DEH, -3.8±0.5%) or were rehydrated (REH, 0.2±0.6%) over 2?h before completing the TT at 18-25?°C, 20-30% relative humidity. Neuromuscular function was determined before dehydration and immediately prior the TT. The TT started at the same core temperature (DEH, 37.3±0.3°C; REH, 37.0±0.2?°C (P>0.05). Neither TT performance (DEH, 7.31±1.5?min; REH, 7.10±1.3?min (P>0.05)) or % voluntary activation were affected by dehydration (DEH, 88.7±6.4%; REH, 90.6±6.1% (P>0.05)). Quadriceps peak torque was significantly elevated in both trials prior to the TT (P<0.05), while a 19% increase in the rate of potentiated peak twitch torque development (P<0.05) was observed in the DEH trial only. All other neuromuscular measures were similar between trials. Short duration TT performance and neuromuscular function are not reduced by dehydration, independent of hyperthermia. PMID:24577860

Stewart, C J; Whyte, D G; Cannon, J; Wickham, J; Marino, F E

2014-08-01

449

The influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin and peptide YY in healthy males  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resistance (muscle strengthening) exercise is a key component of exercise recommendations for weight control yet very little is known about the effects of resistance exercise on appetite. We investigated the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger and circulating levels of the gut hormones acylated ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY). Eleven healthy male students: age 21.1 ± 0.3 y, body mass index 23.1 ± 0.4 kg/m2, maximum oxygen uptake 62.1 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min (mean ± SEM) undertook three, 8-h trials, 1) resistance exercise: a 90 min free weight lifting session followed by a 6.5 h rest period, 2) aerobic exercise: a 60 min run followed by a 7 h rest period, 3) control: an 8 h rest, in a randomised crossover design. Meals were provided 2 and 5 h into each trial. Hunger ratings and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin and PYY were measured throughout. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) interaction effects for hunger, acylated ghrelin and PYY indicating suppressed hunger and acylated ghrelin during aerobic and resistance exercise and increased PYY during aerobic exercise. A significant trial effect was observed for PYY indicating higher concentrations on the aerobic exercise trial than the other trials (8 h area under the curve: control 1411 ± 110, resistance 1381 ± 97, aerobic 1750 ± 170 pg/mL 8 h). These findings suggest ghrelin and PYY may regulate appetit