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Sample records for quadriceps strengthening exercises

  1. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  2. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after

  3. A new isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise using EMG-biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin

    2014-01-01

    A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: “pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds”. Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries. PMID:25356122

  4. Feasibility of using quadriceps-strengthening exercise to improve pain and sleep in a severely demented elder with osteoarthritis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Richards, Kathy; FitzRandolph, Richard

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, which is prevalent among older adults in nursing homes, causes significant pain and suffering, including disturbance of nocturnal sleep. One nonpharmacologic treatment option is quadriceps-strengthening exercise, however, the feasibility of such a treatment for reducing pain from OA in severely demented elders has not been studied. This report describes our test of the feasibility of such an exercise program, together with its effects on pain and sleep, in a severely demented nursing home resident. CASE PRESENTATION: The subject was an elderly man with severe cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental Status Exam score 4) and knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grade 4). He was enrolled in a 5-week, 10-session standardized progressive-resistance training program to strengthen the quadriceps, and completed all sessions. Pain was assessed with the Western Ontario and MacMaster OA Index (WOMAC) pain subscale, and sleep was assessed by actigraphy.The patient was able to perform the exercises, with a revision to the protocol. However, the WOMAC OA pain subscale proved inadequate for measuring pain in a patient with low cognitive functioning, and therefore the effects on pain were inconclusive. Although his sleep improved after the intervention, the influence of his medications and the amount of daytime sleep on his nighttime sleep need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: A quadriceps-strengthening exercise program for treating OA of the knee is feasible in severely demented elders, although a better outcome measure is needed for pain. PMID:12361479

  5. Quadriceps and Hamstrings Coactivation During Common Therapeutic Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Begalle, Rebecca L.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading. Muscle coactivation of the quadriceps and hamstrings influences anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment, thus potentially influencing ACL loading and injury risk. Therefore, identifying exercises that facilitate balanced activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings might be beneficial in ACL injury rehabilitation and prevention. Objective To quantify and compare quadriceps with hamstrings coactivation electromyographic (EMG) ratios during commonly used closed kinetic chain exercises. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-seven healthy, physically active volunteers (12 men, 15 women; age = 22.1 3.1 years, height = 171.4 10 cm, mass = 72.4 16.7 kg). Intervention(s) Participants completed 9 separate closed chain therapeutic exercises in a randomized order. Main Outcome Measure(s) Surface electromyography quantified the activity level of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (MH), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. The quadriceps-to-hamstrings (Q:H) coactivation ratio was computed as the sum of average quadriceps (VM, VL) EMG amplitude divided by the sum of average hamstrings (MH, BF) EMG amplitude for each trial. We used repeated-measures analyses of variance to compare Q:H ratios and individual muscle contributions across exercises (? = .05), then used post hoc Tukey analyses. Results We observed a main effect for exercise (F3,79 = 22.6, P < .001). The post hoc Tukey analyses revealed smaller Q:H ratios during the single-limb dead lift (2.87 1.77) than the single-limb squat (5.52 2.89) exercise. The largest Q:H ratios were observed during the transverse-lunge (7.78 5.51, P < .001), lateral-lunge (9.30 5.53, P < .001), and forward-lunge (9.70 5.90, P < .001) exercises. Conclusions The most balanced (smallest) coactivation ratios were observed during the single-limb dead-lift, lateral-hop, transverse-hop, and lateral band-walk exercises. These exercises potentially could facilitate balanced activation in ACL rehabilitation and injury-prevention programs. They also could be used in postinjury rehabilitation programs in a safe and progressive manner. PMID:22889655

  6. Quadriceps effort during squat exercise depends on hip extensor muscle strategy.

    PubMed

    Bryanton, Megan A; Carey, Jason P; Kennedy, Michael D; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2015-03-01

    Hip extensor strategy, specifically relative contribution of gluteus maximus versus hamstrings, will influence quadriceps effort required during squat exercise, as hamstrings and quadriceps co-contract at the knee. This research examined the effects of hip extensor strategy on quadriceps relative muscular effort (RME) during barbell squat. Inverse dynamics-based torque-driven musculoskeletal models were developed to account for hamstrings co-contraction. Net joint moments were calculated using 3D motion analysis and force platform data. Hamstrings co-contraction was modelled under two assumptions: (1) equivalent gluteus maximus and hamstrings activation (Model 1) and (2) preferential gluteus maximus activation (Model 2). Quadriceps RME, the ratio of quadriceps moment to maximum knee extensor strength, was determined using inverse dynamics only, Model 1 and Model 2. Quadriceps RME was greater in both Models 1 and 2 than inverse dynamics only at barbell loads of 50-90% one repetition maximum. The highest quadriceps RMEs were 12036% and 8728% in Models 1 and 2, respectively, which suggests that barbell squats are only feasible using the Model 2 strategy prioritising gluteus maximus versus hamstrings activation. These results indicate that developing strength in both gluteus maximus and quadriceps is essential for lifting heavy loads in squat exercise. PMID:25895990

  7. Differential Glucose Uptake in Quadriceps and Other Leg Muscles During One-Legged Dynamic Submaximal Knee-Extension Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Dssing, Simon; Kjr, Andreas; Kjr, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25?W for 35?min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p?quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles in the exercising leg was 35??9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity. PMID:22046164

  8. Effect of helium breathing on intercostal and quadriceps muscle blood flow during exercise in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Habazettl, Helmut; Aliverti, Andrea; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; LoMauro, Antonella; Wagner, Harrieth; Roussos, Charis; Wagner, Peter D; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2011-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that, besides dyspnea relief, an improvement in locomotor muscle oxygen delivery may also contribute to enhanced exercise tolerance following normoxic heliox (replacement of inspired nitrogen by helium) administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether blood flow redistribution from intercostal to locomotor muscles contributes to this improvement currently remains unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate whether such redistribution plays a role in improving locomotor muscle oxygen delivery while breathing heliox at near-maximal [75% peak work rate (WR(peak))], maximal (100%WR(peak)), and supramaximal (115%WR(peak)) exercise in COPD. Intercostal and vastus lateralis muscle perfusion was measured in 10 COPD patients (FEV(1) = 50.5 5.5% predicted) by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye. Patients undertook exercise tests at 75 and 100%WR(peak) breathing either air or heliox and at 115%WR(peak) breathing heliox only. Patients did not exhibit exercise-induced hyperinflation. Normoxic heliox reduced respiratory muscle work and relieved dyspnea across all exercise intensities. During near-maximal exercise, quadriceps and intercostal muscle blood flows were greater, while breathing normoxic heliox compared with air (35.8 7.0 vs. 29.0 6.5 and 6.0 1.3 vs. 4.9 1.2 mlmin(-1)100 g(-1), respectively; P < 0.05; mean SE). In addition, compared with air, normoxic heliox administration increased arterial oxygen content, as well as oxygen delivery to quadriceps and intercostal muscles (from 47 9 to 60 12, and from 8 1 to 13 3 mlO(2)min(-1)100 g(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). In contrast, normoxic heliox had neither an effect on systemic nor an effect on quadriceps or intercostal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery during maximal or supramaximal exercise. Since intercostal muscle blood flow did not decrease by normoxic heliox administration, blood flow redistribution from intercostal to locomotor muscles does not represent a likely mechanism of improvement in locomotor muscle oxygen delivery. Our findings might not be applicable to patients who hyperinflate during exercise. PMID:21411767

  9. Heliox increases quadriceps muscle oxygen delivery during exercise in COPD patients with and without dynamic hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Louvaris, Zafeiris; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Aliverti, Andrea; Habazettl, Helmut; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Wagner, Harrieth; Wagner, Peter; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2012-10-01

    Some reports suggest that heliox breathing during exercise may improve peripheral muscle oxygen availability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Besides COPD patients who dynamically hyperinflate during exercise (hyperinflators), there are patients who do not hyperinflate (non-hyperinflators). As heliox breathing may differently affect cardiac output in hyperinflators (by increasing preload and decreasing afterload of both ventricles) and non-hyperinflators (by increasing venous return) during exercise, it was reasoned that heliox administration would improve peripheral muscle oxygen delivery possibly by different mechanisms in those two COPD categories. Chest wall volume and respiratory muscle activity were determined during constant-load exercise at 75% peak capacity to exhaustion, while breathing room air or normoxic heliox in 17 COPD patients: 9 hyperinflators (forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 39 5% predicted), and 8 non-hyperinflators (forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 48 5% predicted). Quadriceps muscle blood flow was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye. Hyperinflators and non-hyperinflators demonstrated comparable improvements in endurance time during heliox (231 23 and 257 28 s, respectively). At exhaustion in room air, expiratory muscle activity (expressed by peak-expiratory gastric pressure) was lower in hyperinflators than in non-hyperinflators. In hyperinflators, heliox reduced end-expiratory chest wall volume and diaphragmatic activity, and increased arterial oxygen content (by 17.8 2.5 ml/l), whereas, in non-hyperinflators, heliox reduced peak-expiratory gastric pressure and increased systemic vascular conductance (by 11.0 2.8 mlmin(-1)mmHg(-1)). Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery significantly improved during heliox compared with room air by a comparable magnitude (in hyperinflators by 6.1 1.3 mlmin(-1)100 g(-1) and 1.3 0.3 ml O(2)min(-1)100 g(-1), and in non-hyperinflators by 7.2 1.6 mlmin(-1)100 g(-1) and 1.6 0.3 ml O(2)min(-1)100 g(-1), respectively). Despite similar increase in locomotor muscle oxygen delivery with heliox in both groups, the mechanisms of such improvements were different: 1) in hyperinflators, heliox increased arterial oxygen content and quadriceps blood flow at similar cardiac output, whereas 2) in non-hyperinflators, heliox improved central hemodynamics and increased systemic vascular conductance and quadriceps blood flow at similar arterial oxygen content. PMID:22879534

  10. Effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia on quadriceps muscle fatigue in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Romer, Lee M; Haverkamp, Hans C; Lovering, Andrew T; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) on quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed in 11 male endurance-trained subjects [peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak) = 56.4 +/- 2.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- SE]. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer at >or=90% VO2 peak) to exhaustion (13.2 +/- 0.8 min), during which time arterial O2 saturation (Sa(O2)) fell from 97.7 +/- 0.1% at rest to 91.9 +/- 0.9% (range 84-94%) at end exercise, primarily because of changes in blood pH (7.183 +/- 0.017) and body temperature (38.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). On a separate occasion, subjects repeated the exercise, for the same duration and at the same power output as before, but breathed gas mixtures [inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O2)) = 0.25-0.31] that prevented EIAH (Sa(O2) = 97-99%). Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed via supramaximal paired magnetic stimuli of the femoral nerve (1-100 Hz). Immediately after exercise at Fi(O2) 0.21, the mean force response across 1-100 Hz decreased 33 +/- 5% compared with only 15 +/- 5% when EIAH was prevented (P < 0.05). In a subgroup of four less fit subjects, who showed minimal EIAH at Fi(O2) 0.21 (Sa(O2) = 95.3 +/- 0.7%), the decrease in evoked force was exacerbated by 35% (P < 0.05) in response to further desaturation induced via Fi(O2) 0.17 (Sa(O2) = 87.8 +/- 0.5%) for the same duration and intensity of exercise. We conclude that the arterial O2 desaturation that occurs in fit subjects during high-intensity exercise in normoxia (-6 +/- 1% DeltaSa(O2) from rest) contributes significantly toward quadriceps muscle fatigue via a peripheral mechanism. PMID:16166208

  11. Reduction in mdx mouse muscle degeneration by low-intensity endurance exercise: a proteomic analysis in quadriceps muscle of exercised compared with sedentary mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Simona; Schillaci, Odessa; Frinchi, Monica; Giallombardo, Marco; Morici, Giuseppe; Liberto, ValentinaDi; Alessandro, Riccardo; De Leo, Giacomo; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Belluardo, Natale; Mud, Giuseppa

    2015-01-01

    In our recent study was shown a significant recovery of damaged skeletal muscle of mice with X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) following low-intensity endurance exercise, probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. Consequently, in the present work, we aimed to identify proteins involved in the observed reduction in degenerating fibres. To this end, we used proteomic analysis to evaluate changes in the protein profile of quadriceps dystrophic muscles of exercised compared with sedentary mdx mice. Four protein spots were found to be significantly changed and were identified as three isoforms of carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SODC). Protein levels of CA3 isoforms were significantly up-regulated in quadriceps of sedentary mdx mice and were completely restored to wildtype (WT) mice values, both sedentary and exercised, in quadriceps of exercised mdx mice. Protein levels of SODC were down-regulated in quadriceps of sedentary mdx mice and were significantly restored to WT mice values, both sedentary and exercised, in quadriceps of exercised mdx mice. Western blot data were in agreement with those obtained using proteomic analysis and revealed the presence of one more CA3 isoform that was significantly changed. Based on data found in the present study, it seems that low-intensity endurance exercise may in part contribute to reduce cell degeneration process in mdx muscles, by counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:26182375

  12. Effects of exhaustive incremental treadmill exercise on diaphragm and quadriceps motor potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Verin, Eric; Ross, Ewen; Demoule, Alexandre; Hopkinson, Nicholas; Nickol, Annabel; Fauroux, Brigitte; Moxham, John; Similowski, Thomas; Polkey, Michael I

    2004-01-01

    It is unknown whether changes in corticomotor excitability follow exercise in healthy humans. We hypothesized that a fall in the diaphragm and quadriceps motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex would occur after an incremental exercise task. In 11 healthy subjects, we measured transdiaphragmatic pressure and isometric quadriceps tension in response to supramaximal peripheral magnetic nerve stimulation. MEPs were recorded from these muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation. After baseline measurements, subjects performed a period of submaximal exercise (gentle walking). Measurements were repeated 5 and 20 min after this. The subjects then exercised on a treadmill with an incremental protocol to exhaustion. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed at baseline and at 5, 20, 40, and 60 min after exhaustive exercise, and force measurements were obtained at baseline, 20 min, and 60 min. Mean exercise duration was 18 +/- 4 min, and mean maximum heart rate was 172 +/- 10 beats/min. Twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure and twitch isometric quadriceps tension were not different from baseline after exercise, but a significant decrease was observed in diaphragm MEP amplitude 5 and 20 min after exercise (60 +/- 38 and 45 +/- 24%, respectively, of baseline, P = 0.0001). At the same times, the mean quadriceps MEPs were 59 +/- 39 and 74 +/- 32% of baseline (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Studies using paired stimuli confirmed a likely intracortical mechanism for this depression. Our data confirm significant depression of both diaphragm and quadriceps MEPs after incremental treadmill exercise. PMID:12959961

  13. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  14. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were

  15. Muscle metabolism during fatiguing isometric quadriceps exercise in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, Rebecca J; Fulford, Jonathan; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A

    2014-04-01

    Children and adolescents are less susceptible to muscle fatigue during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise than adults, but the physiological basis for these differences is not clear. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate the muscle metabolic responses, using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, during fatiguing isometric quadriceps exercise in 13 adolescents (7 females) and 14 adults (8 females). Participants completed 30 maximal voluntary contractions (6-s duration) separated by 6 s of rest. Fatigue was quantified as the relative decrease in force over the test. Fatigue was not significantly different with age (p = 0.20) or sex (p = 0.63). Metabolic perturbation (change in phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and ADP concentrations) was significantly greater in adults compared with adolescents; no sex effects were present. Muscle pH did not differ with age or sex. Phosphocreatine recovery following exercise was not significantly different with age (p = 0.27) or sex (p = 0.97) but a significant interaction effect was present (p = 0.04). Recovery tended to be faster in boys than men but slower in girls than women, though no significant group differences were identified. The results of this study show that at a comparable level of muscle fatigue, the metabolic profile is profoundly different between adolescents and adults. PMID:24669985

  16. Assessment of the Quadriceps Femoris Muscle in Women after Injury Induced by Maximal Eccentric Isokinetic Exercise with Low Angular Speed

    PubMed Central

    Serro, Fbio Viadanna; Serro, Paula Regina Mendes da Silva; Foerster, Bernd; Tanns, Alberto; Monteiro Pedro, Vanessa; Salvini, Tania F.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to propose a model for exercise- induced muscle injury by way of a maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise at low angular speed, and assess the time course of functional recovery of the injured quadriceps femoris muscle from the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and electrical activity (root mean square - RMS and median frequency - MDF). The effectiveness of the proposed eccentric exercise in inducing injury was assessed from the activity of creatine kinase (CK). In addition, the presence of edema of the quadriceps femoris muscle was assessed by a visual inspection of the intensity of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal. These measurements were carried out before and after the exercise. Ten healthy women (21.9 1.5) took part in this study. The injury was induced by 4 series of 15 maximal eccentric isokinetic contractions at 5/s. The MVC torque reduced up to the 4th day after the exercise (p < 0.05). The RMS of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and the rectus femoris (RF) muscles decreased on the 2nd (VMO and RF; p < 0.05) and 3rd (RF; p < 0.05) days after. The MDF of the VMO increased immediately after (p < 0.05), whilst the MDF of the RF and VL decreased immediately after (RF; p < 0.05), on the 1st (RF and VL; p < 0.05) and on the 2nd (VL; p < 0.05) days after. The CK activity increased on the 2nd day after (p < 0.05). An increase in the intensity of the MRI signal was observed on the 2nd and 7th days after. In conclusion: 1- the eccentric exercise with low angular speed was effective in inducing injury, 2- the quadriceps femoris already started its functional recovery, as shown by the MVC torque and electrical activity, in the first week after the exercise, despite the presence of an increase in the intensity of the MRI signal. Key pointsThe low angular speed eccentric exercise was effec-tive in inducing injury of the quadriceps femoris muscle, and could be used as a muscle injury induc-ing model in future studies;The quadriceps femoris muscle injured by eccentric exercise started its functional recovery in the first week after low angular speed eccentric exercise. PMID:24149232

  17. Interactive resistance chair to promote strengthening exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We developed a strengthening exercise support system which can be remotely managed and clinically supervised via internet. Older adults may potentially benefit from such an exercise system however functionality of this system requires validation before commencement of field studies in older adults. The aim of this study was to introduce and assess validity of a prototype telerehabilitation system supporting computer-assisted home-based strengthening exercise. The system included a resistance chair with a set of movement and physiologic sensors. Real-time feedback on exercise performance was displayed on a touch screen dashboard. Personalized exercise parameters were managed by a rehabilitation team via a designated telerehabilitation site. Assessment of the system demonstrated sufficient validity in real-time identification of exercise performance and cardiovascular parameters. We concluded that the interactive resistance chair has a potential in promoting strengthening exercise and it is warranted for further evaluation in community dwelling older adults. PMID:25991131

  18. Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen availability during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the observed reduction in quadriceps muscle oxygen availability, reported during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing efforts (i.e. hiking), is because of restricted muscle blood flow. Six national-squad Laser sailors initially performed three successive 3-min hiking bouts followed by three successive 3-min cycling tests sustained at constant intensities reproducing the cardiac output recorded during each of the three hiking bouts. The blood flow index (BFI) was determined from assessment of the vastus lateralis using near-infrared spectroscopy in association with the light-absorbing tracer indocyanine green dye, while cardiac output was determined from impedance cardiography. At equivalent cardiac outputs (ranging from 10.30.5 to 14.80.86 L min(-1)), the increase from baseline in vastus lateralis BFI across the three hiking bouts (from 1.10.2 to 3.10.6 nM s(-1)) was lower (P = 0.036) than that seen during the three cycling bouts (from 1.10.2 to 7.21.4 nM s(-1)) (Cohen's d: 3.80 nM s(-1)), whereas the increase from baseline in deoxygenated haemoglobin (by ?17.02.9 ?M) (an index of tissue oxygen extraction) was greater (P = 0.006) during hiking than cycling (by ?5.32.7 ?M) (Cohen's d: 4.17 ?M). The results suggest that reduced vastus lateralis muscle oxygen availability during hiking arises from restricted muscle blood flow in the isometrically acting quadriceps muscles. PMID:21590577

  19. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100 s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ? 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the combination of dynamic exercises and WBV could be used as a potential warm-up procedure before resistance exercise. PMID:25268289

  20. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Exercise in Men and Women With a History of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kuenze, Christopher M.; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sex differences in lower extremity neuromuscular function have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Research evidence supports different levels of fatigability in men and women and between patients with ACLR and healthy controls. The influence of sex on the response to continuous exercise in patients with ACLR is not clear. Objective: To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function after exercise between men and women with ACLR. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-six active volunteers (13 men [50%]: age = 24.1 4.4 years, height = 179.1 9.8 cm, mass = 80.1 9.4 kg, months since surgery = 43.5 37.0; 13 women [50%]: age = 24.2 5.6 years, height = 163.0 5.9 cm, mass = 62.3 8.3 kg, months since surgery = 45.8 42.7) with a history of unilateral primary ACLR at least 6 months earlier. Intervention(s): Thirty minutes of continuous exercise comprising 5 separate 6-minute cycles, including 5 minutes of uphill walking and 1 minute of body-weight squatting and step-ups. Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, quadriceps superimposed-burst torque, and quadriceps central activation ratio before and after exercise. We performed separate 2 (sex: men, women) 2 (time: preexercise, postexercise) repeated-measures analyses of variance for the 3 variables. Separate, independent-samples t tests were calculated to compare preexercise with postexercise change in all dependent variables between sexes. Results: A significant group-by-time interaction was present for knee-extension torque (P = .04). The percentage reduction in knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (men = 1.94%, women = ?10.32%; P = .02) and quadriceps central activation ratio (men = ?1.45%, women = ?8.69%; P = .03) experienced by men was less than that observed in women. Conclusions: In the presence of quadriceps dysfunction, female participants experienced greater-magnitude reductions in quadriceps function after 30 minutes of exercise than male participants. This indicates a reduced ability to absorb knee-joint loads, which may have significant implications for reinjury and joint osteoarthritis in women after ACLR. PMID:25243735

  1. High-Impact Exercise Strengthens Men's Bones, Researchers Say

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_157403.html High-Impact Exercise Strengthens Men's Bones, Researchers Say Long-term jogging or tennis ... 22, 2016 MONDAY, Feb. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men who engage in high-impact physical activity and ...

  2. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, P; Sderlund, K; Relu, M U; Ferguson, R A; Bangsbo, J

    2009-08-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (P<0.05) than in VL and VM, respectively. During OCC, DeltaT(m) in RF was 0.39+/-0.05 degrees C, which was not different from VM but 54% higher (P<0.05) than in VL. After MOD, muscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (P<0.05) values after OCC (15% and 22%) and HI (24% and 13%). After MOD, OCC and HI, a total of 48%, 93% and 96% of the ST fibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41%, 89% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, a heterogeneous recruitment of the quadriceps muscle portions and muscle fibres was observed during submaximal knee-extensor exercise, whereas recruitment pattern was homogenous during intense exercise. Thigh OCC caused an altered recruitment of fibres and muscle portions, suggesting a significant afferent response affecting the activation of fibres in the contracting muscles. PMID:18627560

  3. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that when compared with conventional strengthening exercises, the incorporation of ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities. PMID:25137195

  4. Electromyographic activity and rate of muscle fatigue of the quadriceps femoris during cycling exercise in the severe domain.

    PubMed

    Camata, Thiago V; Altimari, Leandro R; Bortolotti, Henrique; Dantas, Jose L; Fontes, Eduardo B; Smirmaul, Bruno P C; Okano, Alexandre H; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara P T; Moraes, Antonio C

    2011-09-01

    This study compared the activation pattern and the fatigue rate among the superficial muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF) during severe cycling exercise. Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)peak) and maximal accumulated oxygen Deficit (MAOD) were established by 10 well-trained male cyclists (27.5 ± 4.1 years, 71.0 ± 10.3 kg, 173.4 ± 6.6 cm, mean VO(2)peak 56.7 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min(-1), mean MAOD 5.7 ± 1.1 L). Muscle activity (electromyographic [EMG] signals) was obtained during the supramaximal constant workload test (MAOD) and expressed by root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF slope). The RMS of the QF, vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles were significantly higher than at the beginning after 75% of exercise duration, whereas for the rectus femoris (RF), this was observed after 50% of exercise duration (p ≤ 0.05). The slope of the MF was significantly higher in the RF, followed by the VL and VM (-3.13 ± 0.52 vs. -2.61 ± 0.62 vs. -1.81 ±0.56, respectively; p < 0.05). We conclude that RF may play an important role in limiting performance during severe cycling exercise. PMID:21804424

  5. Nitric oxide and voluntary exercise together promote quadriceps hypertrophy and increase vascular density in female 18-mo-old mice.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R S; Upadhaya, Ritika; Anderson, Judy E

    2012-05-01

    Age-related sarcopenia reduces the size, strength, and function of muscle, and the diameter of muscle fibers. It also disrupts the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, dislocating nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS-1) and reducing sarcolemmal integrity. This study of quadriceps muscle in 18-mo-old mice showed that NO-donor treatment with isosorbide dinitrate (I) for 6 wk, in combination with voluntary exercise for 3 wk, increased muscle mass by 25% and stimulated cell proliferation. The resulting fiber hypertrophy was accompanied by a lower ratio of protein:DNA, consistent with myogenic-cell hyperplasia. Treatment enhanced the ratio of NOS-1:?-dystroglycan in correlation with fiber diameter, improved sarcolemmal integrity, and increased vascular density after an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor protein at 3 wk. Results demonstrate that age-related muscle refractoriness to exercise can be overcome with NO-donor treatment. Since activation of muscle stem cells and vascular perfusion are limiting factors in the maintenance, regeneration, and growth of aged muscle, results suggest the feasibility of using NO-donor drugs to combat atrophy and muscle ischemia. Improved function and quality of life from the NO-amplified effects of exercise may be useful in aging and other conditions such as disuse, insulin resistance, or microgravity. PMID:22322971

  6. Reliability of arterial spin labelling measurements of perfusion within the quadriceps during steady-state exercise.

    PubMed

    Fulford, Jonathan; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2016-02-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) provides a potential method to non-invasively determine muscle blood flow and examine the impact of interventions such as supplementation and training. However, it's a method with intrinsically low signal, leading to limitations in accuracy and temporal resolution. To examine these limitations, the current study measured perfusion via ASL on three occasions in the rectus femoris of 10 healthy adults, during light and moderate exercise, over three different exercise durations. For data sampled over 9 min, light intensity exercise gave an average perfusion of 35.0 5.1 ml/min.100g(-1) with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 16% and single intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.67. For the moderate bout, perfusion was 51.3 5.6 ml/min.100g(-1) (COV 10%, ICC 0.82). When the same data were analyzed over 5 min 24 s, perfusion was 37.8 11.13 (COV 30%, ICC 0.13) during light and 49.5 8.8 ml/min.100g(-1) (COV 18%, ICC 0.52) during moderate exercise. When sampling was reduced to 1 min 48 s, perfusion was 41.2 13.7 (COV 33%, ICC 0.26) during light and 49.5 13.6 ml/min.100g(-1) (COV 28%, ICC 0.04) during moderate exercise. For 9 min a significant perfusion difference was found between the exercise intensities; however, this was not the case for sampling over 5 min 24 s or 1 min 48 s. Such findings illustrate the potential of ASL to non-invasively monitor muscle perfusion under steady-state conditions, but highlight that extended exercise protocols are necessary in order to generate date of sufficient reliability to be able to discriminate intervention dependent perfusion differences. PMID:25587883

  7. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis in relation to hamstring and quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Zakaria, Abdul Rahim; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Kachanathu, Shaji J

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65 years of age (57.65 ± 4.78 years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA. PMID:24396198

  8. Quadriceps Contusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into contact with a railing, park feature, or tree. Back Continue Treating a Quadriceps Contusion Grade 1 ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  9. Influence of exercise intensity on atrophied quadriceps muscle in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shoji; Obatake, Taishi; Hoshino, Koichi; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy. PMID:26696716

  10. Influence of exercise intensity on atrophied quadriceps muscle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shoji; Obatake, Taishi; Hoshino, Koichi; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy. PMID:26696716

  11. Exercise and Quality of Life: Strengthening the Connections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed. PMID:19193547

  12. Hemodynamics and O2 uptake during maximal knee extensor exercise in untrained and trained human quadriceps muscle: effects of hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Mourtzakis, M; Gonzlez-Alonso, J; Graham, T E; Saltin, B

    2004-11-01

    To elucidate the potential limitations on maximal human quadriceps O2 capacity, six subjects trained (T) one quadriceps on the single-legged knee extensor ergometer (1 h/day at 70% maximum workload for 5 days/wk), while their contralateral quadriceps remained untrained (UT). Following 5 wk of training, subjects underwent incremental knee extensor tests under normoxic (inspired O2 fraction = 21%) and hyperoxic (inspired O2 fraction = 60%) conditions with the T and UT quadriceps. Training increased quadriceps muscle mass (2.9 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.2 kg), but did not change fiber-type composition or capillary density. The T quadriceps performed at a greater peak power output than UT, under both normoxia (101 +/- 10 vs. 80 +/- 7 W; P < 0.05) and hyperoxia (97 +/- 11 vs. 81 +/- 7 W; P < 0.05) without further increases with hyperoxia. Similarly, thigh peak O2 consumption, blood flow, vascular conductance, and O2 delivery were greater in the T vs. the UT thigh (1.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 l/min, 8.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 7.2 +/- 0.8 l/min, 42 +/- 6 vs. 35 +/- 4 ml x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), 1.71 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.51 +/- 0.15 l/min, respectively) but were not enhanced with hyperoxia. Oxygen extraction was elevated in the T vs. the UT thigh, whereas arteriovenous O2 difference tended to be higher (78 +/- 2 vs. 72 +/- 4%, P < 0.05; 160 +/- 8 vs. 154 +/- 11 ml/l, respectively; P = 0.098) but again were unaltered with hyperoxia. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the increase in quadriceps muscle O2 uptake with training is largely associated with increases in blood flow and O2 delivery, with smaller contribution from increases in O2 extraction. Furthermore, the elevation in peak muscle blood flow and vascular conductance with endurance training seems to be related to an enhanced vasodilatory capacity of the vasculature perfusing the quadriceps muscle that is unaltered by moderate hyperoxia. PMID:15208296

  13. Quadriceps muscle strength in scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Swallow, E.B.; Barreiro, E.; Gosker, H.; Sathyapala, S.A.; Sanchez, F.; Hopkinson, N.S.; Moxham, J.; Schols, A.; Gea, J.; Polkey, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle weakness is an important component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesised that quadriceps weakness would also be a feature of restrictive lung disease due to scoliosis. We studied 10 patients with severe scoliosis (median (interquartile range (IQR)) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 35.3 (11)% predicted), 10 patients with severe COPD (FEV1 26.5 (9.0)% pred) and 10 healthy age-matched adults. We measured quadriceps strength, exercise capacity and analysed quadriceps muscle biopsies for myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform expression and the presence of oxidative stress. Both groups exhibited quadriceps weakness with median (IQR) maximal voluntary contraction force being 46.0 (17.0) kg, 21.5 (21.0) kg and 31.5 (11.0) kg, respectively (p=0.02 and 0.04, respectively, for each patient group against controls). Oxidative stress was significantly greater in the quadriceps of both restrictive and COPD patients. The scoliosis patients exhibited a decrease in the proportion of MyHC type I compared with controls; median (IQR) 35.3 (18.5)% compared with 47.7 (9.3)%, p=0.028. The scoliosis patients also showed an increase in MyHC IIx (26.3 (15.5)% compared with 11.3 (13.0)%, p=0.01. Quadriceps weakness is a feature of severe scoliosis; the similarities between patients with scoliosis and patients with COPD suggest a common aetiology to quadriceps weakness in both conditions. PMID:19443534

  14. Exercise Strengthens Central Nervous System Modulation of Pain in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Laura D; Stegner, Aaron J; Schwabacher, Isaac J; Koltyn, Kelli F; Cook, Dane B

    2016-01-01

    To begin to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of exercise for chronic pain, we assessed the influence of exercise on brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia (FM). Complete data were collected for nine female FM patients and nine pain-free controls (CO) who underwent two functional neuroimaging scans, following exercise (EX) and following quiet rest (QR). Brain responses and pain ratings to noxious heat stimuli were compared within and between groups. For pain ratings, there was a significant (p < 0.05) Condition by Run interaction characterized by moderately lower pain ratings post EX compared to QR (d = 0.39-0.41) for FM but similar to ratings in CO (d = 0.10-0.26), thereby demonstrating that exercise decreased pain sensitivity in FM patients to a level that was analogous to pain-free controls. Brain responses demonstrated a significant within-group difference in FM patients, characterized by less brain activity bilaterally in the anterior insula following QR as compared to EX. There was also a significant Group by Condition interaction with FM patients showing less activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex following QR as compared to post-EX and CO following both conditions. These results suggest that exercise appeared to stimulate brain regions involved in descending pain inhibition in FM patients, decreasing their sensitivity to pain. Thus, exercise may benefit patients with FM via improving the functional capacity of the pain modulatory system. PMID:26927193

  15. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise: Part I--dynamic test station and human quadriceps dynamic simulator.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator (HQDS) was developed so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. The experimental set-up and HQDS are discussed in Part I of this work. The development of a PMA haptic controller and its interaction with the HQDS are discussed in Part II. PMID:23282135

  16. An electromyographical comparison of trunk muscle activity during isometric trunk and dynamic strengthening exercises.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Pearson, Stephen J; Mather, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscle activity during isometric (prone bridge [PB] and superman [SM]) and dynamic strengthening exercises (back squat, front squat [FS], and military press). Participants (n = 10, age 21.8 2.6 years; body mass 82.65 10.80 kg, 174.5 7.2 cm), performed each exercise in a randomized order, using a repeated-measures design. Electromyographical (EMG) activity (sampling at 2,000 Hz) of the rectus abdominis (RA) and the erector spinae (ES) muscles was recorded throughout the duration of the exercises. Intraclass correlations demonstrated the highest levels of reliability for muscle activity during the isometric exercises; however, all exercises demonstrated high level of reliability (r = 0.764-0.998, p ? 0.01). The PB demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.01) RA activity compared to all other exercises. The ES activity was significantly (p < 0.01) greater during the FS (1.010 0.308 root mean square value [RMS (V)]) and SM (0.951 0.217 RMS[V]) and compared to all other exercises, although there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the FS and the SM exercise. The PB may be the most suitable exercise for strengthening the RA, compared to dynamic exercises at a low to moderate load, because of a higher level of muscle activity. The FS may be a useful alternative to isometric exercises when strengthening the ES, because it results in slightly higher muscle activity levels when using only a light to moderate load. Because of the dynamic nature of the FS, this may also be more beneficial in transferring to activities of daily living and sporting environments. PMID:21157393

  17. MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING KNEE?EXTENSION STRENGTHENING EXERCISE PERFORMED WITH ELASTIC TUBING AND ISOTONIC RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H.; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG?angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10?RM knee?extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. Methods: 7 women and 9 men aged 28?67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0?90). Results: When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p<0.01) in RF and VM when performing knee extensions using the training machine. In VL and VM the EMG?angle pattern was different between the two training modalities (significant angle by exercise interaction). When using elastic resistance, the EMG?angle pattern peaked towards full knee extension (0), whereas angle at peak EMG occurred closer to knee flexion position (90) during the machine exercise. Perceived loading (Borg CR10) was similar during knee extensions performed with elastic tubing (5.70.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.90.5). Conclusion: Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG?angle patterns during the range of motion. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23316424

  18. Quadriceps Contusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ossificans. Make careful use of massage. Having a sports injury professional massage your leg when your injury is ... Hamstring Strain Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Sports Center Strains and Sprains Contact Us Print ...

  19. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  20. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  1. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening.

    PubMed

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y H; Blazek, A D; Kim, D G; Tee, B C; Sun, Z; Eubank, T D; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, N L; Lee, B S; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, A L; Agarwal, S

    2015-09-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), a member of follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health. Here, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3-/-) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by ?CT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identify FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  2. PERCEIVED LOADING AND MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES: COMPARISON OF ELASTIC RESISTANCE AND MACHINE EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian; Sundstrup, Emil; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Decreased hip muscle strength is frequently reported in patients with hip injury or pathology. Furthermore, soccer players suffering from groin injury show decreased strength of hip muscles. Estimating 10?repetition maximum can be time?consuming and difficult, thus, using the Borg category rating 10 scale (Borg CR10 scale) can be a useful tool for estimating the intensity of exercise. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the feasibility of the use of the Borg CR10 scale for rating strength training intensity of the hip abductor and hip adductor muscles, and 2) to compare hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). Methods: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ?2), moderate (Borg >2<5), heavy (Borg ?5<7) and near maximum (Borg ?7). Results: Moderate to strong associations were observed between perceived loading and nEMG obtained during the adduction exercise with elastic resistance (r=0.80.3) as well as in machine (r=0.690.55) and the abduction exercise with elastic resistance (r=0.660.29) as well as in machine (r =0.620.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during resistance training of the hip adductor and hip abductor muscles. Although elastic resistance and exercise machine seem equally effective for recruiting muscle activity of the hip adductors, the elastic resistance condition was able to demonstrate greater muscle recruitment than the exercise machine during hip abduction. PMID:24377067

  3. The effects of respiratory muscle strengthening exercise using a sling on the amount of respiration

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to present aerobic exercise that can be performed together with respiratory muscle strength training and examine whether the vital capacity of individuals can be enhanced when respiratory muscle strength training is conducted together with aerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 male students and 8 female students. The sling exercise method was used to conduct three types of training to strengthen the muscles around the shoulder joints. A maximal respiratory quotient measurement device was used to measure the vital capacity of the subjects five times. [Results] There was a significant difference in each respiratory training time point compared with before the performance of respiratory training. [Conclusion] This study presented respiratory muscle strength training using a sling as a training method for respiratory training. PMID:26311937

  4. Effects of Individual Strengthening Exercises on Subdivisions of the Gluteus Medius in a Patient with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius in a patient with sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 32?year-old female who complained of pain in the posterior area of the left iliac crest and sacroiliac joints over a period of 6 months was the subject of this study. [Methods] She performed individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius over 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and VAS scores were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] After individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius, the subject showed no pain in the Gaenslen, Patrick, or REAB tests for the left sacroiliac joint. The VAS score was less the 3/10, compared with 7/10 initially. [Conclusion] Individual strengthening exercises for the subdivisions of the gluteus medius were effective at reducing SI joint pain for this patient. PMID:25276045

  5. The effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise programs accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients balance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Kyou Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients balance ability. [Methods] For six weeks beginning in April 2015, 22 stroke patients receiving physical therapy at K Hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided into a functional electrical stimulation (FES), ankle proprioceptive exercise and ankle joint muscle strengthening exercise group (FPS group) of 11 patients and an FES and stretching exercise group (FS group) of 11 patients. The stimulation and exercises were conducted for 30?min per day, five days per week for six weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue and the Berg balance scale, functional reach test, and the timed up-and-go test were also used as clinical evaluation indices. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between before the exercises and at three and six weeks after beginning the exercises within each group, and the amounts of change between the two groups were compared. [Results] In the comparison within each group, both groups showed significant differences between before and after the experiment in all the tests and comparison between the groups showed that greater improvement was seen in all values in the FPS group. [Conclusion] In the present study, implementing FES and stretching exercises plus ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises was more effective at improving stroke patients balance ability than implementing only FES and stretching exercises. PMID:26504337

  6. The development and evaluation of a program for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program measures the duration of the OLST and presents this as the balance-age. The accuracy of the program was analyzed using the data of five male adults. [Results] In terms of the motion recognition accuracy, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.3% and 100%, respectively. For the balance assessment, the time measured using the existing method with a stopwatch had an absolute error of 0.37 sec. [Conclusion] The developed program can be used to enable users to conduct leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessments at home. PMID:26957724

  7. A randomised controlled feasibility study investigating the use of eccentric and concentric strengthening exercises in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Marcus; Adams, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a feasibility study to compare concentric and eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods: A total of 11 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy who were on the waiting list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery were randomised to perform eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises, concentric strengthening exercises or no exercises. Patients were evaluated in terms of levels of pain and function using the Oxford Shoulder Score and a Visual Analogue Scale initially, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Results: The study design was found to be acceptable to patients and achieved a high level of 86% compliance. The drop-out rate was 0%. Two patients performing eccentric strengthening exercises improved sufficiently to cancel their planned surgery. Conclusion: Further research in this area is recommended. The study design was feasible and power calculations have been conducted to aid future research planning.

  8. Effect of grip strength and grip strengthening exercises on instantaneous bat velocity of collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shawn S; Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J

    2004-05-01

    Bat velocity is considered to be an important factor for successful hitting. The relationship between grip strength and bat velocity has not been conclusively established. The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of grip strength to bat velocity and to ascertain whether the performance of resistance training exercises designed to specifically target the forearms and grip would significantly alter bat velocity. The subjects for this study were 23 male members (mean +/- SD, age = 19.7 +/- 1.3 years, height = 182.5 +/- 5.9 cm, weight = 85.4 +/- 15.5 kg, experience = 14.4 +/- 1.7 years) of a varsity baseball team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II school. The Jamar hand dynamometer was used to test grip strength, and the SETPRO Rookie was used to measure instantaneous bat velocity at the point of contact with the ball. Subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. For 6 weeks, both groups participated in their usual baseball practice sessions, but the experimental group also performed extra forearm and grip strengthening exercises, whereas the control group did not. Pretest and posttest correlations between grip strength and bat velocity revealed no significant relationship between grip strength and bat velocity (pretest r = 0.054, p = 0.807; posttest r = 0.315, p = 0.145). A dependent t-test performed on all subjects revealed that a significant (p = 0.001) increase in bat velocity did occur over the course of the study. A covariate analysis, employing pretest bat velocity as the covariate, revealed no significant difference (p = 0.795) in posttest bat velocity scores between the experimental and control groups. Thus, increases in bat velocity occurred, but the differences were similar for both the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study suggest that grip strength and bat velocity are not significantly related, and that the allocation of time and energy for added training of the forearms in order to improve grip strength for the purpose of increasing bat velocity may not be warranted. PMID:15142011

  9. The Effect of NeuroMuscular Electrical Stimulation on Quadriceps Strength and Knee Function in Professional Soccer Players: Return to Sport after ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Taradaj, J.; Halski, T.; Kucharzewski, M.; Walewicz, K.; Smykla, A.; Ozon, M.; Slupska, L.; Dymarek, R.; Ptaszkowski, K.; Rajfur, J.; Pasternok, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction) on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40) received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500 Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50 Hz) three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments), 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months) were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment) is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741. PMID:24381943

  10. The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Olav; Sjhaug, Mona; van Beekvelt, Mireille; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (105 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p?0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p?0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p?0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. PMID:23486850

  11. Prescribing strengthening exercises for my patients: which equipment should I select?

    PubMed Central

    Piccininni, JJ

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines various devices used in strength building exercise programs. These include free weights, pulley machines, variable resistance weight machines, isokinetic units and elastic tubing and banding. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed and examined from the view point of the health care provider and the suitability of each type of device for prescribed progressive resistance exercise programs for patients. In addition to such practical aspects such as cost and maintenance, biomechanical factors, types of contraction elicited, ease of patient instruction and proprioception benefits are also compared in order to assist the clinician in selecting the most appropriate equipment for each individual patient.

  12. Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in congestive heart failure☆

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Dayer, Mark J.; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Swallow, Elisabeth B.; Porcher, Raphael; Vazir, Ali; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Polkey, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. Methods and results We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with a rest condition, 10 min after incremental maximal cycle exercise, twitch quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation fell in both groups (CHF 14.1% ± 18.1%, p = 0.037; Control: 20.8 ± 11.0%, p < 0.001; no significant difference between groups). There was no significant change in quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction voluntary force. The difference in the motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex between rest and exercise conditions at 10 min, normalised to the peripheral action potential, also fell significantly in both groups (CHF: 27.3 ± 38.7%, p = 0.037; Control: 41.1 ± 47.7%, p = 0.024). However, the fall in MEP was sustained for a longer period in controls than in patients (p = 0.048). Conclusions The quadriceps is more susceptible to fatigue, with a similar fall in TwQ occurring in CHF patients at lower levels of exercise. This is associated with no change in voluntary activation but a lesser degree of depression of quadriceps motor evoked potential. PMID:22795722

  13. The effects of a community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Seong-A

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on changes in the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 46 elderly people (8 males, 38 females) aged 65 or older, who lived in a rural area and managed their daily lives independently. [Methods] The study's exercise program was conducted 16 times for 80 minutes each session over an eight-week period. This program consisted of several exercises to strengthen muscular endurance and improve balance ability based on exercises using Thera-bands. The physical abilities of the subjects were divided into muscular endurance, upper-extremity flexibility, balance, and low-extremity agility. Each ability was measured to compare the effects of the exercise program. In addition, the Korean version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire was used to examine changes in the subjects' quality of life. [Results] The subjects showed improvements in muscular endurance, balance, and low-extremity agility. They also exhibited an overall statistically significant improvement in quality of life scores after the exercise program. In terms of the main items, changes were observed in the areas of psychological relations, social relations, and environment. [Conclusion] The community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using the elastic band was found to improve muscular endurance, balance, agility, and quality of life of rural elderly subjects. PMID:26311926

  14. The effects of a community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Seong-A

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on changes in the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 46 elderly people (8 males, 38 females) aged 65 or older, who lived in a rural area and managed their daily lives independently. [Methods] The study’s exercise program was conducted 16 times for 80 minutes each session over an eight-week period. This program consisted of several exercises to strengthen muscular endurance and improve balance ability based on exercises using Thera-bands. The physical abilities of the subjects were divided into muscular endurance, upper-extremity flexibility, balance, and low-extremity agility. Each ability was measured to compare the effects of the exercise program. In addition, the Korean version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire was used to examine changes in the subjects’ quality of life. [Results] The subjects showed improvements in muscular endurance, balance, and low-extremity agility. They also exhibited an overall statistically significant improvement in quality of life scores after the exercise program. In terms of the main items, changes were observed in the areas of psychological relations, social relations, and environment. [Conclusion] The community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using the elastic band was found to improve muscular endurance, balance, agility, and quality of life of rural elderly subjects. PMID:26311926

  15. Effects of ankle strengthening exercises combined with motor imagery training on the timed up and go test score and weight bearing ratio in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Shin; Lee, Hyung Jin; You, Young Youl

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of ankle strengthening exercises combined with motor imagery training and those of ankle strengthening exercises alone in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: experimental group (15 patients) and control group (15 patients). The experimental group underwent motor imagery training for 15 minutes and ankle joint strengthening exercises for 15 minutes, while the control group underwent only ankle joint strengthening exercises for 30 minutes. Each session and training program was implemented four times a week for 4 weeks. The timed up and go (TUG) test score, affected-side weight bearing ratio, and affected-side front/rear weight bearing ratio were assessed. [Results] Both groups demonstrated improvement on the TUG test, and in the affected-side weight bearing ratios, affected-side front/rear weight bearing ratios, and balance errors. The experimental group demonstrated greater improvement than the control group in all variables. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training is an effective treatment method for improving static balance ability in stroke patients. PMID:26311971

  16. Effects of electromyographic biofeedback on quadriceps strength: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Gribble, Phillip A; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2012-03-01

    Quadriceps strength is a vital component to lower extremity function and is often the focus in resistance training interventions and injury rehabilitation. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) is frequently used to supplement strength gains; however, the true effect remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the treatment effect for EMGBF on quadriceps strength compared with that of placebo and traditional exercise interventions in both healthy and pathological populations. Web of Science and ProQuest databases were searched, and bibliographies of relevant articles were crossreferenced. Six articles measuring isometric quadriceps strength in response to EMGBF training were included and methodologically assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Standardized effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from preintervention and postintervention measures for EMGBF, placebo, and exercise-only interventions. Separate comparisons were made between studies assessing different intervention length (<4 and ?4 weeks) and patient populations (pathological and healthy). Articles included received an average PEDro score of 6.5 0.84. Homogeneous EMGBF effect sizes were found in all 6 studies (d = 0.01-5.56), with 4 studies reporting CI that crossed 0. A heterogeneous collection of effect sizes was found for exercise alone (d = -0.12 to 1.18) and placebo (d = -0.2 to 1.38), with 4 and 1 studies having a CI that crossed 0, respectively. The greatest EMGBF effects were found in pathological populations (d = 0.01-5.56), with the strongest effect found in the subjects with knee osteoarthritis (d = 5.56, CI = 4.26-6.68). As a group, effects were the strongest for EMGBF compared with that of placebo and exercise-only interventions, yet definitive evidence that EMGBF is beneficial for increasing quadriceps strength could not be concluded because of the 4 studies demonstrating a wide CI. PMID:22289696

  17. Quadriceps Fatigue Alters Human Muscle Performance during a Novel Weight Bearing Task

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Bryon T.; Shields, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is currently available regarding muscle synergistic patterns and triggered reflex responses during dynamic weight bearing activities in the presence of muscle fatigue. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on patterns of muscle activation and performance in response to sudden, unexpected perturbations during a weight-bearing task. Methods Motion of the knee was measured as subjects were asked to track a visual target as accurately as possible while performing a resisted single leg squat task. Random perturbations were delivered in 20% of the trials by unexpectedly releasing the resistance during the flexion phase of the exercise. Absolute and constant errors were calculated to evaluate target tracking performance. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity was recorded during both perturbed and unperturbed trials. Twelve healthy females were tested before and after completing a repetitive submaximal eccentric quadriceps fatigue protocol. A second group of 12 females served as controls. Unexpected perturbations elicited long latency responses characterized by facilitation of the quadriceps and inhibition of the hamstrings. Results Muscle fatigue increased the amplitude of the long latency response in vastus lateralis by 4.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p=.004). Changes in tracking error occurred in response to perturbations after fatigue in spite of significantly increased quadriceps muscle activity, especially during the extension phase of the exercise. Conclusion Quadriceps muscle fatigue alters the patterns of coordinated muscle activity and may render subjects less able to cope with unexpected perturbations during weight bearing tasks. PMID:20164810

  18. Strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH): design of a randomised controlled trial of a hand and upper limb exercise intervention - ISRCTN89936343

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) commonly affects the hands and wrists with inflammation, deformity, pain, weakness and restricted mobility leading to reduced function. The effectiveness of exercise for RA hands is uncertain, although evidence from small scale studies is promising. The Strengthening And Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH) trial is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to best practice usual care for patients with RA. Methods/design 480 participants with problematic RA hands will be recruited through 17 NHS trusts. Treatments will be provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Participants will be individually randomised to receive either best practice usual care (joint protection advice, general exercise advice, functional splinting and assistive devices) or best practice usual care supplemented with an individualised exercise programme of strengthening and stretching exercises. The study assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and will follow participants up at four and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Hand function subscale of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes include hand and wrist impairment measures, quality of life, and resource use. Economic and qualitative studies will also be carried out in parallel. Discussion This paper describes the design and development of a trial protocol of a complex intervention study based in therapy out-patient departments. The findings will provide evidence to support or refute the use of an optimised exercise programme for RA of the hand in addition to best practice usual care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89936343 PMID:23176133

  19. Posture Exercises

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    ... Search You are here Home » Posture Exercises Posture Exercises When a person develops kyphosis, the posture becomes ... and strengthen the back. Try the following two exercises to keep your spine more limber and flexible. ...

  20. Effects of Stretching and Strengthening Exercises, With and Without Manual Therapy, on Scapular Kinematics, Function, and Pain in Individuals With Shoulder Impingement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Paula R; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Avila, Mariana A; Haik, Melina N; Vieira, Amilton; Salvini, Tania F

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective To evaluate the effects of an exercise protocol, with and without manual therapy, on scapular kinematics, function, pain, and mechanical sensitivity in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. Background Stretching and strengthening exercises have been shown to effectively decrease pain and disability in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. There is still conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of adding manual therapy to an exercise therapy regimen. Methods Forty-six patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups, one of which received a 4-week intervention of stretching and strengthening exercises (exercise alone) and the other the same intervention, supplemented by manual therapy targeting the shoulder and cervical spine (exercise plus manual therapy). All outcomes were measured preintervention and postintervention at 4 weeks. Outcome measures were scapular kinematics in the scapular and sagittal planes during arm elevation, function as determined through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, pain as assessed with a visual analog scale, and mechanical sensitivity as assessed with pressure pain threshold. Results Independent of the intervention group, small, clinically irrelevant changes in scapular kinematics were observed postintervention. A significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = .001) was found for scapular anterior tilt during elevation in the sagittal plane, with a 3.0° increase (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.5°, 7.5°) relative to baseline in the exercise-plus-manual therapy group compared to a decrease of 0.3° (95% CI: -4.2°, 4.8°) in the exercise-alone group. Pain, mechanical sensitivity, and the DASH score improved similarly for both groups by the end of the intervention period. Conclusion Adding manual therapy to an exercise protocol did not enhance improvements in scapular kinematics, function, and pain in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. The noted improvements in pain and function are not likely explained by changes in scapular kinematics. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02035618). Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(12):984-997. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5939. PMID:26471852

  1. Skeletal muscle alterations in chronic heart failure: differential effects on quadriceps and diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Mangner, Norman; Weikert, Bettina; Bowen, T Scott; Sandri, Marcus; Hllriegel, Robert; Erbs, Sandra; Hambrecht, Rainer; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Gielen, Stephan; Adams, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) results in limb and respiratory muscle weakness, which contributes to exercise intolerance and increased morbidity and mortality, yet the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to compare parameters of antioxidative capacity, energy metabolism, and catabolic/anabolic balance in diaphragm and quadriceps muscle in an animal model of CHF. Methods Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (n?=?13) or sham operation (n?=?11) was performed on Wistar Kyoto rats. After 12?weeks, echocardiography and invasive determination of maximal rates of left ventricular (LV) pressure change were performed. Antioxidative and metabolic enzyme activities and expression of catabolic/anabolic markers were assessed in quadriceps and diaphragm muscle. Results Ligated rats developed CHF (i.e. severe LV dilatation, reduced LV ejection fraction, and impaired maximal rates of LV pressure change; P?quadriceps in CHF rats, with glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase activity increased in the diaphragm but reduced in the quadriceps relative to shams (P?quadriceps of CHF animals. Protein expression of the E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 and proteasome activity were increased (P?quadriceps in CHF rats compared with shams. Conclusion Chronic heart failure induced divergent antioxidative and metabolic but similar catabolic responses between the diaphragm and quadriceps. Despite the quadriceps demonstrating significant impairments in CHF, apparent beneficial adaptations of an increased antioxidative capacity were induced in the diaphragm. Nevertheless, muscle ring finger 1 and proteasome activity (markers of protein degradation) were elevated and oxidative enzyme activity failed to increase in the diaphragm of CHF rats, which suggest that a myopathy is likely present in respiratory muscle in CHF, despite its constant activation. PMID:26674018

  2. Prevalence of quadriceps muscle weakness in patients with COPD and its association with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Sidharth; Ramakrishna, Anand; Krishnan, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction COPD presents with an array of extra-pulmonary symptoms of which skeletal muscle dysfunction, particularly of the quadriceps, is well recognized. This contributes to impaired quality of life and increased health care utilization. Work on the quadriceps originated from the observation that a good proportion of COPD patients stop exercise due to the feeling of leg fatigue rather than breathlessness. This study was carried out with the aim of finding the prevalence of quadriceps weakness in a population set and correlate it with severity of COPD. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 subjects suffering from COPD aged 45 years or above. COPD severity in the subjects was graded based on the GOLD staging system. A digital hand held dynamometer (HHD) was used to measure quadriceps muscle strength. Descriptive statistics were done, and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA analysis was used for expressing the results. Results Ninety two percent of subjects were suffering from quadriceps muscle weakness. Quadriceps weakness was present in significantly high proportions even in those suffering from mild disease and belonging to a younger age group. The mean quadriceps muscle force value decreased with disease severity and this relation was found to be significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Majority of the COPD patients were found to be suffering from quadriceps weakness, which was also present in significant proportions in subjects belonging to younger age groups and suffering from mild disease. These findings indicate that onset of muscle weakness in COPD may precede the onset of symptoms. These findings suggest need for early remedial measure to prevent occurrence of associated systemic diseases. PMID:26366065

  3. Correction of Camptocormia Using a Cruciform Anterior Spinal Hyperextension Brace and Back Extensor Strengthening Exercise in a Patient With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Byung Kook; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by cardinal motor features including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, freezing gait, and fatigue. Of these, postural instability in the form of hyperflexion of the thoracolumbar spine upon standing and walking that disappears on recumbent positioning is called camptocormia. Many different trials have been conducted on the treatment of camptocormia, including physiotherapy, corsets, medications, and deep brain stimulation. However, there is insufficient evidence as to which treatment modality is the most valid in terms of effectiveness, cost, safety, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we present a patient whose symptom of camptocormia was effectively resolved using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension (CASH) brace and back extensor strengthening exercise which was modified through follow-ups based on a short-term outpatient setting for proper application with minimal discomfort. The patient was satisfied with the amount of correction provided by the brace and exercise. PMID:25750882

  4. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models. PMID:26467265

  5. Gait Biomechanics and Patient-Reported Function as Predictors of Response to a Hip Strengthening Exercise Intervention in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kobsar, Dylan; Osis, Sean T.; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Ferber, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscle strengthening exercises have been shown to improve pain and function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, but individual response rates can vary greatly. Predicting individuals who respond and those who do not is important in developing a more efficient and effective model of care for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use pre-intervention gait kinematics and patient-reported outcome measures to predict post-intervention response to a 6-week hip strengthening exercise intervention in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Methods Thirty-nine patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis completed a 6-week hip-strengthening program and were subgrouped as Non-Responders, Low-Responders, or High-Responders following the intervention based on their change in Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Predictors of responder subgroups were retrospectively determined from baseline patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic gait parameters in a discriminant analysis of principal components. A 3–4 year follow-up on 16 of the patients with knee OA was also done to examine long-term changes in these parameters. Results A unique combination of patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic factors was able to successfully subgroup patients with knee osteoarthritis with a cross-validated classification accuracy of 85.4%. Lower patient-reported function in daily living (ADL) scores and hip frontal plane kinematics during the loading response were most important in classifying High-Responders from other sub-groups, while a combination of hip, knee, ankle kinematics were used to classify Non-Responders from Low-Responders. Conclusion Patient-reported outcome measures and objective biomechanical gait data can be an effective method of predicting individual treatment success to an exercise intervention. Measuring gait kinematics, along with patient-reported outcome measures in a clinical setting can be useful in helping make evidence-based decisions regarding optimal treatment for patients with knee OA. PMID:26444426

  6. Exercises

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    ... Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important step ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  7. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PT Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important ... BACK: Nutrition More Exercises Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

  8. Minimally invasive quadriceps tendon harvest.

    PubMed

    Almazn Daz, Arturo; Cruz Lpez, Francisco; Prez Jimnez, Francisco-Xavier; Ibarra Ponce de Len, Jos-Clemente

    2006-06-01

    Quadriceps tendon (QT) is becoming a popular graft for primary and revision ligament surgery. A subcutaneous technique for graft harvesting a QT is presented. Special closed tendon strippers were designed; these devices have 10- and 11-mm inner diameters and are stronger and sharper than regular hamstrings strippers. In the mid-line of the patellar upper pole, a 2-cm longitudinal incision is made, a 20- x 10-mm bone plug is created with an oscillating saw, and the tendon stripper is positioned and advanced into the thigh, dissecting the QT until the desired length, usually 10 cm, is obtained. The graft can be released by making a stab incision at the device's tip or by ventrally pointing and turning the tendon stripper to amputate the graft's end. The QT graft can be prepared in several fashions for 1- or 2-bundle ligament reconstructions. The technique was tested and refined in 3 cadaver specimens and has been used at our institution since 2003 in 18 primary posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with no problems. This minimally invasive technique is safe, provides a consistently good-quality graft with excellent cosmetic results, and is simple and easily reproducible. PMID:16762711

  9. Effect of Resting in a Chair, Resting with Range of Motion Exercises, and Back Strengthening Exercises on Pain and the Flexion-relaxation Ratio of Computer Workers with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a relaxation chair and resting with simple range of motion exercises during computer work and low back muscle strengthening exercises after computer work on pain and the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio of one computer worker with LBP. [Subjects] The subject of this study was a 37?year-old male who complained of severe LBP pain at the L4 level. [Methods] In the study, the subject worked on a computer for 5?h each day for 3 days and followed a different program each day. [Results] In Session 1, the FR ratios before and after work were 19% and 38% (+19%), respectively. The respective VAS scores before and after work were 5 and 8 (+3). In Session 2, the FR ratios before and after work were 18% and 21% (+3%), respectively. The respective VAS scores were 5 and 6 (+1). In session 3, the FR ratios before and work were 22% and 29% (+7%), respectively, and the VAS scores were 5 and 6 (+1). [Conclusion] This study suggests that it is more effective to perform regular, passive exercises to prevent LBP in computer users. PMID:24648658

  10. Understanding Exercise, Diet and Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Warm-up Endurance (Cardiopulmonary) Exercise Resistance (Strengthening) Exercise Flexibility (Stretching) Exercise Cool-down If you are over ... household items initially while forming the exercise habit. Flexibility (Stretching) Exercise Gentle stretching exercises can be used ...

  11. Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mind and spirit. Learn More Learn More Adaptive Tai Chi Deep breathing and slow, gentle movements are the ... Larger Text Print Exercise Yoga and MS Adaptive Tai Chi Get pumped for exercise Research shows strength training ...

  12. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples. PMID:22739821

  13. Rapid recovery from spontaneous and simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in an active, healthy individual.

    PubMed

    Gaheer, Rajinder Singh; Hawkins, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    Bilateral spontaneous quadriceps rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and is frequently misdiagnosed. It is rarely seen in healthy, active individuals. This article presents a case of bilateral simultaneous and spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a healthy, athletic, active and highly motivated patient with rapid recovery from injury and return to full sport activity within a relatively short period of time. A 65-year-old healthy man felt both knees give way while walking down stairs at home and collapsed, unable to bear weight. He was fit and well, not on any medications and basic laboratory screening was within normal limits. He was an active sportsman, horse rider, swimmer, and long-distance cyclist, and had completed a half marathon 1 month before his injury. He was diagnosed with bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures. An ultrasound of both knees confirmed the diagnosis of full-thickness rupture. Surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons was performed 3 days after the injury. Bilateral locking brace in 10 degrees of flexion was used to immobilize both knees and protect the repair for 6 weeks. The patient remained nonweight bearing for 2 weeks, then gradual weight bearing was commenced, with full weight bearing at 6 weeks. Intensive isometric quadriceps exercises were started on the second postoperative day. Immobilization of both knees was maintained for 6 weeks, after which full active range of motion (ROM) was initiated. At 16 weeks after the injury he had bilateral ROM from 0 degrees to 120 degrees flexion, with no extension lag. He was horse riding, playing golf, swimming, and walking distances up to 2 miles at that time. PMID:20608622

  14. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  15. Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Devrim; ?ayli, mer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

  16. Quadriceps and Respiratory Muscle Fatigue Following High-Intensity Cycling in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bachasson, Damien; Wuyam, Bernard; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Tamisier, Renaud; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Exercise intolerance in COPD seems to combine abnormal ventilatory mechanics, impaired O2 transport and skeletal muscle dysfunction. However their relatie contribution and their influence on symptoms reported by patients remain to be clarified. In order to clarify the complex interaction between ventilatory and neuromuscular exercise limiting factors and symptoms, we evaluated respiratory muscles and quadriceps contractile fatigue, dynamic hyperinflation and symptoms induced by exhaustive high-intensity cycling in COPD patients. Fifteen gold II-III COPD patients (age = 67±6 yr; BMI = 26.6±4.2 kg.m-2) performed constant-load cycling test at 80% of their peak workload until exhaustion (9.3±2.4 min). Before exercise and at exhaustion, potentiated twitch quadriceps strength (Qtw), transdiaphragmatic (Pdi,tw) and gastric (Pga,tw) pressures were evoked by femoral nerve, cervical and thoracic magnetic stimulation, respectively. Changes in operational lung volumes during exercise were assessed via repetitive inspiratory capacity (IC) measurements. Dyspnoea and leg discomfort were measured on visual analog scale. At exhaustion, Qtw (-33±15%, >15% reduction observed in all patients but two) and Pdi,tw (-20±15%, >15% reduction in 6 patients) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) but not Pga,tw (-6±10%, >15% reduction in 3 patients). Percentage reduction in Qtw correlated with the percentage reduction in Pdi,tw (r=0.66; P<0.05). Percentage reductions in Pdi,tw and Pga,tw negatively correlated with the reduction in IC at exhaustion (r=-0.56 and r=-0.62, respectively; P<0.05). Neither dyspnea nor leg discomfort correlated with the amount of muscle fatigue. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise induces quadriceps, diaphragm and less frequently abdominal contractile fatigue in this group of COPD patients. In addition, the rise in end-expiratory lung volume and diaphragm flattening associated with dynamic hyperinflation in COPD might limit the development of abdominal and diaphragm muscle fatigue. This study underlines that both respiratory and quadriceps fatigue should be considered to understand the complex interplay of factors leading to exercise intolerance in COPD patients. PMID:24324843

  17. Muscle deoxygenation in the quadriceps during ramp incremental cycling: Deep vs. superficial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Okushima, Dai; Poole, David C; Rossiter, Harry B; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-12-01

    Muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxy[Hb + Mb]) during exercise assesses the matching of oxygen delivery (Q?o2) to oxygen utilization (V?o2). Until now limitations in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology did not permit discrimination of deoxy[Hb + Mb] between superficial and deep muscles. In humans, the deep quadriceps is more highly vascularized and oxidative than the superficial quadriceps. Using high-power time-resolved NIRS, we tested the hypothesis that deoxygenation of the deep quadriceps would be less than in superficial muscle during incremental cycling exercise in eight males. Pulmonary V?o2 was measured and muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] was determined in the superficial vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF-s) and the deep rectus femoris (RF-d). deoxy[Hb + Mb] in RF-d was significantly less than VL at 70% (67.2 7.0 vs. 75.5 10.7 ?M) and 80% (71.4 11.0 vs. 79.0 15.4 ?M) of peak work rate (WRpeak), but greater than VL and VM at WRpeak (87.7 32.5 vs. 76.6 17.5 and 75.1 19.9 ?M). RF-s was intermediate at WRpeak (82.6 18.7 ?M). Total hemoglobin and myoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation were significantly greater in RF-d than RF-s throughout exercise. The slope of deoxy[Hb + Mb] increase (proportional to Q?o2/V?o2) in VL and VM slowed markedly above 70% WRpeak, whereas it became greater in RF-d. This divergent deoxygenation pattern may be due to a greater population of slow-twitch muscle fibers in the RF-d muscle and the differential recruitment profiles and vascular and metabolic control properties of specific fiber populations within superficial and deeper muscle regions. PMID:26404619

  18. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  19. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus. [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukeys test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.2329.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (4762%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.3512.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  20. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus(). [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23-29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47-62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35-12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  1. Recovery of gait after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Beretta, Stephannie Spiandor; Pereira, Vinicius A I; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; van Dien, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recovery time after quadriceps muscle fatigue on gait in young adults. Forty young adults (20-40 years old) performed three 8-m gait trials at preferred velocity before and after muscle fatigue, and after 5, 10 and 20min of passive rest. In addition, at each time point, two maximal isometric voluntary contractions were preformed. Muscle fatigue was induced by repeated sit-to-stand transfers until task failure. Spatio-temporal, kinetic and muscle activity parameters, measured in the central stride of each trial, were analyzed. Data were compared between before and after the muscle fatigue protocol and after the recovery periods by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The voluntary force was decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and after 5, 10 and 20min of recovery compared to before the fatigue protocol. Step width (p<0.001) and RMS of biceps femoris (p<0.05) were increased immediately after the fatigue protocol and remained increased after the recovery periods. In addition, stride duration was decreased immediately after the fatigue protocol compared to before and to after 10 and 20min of rest (p<0.001). The anterior-posterior propulsive impulse was also decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and remained low after 5, 10 and 20min of rest. We conclude that 20min is not enough to see full recovery of gait after exhaustive quadriceps muscle fatigue. PMID:26531768

  2. Aerobic exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  3. Wearable Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Assessment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308

  4. Reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon ruptures using the quadriceps graft.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Joo Luiz Ellera; de Oliveira Alves, Jairo Andr; Zimmermann, Jos Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Several techniques using different grafts have been described for reconstruction of the patellar tendon after a neglected rupture. Retraction of the quadriceps tendon may compromise repair integrity due to progressive stretching of the graft. The authors present a surgical technique using the central one-third of the quadriceps tendon. This is supported by the fact that the resistance to traction of this segment of the quadriceps tendon equals that of a double-looped semitendinosus graft and that the harvesting of this specific graft promotes muscle inhibition, thus protecting the reconstruction during the recovery period. PMID:25102494

  5. Late quadriceps tendon rupture at the donor site following cruciate ligament reconstruction using central quadriceps tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Madi, Sandesh; Joseph, Amy; Acharya, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Central quadriceps tendon (CQT) graft has been successfully used as a viable autograft option in cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee. The prime emphasis in the majority of the literature is given to surgical details of quadriceps graft harvesting and outcome of cruciate ligament reconstruction. There is less discussion about donor site morbidity in CQT graft, and it is less frequent as compared to that in bone patellar tendon bone graft. We report an extremely unusual case of late quadriceps tendon rupture at the donor site following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using CQT graft. PMID:26475883

  6. A New Clinical Test in Diagnosing Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, BM; Garofalo, R; Gillain, L; Schizas, C

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Extensor mechanism ruptures might be easily overlooked and misdiagnosed, and delayed diagnosis of quadriceps tendon rupture is frequent. However, the literature recommends early surgical repair within 72 h. PATIENTS AND METHODS This paper describes a new simple clinical diagnostic test that directly evaluates the integrity of the distal 5 cm of the quadriceps tendon itself. It consists of inserting a needle in the tendon, proximal to the suspected rupture and mobilising the knee joint. RESULTS The suspected ruptured quadriceps tendons with a positive needle diagnostic test were confirmed intra-operatively. CONCLUSIONS This minimally invasive and easily available technique should be considered in the diagnostic work-up and treatment planning of patients with suspected tears of the quadriceps tendon. PMID:17394710

  7. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia: consequences for locomotor muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Romer, Lee M; Dempsey, Jerome A; Lovering, Andrew; Eldridge, Marlowe

    2006-01-01

    Reductions in arterial O2 saturation (-5 to -10% SaO2 < rest) occur over time during sustained heavy intensity exercise in a normoxic environment, due primarily to the effects of acid pH and increased temperature on the position of the HbO2 dissociation curve. We prevented the desaturation via increased F1O2 (.23 to .29) and showed that exercise time to exhaustion was increased. We used supramaximal magnetic stimulation (1 - 100 Hz) of the femoral nerve to test for quadriceps fatigue. We used mildly hyperoxic inspirates (F1O2 .23 to .29) to prevent O2 desaturation. We then compared the amount of quadriceps fatigue incurred following cycling exercise at SaO2 98% vs. 91% with each trial carried out at equal exercise intensities (90% Max) and for equal durations. Preventing the normal exercise-induced O2 desaturation prevented about one-half the amount of exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue; plasma lactate and effort perception were also reduced. We conclude that the normal exercise-induced O2 desaturation during heavy intensity endurance exercise contributes significantly to exercise performance limitation in part because of its effect on locomotor muscle fatigue. These effects of EIAH were confirmed in mild environmental hypoxia (FIO2 .17, SaO2 88%) which significantly augmented the magnitude of exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue observed in normoxia. PMID:17089878

  8. Development and delivery of an exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis: strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH) trial.

    PubMed

    Heine, P J; Williams, M A; Williamson, E; Bridle, C; Adams, J; O'Brien, A; Evans, D; Lamb, S E

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343]. PMID:22507362

  9. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. -1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. -8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. -12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. -6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  10. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. −1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. −8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. −12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. −6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  11. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  12. Effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65?years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25931718

  13. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Timur; Aslan, Meryem Doğan; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT) application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p < 0.05). However, change levels were significantly higher in the KT group than the control group at 60 degrees/second angular velocity (AV) in extension (p = 0.04) and 60 and 180 degrees/second AV in flexion (both p = 0.02) on the paretic side. Moreover, the change levels were more prominent in the KT group at 60 and 180 degrees/second AV in extension (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively) on the nonparetic side. Gait, balance, mobility, and quality of life values improved significantly in both groups (all p < 0.05), yet the change levels between the groups did not reach significance (p > 0.05). KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters. PMID:26220179

  14. Editorial Commentary: Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Use for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Predicted to Increase.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2016-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon autograft is the least utilized choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, but use is expected to increase. Harvest of the full thickness of the distal quadriceps tendon is of concern, but morbidity seems low. PMID:26743412

  15. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Walking Program on the Exercise Capacity and Weight Reduction for Adolescents with Severe Autism Therapeutic effects of strengthening exercise on gait function of cerebral palsy. Home About Privacy Policy Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Facebook Twitter ...

  16. Opposite effects of hyperoxia on mitochondrial and contractile efficiency in human quadriceps muscles.

    PubMed

    Layec, Gwenael; Bringard, Aurlien; Le Fur, Yann; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Vilmen, Christophe; Perrey, Stphane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David

    2015-04-15

    Exercise efficiency is an important determinant of exercise capacity. However, little is known about the physiological factors that can modulate muscle efficiency during exercise. We examined whether improved O2 availability would 1) impair mitochondrial efficiency and shift the energy production toward aerobic ATP synthesis and 2) reduce the ATP cost of dynamic contraction owing to an improved neuromuscular efficiency, such that 3) whole body O2 cost would remain unchanged. We used (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, surface electromyography, and pulmonary O2 consumption (V?o2p) measurements in eight active subjects during 6 min of dynamic knee-extension exercise under different fractions of inspired O2 (FiO2 , 0.21 in normoxia and 1.0 in hyperoxia). V?o2p (755 111 ml/min in normoxia and 799 188 ml/min in hyperoxia, P > 0.05) and O2 cost (P > 0.05) were not significantly different between normoxia and hyperoxia. In contrast, the total ATP synthesis rate and the ATP cost of dynamic contraction were significantly lower in hyperoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05). As a result, the ratio of the rate of oxidative ATP synthesis from the quadriceps to V?o2p was lower in hyperoxia than normoxia but did not reach statistical significance (16 3 mM/ml in normoxia and 12 5 mM/ml in hyperoxia, P = 0.07). Together, these findings reveal dynamic and independent regulations of mitochondrial and contractile efficiency as a consequence of O2 availability in young active individuals. Furthermore, muscle efficiency appears to be already optimized in normoxia and is unlikely to contribute to the well-established improvement in exercise capacity induced by hyperoxia. PMID:25695290

  17. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not required.

  18. Diminished sub-maximal quadriceps force control in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients is related to quadriceps and hamstring muscle dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Telianidis, Stacey; Perraton, Luke; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Fortin, Karine; Bryant, Adam L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on sub-maximal quadriceps force control with respect to quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity. Thirty ACLR individuals together with 30 healthy individuals participated. With real-time visual feedback of muscle force output and electromyographic electrodes attached to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects performed an isometric knee extension task where they increased and decreased their muscle force output at 0.128Hz within a range of 5-30% maximum voluntary capacity. The ACLR group completed the task with more error and increased medial hamstring and vastus medialis activation (p<0.05). Moderate negative correlations (p<0.05) were observed between quadriceps force control and medial (Spearman's rho=-0.448, p=0.022) and lateral (Spearman's rho=-0.401, p=0.034) hamstring activation in the ACLR group. Diminished quadriceps sub-maximal force control in ACLR subjects was reflective of medial quadriceps and hamstring dyskinesia (i.e., altered muscle activity patterns and coordination deficits). Within the ACLR group however, augmented hamstring co-activation was associated with better quadriceps force control. Future studies should explore the convergent validity of quadriceps force control in ACLR patients. PMID:24875460

  19. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

  20. Method of quadriceps attachment following upper tibial resection.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Christopher J; O'Sullivan, Mark; Theile, Richard; Tan, Sze C

    2006-01-01

    Limb salvage procedures for osteosarcomas of the upper tibia present combined problems of knee-joint and tibial reconstruction. Many methods of overcoming this have been described. We describe a new technique of prosthetic knee-joint and upper-tibial reconstruction, combined with a vascularized fibular bone flap for reattachment of the quadriceps muscle and tendon unit, resulting in superior long-term function. PMID:16538637

  1. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft.

    PubMed

    Rabuck, Stephen J; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H; West, Robin V

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of graft options exist including both allograft and autograft sources for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. With recent concerns regarding the early graft failure and cost-effectiveness of allograft sources, more attention has been directed toward autograft options. However, autograft harvest has been associated with specific morbidity that can result in suboptimal outcomes. The quadriceps tendon is an excellent biomechanical and biologic option. PMID:23177469

  2. Novel Pharmacological Properties of Dinoponera quadriceps Giant Ant Venom.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Juliana da Costa; Quinet, Yves Patric; Nonato, Dayanne Terra Tenrio; Sousa, Paloma Leo; Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo; Jos Eduardo Ribeiro Honrio Jnior; Pereira, Maria Gonalves; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio

    2015-09-01

    The South American giant ant, Dinoponera quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae), produces proteinaceous venom that has antinociceptive, neuroprotective and antimicrobial effects, thereby supporting the popular use of these ants to treat asthma, rheumatism, earache and back pain. Anticoagulant activity is another biological property that has been shown for the venom of other hymenopteran species, like wasps. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antiplatelet properties of D. quadriceps venom (DqV). DqV anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by intravenous administration in Swiss mice in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. In vitro, DqV was assessed in coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time) and platelet aggregation tests. DqV inhibited (27-33%) the edema elicited by carrageenan and the leucocyte migration (43%) elicited by zymosan. DqV decreased by 57% and 42%, respectively, the content of malondialdehyde and nitrite in the peritoneal fluid. DqV prolonged (1.8x) the clotting time and decreased (27%) the platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate. The crude venom of D. quadriceps presents an anti-inflammatory effect in mice and in vitro anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects. PMID:26594770

  3. An alternative cruciate reconstruction graft: the central quadriceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, J P; Langeland, R

    1995-04-01

    The central quadriceps tendon, above the patella, is thicker and wider than the patella tendon. Using precise technique, one can obtain a tendon graft for cruciate reconstruction with 50% greater mass than a patellar tendon bone-tendon-bone graft of similar width. The central quadriceps tendon graft may be harvested by a second surgeon while the first surgeon is simultaneously accomplishing notch-plasty and tunnel placement for cruciate ligament reconstruction. Consequently, this cruciate ligament reconstruction graft offers time savings as well as greater tendon volume. The central quadriceps tendon graft is difficult to harvest, with significant risk of entering the suprapatellar pouch and losing knee distension during ACL reconstruction. By careful adherence to the technique described in this article, the surgeon can obtain this reconstruction graft safely. It is important to recognize the anatomic subtleties of the proximal patella, which include a curved proximal surface, dense cortical bone, and closely adherent suprapatellar pouch. Proper technique is of utmost importance in obtaining this tendon graft safely and efficiently. PMID:7794444

  4. Fatigue and rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Greco, Camila C; da Silva, Wendell L; Camarda, Sérgio R A; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue induced by an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise on different hamstrings/quadriceps (H:Q) ratios of soccer players. Twenty-two male professional soccer players (23·1 ± 3·4 year) performed maximal eccentric (ecc) and concentric (con) contractions for knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60° s(-1) and 180° s(-1) to assess conventional (H(con) :Q(con)) and functional (H(ecc) :Q(con)) ratios. Additionally, they performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction for KE and KF, from which the maximal muscle strength, rate of force development (RFD) and RFD H:Q strength ratio (RFDH:Q) were extracted. Thereafter, subjects were performed an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise and a posttest similar to the pretest. There was significant reduction in H(con) :Q(con) (0·60 ± 0·06 versus 0·58 ± 0·06, P<0·05) and in H(ecc) :Q(con) (1·29 ± 0·2 versus 1·16 ± 0·2, P<0·01) after the soccer-specific exercise. However, no significant difference between Pre and Post exercise conditions was found for RFDH:Q at 0-50 (0·53 ± 0·23 versus 0·57 ± 0·24, P>0·05) and 0-100 ms (0·53 ± 0·17 versus 0·55 ± 0·17, P>0·05). In conclusion, H:Q strength ratios based on peak force values are more affected by fatigue than RFDH:Q obtained during early contraction phase. Thus, fatigue induced by soccer-specific intermittent protocol seems not reduce the potential for knee joint stabilization during the initial phase of voluntary muscle contraction. PMID:23216761

  5. Effect of Knee Position on Quadriceps Muscle Force Steadiness and Activation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Allen, Eric J.; Williams, Glenn N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the effect of knee position on quadriceps force steadiness and activation strategies. Methods Quadriceps force steadiness was evaluated in twenty-two volunteers at two knee positions by testing their ability to regulate submaximal force. Muscle activation strategies were studied in both time and frequency domains using surface electromyography. Results Quadriceps force fluctuations and the associated agonist and antagonist activity were significantly higher at 90 than at 30 of flexion (P < 0.05). The quadriceps median frequency recorded at 30 was significantly higher than at 90 of flexion (P < 0.05). Regression analyses revealed that force steadiness was related to quadriceps activation and median frequency (P < 0.001), but not to hamstring coactivation (P > 0.05). Discussion The results indicate that knee position significantly affects quadriceps force steadiness and activation strategies. This finding may have important implications for designing a force control testing protocol and interpreting test results. PMID:21404288

  6. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  7. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ? 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  8. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension

  9. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  10. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using aQuadriceps Tendon Graft.

    PubMed

    Saper, Michael G; Shneider, David A

    2014-08-01

    Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella. PMID:25264506

  11. Primary Tuberculous Pyomyositis of Quadriceps Femoris in an Immunocompetent Individual

    PubMed Central

    Modi, M. A.; Mate, A. D.; Nasta, A. M.; Gvalani, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary tuberculous pyomyositis is a rare manifestation of musculoskeletal tuberculosis especially in immunocompetent individuals without a focus of tuberculosis in the body and the underlying bone disease. It can cause a diagnostic dilemma for a physician and surgeon because of its similar presentation to soft tissue sarcomas, hematomas, and myopathies. We present a case of a 45-year-old immunocompetant gentleman with a thigh swelling with sepsis due to pyomyositis of the quadriceps requiring a multimodal management of drainage of abscess, debridement of devitalized muscle, antitubercular drugs, and physiotherapy. In a tubercular endemic country, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose this disease which can be cured completely. PMID:24367732

  12. Examining the Association Between Quadriceps Strength and Cognitive Performance in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Sun, Yu-Shan; Yang, Hui-Fang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Wu, Li-Wei; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidences showed impaired muscle strength was prevalent in older adults with mild cognition impairment or dementia. However, little was known about the role of quadriceps strength in the cognition decline among older population. The objective of our study was to investigate the relation between quadriceps strength and cognitive performance. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002), a total of 1799 participants aged ≥60 years were enrolled in the study. Every subject completed a household interview, digit symbol substitution test (DSST), physical performances, and a questionnaire regarding personal health. Estimation of relationship between quadriceps strength and cognition was using multiple linear regression and quartile-based analysis with an extended-model approach for covariates adjustment. In a model adjusted for demographics, chronic diseases, health behaviors, and levels of folate and vitamin B12, the level of quadriceps strength was significantly associated with the scores of DSST. The β coefficient interpreted as change of DSST scores for each Newton increment in quadriceps strength comparing participants in the highest quartile of quadriceps strength to those in the lowest quartile was 5.003 (95% confidence interval, 2.725–7.281, P < 0.001). The trends of incremental DSST score across increasing quartiles of quadriceps strength were statistically significant (all P for trend <0.001). Higher quadriceps strength was associated with better cognitive performance. PMID:26266380

  13. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceio, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandro, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 16.52 kg; height, 163 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 30 and 3 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ? 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ?54%, p < 0.001; LRT-BFR: ?17%, p = 0.067) and quadriceps CSA (HRT: 7.9%, p < 0.001; LRT-BFR: 6.6%, p < 0.001); however, HRT seems to induce greater strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly. PMID:25264670

  14. The Utility of a High-intensity Exercise Protocol to Prospectively Assess ACL Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, F M; Garca-Pinillos, F; Raja Azidin, R M F; Vanrenterghem, J; Robinson, M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the utility of a 5-min high-intensity exercise protocol (SAFT(5)) to include in prospective cohort studies investigating ACL injury risk. 15 active females were tested on 2 occasions during which their non-dominant leg was analysed before SAFT(5) (PRE), immediately after (POST0), 15?min after (POST15), and 30?min after (POST30). On the first occasion, testing included 5 maximum isokinetic contractions for eccentric and concentric hamstring and concentric quadriceps and on the second occasion, 3 trials of 2 landing tasks (i.?e., single-leg hop and drop vertical jump) were conducted. Results showed a reduced eccentric hamstring peak torque at POST0, POST15 and POST30 (p<0.05) and a reduced functional HQ ratio (Hecc/Qcon) at POST15 and POST30 (p<0.05). Additionally, a more extended knee angle at POST30 (p<0.05) and increased knee internal rotation angle at POST0 and POST15 (p<0.05) were found in a single-leg hop. SAFT(5) altered landing strategies associated with increased ACL injury risk and similar to observations from match simulations. Our findings therefore support the utility of a high-intensity exercise protocol such as SAFT(5) to strengthen injury screening tests and to include in prospective cohort studies where time constraints apply. PMID:26509378

  15. Is Single-Radius Design Better for Quadriceps Recovery in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Bae, Dae-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although single-radius (SR) designs have a theoretical advantage in quadriceps recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there has been a paucity of objective evaluation studies. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty minimally invasive TKAs were prospectively randomized by a single surgeon into 2 groups: SR design TKA group and multi-radius design TKA group. Quadriceps force and power were assessed using a dynamometer, and clinical data were investigated preoperatively and 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Results There were no differences between two groups in quadriceps recovery and clinical results throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients whose postoperative quadriceps force and power reached preoperative level was similar in both groups. Conclusions Femoral component design itself would not significantly influence quadriceps recovery after TKA. PMID:26676282

  16. How to Strengthen Your Ankle After a Sprain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can bear weight comfortably and your range of motion is near full. There are several types of strengthening exercises. The easiest to begin with are isometric exercises that you do by pushing against a fixed object with ... ankle's range of motion against some form of resistance. The photos below ...

  17. Quadriceps muscle injury in trans-femoral amputees.

    PubMed

    Alsindi, Z; Datta, D

    1998-12-01

    Two male trans-femoral amputees using modular trans-femoral prostheses lost control and fell to the ground when their prosthetic knees gave way. The semi-automatic knee lock malfunctioned in the first case while the free knee stabilising mechanics gave way in the second case. This resulted in a high tensile force acting on the contralateral quadriceps muscle causing it to rupture. As there are a significant number of patients with both kinds of prostheses it is important to be aware of this possibility so that necessary actions can be taken to minimise its occurrence. Even with the currently available weight activated stance phase control, the prosthetic knee will give way if the knee is flexed more than 20 degrees on weight bearing. Good power and control of hip extensors on the amputation side is needed to control the prosthetic knee joint, especially in the early stage of the walking cycle, i.e., from heel strike to mid-stance. Quadriceps muscle injury in amputees, as far as the authors are aware, has not been reported previously. PMID:9881613

  18. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles. PMID:26246835

  19. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles. PMID:26246835

  20. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  1. Relationship Between Intensity of Quadriceps Muscle Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Strength Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Jaclyn E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Eckhoff, Donald G.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can facilitate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the optimal intensity (dosage) of NMES and its effect on strength after TKA have yet to be determined. Objective The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the intensity of NMES application was related to the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength early after TKA. A secondary objective was to quantify quadriceps muscle fatigue and activation immediately after NMES to guide decisions about the timing of NMES during rehabilitation sessions. Design This study was an observational experimental investigation. Methods Data were collected from 30 people who were 50 to 85 years of age and who received NMES after TKA. These people participated in a randomized controlled trial in which they received either standard rehabilitation or standard rehabilitation plus NMES to the quadriceps muscle to mitigate strength loss. For the NMES intervention group, NMES was applied 2 times per day at the maximal tolerable intensity for 15 contractions beginning 48 hours after surgery over the first 6 weeks after TKA. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training intensity and quadriceps muscle strength and activation were assessed before surgery and 3.5 and 6.5 weeks after TKA. Results At 3.5 weeks, there was a significant association between NMES training intensity and a change in quadriceps muscle strength (R2=.68) and activation (R2=.22). At 6.5 weeks, NMES training intensity was related to a change in strength (R2=.25) but not to a change in activation (R2=.00). Furthermore, quadriceps muscle fatigue occurred during NMES sessions at 3.5 and 6.5 weeks, whereas quadriceps muscle activation did not change. Limitations Some participants reached the maximal stimulator output during at least 1 treatment session and might have tolerated more stimulation. Conclusions Higher NMES training intensities were associated with greater quadriceps muscle strength and activation after TKA. PMID:22652985

  2. Effects and feasibility of exercise therapy combined with branched-chain amino acid supplementation on muscle strengthening in frail and pre-frail elderly people requiring long-term care: a crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Aizawa, Junya; Nagasawa, Hiroshi; Gomi, Ikuko; Kugota, Hiroyuki; Nanjo, Keigo; Jinno, Tetsuya; Masuda, Tadashi; Morita, Sadao

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects and feasibility of a twice-weekly combined therapy of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and exercise on physical function improvement in frail and pre-frail elderly people requiring long-term care. We used a crossover design in which the combination of exercise and nutritional interventions was carried out twice a week during cycles A (3 months) and B (3 months) and the exercise intervention alone was performed during the washout period. The exercise intervention entailed the following 5 training sets: 3 sets of muscle training at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, 1 set of aerobic exercise, and 1 set of balance training. For the nutritional intervention, 6 g of BCAAs or 6 g of maltodextrin was consumed 10 min before starting the exercise. We determined upper and lower limb isometric strength, performance on the Functional Reach Test (FRT) and the Timed Up and Go test, and activity level. In the comparison between the BCAA group and the control group after crossover, the improvement rates in gross lower limb muscle strength (leg press, knee extension) and FRT performance were significantly greater (by approximately 10%) in the BCAA group. In the comparison between different orders of BCAA administration, significant effects were shown for the leg press in both groups only when BCAAs were given. The combination of BCAA intake and exercise therapy yielded significant improvements in gross lower limb muscle strength and dynamic balance ability. PMID:26963483

  3. Single-dose effects of whole body vibration on quadriceps strength in individuals with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Rick; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2015-11-01

    Context Paresis associated with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs function. Whole body vibration (WBV) may increase strength by activating neuromuscular circuits. Objective We assessed effects of a single session of WBV on lower extremity strength in individuals with motor-incomplete SCI. Design A single-session blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation research laboratory. Participants Subjects (n=25; age 49.712.5 years) had chronic SCI (>1 year) and were able to stand for at least 45 seconds. Interventions Subjects were randomized either to WBV (n=13) consisting of four 45-second bouts with 1-minute intervening rest periods (frequency: 50Hz, amplitude: 2mm) or to sham electrical stimulation (n=12). Outcome measures Maximal voluntary isometric quadriceps force was measured with a fixed dynamometer. A modified Five-Time-Sit-To-Stand (FTSTS) test was used to assess functional lower extremity strength. Measures were made at pre-test, immediate post-test, and delayed post-test 20 minutes later. Results At immediate post-test, change in voluntary isometric force in the WBV group was 1.12kg greater than in the sham group. The within-group change for the WBV group was significant with a moderate effect size (P=0.05; ES=0.60). No force-related changes were observed in the sham group. The modified FTSTS scores improved in both groups, suggesting that this measure was subject to practice effects. Conclusion Evidence from the present study suggests that even a single session of WBV is associated with a meaningful short-term increase in quadriceps force-generating capacity in persons with motor-incomplete SCI. The multi-session use of WBV as part of a strengthening program deserves exploration. PMID:25664489

  4. Persistent Neuromuscular and Corticomotor Quadriceps Asymmetry After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kuenze, Christopher M.; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur; Diduch, David; Saliba, Susan A.; Hart, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Return to activity in the presence of quadriceps dysfunction may predispose individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to long-term joint degeneration. Asymmetry may manifest during movement and result in altered knee-joint–loading patterns; however, the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To compare limb symmetry of quadriceps neuromuscular function between participants with ACLR and participants serving as healthy controls. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 22 individuals with ACLR (12 men, 10 women) and 24 individuals serving as healthy controls (12 men, 12 women). Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (Nm/kg), quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) (%), quadriceps motor-neuron–pool excitability (Hoffmann reflex to motor wave ratio), and quadriceps active motor threshold (AMT) (% 2.0 T) were measured bilaterally and used to calculate limb symmetry indices for comparison between groups. We used analyses of variance to compare quadriceps Hoffmann reflex to motor wave ratio, normalized knee-extension MVIC torque, quadriceps CAR, and quadriceps AMT between groups and limbs. Results: The ACLR group exhibited greater asymmetry in knee-extension MVIC torque (ACLR group = 0.85 ± 0.21, healthy group = 0.97 ± 0.14; t44 = 2.26, P = .03), quadriceps CAR (ACLR group = 0.94 ± 0.11, healthy group = 1.00 ± 0.08; t44 = 2.22, P = .04), and quadriceps AMT (ACLR group = 1.13 ± 0.18, healthy group = 1.02 ± 0.11; t34 = −2.46, P = .04) than the healthy control group. Conclusions: Asymmetries in measures of quadriceps function and cortical excitability were present in patients with ACLR. Asymmetry in quadriceps strength, activation, and cortical excitability persisted in individuals with ACLR beyond return to recreational activity. Measuring the magnitude of asymmetry after ACLR represents an important step in understanding long-term reductions in self-reported function and increased rate of subsequent joint injury in otherwise healthy, active individuals after ACLR. PMID:25622244

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  6. Spontaneous, bilateral, quadriceps tendon rupture caused by local exposure to methidathion

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Ziogas, Evangelos; Dimitriadis, Theofilos; Koumis, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous, bilateral, quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. Many predisposing conditions have been reported that contribute to quadriceps tendon degeneration. We report a case of a 42-year-old farmer with spontaneous, bilateral, quadriceps tendon rupture and clear medical history. Clinical and laboratory investigations revealed no risk factors for tendon degeneration but the patient reported that he was exposed locally to methidathion 1 week before the rupture. Methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide commonly used in agriculture that is highly toxic via the dermal route. Methidathion induces lipid pre-oxidation and consequently alters quadriceps tendon blood supply and ultrastructure. The injury was treated with early surgical repair and final outcome was excellent 44 months postoperatively. PMID:22114623

  7. Preferential Quadriceps Activation in Female Athletes With Incremental Increases in Landing Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. PMID:21844610

  8. Developments in the Use of the Hamstring/Quadriceps Ratio for the Assessment of Muscle Balance

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Rosalind; Garbutt, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q) muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension) and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion). PMID:24701125

  9. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

  10. Corticospinal and Intracortical Excitability of the Quadriceps in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelson, Andrew J.; Thomas, Abbey C.; Kluger, Benzi M.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle are characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (OA), contributing to the quadriceps weakness that is also a hallmark of the disease. The mechanisms underlying this central activation deficit (CAD) are unknown, although cortical mechanisms may be involved. Here, we utilize transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal and intracortical excitability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and in a comparably aged group of healthy older adults, to quantify group differences and to examine associations between TMS measures and pain, quadriceps strength, and CAD. Seventeen patients with knee OA and 20 healthy controls completed testing. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured at the quadriceps by superficial electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Corticospinal excitability was assessed by measuring resting motor threshold (RMT) to TMS stimulation of the quadriceps representation at primary motor cortex, and intracortical excitability was assessed via paired pulse paradigms for short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). No statistically significant differences between patients with knee OA and healthy controls were found for RMT, SICI or ICF measures (p>0.05). For patients with knee OA, there were significant associations observed between pain and RMT, as well as between pain and ICF. No associations were observed between CAD and measures of corticospinal or intracortical excitability. These data suggest against direct involvement of corticospinal or intracortical pathways within primary motor cortex in the mechanisms of CAD. However, pain is implicated in the neural mechanisms of quadriceps motor control in patients with knee OA. PMID:25183161

  11. Effects of Kinesiology Taping on Repositioning Error of the Knee Joint after Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin Tae; Lee, Jung-hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, before and after a quadriceps muscle fatigue protocol, and after application of kinesiology tape. [Results] We found that repositioning errors of the dominant-side knee joint increased after quadriceps fatigue compared with no-fatigue conditions. However, kinesiology taping of the quadriceps muscle and patella after quadriceps fatigue significantly decreased repositioning errors of the knee joint. [Conclusion] These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue increases the repositioning error of the knee joint, whereas application of kinesiology tape decreases fatigue-induced joint repositioning error. PMID:25013297

  12. Correlation between Quadriceps Endurance and Adduction Moment in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the strength or endurance of thigh muscles (quadriceps and hamstring) is positively or negatively correlated with the adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees. This study therefore assessed the relationships between the strength and endurance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and adduction moment in osteoarthritic knees and evaluated predictors of the adduction moment. The study cohort comprised 35 patients with unilateral medial osteoarthritis and varus deformity who were candidates for open wedge osteotomy. The maximal torque (60°/sec) and total work (180°/sec) of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and knee adduction moment were evaluated using an isokinetic testing device and gait analysis system. The total work of the quadriceps (r = 0.429, P = 0.037) and hamstring (r = 0.426, P = 0.045) muscles at 180°/sec each correlated with knee adduction moment. Preoperative varus deformity was positively correlated with adduction moment (r = 0.421, P = 0.041). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that quadriceps endurance at 180°/sec was the only factor independently associated with adduction moment (β = 0.790, P = 0.032). The adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees correlated with the endurance, but not the strength, of the quadriceps muscle. However, knee adduction moment did not correlate with the strength or endurance of the hamstring muscle. PMID:26539830

  13. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Diekman, E F; Visser, G; Schmitz, J P J; Nievelstein, R A J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Wardrop, M; Van der Pol, W L; Houten, S M; van Riel, N A W; Takken, T; Jeneson, J A L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  14. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Diekman, E. F.; Visser, G.; Schmitz, J. P. J.; Nievelstein, R. A. J.; de Sain-van der Velden, M.; Wardrop, M.; Van der Pol, W. L.; Houten, S. M.; van Riel, N. A. W.; Takken, T.; Jeneson, J. A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  15. Force-velocity relationships in the human quadriceps muscles.

    PubMed

    Ingemann-Hansen, T; Halkjaer-Kristensen, J

    1979-01-01

    Isokinetic contraction were performed with the knee extensor muscles in 15 young male soccer players. The measurements were obtained by a modified isokinetic device (Orthotron). In the range of motion the angular velocity was constant from 90 degrees to 20 degrees of knee flexion. The angular velocity could be varied from 30 to 360 degrees/s. The overall variation of the pre-set speed and the peak torque, as estimated from duplicate trials through the whole velocity range, averaged 4% and 5%, respectively. The peak torque decreased linearly with increasing angular velocity in a semilogarithmic scale. An estimate of the peak torque-velocity relationship in an experimental subject was obtained from the slope and the fibre composition in the lateral portion of the quandriceps muscle in this group of subjects especially trained in fast movements. It was concluded that the present applied isokinetic device gives the opportunities to measure force-velocity characteristics in the intact quadriceps muscle of man. PMID:462148

  16. Size of quadriceps femoris may contribute to thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Wei; He, Ying; Yao, Yu; Qiu, Li; Tian, Hao-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) frequently occurs on male individuals at their third and forth decades. The major site of involvement is the proximal muscles of lower limbs. Increasing evidence has shown that the occurrence of TPP is determined by multiple factors. We hypothesized that apart from hormonal fluctuations, skeletal muscle itself may explain for the age and sex variance as well. Our study was established to explore whether the size of lower limb skeletal muscles were related to TPP. We conducted a clinical experiment including 43 patients diagnosed with TPP (Group 1) and 39 pure hyperthyroidism individuals (Group 2). Current age, body mass index (BMI), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), average girth of bilateral upper arm and thigh, physical activity level (PAL) were measured. We also adopted B mode ultrasound to quantify the muscle thickness (MT) of the major muscle involved in the disease, the quadriceps femoris (QF, including rectus femoris, RF; vastus intermedius, VI; vastus medialis, VM and vastus lateralis, VL). Patients were matched in TSH, FT4 and FT3. PAL was also statistically identical between groups. Age, BMI, thigh girth, the average of bilateral MT of QF were statistically different. After adjusting for age, BMI and girth, Group 1 still presented with larger MT of QF than Group 2, regardless of their current thyroid hormone level. There indeed exists an independent relationship between muscle thickness and TPP. PMID:26519100

  17. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  18. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, P<0.001), but were similar to preoperative level at six months (18.4 N∙m, 7.4 N∙m P<0.001) and were maintained for up to one year (15.9 N∙m, 4.1 N∙m P<0.001). The pooled mean differences in changes in quadriceps and hamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  19. Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established. The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically. We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric. The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode. The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. Discussion A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov number: NCT01586130. PMID:24693988

  20. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  1. Strengthening Resilience in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,

  2. as the Strengthening Precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2014-12-01

    Generally, Laves phase and M23C6 are regarded as undesirable phases in creep-resistant steels due to their very high-coarsening rates and the resulting depletion of beneficial alloying elements from the matrix. In this study, a computational alloy design approach is presented to develop martensitic steels strengthened by Laves phase and/or M23C6, for which the coarsening rates are tailored such that they are at least one order of magnitude lower than those in existing alloys. Their volume fractions are optimized by tuning the chemical composition in parallel. The composition domain covering 10 alloying elements at realistic levels is searched by a genetic algorithm to explore the full potential of simultaneous maximization of the volume fraction and minimization of the precipitates coarsening rate. The calculations show that Co and W can drastically reduce the coarsening rate of Laves and M23C6 and yield high-volume fractions of precipitates. Mo on the other hand was shown to have a minimal effect on coarsening. The strengthening effects of Laves phase and M23C6 in the newly designed alloys are compared to existing counterparts, showing substantially higher precipitation-strengthening contributions especially after a long service time. New alloys were designed in which both Laves phase and M23C6 precipitates act as strengthening precipitates. Successfully combining MX and M23C6 was found to be impossible.

  3. Strengthening Resilience in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,…

  4. Obesity and Knee Osteoarthritis Are Not Associated with Impaired Quadriceps Specific Strength

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Brubaker, Morgan; Torner, James C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether obese or moderately-severely obese adults have impaired quadriceps strength and muscle quality in comparison with non-obese adults age 5059 years with and without knee osteoarthritis (OA) Design Cross-sectional observational study Setting Rural community acquired sample Subjects 77 Men and 84 women age 5059 years Methods Comparisons using mixed models for clustered data (2 lower limbs per participant) between groups defined by BMI (<30kg/m2, 3035kg/m2, and ?35kg/m2) with and without knee OA Main Outcome Measurement the slope of the relationship between quadriceps muscle cross sectional area (ssCT) and isokinetic knee extensor strength (dynamometer) in each BMI and OA group. Results There were 113 (48.7% female), 101 (38.6% female), and 89 (73.0% female) limbs in the <30 kg/m2, 3035 kg/m2, and ?35kg/m2 BMI groups respectively. Knee OA was present in 10.6%, 28.7%, and 58.4% of the limbs in each of these respective groups. Quadriceps cross sectional area (CSA) did not significantly differ between BMI groups in either sex or between subjects with and without knee OA. Peak quadriceps strength also did not significantly differ by BMI group, or by the presence of knee OA. Multivariable analyses also demonstrated that peak quadriceps strength did not differ by BMI group, even after adjusting for a) sex, b) OA status, c) intramuscular fat, or d) quadriceps attenuation. The slopes for the relationships between quadriceps strength and CSA did not differ by BMI group, OA status or their interaction. Conclusions Obese individuals at risk for knee OA do not appear to have altered muscle strength or muscle quality compared with non-obese adults aged 5059 years. The absence of a difference in the relationship between peak quadriceps strength and CSA provided further evidence that there was not an impairment in quadriceps muscle quality in this cohort, suggesting that factors other than strength might mediate the association between obesity and knee OA. PMID:21497317

  5. [Functional changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with varus gonarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Pap, G; Machner, A; Awiszus, F

    2000-12-01

    In osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, arthrogenous muscle inhibition (AMI) is considered to be one of the reasons of quadricep muscle weakness. Its influence on functional impairment such as gait alterations, however, still remains unclear. Fourty-seven patients with knee OA (mean age 64 +/- 5.2 years, 36 women, 11 men) and 47 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were investigated for voluntary activation (VA) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadricep muscle. In addition, these two parameters of AMI have been correlated with the extent of gait alterations. Measurement of VA and MVC were performed by a twitch interpolation technique; for gait analysis an optoelectronic motion analysis system (ELITE, Italy) was used. Quadricep MVC and VA were significantly lower in OA than in control knees. Moreover, in addition to reduced walking velocity and step cadence, gait analysis revealed significantly lower stance phase re-extension angles in OA patients (mean 2.7 degrees +/- 2.6) than in control knees (mean 10.7 degrees +/- 4.9). Hereby, in OA knees there was a significant correlation between MVC and VA deficits and the reduction of re-extension angles. The work shows that knee OA is characterized by severe alterations of the quadricep motor function due to arthrogenous muscle inhibition. Hereby, quadricep AMI represents one major reason for functional impairment in knee OA. PMID:11201003

  6. Patellar hypomobility and the flexibility of the iliotibial band and the femoral quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Getka, Aleksandra

    2005-12-30

    Background. The aim of our study was to determine whether or not the flexibility of the iliotibial band and femoral quadriceps have an impact on patellar hypomobility, due to their connections with the patellar stabilizers. Material and methods. We examined 62 patients (44 females, 18 males) with a median age of 15 years (range 9-19). All these patients had patellofemoral dysfunction in the tested knees (101). The medial and distal glide of the patella were tested with a manual test according to Kaltenborn's scale. Ober's test was performed to test the tightness of the iliotibial band. The flexibility of the quadriceps femoris was tested while the patient was lying prone with the tested leg on the couch and the other beside it. Results. Statistical analysis based on the c2 test (P=0.05) found no dependence between the flexibility parameters of the iliotibial band or the femoral quadriceps and the parameters of patellar hypomobility. Of the tested joints, 37.6% showed hypomobile patella and positive Ober's test, while 34.7% had hypomobile patella and a positive test for femoral quadriceps flexibility. Conclusions. The flexibility of the iliotibial band and femoral quadriceps has no direct influence on passive patellar hypomobility, but can affect the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint and the location of the point of contact on articular surfaces during dynamic knee work. The flexibility of these muscles should be a diagnostic factor in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction. PMID:17611431

  7. In vivo specific tension of the human quadriceps femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Robert M; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Degens, Hans

    2009-08-01

    It is not known to what extent the inter-individual variation in human muscle strength is explicable by differences in specific tension. To investigate this, a comprehensive approach was used to determine in vivo specific tension of the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle (Method 1). Since this is a protracted technique, a simpler procedure was also developed to accurately estimate QF specific tension (Method 2). Method 1 comprised calculating patellar tendon force (F (t)) in 27 young, untrained males, by correcting maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for antagonist co-activation, voluntary activation and moment arm length. For each component muscle, the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated as volume divided by fascicle length during MVC. Dividing F (t) by the sum of the four PCSAs (each multiplied by the cosine of its pennation angle during MVC) provided QF specific tension. Method 2 was a simplification of Method 1, where QF specific tension was estimated from a single anatomical CSA and vastus lateralis muscle geometry. Using Method 1, the variability in MVC (18%) and specific tension (16%) was similar. Specific tension from Method 1 (30 +/- 5 N cm(-2)) was similar to and correlated with that of Method 2 (29 +/- 5 N cm(-2); R (2) = 0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, most of the inter-individual variability in MVC torque remains largely unexplained. Furthermore, a simple method of estimating QF specific tension provided similar values to the comprehensive approach, thereby enabling accurate estimations of QF specific tension where time and resources are limited. PMID:19468746

  8. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems. PMID:26157214

  9. Impact of joint status on contraction steadiness of m. quadriceps femoris in people with severe haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Brunner, A; Stuber, F; Ghler, S; Czepa, D; Wendel, M; Seuser, A; Hilberg, T

    2014-11-01

    Impaired contraction steadiness of lower limb muscles affects functional performance and may increase injury risk. We hypothesize that haemophilic arthropathy of the knee and the strength status of quadriceps are relevant factors which compromise a steady contraction. This study addresses the questions if impaired steadiness of the quadriceps is verifiable in people with haemophilia (PWH) and whether a connection between the status of the knee joint and quadriceps strength exists. A total of 157 PWH and 85 controls (C) performed a strength test with a knee extensor device to evaluate their bilateral and unilateral maximal quadriceps strength and steadiness. Isometric steadiness was measured by the coefficient of variation of maximum peak torque (CV-MVIC in %). For classification of the knee joint status the World Federation of Haemophilia (WFH) score was used. Lower steadiness (higher CV values) was found in PWH compared with C during bilateral [PWH vs. C; 0.63 (0.36/1.13) vs. 0.35 (0.15/0.72), median (Q25/Q75) P<0.001] and unilateral trials [left leg: 0.70 (0.32/1.64) vs. 0.50 (0.23/1.04), P<0.05; right leg: 0.68 (0.29/1.51) vs. 0.39 (0.18/0.68), P<0.001]. PWH with a WFH score difference (?1) between their extremities showed a less steady contraction in the more affected extremity (P<0.05). More unsteady contractions have also been found in extremities with lower quadriceps strength compared with the contralateral stronger extremities (P<0.001), whereby the weaker extremities were associated with a worse joint status (P<0.001). The results of this study verify an impaired ability to realize a steady contraction of quadriceps in PWH and the influence of joint damage and strength on its manifestation. PMID:25156626

  10. Restorative Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on Knee Pain and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad; Javadian, Yahya; Babaei, Mansour; Yousef-Ghahari, Behnaz

    2015-08-01

    Both vitamin D deficiency and quadriceps muscle weakness are associated with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and pain. The aim of this study was to determine the restorative effect of vitamin D deficiency on pain and quadriceps muscle strength in knee osteoarthritis. Patients with KOA aged ≥30 years, the presence of knee pain for at least one month or longer and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25-OHD) deficiencies were recruited in the study. Participants with KOA compatible with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 4, joint instability, and effusion, history of surgery or inflammatory arthropathies were excluded. Serum 25-OHD was assessed by ELISA method and concentrations<20 ng/ml was considered deficiency. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by dynamometry method and intensity of knee pain by Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis index scored by Likert scale and visual analog scale. All participants received 50.000 IU oral cholecalciferol weekly for at least two months. The influence of raising serum 25-OHD on quadriceps muscle strength and pain was assessed by calculation of mean changes from baseline at the end of the treatment period using paired t-test. A total of 67 patients with mean age of 50±6.6 years of age were treated for 2 months. Serum 25-OHD reached to sufficient levels in all except one patient. At the end of the study period, serum 25-OHD and quadriceps muscle strength increased significantly as compared with baseline (P=0.007 and P=0.002, respectively), whereas knee pain decreased significantly based on Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (P=0.001)as well as visual analogue scale scores (P=0.001). These findings indicated that correction of vitamin D deficiency in patients with KOA exerts a significant favorable effect on quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain. PMID:26545990

  11. Physiological responses during downhill walking: A new exercise modality for subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Burtin, Chris; Hornikx, Miek; Demeyer, Heleen; De Bent, Kristien; van Remoortel, Hans; Osadnik, Christian R; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle quadriceps low-frequency fatigue (LFF) during exercise promotes improvements in exercise capacity with exercise training. In healthy subjects, eccentric muscle work induced by downhill walking (DW) generates higher muscular stress, whilst metabolic cost is lower compared to level walking (LW). We investigated quadriceps LFF and metabolic cost of DW in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ten participants (67 7 years, FEV1 51 15% predicted) performed DW, DW carrying a load (DWL) of 10% body weight via vest and LW, in random order. Quadriceps potentiated twitch force (TWqpot) was assessed before and after each walk, and muscle damage was assessed before and 24 hours after each walk via serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. Ventilation (VE) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured via breath-by-breath analysis during each walk. DW and DWL resulted in a greater decrease in TWqpot (-30 14 N in DW, p < 0.05; and -22 16 N in DWL, p < 0.05) compared to LW (-3 21 N, p > 0.05). CK levels only increased 24 hours following DW and DWL (p < 0.05). DW and DWL showed lower VE and VO2 than LW (p < 0.05). DW is associated with enhanced quadriceps LFF and lower cardiorespiratory costs than LW. The addition of a chest load to DW does not seem to enhance these effects. PMID:25758676

  12. "Central" quadriceps tendon harvest with patellar bone plug: surgical technique revisited.

    PubMed

    Scully, William F; Wilson, David J; Arrington, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the surgical technique for quadriceps tendon graft harvest while highlighting an additional technical note that has not been previously emphasized. The quadriceps tendon typically inserts eccentrically on the superior pole of the patella. By shifting the soft-tissue harvest to a location just off the medial edge of the tendon, the adjoining patellar bone plug will be centered on the superior pole of the patella, reducing the risk of an iatrogenic patellar fracture. PMID:24400194

  13. Central Quadriceps Tendon Harvest With Patellar Bone Plug: Surgical Technique Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Scully, William F.; Wilson, David J.; Arrington, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the surgical technique for quadriceps tendon graft harvest while highlighting an additional technical note that has not been previously emphasized. The quadriceps tendon typically inserts eccentrically on the superior pole of the patella. By shifting the soft-tissue harvest to a location just off the medial edge of the tendon, the adjoining patellar bone plug will be centered on the superior pole of the patella, reducing the risk of an iatrogenic patellar fracture. PMID:24400194

  14. Contribution of Quadriceps Weakness to Fragility Fracture: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hanh M; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-01-01

    The association between muscle weakness and fracture is not well understood. This study sought to examine the contribution of muscle strength at baseline and change in muscle strength to the observed risk of fragility fracture in older people. The study involved 595 men and 1066 women aged 60+ years (median 69 years) who had been followed for a median of 11 years (range, 4 to 22 years). Quadriceps isometric muscle strength (MS) measured at baseline and biennially was adjusted for height. Femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) was measured by DXA. Low-trauma fracture was ascertained from X-ray reports and interview. The relationship between baseline MS and serial MS and fracture assessed by time-invariant and time-variant Cox's regression models was expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During the follow-up period, 282 (26%) women and 89 (15%) men sustained a fragility fracture. From age 60 years, women lost 0.28 kg/m (1.6%) of MS per year, whereas men lost 0.39 kg/m (1.5%) of MS per year. In the time-variant model, using serial MS, each 1 SD (4.7 kg/m) lower MS was associated with a 27% increase in the risk of fracture in women (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.43); and 46% increase in men (HR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.75). After adjusting for FNBMD, age and prior fracture, history of fall and smoking, HR per SD of lower MS was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28) for women and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.64) for men. These data indicate that muscle weakness is an independent determinant of fracture risk in men, but not in women. This sex difference suggests that apart from mechanical load effect of muscle on bone, there are other muscle-bone interactions that need to be investigated in future studies. The accuracy of fracture risk prediction for men may be improved by incorporating muscle strength. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26174768

  15. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmers Walk Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemys?aw

    2015-01-01

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75 of knee flexion/extension and 15 of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmers walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ? 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ? 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ? 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 14 %MVIC) as compared to HAB/H ? 1 (26 10 %MVIC) and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 19 %MVIC) compared to HAB/Q ? 0.5 (26 12 %MVIC). The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmers walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmers walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5. PMID:25964819

  16. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Exercise Compulsive exercise (also called obligatory exercise and anorexia athletica ) is best defined by an exercise addict's ... the two often go hand in hand. In anorexia nervosa, the excessive workouts usually begin as a ...

  17. Symptoms and quadriceps fatigability after walking and cycling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Man, William D-C; Soliman, Mohamed G G; Gearing, Johanne; Radford, Sheena G; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Gray, Barry J; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2003-09-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may stop cycling due to leg effort rather than breathlessness. However, cycling is not relevant to many patients, although walking may be more familiar. A total of 84 patients with COPD were asked to name the predominant symptom limiting incremental shuttle walking, endurance shuttle walking, incremental cycle ergometry, and endurance cycle ergometry, performed to exhaustion on four separate days. Furthermore, quadriceps fatigability was evaluated in 12 patients by measuring unpotentiated and potentiated twitch quadriceps tensions before and 30 minutes after incremental walking and cycling. Breathlessness alone was a more commonly cited limiting symptom after incremental walking compared with incremental cycling (81 vs. 34%; p < 0.001) and after endurance walking compared with endurance cycling (75 vs. 29%; p < 0.001). In addition, there was no significant change in mean pre- and postwalking twitch quadriceps tensions. However, cycling produced a significant reduction (unpotentiated 7.42 +/- 2.22 vs. 6.48 +/- 2.09 kg [p < 0.001]; potentiated 10.19 +/- 3.99 vs. 8.45 +/- 3.18 kg [p < 0.001]). Pre- to postexercise changes were significantly greater during cycling compared with walking (unpotentiated p = 0.01; potentiated p = 0.003). Leg effort is an infrequent symptom after walking in COPD, and low frequency fatigue of the quadriceps is an infrequent feature of incremental walking. PMID:12829456

  18. Relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic activity of quadriceps muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young; Oh, Jee Hae; Lee, Jong In

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We evaluated the relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM) to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a cross-sectional study. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with knee OA were assessed by anatomic radiographic knee alignment and the VM/VL ratio was calculated. Surface EMG from both the VM and VL muscles were evaluated during maximal isometric contraction at 60 knee flexion. Simultaneously, peak quadriceps torque was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Subjects were categorized into low, moderate, and high varus groups according to knee malalignment. The peak quadriceps torque and VM/VL ratio across groups, and their relationships with varus malalignment were analyzed. [Results] All subjects had medial compartment OA and the VM/VL ratio of all subjects was 1.31 0.28 (mean SD). There were no significant differences in the peak quadriceps torque or VM/VL ratios across the groups nor were there any significant relationships with varus malalignment. [Conclusion] The VM/VL ratio and peak quadriceps torque were not associated with the severity of knee varus malalignment. PMID:25995602

  19. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon. A case report in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Arnault, F; Dembour, T; Gallois Bride, H; Chancrin, J L

    2009-01-01

    A five-month-old, male, 16 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for an acute non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb. A subtotal avulsion of the quadriceps tendon at its patellar insertion was diagnosed through radiography and ultrasonography. Two nylon sutures secured with a stainless steel crimp were placed in a locking loop pattern in the quadriceps tendon and through a transverse 2.7 mm drill-hole in the patella. No external coaptation was used postoperatively. A full functional recovery was observed, and was followed for one year postoperatively. Quadriceps tendon rupture has not been described in the veterinary literature to our knowledge; in humans, quadriceps tendon rupture is a well known entity, often due to systemic disease resulting in weakening of the tendinous structures. In the case presented herein, the dog's history, young age and location, without underlying biochemical abnormalities, led us to believe that the observed lesion was of traumatic origin. The surgical treatment performed was based on that performed in humans and also that which has been investigated experimentally in the dog. PMID:19151876

  20. Oxidative stress participates in quadriceps muscle dysfunction during the initiation of osteoarthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Wu, Po-Ting; Shen, Po-Chuan; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting approximately 15% of the population. Quadriceps muscle weakness is one of the risk factors of osteoarthritis development. Oxidative stress has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various muscle dysfunction; however, whether it is involved in osteoarthritis-associated quadriceps muscle weakness has never been investigated. The aim of the present study is to examine the involvement of oxidative stress in quadriceps muscle dysfunction in the initiation of osteoarthritis in rats. Rat osteoarthritis was initiated by conducting meniscectomy (MNX). Quadriceps muscle dysfunction was evaluated by assessing muscular interleukin-6, citrate synthase activity, and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression levels. Muscular oxidative stress was assessed by determining lipid peroxidation, Nrf2 expression, reactive oxygen species, and circulating antioxidants. Increased muscular interleukin-6 production as well as decreased citrate synthase activity and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression were observed at 7 and 14 days after MNX. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were significantly increased after MNX. Muscular free radical counts were increased while glutathione and glutathione peroxidase expression were decreased in MNX-treated rats. We conclude that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of muscle dysfunction in MNX-induced osteoarthritis. PMID:26722436

  1. Patellar tendon and tibial tubercle reconstruction using quadriceps tendon with patellar bone plug autograft.

    PubMed

    Edwards, T B; Lewis, J E; Guanche, C A

    1997-05-01

    This report describes a technique for the reconstruction of a patellar tendon-tibial tubercle deficiency. This technique uses an easy-to-harvest, low-morbidity graft (autogenous quadriceps tendon), while allowing aggressive rehabilitation as a result of the strength of the graft. PMID:9258831

  2. The Effect of Knee Braces on Quadriceps Strength and Inhibition in Subjects With Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Felson, David T

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Background The use of external supports has been questioned because they may lead to weakness in the surrounding muscles. To our knowledge, there is no investigation into the effect of knee supports or braces on quadriceps muscle strength and quadriceps inhibition in individuals with patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the effects of a flexible knee support on quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and arthrogenous muscle inhibition (AMI) in patients with PFJ OA. Methods The study included 108 participants who had at least 3 months of patellofemoral pain and a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2 or 3 for PFJ OA. The participants were randomized to a group that wore a flexible knee support (brace) or a group that did not wear a support (no brace) in a 6-week randomized controlled trial, followed by an open-label trial, in which all participants wore the brace for a total of 12 weeks. Quadriceps MVC, measured isometrically, and quadriceps AMI, measured by twitch interpolation, were assessed at the 6-week and 12-week time points. Results After 6 weeks, MVC did not differ between the brace and no-brace groups (9.09 Nm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.89, 23.07; P = .20). Arthrogenous muscle inhibition significantly decreased in the brace group (-8.62%; 95% CI: -13.90%, -3.33%; P = .002). After 12 weeks, in all of the participants who wore a flexible knee support, MVC increased by 7.98 Nm (95% CI: 2.52, 13.45; P = .004) and AMI decreased (-8.42%; 95% CI: -11.48%, -5.36%; P<.001). Although statistically significant, these results have doubtful clinical significance. Conclusion A patellofemoral flexible knee support in participants with PFJ OA does not have an adverse effect on quadriceps MVC or AMI. Using a knee support should not be discouraged because of concerns about deleterious effects on quadriceps strength and inhibition. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(1):19-25. Epub 10 Nov 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5093. PMID:26556391

  3. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft: clinical outcome in 4-7 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hwa; Chuang, Tai-Yuan; Wang, Kun-Chuang; Chen, Wen-Jer; Shih, Chun-Hsiung

    2006-11-01

    Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is indicated in the ACL-deficient knee with symptomatic instability and multiple ligaments injuries. In the present study, we describe the clinical results of quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft for ACL reconstruction. From 1996 to 1998, the graft has been used in 38 patients. Thirty-four patients with complete final follow-up for 4-7 years were analyzed. The average follow-up time was 62 (48-84) months. Thirty-two patients (94%) achieved good or excellent results by Lysholm knee rating. Twenty-six patients (76%) could return to moderate or strenuous activity after reconstruction. Twenty-eight patients (82%) had ligament laxity of less than 2 mm. Finally; 31 patients (91%) were assessed as normal or nearly normal rating by IKDC guideline. Twenty-five patients (73%) had less than 10 mm difference in thigh girth between their reconstructed and normal limbs. Thirty-two (94%) and 31 (91%) patients could achieve recovery of the extensor and flexor muscle strength in the reconstructed knee to 80% or more of normal knee strength, respectively. A statistically significant difference exists in thigh girth difference, extensor strength ratio, and flexor strength ratio before and after reconstruction. Tunnel expansion with more than 1 mm was identified in 2 (6%) tibial tunnels. Our study revealed satisfactory clinical subjective and objective results at 4-7 years follow-up. Quadriceps tendon autograft has the advantage of being self-available, relatively easier arthroscopic technique, and having a suitable size, making it an acceptable graft choice for ACL reconstruction. There is little quadriceps muscle strength loss after quadriceps harvest. A quadriceps tendon-patellar autograft is an adequate graft choice to ACL reconstruction. PMID:16799828

  4. Quadriceps oxygenation changes during walking and running on a treadmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; Pizzi, Assunta; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Ferrari, Adriano; de Angelis, Marco; Ferrari, Marco

    1995-04-01

    Vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation was investigated on volunteers as well as muscular dystrophy patients during a walking test, and on volunteers during a free running by a continuous wave near infrared instrument. The data were analyzed using an oxygenation index independent on pathlength changes. Walking did not significantly affect the oxygenation of volunteers and patients. A relative deoxygenation was found only during free running indicating an unbalance between oxygen supply and tissue oxygen extraction. Preliminary measurements of exercising muscle oxygen saturation were performed by a 110 MHz frequency-domain, multisource instrument.

  5. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in

  6. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  7. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer

  8. The role of muscle mass in exercise-induced hyperemia

    PubMed Central

    Groot, H. Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J.; Gifford, Jayson R.; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced hyperemia is often normalized for muscle mass, and this value is sometimes evaluated at relative exercise intensities to take muscle recruitment into account. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the impact of muscle mass on leg blood flow (LBF) during exercise. LBF was assessed by Doppler ultrasound in 27 young healthy male subjects performing knee-extensor (KE) exercise at three absolute (5, 15, and 25 W) and three relative [20, 40, and 60% of maximum KE (KEmax)] workloads. Thigh muscle mass (5.2–8.1 kg) and LBF were significantly correlated at rest (r = 0.54; P = 0.004). Exercise-induced hyperemia was linearly related to absolute workload, but revealed substantial between-subject variability, documented by the coefficient of variation (5 W: 17%; 15 W: 16%; 25 W: 16%). Quadriceps muscle mass (1.5–2.7 kg) and LBF were not correlated at 5, 15, or 25 W (r = 0.09–0.01; P = 0.7–0.9). Normalizing blood flow for quadriceps muscle mass did not improve the coefficient of variation at each absolute workload (5 W: 21%; 15 W: 21%; 25 W: 22%), while the additional evaluation at relative exercise intensities resulted in even greater variance (20% KEmax: 29%; 40% KEmax: 29%; 60% KEmax: 27%). Similar findings were documented when subjects were parsed into high and low aerobic capacity. Thus, in contrast to rest, blood flow during exercise is unrelated to muscle mass, and simply normalizing for muscle mass or comparing normalized blood flow at a given relative exercise intensity has no effect on the inherent blood flow variability. Therefore, during exercise, muscle mass does not appear to be a determinant of the hyperemic response. PMID:24674856

  9. Evidence for interneuronally mediated Ia excitatory effects to human quadriceps motoneurones.

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, E; Meunier, S; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E; Shindo, M

    1986-01-01

    The possibility was investigated that interneuronal pathways contribute to Ia excitation of quadriceps motoneurones in normal man. Two techniques were used: the indirect spatial facilitation technique for investigating summation of Ia excitatory effects in interneurones which may be interposed in pathways to quadriceps motoneurones; the post-stimulus time histogram method for time course measurement of the firing probability of voluntarily activated motor units following femoral nerve stimulation. The spatial facilitation technique was applied while using the quadriceps H reflex to assess the excitability of the whole motoneurone pool: the comparison was made between the excitatory effects of two conditioning stimuli applied either separately or together. Summation of effects at a premotoneuronal level is suggested if facilitation of the reflex evoked on combined conditioning stimulation is larger than the algebraic sum of facilitations evoked by separate stimuli. Quadriceps tendon tap and electrical stimulations applied to either the femoral nerve or to two of its branches, the nerves to the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, were used as conditioning stimuli. Since these stimuli were very weak (their strength being about at the threshold for facilitation of the test reflex), it can be assumed that they activated predominantly Ia fibres. The facilitation of the quadriceps H reflex evoked on combined stimulation was significantly larger than the algebraic sum of facilitations evoked by separate stimuli. In many experiments, although conditioning stimuli did not evoke any reflex facilitation when applied alone, a significant facilitation appeared on combined stimulation. This 'extra' facilitation of the reflex on combined stimulation appeared with a central latency of 4-5 ms. It is argued that the only mechanism compatible with such a latency is summation at a premotoneuronal level. Post-stimulus time histograms (p.s.t.h.s) of voluntarily activated quadriceps motor units were made following femoral nerve stimulation. Stimulation was triggered at a fixed delay time after the activation of the motor unit. A special attempt was made to set this delay so that the motoneuronal after-hyperpolarization following the spike would partially prevent the discharge evoked by a monosynaptic excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.). At stimulus strengths near motor threshold, femoral nerve stimulation regularly evoked an early increase in firing probability of motor units with the same latency as the H reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3795085

  10. Relative Distribution of Quadriceps Head Anatomical Cross-Sectional Areas and Volumes Sensitivity to Pain and to Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, M; Dannhauer, T; Ring-Dimitriou, S; Snger, AM; Wirth, W; Hudelmaier, M; Eckstein, F

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Quadriceps heads are important in biomechanical stabilization and in the pathogenesis osteoarthritis of the knee. This is the first study to explore the relative distribution of quadriceps head anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) and volumes, and their response to pain and to training intervention. Methods The relative proportions of quadriceps heads were determined in 48 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with unilateral pain (65% women; age 4578y). Quadriceps head volumes were also measured in 35 untrained women (4555y) before and after 12 week training intervention. Cross-sectional areas of the vastus medialis (VM), inter-medius (VIM), and lateralis (VL), and of the rectus femoris (RF) were determined from axial T1-weighted MR images. Results The proportion of the VM on the total quadriceps ACSA increased from proximal to distal. The difference in quadriceps ACSA of painful (vs. pain-free) limbs was ?5.4% for the VM (p<0.001), ?6.8% for the VL (p<0.01), ?2.8% for the VIM (p=0.06), and +3.4% for the RF (p=0.67) but the VM/VL ratio was not significantly altered. The muscle volume increase during training intervention was +4.2% (p<0.05) for VM, +1.3% for VL, +2.0% for VIM (p<0.05) and +1.6% for RF. Conclusion The proportion of quadriceps head relative to total muscle ACSA and volume depends on the anatomical level studied. The results suggest that there may be a differential response of the quadriceps heads to pain-induced atrophy and to training-related hypertrophy. Studies in larger samples are needed to ascertain whether the observed differences in response to pain and training are statistically and clinically significant. PMID:25153247

  11. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    PubMed Central

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r?0.32 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40 of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps strength deficits after ACL injury compared to the commonly used peak torque values. PMID:20110458

  12. Surgical management of acute quadriceps tendon rupture (a case report with literature review)

    PubMed Central

    Ennaciri, Badr; Montbarbon, Eric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is uncommon and often overlooked in emergency. Tearing affects weakening tendon by systemic diseases or some medications. The mechanism is generally indirect. Inability to actively extend the knee associated to a supra-patellar defect evoke easily the diagnosis without other investigations. Surgical repair is realized in emergency to completely restore the extension. We report a case of a patient who has sustained of complete quadriceps tendon tear after a long period of tendon weakening by statin therapy, hypertension and diabetes. The repair has consisted on end-to-end Krackow sutures associated with bone suture to the proximal pole of the patella. Surgeons and emergency physicians must think to this form of extensor apparatus rupture, because early diagnosis leads to early treatment and to best outcomes.

  13. Use of autograft quadriceps tendon for double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Richards, Richard S; Moorman, Claude T

    2003-10-01

    Many graft choices are available for the reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. These choices range from multiple autograft and allograft sources. Preoperative planning must take into account the viability of knee autografts and the availability of allografts. The nature of the PCL injury must also be taken into account, such as whether only the PCL is deficient or the PCL lesion is part of a complex multiple ligament-injured knee. Our institution has begun to use the central quadriceps tendon bone autograph for multiple types of PCL reconstructions. This paper discusses the surgical techniques used to harvest and secure a double-bundle central quadriceps tendon bone autograph for PCL reconstructions using both open and arthroscopic approaches. PMID:14551558

  14. An in vivo rodent model of contraction-induced injury in the quadriceps muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Stephen J.P.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Shah, Sameer B.; Lovering, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Most animal studies of muscle contractile function utilize the anterior or posterior crural muscle (dorsiflexors and plantarflexors, respectively). An advantage to using these muscles is that the common fibular and tibial nerves are readily accessible, while the small size of the crural muscles is a disadvantage. Working with small muscles not only makes some in vivo imaging and the muscle testing techniques more challenging, but also provides limited amounts of tissue to study. The purpose of this study was to describe a new animal muscle injury model in the quadriceps that results in a significant and reproducible loss of force. The thigh of Sprague Dawley rats (N = 5) and C57BL/10 mice (N = 5) was immobilized and the ankle was attached to a custom-made lever arm. The femoral nerve was stimulated using subcutaneous electrodes and injury was induced using 50 lengthening (“eccentric”) contractions through a 70° arc of knee motion. This protocol produces a significant and reproducible injury, with comparable susceptibility to injury in the rats and mice. This novel model shows that the quadriceps muscle provides a means to study whole muscle contractility, injury, and recovery in vivo. In addition to the usual benefits of an in vivo model, the larger size of the quadriceps facilitates in vivo imaging and provides a significant increase in the amount of tissue available for histology and biochemistry studies. A controlled muscle injury in the quadriceps also allows one to study a muscle, with mixed fiber types, which is extremely relevant to gait in humans and quadruped models. PMID:22001505

  15. Preserved function and reduced angiogenesis potential of the quadriceps in patients with mild COPD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about limb muscle abnormalities in mild COPD. Inactivity and systemic inflammation could play a role in the development of limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The objective of the present study was to characterize quadriceps function, enzymatic activities and morphometry, levels of plasma inflammatory markers and physical activity levels in daily life (PAdl) in patients with mild COPD (GOLD 1). Methods Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area (MTCSA), quadriceps strength, endurance, fiber-type distribution, capillarity, pro-angiogenesis factors (VEGF-A, angiopoietin I and II) and muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in 37 patients with mild COPD and 19 controls. Systemic inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-?, Fibrinogen, SP-D) and PAdl were assessed. Results MTCSA, quadriceps strength and endurance were not different between COPD and controls. Capillarity and muscle oxidative capacity were all preserved in mild COPD. Reduced pro-angiogenesis factor mRNA expression was seen in COPD. The level of moderately active intensity (>3 METs) was significantly lower in mild COPD and, in multiple regression analyses, the level of physical activity was a determinant of muscle oxidative capacity and capillarization. No between-group differences were found regarding muscle oxidative stress while circulating IL-6 levels were elevated in mild COPD. Conclusions The quadriceps muscle function was preserved in mild COPD although a reduced potential for angiogenesis was found. The reduced level of daily activities and evidence of systemic inflammation in these individuals suggest that these factors precede the development of overt limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. PMID:24438094

  16. Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

  17. Continuous Femoral Nerve Blocks: Decreasing Local Anesthetic Concentration to Minimize Quadriceps Femoris Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Maria; Wang, Lu; Onibonoje, Olusegun K.; Parrett, Chad; Sessler, Daniel I.; Mounir-Soliman, Loran; Zaky, Sherif; Krebs, Viktor; Buller, Leonard T.; Donohue, Michael C.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether decreasing the local anesthetic concentration during a continuous femoral nerve block results in less quadriceps weakness remains unknown. Methods Preoperatively, bilateral femoral perineural catheters were inserted in patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty (n = 36) at a single clinical center. Postoperatively, right-sided catheters were randomly assigned to receive perineural ropivacaine of either 0.1% (basal 12 mL/h; bolus 4 mL) or 0.4% (basal 3 mL/h; bolus 1 mL), with the left catheter receiving the alternative concentration/rate in an observer- and subject-masked fashion. The primary endpoint was the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscles the morning of postoperative day 2. Equivalence of treatments would be concluded if the 95% confidence interval for the difference fell within the interval of ?20% to 20%. Secondary endpoints included active knee extension, passive knee flexion, tolerance to cutaneous electrical current applied over the distal quadriceps tendon, dynamic pain scores, opioid requirements, and ropivacaine consumption. Results Quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction for limbs receiving 0.1% ropivacaine was a mean (SD) of 13 (8) Nm, versus 12 (8) Nm for limbs receiving 0.4% [intra-subject difference of 3 (40) percentage points; 95% CI ?10 to 17; p = 0.63]. Because the 95% confidence interval fell within prespecified tolerances, we conclude that the effect of the two concentrations were equivalent. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in secondary endpoints. Conclusions For continuous femoral nerve blocks, we found no evidence that local anesthetic concentration and volume influence block characteristics, suggesting that local anesthetic dose (mass) is the primary determinant of perineural infusion effects. PMID:22293719

  18. Quadriceps neural alterations in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients: A 6-month longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lepley, A S; Gribble, P A; Thomas, A C; Tevald, M A; Sohn, D H; Pietrosimone, B G

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate differences in quadriceps corticospinal excitability, spinal-reflexive excitability, strength, and voluntary activation before, 2 weeks post and 6 months post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). This longitudinal, case-control investigation examined 20 patients scheduled for ACLr (11 females, 9 males; age: 20.9??4.4?years; height:172.4??7.5?cm; weight:76.2??11.8?kg) and 20 healthy controls (11 females, 9 males; age:21.7??3.7 years; height: 173.7??9.9?cm; weight: 76.1??19.7?kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), central activation ratio (CAR), normalized Hoffmann spinal reflexes, active motor threshold (AMT), and normalized motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes at 120% of AMT were measured in the quadriceps muscle at the specific time points. ACLr patients demonstrated bilateral reductions in spinal-reflexive excitability compared with controls before surgery (P?=?0.02) and 2 weeks post-surgery (P???0.001). ACLr patients demonstrated higher AMT at 6 months post-surgery (P???0.001) in both limbs. No MEP differences were detected. Quadriceps MVIC and CAR were lower in both limbs of the ACLr group before surgery and 6 months post-surgery (P???0.05) compared with controls. Diminished excitability of spinal-reflexive and corticospinal pathways are present at different times following ACLr and occur in combination with clinical deficits in quadriceps strength and activation. Early rehabilitation strategies targeting spinal-reflexive excitability may help improve postoperative outcomes, while later-stage rehabilitation may benefit from therapeutic techniques aimed at improving corticospinal excitability. PMID:25693627

  19. Evaluation of Electromyographic Biofeedback for the Quadriceps Femoris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J.; Parker, Tonya M.; Kotsko, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback (EMGB) of the quadriceps femoris muscle in treating various knee conditions. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials included PubMed (19802010), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, 19952007), Web of Science (19862010), SPORTDiscus (19902007), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Key words were knee and biofeedback. Study Selection: The criteria for selection were clinical randomized controlled trials in which EMGB of the quadriceps femoris was used for various knee conditions of musculoskeletal origin. Trials were excluded because of research designs other than randomized controlled trials, articles published in a non-English language, inclusion of healthy research participants, inability to identify EMGB as the source of clinical improvement, and lack of pain, functional outcome, or quadriceps torque as outcome measures. Data Extraction: Twenty specific data points were abstracted from each clinical trial under the broad categories of attributes of the patient and injury, treatment variables for the EMGB group, treatment variables for the control group, and attributes of the research design. Data Synthesis: Eight trials yielded a total of 319 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome (n = 86), anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (n = 52), arthroscopic surgery (n = 91), or osteoarthritis (n = 90). The average methodologic score of the included studies was 4.6/10 based on PEDro criteria. Pooled analyses demonstrated heterogeneity of the included studies, rendering the interpretation of the pooled data inappropriate. The EMGB appeared to benefit short-term postsurgical pain or quadriceps strength in 3 of 4 postsurgical investigations but was ineffective for chronic knee conditions such as patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis in all 4 studies. Because the findings are based on limited data, caution is warranted until more randomized controlled trials are conducted to support or refute the general trends observed in this report. PMID:22488142

  20. Ultrasound characteristics of the patellar and quadriceps tendons among young elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Visnes, H; Tegnander, A; Bahr, R

    2015-04-01

    Tendons adapt in response to sports-specific loading, but sometimes develop tendinopathy. If the presence of ultrasound changes like hypoechoic areas and neovascularization in asymptomatic tendons precede (and predict) future tendon problems is unknown. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between the development of ultrasound changes in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and symptoms of jumper's knee, as well to examine the medium-term effects of intensive training on tendon thickness among adolescent athletes. Elite junior volleyball athletes were followed with semi-annual ultrasound and clinical examinations (average follow-up: 1.7 years). Of the 141 asymptomatic athletes included, 22 athletes (35 patellar tendons) developed jumper's knee. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a baseline finding of a hypoechoic tendon area (odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 9.2) increased the risk of developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Patellar tendon thickness among healthy athletes did not change (Wilk's lambda, P?=?0.07) while quadriceps tendon thickness increased (P?=?0.001). In conclusion, ultrasound changes at baseline were risk factors for developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Also, among healthy athletes, we observed a 7-11% increase in quadriceps tendon thickness, while there was no increase in patellar tendon thickness. PMID:24612006

  1. Isometric quadriceps strength determines sailing performance and neuromuscular fatigue during an upwind sailing emulation.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Jan G; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses to upwind sailing on a laser emulation ergometer and analyses the components of the physical profile that determine the physiological responses related to sailing level. Ten male high-level laser sailors performed an upwind sailing test, incremental cycling test and quadriceps strength test. During the upwind sailing test, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate concentration were measured, combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electromyography (EMG) registration of the M. Vastus lateralis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed for the cardio-respiratory, metabolic and muscles responses (mean power frequency [MPF], root mean square [RMS], deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during the upwind sailing test an initial significant increase followed by a stabilisation, despite a constant increase in RPE. Stepwise regression analysis showed that better sailing level was for 46.5% predicted by lower MPF decrease. Lower MPF decrease was for 57.8% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. In conclusion, this study indicates that higher sailing level was mainly determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during the upwind sailing test (as indicated by MPF decrease). Additionally, the level of neuromuscular fatigue was mainly determined by higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength stressing the importance of resistance training in the planning of training. PMID:26323461

  2. A Novel Noninvasive Method for Measuring Fatigability of the Quadriceps Muscle in Noncooperating Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Jesper B.; Rose, Martin H.; Mller, Kirsten; Perner, Anders; Jensen, Bente R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Critical illness is associated with muscle weakness leading to long-term functional limitations. Objectives. To assess the reliability of a novel method for evaluating fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects. Methods. On two occasions, separated by seven days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95% confidence interval (MDC95%). Results. The Fatigue Index (ICC3.1, 0.84; MDC95%, 0.12) and the slope of the regression line (ICC3.1, 0.99; MDC95%, 0.03) showed substantial relative and absolute reliability during the first 15 and 30 contractions, respectively. Conclusion. This method for assessing fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions. PMID:26266252

  3. An Acute Bout of Quadriceps Muscle Stretching has no Influence on Knee Joint Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Rui; Duarte, José Alberto; Cabri, Jan MH

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if an acute bout of static stretching of the quadriceps muscle affects the sense of joint position, the threshold to detect passive movement, and the sense of force. Thirty young, healthy men (age : 22.1 ± 2.7 years) were randomly divided into two groups. The Stretching Group (n=15) underwent stretching of the dominant quadriceps muscle, which comprised ten passive stretches lasting 30 seconds each, while the Control Group (n=15) remained seated for the same length of time. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to establish intragroup differences over time, and an independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables between groups at each moment. None of the measurements revealed any significant change between both groups in each assessment moment or between moments within groups (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that static quadriceps muscle stretching has no effect on the sense of knee joint position, threshold to detect passive movement, and force sense, suggesting that stretching does not have appreciable effect on the spindle firing characteristics and tendon organs activation. PMID:23486744

  4. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males.

    PubMed

    Vczi, Mrk; Nagy, Szilvia A; K?szegi, Tams; Ambrus, Mra; Bogner, Pter; Perlaki, Gbor; Orsi, Gergely; Tth, Katalin; Hortobgyi, Tibor

    2014-10-01

    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy old males age 60-70. Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%]) (p<0.05). The rate of torque development increased 30% only after SSC exercise (p<0.05). Resting testosterone and cortisol levels were unchanged but after each program the acute exercise-induced cortisol levels were 12-15% lower (p<0.05). Both programs increased quadriceps size 2.5% (p<0.05). It is concluded that both ECC and SSC exercise training produces favorable adaptations in healthy old males' quadriceps muscle. Although the rate of muscle tension during the SSC vs. ECC contractions was about 4-fold greater, the total mechanical work seems to regulate the hypetrophic, hormonal, and most of the mechanical adaptations. However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly. PMID:25064038

  5. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  6. The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Garten, Ryan S.; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (−25 ± 3 vs. −12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (−44 ± 6 vs. −33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass. PMID:24740653

  7. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  8. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  9. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.85.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60/s and 180/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.59.0% at 60/sec and 23.39.0% at 180/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.510.7% and 27.912.6% at 60/sec and 180/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  10. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. PMID:25653015

  11. Regional variations in human patellar trabecular architecture and the structure of the quadriceps enthesis: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Hechmi; Larguech, Gaith; Filaire, Edith; Pinti, Antonio; Lespessailles, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether there were regional differences in the quadriceps enthesis and the patella bone structure that could suggest unequal force transmission to the patella. Quadriceps tendon enthesis was removed by cutting the patellae transversally in the middle and the quadriceps tendon approximately 1?cm from the bone. Tissues were post-fixed, decalcified, dehydrated through and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial longitudinal sections were cut, mounted on glass slides at 1-mm intervals and slides were stained. Trabecular architecture was analysed from digital images taken from the histological slides, and regional differences at the enthesis in the thickness of the uncalcified fibrocartilage and the cortical zone of calcified tissue (calcified cartilage and lamellar bone) were evaluated. At the quadriceps enthesis, the thickness of the cortical zone of calcified tissue was significantly greater in the central part of the enthesis than medially and laterally. The trabeculae were thicker in the central and lateral parts compared with the medial region. Similarly, the zone of uncalcified fibrocartilage was thicker laterally and centrally than medially. Bone structure and the thickness of uncalcified fibrocartilage presented a similarity between the centre and the lateral parts; however, the medial side was different. We suggest that the mechanical stress at the proximal quadriceps tendon enthesis is higher laterally and centrally compared with medially. This could induce a lateral patellar translation, which is potentially a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:22458636

  12. Regional variations in human patellar trabecular architecture and the structure of the quadriceps enthesis: a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Hechmi; Larguech, Gaith; Filaire, Edith; Pinti, Antonio; Lespessailles, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether there were regional differences in the quadriceps enthesis and the patella bone structure that could suggest unequal force transmission to the patella. Quadriceps tendon enthesis was removed by cutting the patellae transversally in the middle and the quadriceps tendon approximately 1 cm from the bone. Tissues were post-fixed, decalcified, dehydrated through and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial longitudinal sections were cut, mounted on glass slides at 1-mm intervals and slides were stained. Trabecular architecture was analysed from digital images taken from the histological slides, and regional differences at the enthesis in the thickness of the uncalcified fibrocartilage and the cortical zone of calcified tissue (calcified cartilage and lamellar bone) were evaluated. At the quadriceps enthesis, the thickness of the cortical zone of calcified tissue was significantly greater in the central part of the enthesis than medially and laterally. The trabeculae were thicker in the central and lateral parts compared with the medial region. Similarly, the zone of uncalcified fibrocartilage was thicker laterally and centrally than medially. Bone structure and the thickness of uncalcified fibrocartilage presented a similarity between the centre and the lateral parts; however, the medial side was different. We suggest that the mechanical stress at the proximal quadriceps tendon enthesis is higher laterally and centrally compared with medially. This could induce a lateral patellar translation, which is potentially a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:22458636

  13. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hristovski, Robert; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a hard intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borgs RPE (620) = 15). During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. Time on task for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean ( SE) values of 4.2 0.7 and 4.1 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics. PMID:26421436

  14. Age-related changes in neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle in physically active adults.

    PubMed

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Lindner, Tobias; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in maximal strength and strength development. Despite the importance of knee extensor strength for physical function and mobility in the elderly, studies focusing on the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of the quadriceps muscle weakness are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of age-related neural and muscular changes in the quadriceps muscle to decreases in isometric maximal voluntary torque (iMVT) and explosive voluntary strength. The interpolated twitch technique and normalized surface electromyography (EMG) signal during iMVT were analyzed to assess changes in neural drive to the muscles of 15 young and 15 elderly volunteers. The maximal rate of torque development as well as rate of torque development, impulse and neuromuscular activation in the early phase of contraction were determined. Spinal excitability was estimated using the H reflex technique. Changes at the muscle level were evaluated by analyzing the contractile properties and lean mass. The age-related decrease in iMVT was accompanied by a decline in voluntary activation and normalized surface EMG amplitude. Mechanical parameters of explosive voluntary strength were reduced while the corresponding muscle activation remained primarily unchanged. The spinal excitability of the vastus medialis was not different while M wave latency was longer. Contractile properties and lean mass were reduced. In conclusion, the age-related decline in iMVT of the quadriceps muscle might be due to a reduced neural drive and changes in skeletal muscle properties. The decrease in explosive voluntary strength seemed to be more affected by muscular than by neural changes. PMID:23453325

  15. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Exercise Sports and Exercise Safety Female Athlete Triad Body Image and Self-Esteem How Can I Lose Weight Safely? Eating Disorders A Guy's Guide to Body Image Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  16. Gender-based analysis of hamstring and quadriceps muscle activation during jump landings and cutting.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Petushek, Erich J; Garceau, Luke R; Hsu, Brittni E; Lutsch, Brittney N; Feldmann, Christina R

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the magnitude and timing of hamstring and quadriceps activation during activities that are believed to cause anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Twelve men (age = 21.0 +/- 1.2 years; body mass = 81.61 +/- 13.3 kg; and jump height = 57.61 +/- 10.15 cm) and 12 women (age = 19.91 +/- 0.9 years; body mass = 64.36 +/- 6.14 kg; and jump height = 43.28 +/- 7.5) performed 3 repetitions each of the drop jump (jump) normalized to the subject's vertical jump height, and a sprint and cut at a 45-degree angle (cut). Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), lateral hamstring (LH), and medial hamstrings (MH) activation, timing, activation ratios, and timing ratios before and after foot contact for the jump and cut and normalized to each subject's hamstring and quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance with results demonstrating that during the postcontact phase of the cut, men demonstrated greater LH and MH activation than women. In the precontact phase of the jump, men showed earlier activation of the VL and VM, than women. Women produced longer RF and VM muscle bursts during the postcontact phase of the cut. Additionally, men showed a trend toward higher hamstring to quadriceps activation ratio than women for the postcontact phase of the cut. This study provides evidence that men are LH dominant during the postcontact phase of the cut compared with women, whereas women sustain RF activation longer than men during this phase. Men activate quadriceps muscles earlier than women in the precontact phase of the jump. Training interventions may offer the potential for increasing the rate and magnitude of hamstring muscle activation. These outcomes should be evaluated using EMG during movements that are similar to those that cause ACL injuries to determine if gender differences in muscle activation can be reduced. PMID:20124793

  17. Heat treatment strengthens human dentin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Koychev, E V; Okamura, K; Sugeta, A; Hongo, C; Okuyama, K; Ebisu, S

    2008-08-01

    The flexural strength of Type I collagen, the major organic component of human dentin, increases with heat. We hypothesized that human dentin can be strengthened by heating, which may help prevent fracture of non-vital teeth after restoration. Beam-shaped dentin specimens were obtained from the crowns of human third molars. The dentinal tubular orientations were arranged to run parallel or perpendicular to loading surfaces. The flexural and microtensile strengths of dentin in the parallel specimens were 2- to 2.4-fold greater after being heated between 110 degrees C and 140 degrees C for 1 hr. The stress intensity factors at fracture also increased after specimens were heated. The x-ray diffraction analyses suggested that shrinking of the lateral packing of the collagen triple-helices from 14 A to 11 A was the probable cause of the strengthening of heated dentin. We conclude that heat treatment strengthens human dentin. PMID:18650549

  18. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.

  19. Vascular Occlusion and Sequential Compression for Recovery After Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Northey, Joseph M; Rattray, Ben; Argus, Christos K; Etxebarria, Naroa; Driller, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Northey, JM, Rattray, B, Argus, CK, Etxebarria, N, and Driller, MW. Vascular occlusion and sequential compression for recovery after resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 533-539, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate vascular occlusion (OCC) and sequential intermittent pneumatic compression (SIPC) as recovery strategies after fatiguing resistance exercise. Twelve strength-trained male participants (age: 24.0 6.3 years, height: 180.4 9.7 cm, and weight: 84.8 9.6 kg) participated in a randomized cross-over study. Participants performed a fatiguing resistance exercise bout consisting of 10 sets with 10 repetitions of back squats at 70% 1 repetition maximum with 3-minute rest between sets. Outcome measures of perceived recovery status, muscle soreness, concentric peak isokinetic torque of the quadriceps, squat jump (SJ) height, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were taken before the fatiguing resistance exercise bout and repeated immediately post, 1 hour, and 24 hours later. Immediately after the postexercise measures, participants undertook 1 of the 3 recovery strategies: OCC, SIPC, and a passive control (CON). Concentric peak isokinetic torque of the quadriceps was decreased significantly immediately post and 1 hour after the fatiguing resistance exercise bout compared with baseline values (p ? 0.05). Mean SJ and CMJ jump height decreased significantly immediately post and 1 hour compared with baseline measures, but only the SJ was significantly decreased at 24 hours. There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the postexercise measures (p > 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicates that OCC and SIPC are not effective for attenuating muscle performance loss after a fatiguing resistance exercise bout relative to passive recovery. PMID:26154154

  20. HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING INDUCES MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SKELETAL MUSCLES

    PubMed Central

    Toti, L.; Bartalucci, A.; Ferrucci, M.; Fulceri, F.; Lazzeri, G.; Lenzi, P.; Soldani, P.; Gobbi, P.; La Torre, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on fibre composition and metabolism of two specific muscles of mice: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism. PMID:24744502

  1. Early Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Improve Quadriceps Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Jaclyn E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Eckhoff, Donald G.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The recovery of quadriceps muscle force and function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is suboptimal, which predisposes patients to disability with increasing age. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of quadriceps muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), initiated 48 hours after TKA, as an adjunct to standard rehabilitation. Design This was a prospective, longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Methods Sixty-six patients, aged 50 to 85 years and planning a primary unilateral TKA, were randomly assigned to receive either standard rehabilitation (control) or standard rehabilitation plus NMES applied to the quadriceps muscle (initiated 48 hours after surgery). The NMES was applied twice per day at the maximum tolerable intensity for 15 contractions. Data for muscle strength, functional performance, and self-report measures were obtained before surgery and 3.5, 6.5, 13, 26, and 52 weeks after TKA. Results At 3.5 weeks after TKA, significant improvements with NMES were found for quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength, functional performance, and knee extension active range of motion. At 52 weeks, the differences between groups were attenuated, but improvements with NMES were still significant for quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength, functional performance, and some self-report measures. Limitations Treatment volume was not matched for both study arms; NMES was added to the standard of care treatment. Furthermore, testers were not blinded during testing, but used standardized scripts to avoid bias. Finally, some patients reached the maximum stimulator output during at least one treatment session and may have tolerated more stimulation. Conclusions The early addition of NMES effectively attenuated loss of quadriceps muscle strength and improved functional performance following TKA. The effects were most pronounced and clinically meaningful within the first month after surgery, but persisted through 1 year after surgery. PMID:22095207

  2. Summer Science Can Strengthen Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Ava F.; Smith, Ruby

    1989-01-01

    Described are 22 activities which can be done by students outside of school. Topics include the seashore, shadows, restaurants, water, amusement parks, factories, museums, camping, weather, animals, photography, plants, food, and exercise. (CW)

  3. Back Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Thirty patients with low back pain were referred for examination by their doctors after 3 or more weeks of treatment. Whether back exercise instruction had been given, who had given it, what it was, and whether the patients actually followed the instruction was noted. Some type of back exercise had been taught to 22 patients, but only three out of the 30 patients had persisted with all the back exercises taught. The back exercises patients actually do and the role of exercise in low back pain should be evaluated further. PMID:21221344

  4. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. PMID:26851493

  5. The effects of high-fat diet, branched-chain amino acids and exercise on female C57BL/6 mouse Achilles tendon biomechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, G. P.; Platt, K. M.; Corbett, J.; Reeves, J.; Hardy, A. L.; Elenes, E. Y.; Charnigo, R. J.; Hunter, S. A.; Pearson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any negative consequences resulting from HFD consumption. Methods We examined the effects of 16 weeks of 60% HFD feeding, voluntary exercise (free choice wheel running) and BCAA administration in female C57BL/6 mice. The Achilles tendons and quadriceps muscles were removed at the end of the experiment and assessed histologically and biomechanically. Results HFD feeding significantly decreased the Achilles tendon modulus without histological alterations. BCAA administration significantly decreased the stiffness of Achilles tendons in the exercised normal diet mice. Exercise partially ameliorated both the weight gain and glucose levels in the HFD-fed mice, led to a significant decrease in the maximum load of the Achilles tendon, and an increase in the average fibril diameter of the quadriceps femoris muscle. There were significant correlations between body weight and several biomechanical properties, demonstrating the importance of controlling obesity for maintaining healthy tendon properties. Conclusions In summary, this study showed a significant impact of obesity and body weight on tendon biomechanical properties with limited effects of exercise and BCAAs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:186–92. PMID:24021530

  6. Profiling of mRNA expression in quadriceps of patients with COPD and muscle wasting.

    PubMed

    Debigar, Richard; Maltais, Franois; Ct, Claude H; Michaud, Annie; Caron, Marc-Andr; Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Leblanc, Pierre; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2008-04-01

    Peripheral muscle wasting is a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Potent therapeutic strategies are needed to improve peripheral muscle mass in these patients. We hypothesized that the evaluation of the mRNA expression profile of quadriceps muscle could be useful in identifying key biochemical pathways involved in the wasting process. We monitored mRNA expression profile of quadriceps muscle in four patients with COPD with muscle atrophy (age: 71.3 +/- 2.1 years, mean SD; FEV(1) 28.3 +/- 10.8 % predicted) and four control subjects (age: 66.5 +/- 1.3 years) using HuU95v2 gene chips. Fifty-seven mRNAs transcripts (0.5%) were found to be differentially expressed in muscles of COPD patients (i.e., p < 0.01). Among them, forkhead box O -1 and -3 and insulin-like growth factor-1 expressions being significantly elevated in COPD subjects. Concomitantly, a significant reduction in mRNA expression of two myofilament proteins was observed. Energy production appears to be impaired as indicated by the significant rise in nicotinamide N-methyltransferase mRNA expression. This study provides for the first time evidence that genes are selectively expressed in limb muscles of COPD patients and further research need to focus on their functional roles in the pathogenesis of muscle dysfunction. PMID:18415806

  7. Heat production and chemical changes during isometric contractions of the human quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, R H; Hill, D K; Jones, D A

    1975-01-01

    1. Development of a new thermal probe and use in conjunction with chemical analysis of needle biopsy samples, has made possible a thermodynamic study of the energetics of muscular contraction in the human quadriceps. 2. The observed rate of muscle temperature rise was proportional to the force of the contraction. During maximal contractions the rate of heat production was 54 +/-8-5 W/kg wet muscle (mean +/- s.d.). 3. The observed rates of muscle temperature rise agreed well with the rates calculated from the measured metabolite changes when standard values for the enthalpy changes of the reactions involved were used. 4. During prolonged stimulation of the quadriceps at 15/sec via the femoral nerve, the rate of heat production per unit force fell to nearly half the initial value. It is estimated that this represented a two- to fourfold increased in economy of ATP turn-over required to maintain a given force. 5. Relaxation becomes progressively slower during prolonged contractions and it is suggested that the slowing of relaxation and the increased economy of force maintenance may both be due to an increased cross-bridge cycle time in the fatigued muscle. PMID:1185666

  8. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifter: a single subject experiment.

    PubMed

    Delitto, A; Brown, M; Strube, M J; Rose, S J; Lehman, R C

    1989-06-01

    The response to treatment of high intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to both quadriceps femoris muscles as an adjunct to ongoing weight training was evaluated using a single subject experimental design. For an elite weight lifter weekly maximal measurements of snatch (S), clean and jerk (CJ), and front squat (SQ) were obtained over 4 months during which the subject weight trained daily for 3 h. The 1st month, baseline data were collected. After baseline measurements, a 1-month period of high-intensity NMES was added to the subject's weight training. NMES was then withdrawn for 1 month and administered once more for 2 weeks. Three quadriceps femoris muscle biopsies were taken, two during the initial baseline period and one just before the end of the first stimulation period. The results showed a significant and clear relationship between performance gains and NMES administration and withdrawal. Steep gains for S, CJ, and SQ were seen after 2 weeks of stimulation, with front squat showing a 20-kg increase within the 1st week of both stimulation periods. Muscle biopsy showed an increased type I fiber area, decreased type IIa and IIb fiber area, and an increase of type II fibers after NMES. The results of this study support the use of high-dose NMES as an adjunct to weight training in elite lifters. PMID:2674035

  9. Pro- and Anticonvulsant Effects of the Ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempf) Venom in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nga, D A M F; Cagni, F C; Santos, J R; Silva, D; Azevedo, D L O; Arajo, A; Silva, R H; Ribeiro, A M

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsy affects at least 50 million people worldwide, and the available treatment is associated with various side effects. Approximately 20-30% of the patients develop seizures that persist despite careful monitored treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of new antiepileptic drugs, and the venoms can be an excellent source of probes. In this context, while there are studies on venoms from snakes, scorpions, and spiders, little is known regarding venom from ants. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential pro- and anticonvulsant effects of the venom from the ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempf) in Swiss mice. After the injection of the crude venom (DqTx-5, 50, and 500mg/mL) in the lateral ventricle of mice, we observed a reduction of exploration and grooming behaviors, as well as an increase in immobility duration. In addition, the crude venom induced procursive behavior and tonic-clonic seizures at the highest concentration. Conversely, the preadministration of the denatured venom (AbDq) at the concentration of 2mg/mL protected the animals against tonic-clonic seizures (66.7%) and death (100%) induced by administration of bicuculline. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that D. quadriceps venom might be potential source of new pro- and anticonvulsants molecules. PMID:26045053

  10. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. PMID:16609979

  11. Measurement of the quadriceps femoris muscle using magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, J M; Roberts, N; Whitehouse, G H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To define a method for measurement of the cross sectional area and volume of the quadriceps femoris muscle using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with stereology, and to compare the results of measurements obtained by the MRI method with those obtained by the conventional method of static B-mode ultrasound in order to evaluate whether MRI is a reliable alternative to ultrasound. METHODS: A preliminary MRI study was undertaken on a single female volunteer in order to optimise the scanning technique and sampling design for estimating the muscle volume using the Cavalieri method. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the method comparison study. Each volunteer underwent static B-mode ultrasonography, immediately followed by MRI. The cross sectional area of the quadriceps femoris was estimated at the junction of the proximal one third and distal two thirds of the thigh, and seven systematic sections of the thigh were obtained in order to estimate muscle volume by both modalities. RESULTS: Seven sections through the muscle are required to achieve a coefficient of error of 4-5%. There was no significant difference in the cross sectional area estimates or volume estimates when ultrasound and MRI were compared. CONCLUSION: Muscle cross sectional area and volume can be measured without bias by MRI in conjunction with stereological methods and the method is a reliable alternative to static B-mode ultrasound for this purpose. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9132215

  12. Is quadriceps muscle strength a determinant of the physical function of the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Altubasi, Ibrahim Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the relationships of the quadriceps rate of torque development and the time to peak torque with the physical function of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. Quadriceps strength was measured using isometric and isokinetic torque tests. Time to peak torque and rate of torque development were calculated from the torque time curve of the isokinetic and isometric torque tests, respectively. Physical activities were measured using 4 physical activity tests. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships among the variables. [Results] The time to peak torque showed significant correlations with all measures of physical activity tests. Rate of torque development showed significant correlation with the timed stair-climbing test. Isometric and isokinetic torques had no significant correlations with any of the physical activity tests. [Conclusion] Time to maximum torque and the rate of torque development might be more important than peak torque in determining the physical function of the elderly. PMID:26644638

  13. A stepwise procedure to test contractility and susceptibility to injury for the rodent quadriceps muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Stephen J.P.; Lovering, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Biological markers can also be used in measuring muscle injury, such as increased creatine kinase levels in the blood, but these are not always correlated with loss in muscle function (i.e. loss of force production). This is even true of histological findings from animals, which provide a “direct measure” of damage, but do not account for loss of function. The most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force. To date, animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle. Here we describe an in vivo animal model for the quadriceps, with abilities to measure torque, produce a reliable muscle injury, and follow muscle recovery within the same animal over time. We also describe a second model used for direct measurement of force from an isolated quadriceps muscle in situ. PMID:25530979

  14. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64years of age should accumulate at least 150minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10minutes or more, also expressed as 30minutes per day distributed over 5days per week, would be a good start. PMID:23329605

  15. Treadmill training increases SIRT-1 and PGC-1 ? protein levels and AMPK phosphorylation in quadriceps of middle-aged rats in an intensity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nara R C; Marques, Scherolin O; Luciano, Thais F; Pauli, Jos R; Moura, Leandro P; Caperuto, Erico; Pieri, Bruno L S; Engelmann, Julia; Scaini, Gisele; Streck, Emilio L; Lira, Fabio S; Pinho, Ricardo A; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Silva, Adelino S R; De Souza, Cludio T

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of running at 0.8 or 1.2 km/h on inflammatory proteins (i.e., protein levels of TNF- ? , IL-1 ? , and NF- ? B) and metabolic proteins (i.e., protein levels of SIRT-1 and PGC-1 ? , and AMPK phosphorylation) in quadriceps of rats. Male Wistar rats at 3 (young) and 18 months (middle-aged rats) of age were divided into nonexercised (NE) and exercised at 0.8 or 1.2 km/h. The rats were trained on treadmill, 50 min per day, 5 days per week, during 8 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, muscles were removed, homogenized, and analyzed using biochemical and western blot techniques. Our results showed that: (a) running at 0.8 km/h decreased the inflammatory proteins and increased the metabolic proteins compared with NE rats; (b) these responses were lower for the inflammatory proteins and higher for the metabolic proteins in young rats compared with middle-aged rats; (c) running at 1.2 km/h decreased the inflammatory proteins and increased the metabolic proteins compared with 0.8 km/h; (d) these responses were similar between young and middle-aged rats when trained at 1.2 km. In summary, the age-related increases in inflammatory proteins, and the age-related declines in metabolic proteins can be reversed and largely improved by treadmill training. PMID:25002755

  16. Carbonate fuel cell matrix strengthening

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.Y.; Haung, C.M.; Johnsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The present baseline electrolyte matrix is a porous ceramic powder bed impregnated with alkali carbonate electrolyte. The matrix provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. During fuel cell stack operation, the matrix experiences both mechanical and thermal stresses. Different mechanical characteristics of active and wet seal areas generate stress. Thermal stress is generated by nonuniform temperature distribution and thermal cycling. A carbonate fuel cell generally may experience planned and unplanned thermal cycles between 650 C and room temperature during its 40,000h life. During the cycling, the electrolyte matrix expands and contracts at a different rate from other cell components. Furthermore, the change in electrolyte volume associated with freezing/melting may generate additional thermal stress. Strengthening of the matrix may be beneficial for longer-term stability of the carbonate fuel cell with respect to repeated thermal cycling. Several promising strengtheners with improved chemical and mechanical stabilities were identified. Fibers provide the highest strengthening effect, followed by particulates. Matrix fabrication technique was successfully modified for uniformly incorporating the advanced strengtheners, maintaining the desired aspect ratio. Enhanced gas sealing demonstrated using the advanced matrices.

  17. PGC-1? promotes exercise-induced autophagy in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Halling, Jens F; Ringholm, Stine; Nielsen, Maja M; Overby, Peter; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that exercise stimulates the degradation of cellular components in skeletal muscle through activation of autophagy, but the time course of the autophagy response during recovery from exercise has not been determined. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms behind exercise-induced autophagy remain unclear, although the muscle oxidative phenotype has been linked with basal autophagy levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of the key regulator of muscle oxidative capacity, PGC-1?, in exercise-induced autophagy at several time points during recovery. Mice with transgenic muscle-specific overexpression (TG) or knockout (MKO) of PGC-1? and their respective littermate controls were subjected to a single 1h bout of treadmill running and euthanized immediately (0h), 2, 6, and 10h after exercise. In the PGC-1? MKO strain, quadriceps protein content of the autophagy marker LC3II was increased from 2h into recovery in lox/lox control, but not in MKO mice. In the PGC-1? TG strain, quadriceps protein content of LC3II was increased from 2h after exercise in TG, but not in WT. Although AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was increased immediately following exercise, the observed exercise-induced autophagy response was not associated with phosphorylation of the AMPK-target ULK1. However, lower protein carbonyl content was observed in lox/lox and TG mice after exercise coinciding with the increased LC3 lipidation. In conclusion, the present results suggest a role of skeletal muscle PGC-1? in coordinating several exercise-induced adaptive responses including autophagic removal of damaged cellular components. PMID:26869683

  18. Muscular adaptations to fatiguing exercise with and without blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Kim, Daeyeol; Abe, Takashi; Beck, Travis W; Feeback, Daniel L; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the muscular adaptations to low-load resistance training performed to fatigue with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Middle-aged (42-62years) men (n=12) and women (n=6) completed 18 sessions of unilateral knee extensor resistance training to volitional fatigue over 6weeks. One limb trained under BFR, and the contralateral limb trained without BFR [free flow (FF)]. Before and after the training, measures of anterior and lateral quadriceps muscle thickness (MTh), strength, power and endurance were assessed on each limb. The total exercise training volume was significantly greater for the FF limb compared with the BFR limb (P<0001). Anterior quadriceps thickness and muscle function increased following the training in each limb with no differences between limbs. Lateral quadriceps MTh increased significantly more (P<005) in the limb trained under BFR (BFR: 350061 to 367062cm; FF: 349073 to 356070cm). Low-load resistance training to volitional fatigue both with and without BFR is viable options for improving muscle function in middle-aged individuals. However, BFR enhanced the hypertrophic effect of low-load training and reduced the volume of exercise needed to elicit increases in muscle function. PMID:24612120

  19. Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure (case report and review of the literature)

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Boufettal, Moncef; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Elyaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the quadriceps tendon are infrequent injuries, it is seen primarily in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic renal failure. A 32-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years. He was admitted in our service for total functional impotence of the right lower limb with knee pain after a common fall two months ago. The radiogram showed a 'patella baja with suprapatellar calcifications. The ultrasound and MRI showed an aspect of rupture of the quadriceps tendon in its proximal end with retraction of 3 cm. Quadriceps tendon repair was performed with a lengthening plasty, and the result was satisfactory after a serial rehabilitation program. The diagnosis of quadriceps tendon ruptures needs more attention in patients with predisposing diseases. They should not be unknown because the treatment of neglected lesions is more difficult. We insist on the early surgical repair associated with early rehabilitation that can guarantee recovery of good active extension. PMID:26113889

  20. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional

  1. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an

  2. Lack of Correlation between Dynamic Balance and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio in Patients with Chronic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Lee, Seok-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps (HQ) ratio, as well as the relationships of these parameters with dynamic balance, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Materials and Methods We compared 25 patients diagnosed with chronic unilateral ACL tears and 25 age-matched healthy volunteers. The maximal torque of the quadriceps and hamstring and dynamic balance were measured. Results Although the isokinetic maximal peak torques were about 50% lower in the quadriceps (57%, p<0.001) and hamstring (56%, p=0.001) muscles in the chronic ACL tear group than in the control group, their HQ ratios were similar (56%±17% vs. 58%±6%, p=0.591). HQ ratio was significantly correlated with anterior-posterior stability index (r=-0.511, p=0.021) and overall stability index (r=-0.476, p=0.034) in control group, but these correlations were not observed in chronic ACL tear group. Conclusions Thigh muscle strength was about 50% lower in the chronic ACL tear group than in the control group, but the HQ ratio was similar. The dynamic balance of the knee was not influenced by thigh muscle strength but was influenced by HQ ratio in healthy young individuals. However, HQ ratio was not correlated with dynamic knee balance in chronic ACL tear patients. PMID:26060609

  3. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  4. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  5. Interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate determined with MSNA during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLean, D. A.; Imadojemu, V. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use the microdialysis technique to simultaneously measure the interstitial concentrations of several putative stimulators of the exercise pressor reflex during 5 min of intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans (n = 7). Exercise resulted in approximately a threefold (P < 0.05) increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 13 +/- 3 beats/min (P < 0.05) and 20 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and blood pressure, respectively. During recovery, all reflex responses quickly returned to baseline. Interstitial lactate levels were increased (P < 0.05) from rest (1.1 +/- 0.1 mM) to exercise (1. 6 +/- 0.2 mM) and were further increased (P < 0.05) during recovery (2.0 +/- 0.2 mM). Dialysate phosphate concentrations were 0.55 +/- 0. 04, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.48 +/- 0.03 mM during rest, exercise, and recovery, respectively, and were significantly elevated during exercise. At the onset of exercise, dialysate K(+) levels rose rapidly above resting values (4.2 +/- 0.1 meq/l) and continued to increase during the exercise bout. After 5 min of contractions, dialysate K(+) levels had peaked with an increase (P < 0.05) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 meq/l and subsequently decreased during recovery, not being different from rest after 3 min. In contrast, H(+) concentrations rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) from resting levels (69.4 +/- 3.7 nM) during quadriceps exercise and continued to decrease with a mean decline (P < 0.05) of 16.7 +/- 3.8 nM being achieved after 5 min. During recovery, H(+) concentrations rapidly increased and were not significantly different from baseline after 1 min. This study represents the first time that skeletal muscle interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate have been measured in conjunction with MSNA, heart rate, and blood pressure during intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans. These data suggest that interstitial K(+) and phosphate, but not lactate and H(+), may contribute to the stimulation of the exercise pressor reflex.

  6. Clinical outcomes after repair of quadriceps tendon rupture: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, Vincenzo; Gudipati, Suribabu; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Soucacos, P N; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2012-11-01

    The existing evidence regarding the management of quadriceps tendon rupture remains obscure. The aim of the current review is to investigate the characteristics, the different techniques employed and to analyse the clinical outcomes following surgical repair of quadriceps tendon rupture. An Internet based search of the English literature of the last 25 years was carried out. Case reports and non-clinical studies were excluded. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Coleman Methodology Score. All data regarding mechanism and site of rupture, type of treatment, time elapsed between diagnosis and repair, patients' satisfaction, clinical outcome, return to pre-injury activities, complications and recurrence rates were extracted and analysed. Out of 474 studies identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The average of Coleman Methodology Score was 50.46/100. In total 319 patients were analysed with a mean age of 57 years (16-85). The mean time of follow-up was 47.5 months (3 months to 24 years). The most common mechanism of injury was simple fall (61.5%). Spontaneous ruptures were reported in 3.2% of cases. The most common sites of tear were noted between 1cm and 2 cm of the superior pole of the patella and, in the older people, at the osseotendinous junction. The most frequently used repair technique was patella drill holes (50% of patients). Simple sutures were used in mid-substance ruptures. Several reinforcement techniques were employed in case of poor quality or retraction of the torn ends of tendon. The affected limb was immobilised in a cast for a period of 3-10 weeks. Quadriceps muscular atrophy and muscle strength deficit were present in most of the cases. Worst results were noted in delayed repairs. Reported complications included heterotopic ossifications in 6.9% of patients, deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in 2.5%, superficial infection in 1.2% and deep infection in 1.1%. It appears that the type of surgical repair does not influence the clinical results. The majority of the studies reported good or excellent ROM and return to the pre-injury activities. The overall rate of re-rupture was 2%. PMID:22959496

  7. The EXCEL Program: strengthening diversity.

    PubMed

    Friedman, P K

    2001-05-01

    The Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (BUSDM) initiated a program in the summer of 1993 to strengthen diversity in the entering class of first-year students. The Experiential Center for Excellence in Learning (EXCEL) Program is a voluntary, one-month-long prematriculation experience that combines didactic, laboratory, study skills, and social activities to prepare participants to transition into the rigorous first-year curriculum. From 1996 to 2000, ninety students participated in EXCEL. The two primary reasons cited for participating were to become familiar with the school, faculty, and classmates and to strengthen basic science background. Participants' ages ranged from twenty to over forty. Fifty-nine percent of participants had been out of college for more than one year; 10 percent had been out of school for three years or more. Thirty percent listed nontraditional predental school majors. Fifty-six percent listed a country other than the United States as country of birth. Of those completing an exit survey, 96 percent reported that EXCEL strengthened their decision to study dentistry, and 97 percent would recommend that future entering BUSDM students participate in EXCEL. The EXCEL Program may serve as a model for increasing diversity in U.S. dental school enrollment. PMID:11425247

  8. Effects of a short proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching bout on quadriceps neuromuscular function, flexibility, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Place, Nicolas; Blum, Yannick; Armand, Stéphane; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Behm, David G

    2013-02-01

    The inclusion of relatively long bouts of stretching (repeated static stretches of ∼30 seconds) in the warm-up is usually associated with a drop in muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel self-administered proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) paradigm with short periods of stretching and contraction on quadriceps neuromuscular function, vertical jump performance, and articular range of motion (ROM). Twelve healthy men (age: 27.7 ± 7.3 years, height: 178.4 ± 10.4 cm, weight: 73.8 ± 16.9 kg) volunteered to participate in a PNF session and a control session separated by 2-7 days. The PNF stretching lasted 2 minutes and consisted of 4 sets of 5-second isometric hamstring contraction immediately followed by 5 seconds of passive static stretch of the quadriceps immediately followed by 5 seconds isometric quadriceps contraction for each leg. For the control session, the participants were asked to walk at a comfortable speed for 2 minutes. Active ROM of knee flexion, vertical jump performance, and quadriceps neuromuscular function were tested before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the intervention. The PNF stretching procedure did not affect ROM, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation level, M-wave and twitch contractile properties that could be attributed to PNF stretching. The present self-administered PNF stretching of the quadriceps with short (5-second) stretches is not recommended before sports where flexibility is mandatory for performance. PMID:22505131

  9. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing treatments were conducted on O-temper and T8 temper AA2024 truss cores, the strength increase was different for different architectures, but was nearly the same for the two parent material tempers. Finally, the question of how much microtruss strengthening can be obtained for a given amount of parent metal strengthening was addressed by examining the interaction of material and geometric parameters in a model system.

  10. Predicting a recovery time from the initial assessment of a quadriceps contusion injury.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Albert; Hekeik, Phillip; Adams, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Six quadriceps contusion tests were evaluated for inter-rater reliability and ability to predict the recovery time of 100 injured rugby players. All subjects were treated with a standardised and disciplined treatment program incorporating cryokinetics and modified training. Muscle firmness ratings, thigh circumference and passive knee flexion range of movement (ROM) measurements, and the unilateral palpation, brush-swipe and tap tests were all found to have substantial to excellent reliability (range: 0.66-1.00). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that 64 per cent of the variance in the time taken to return to full training could be accounted for by an equation involving the uninjured-injured difference in knee range, relative firmness rating of the injured muscle, difference in circumferences at the suprapatellar border, being able to play on following injury and the time delay before starting treatment. PMID:11676801

  11. Minimally Invasive Harvest of a Quadriceps Tendon Graft With or Without a Bone Block

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Christian; Herbort, Mirco; Abermann, Elisabeth; Hoser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The quadriceps tendon (QT) as a graft source for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has recently achieved increased attention. Although many knee surgeons have been using the QT as a graft for ACL revision surgery, it has never gained universal acceptance for primary ACL reconstruction. The QT is a very versatile graft that can be harvested in different widths, thicknesses, and lengths. Conventionally, the QT graft is harvested by an open technique, requiring a 6 to 8 cm longitudinal incision, which often leads to unpleasant scars. We describe a new, minimally invasive, standardized approach in which the QT graft can be harvested through a 2- to 3-cm skin incision and a new option of using the graft without a bone block. PMID:25264512

  12. Minimally invasive harvest of a quadriceps tendon graft with or without a bone block.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Herbort, Mirco; Abermann, Elisabeth; Hoser, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The quadriceps tendon (QT) as a graft source for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has recently achieved increased attention. Although many knee surgeons have been using the QT as a graft for ACL revision surgery, it has never gained universal acceptance for primary ACL reconstruction. The QT is a very versatile graft that can be harvested in different widths, thicknesses, and lengths. Conventionally, the QT graft is harvested by an open technique, requiring a 6 to 8 cm longitudinal incision, which often leads to unpleasant scars. We describe a new, minimally invasive, standardized approach in which the QT graft can be harvested through a 2- to 3-cm skin incision and a new option of using the graft without a bone block. PMID:25264512

  13. Exercise-induced knee joint laxity in distance runners.

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, H V; Lind, T; Jakobsen, B W; Krner, K

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of exercise on knee joint laxity. If exercise induced laxity is physiological, incorporation of this quality into a ligament replacement material would be indicated. Twenty recreational long distance runners average age 41 (range 24 to 50 yr) were tested before and immediately after 30 minutes of running. Using a computerized goniometer type instrument (Acufex KSS), knee flexion, axial tibial rotation and anterior-posterior tibial displacement were simultaneously recorded, while the runners underwent tests of static as well as dynamic knee joint laxity. At 30 degrees of knee flexion, a maximum increase of 16 per cent in mean total anterior-posterior laxity post-exercise was found. At the examination 30 minutes post-exercise, laxity at 30 degrees of knee flexion was still increased. However, laxity at 90 degrees of knee flexion had decreased to pre-exercise levels or below. Anterior tibial displacement, recorded during eccentric quadriceps activity (0 to 90 degrees of knee flexion) with weights attached to the foot, showed a maximum of 18 per cent increase in total anterior-posterior laxity post-exercise. It is suggested that the laxity increase is caused in part by a true ligamentous laxity increase, and in part by a decreased resting tone of the fatigued muscles. PMID:2620230

  14. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain walking speed in older men and women?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.; Reid, Kieran F.; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M.; Ring, Sarah A.; Wu, Samuel S.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rapid neuromuscular activation during maximal effort leg muscle contractions will be shown to be an independent predictor of mobility function in older men and women after accounting for muscle size and adiposity, body composition and age. Twenty six older men and eighteen older women (aged 7085 years) participated in this study. Mobility function was assessed by the 400-meter walk test. Neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle group was assessed by surface electromyography (rate of EMG rise). Thigh muscle cross sectional area and adiposity was assessed by computed tomography. In males, univariate regression analysis revealed strong associations between walking speed and a number of predictors including age (p<0.01), muscle area (p<0.01), intermuscular adipose tissue area (p<0.01), and rate of EMG rise (p<0.001). Subsequent multiple regression analysis with all variables accounted for 72% of the variability in walking speed (p<.0001), with age and rate of EMG rise as the dominant variables in the model. In females, univariate analysis showed a significant association only between walking speed and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounted for only 44% of the variability in walking speed, and was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The present findings indicate that the capability to rapidly activate the quadriceps muscle group is an important factor accounting for inter-individual variability of walking speed among older men, but not among older women. This research is important for informing the design of assessments and interventions that seek to detect and prevent impairments that contribute to age-related mobility disability. PMID:24703887

  15. Does sensorimotor cortex activity change with quadriceps femoris torque output? A human electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Fry, A; Vogt, T; Folland, J P

    2014-09-01

    Encoding muscular force output during voluntary contractions is widely perceived to result, at least in part, from modulations in neuronal activity within the sensorimotor cortex. However the underlying electrophysiological phenomena associated with increased force output remains unclear. This study directly assessed sensorimotor cortex activity using electroencephalography (EEG) in humans performing isometric knee-extensions at a range of discrete torque levels. Fifteen healthy males (age 24 (s=5) years) completed one familiarization and one experimental trial. Participants performed a cyclic series of 60 isometric knee-extension contractions with the right leg, including 15 contractions of a 5-s duration at each of four discrete torque levels: 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of maximal voluntary torque (MVT). Isometric knee-extension torque, quadriceps electromyography and EEG were recorded at rest and throughout all the contractions. EEG (0.5-50 Hz) was collected using a 32-channel active-electrode cap. A voxel-based low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis calculated cortical activation within the sensorimotor cortex (one of 27 MNI coordinates) for the entire 0.5-50-Hz range (cortical current density (CCD)), as well as for each constituent frequency band in this range (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Gamma band (30-50 Hz) cortical activity increased with contraction torque (analysis of variance [ANOVA], P=0.03). Conversely, activity within the other frequency bands was not modulated by torque (P?0.09), nor was overall CCD (P=0.11). Peripheral neuromuscular activation (quadriceps electromyography (EMG) amplitude) demonstrated distinct increases between each torque level (P<0.01). In conclusion, sensorimotor cortical activity within the gamma band demonstrated an overall increase with contraction torque, whereas both CCD and each of the other constituent frequency bands were not modulated by increments in torque magnitude during isometric knee-extension contractions up to 60%MVT. PMID:24993474

  16. Monogyny and regulation of worker mating in the queenless ant Dinoponera quadriceps

    PubMed

    Monnin; Peeters

    1998-02-01

    The morphologically specialized queen caste has been lost in various ponerine ants, and mated workers ('gamergates') reproduce instead of queens. Unlike previous reports in the literature, we found only one gamergate in each colony of Dinoponera quadriceps. We documented monogyny by dissecting ovaries and spermathecae in 914 workers from 15 colonies, and by observing mating in the laboratory. In colonies without a gamergate, aggressive interactions among some of the unmated nestmates led to the behavioural differentiation of a top-ranking worker ('alpha'), which laid almost all the eggs. Only the alpha went outside the nest at night, and mated if foreign males were present (N=11 tests), thus becoming a gamergate. The alpha was sexually attractive even when her ovaries were not yet active. After intromission, the male remained linked to the alpha while she severed the end of his abdomen. Pieces of the male genitalia remained attached to her genital tract, and she removed them after 30+/-18 min (X+/-sdN=9). We interpret this to be a mating plug, preventing other males from fathering her offspring. None of these newly inseminated gamergates continued to go outside the nest, and, when tested, they never re-mated (N=4). Thus, gamergates of D. quadriceps probably mate only once. In queenless ant species, comparative evidence indicates that worker mating is often regulated in monogynous species, while unrestricted mating of young individuals is typical of polygynous species (oviposition is regulated subsequently). Furthermore, the occurrence of either monogyny or polygyny influences the mating strategies of males, and mating plugs have been reported only in some monogynous species. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480697

  17. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  18. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....

  19. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...

  20. 27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties 17.107 Strengthening bonds. Whenever the amount of a bond on file and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...

  1. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 24... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give...

  2. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond...

  3. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 24... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give...

  4. 27 CFR 40.405 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.405... 40.405 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the bond already...

  5. 27 CFR 44.245 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.245....245 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... appropriate TTB officer may require the proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount...

  6. 27 CFR 44.124 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.124... Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond, under which an... proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  7. 27 CFR 44.124 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.124... Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond, under which an... proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  8. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 26.69... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the...

  9. 27 CFR 44.124 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.124... Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond, under which an... proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  10. 27 CFR 44.124 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.124... Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond, under which an... proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  11. 27 CFR 44.245 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.245....245 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... appropriate TTB officer may require the proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount...

  12. 27 CFR 41.122 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 41.122... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products 41.122 Strengthening bond. Where the... shall immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on...

  13. 27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties 17.107 Strengthening bonds. Whenever the amount of a bond on file and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...

  14. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 24... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give...

  15. 27 CFR 40.405 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.405... 40.405 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the bond already...

  16. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond...

  17. 27 CFR 44.124 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Strengthening bond. 44.124... Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond, under which an... proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  18. 27 CFR 40.135 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.135... PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds 40.135 Strengthening bond. Where the amount of... immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  19. 27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties 17.107 Strengthening bonds. Whenever the amount of a bond on file and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...

  20. 27 CFR 40.135 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Strengthening bond. 40.135... PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds 40.135 Strengthening bond. Where the amount of... immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  1. 27 CFR 40.405 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.405... 40.405 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the bond already...

  2. 27 CFR 41.122 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 41.122... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products 41.122 Strengthening bond. Where the... shall immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on...

  3. 27 CFR 40.405 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.405... 40.405 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the bond already...

  4. 27 CFR 44.245 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.245....245 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... appropriate TTB officer may require the proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount...

  5. 27 CFR 40.135 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.135... PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds 40.135 Strengthening bond. Where the amount of... immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  6. 27 CFR 40.135 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.135... PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds 40.135 Strengthening bond. Where the amount of... immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  7. 27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties 17.107 Strengthening bonds. Whenever the amount of a bond on file and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...

  8. 27 CFR 44.245 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Strengthening bond. 44.245....245 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... appropriate TTB officer may require the proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount...

  9. 27 CFR 44.245 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 44.245....245 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... appropriate TTB officer may require the proprietor to file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount...

  10. 27 CFR 40.405 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Strengthening bond. 40.405... 40.405 Strengthening bond. Where the appropriate TTB officer determines that the amount of the bond... a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the bond already...

  11. 27 CFR 40.135 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 40.135... PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds 40.135 Strengthening bond. Where the amount of... immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on the...

  12. 27 CFR 41.122 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Strengthening bond. 41.122... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products 41.122 Strengthening bond. Where the... shall immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on...

  13. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond...

  14. 27 CFR 41.122 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 41.122... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products 41.122 Strengthening bond. Where the... shall immediately file a strengthening bond in an appropriate amount with the same surety as that on...

  15. 27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties 17.107 Strengthening bonds. Whenever the amount of a bond on file and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...

  16. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 26.69... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the...

  17. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....

  18. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...

  19. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  20. Muscle fatigue induced by exercise simulating the work rate of competitive soccer.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, N; Reilly, T; Lees, A; Graham-Smith, P

    2003-11-01

    Fatigue represents a reduction in the capability of muscle to generate force. The aim of the present study was to establish the effects of exercise that simulates the work rate of competitive soccer players on the strength of the knee extensors and knee flexors. Thirteen amateur soccer players (age 23.3+/-3.9 years, height 1.78+/-0.05 m, body mass 74.8+/-3.6 kg; mean+/-s) were tested during the 2000-2001 soccer season. Muscle strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. A 90 min soccer-specific intermittent exercise protocol, incorporating a 15 min half-time intermission, was developed to provide fatiguing exercise corresponding in work rate to a game of soccer. The exercise protocol, performed on a programmable motorized treadmill, consisted of the different intensities observed during soccer match-play (e.g. walking, jogging, running, sprinting). Muscle strength was assessed before exercise, at half-time and immediately after exercise. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant reductions (P < 0.001) in peak torque for both the quadriceps and hamstrings at all angular velocities (concentric: 1.05, 2.09, 5.23 rad x s(-1); eccentric: 2.09 rad x s(-1)). The peak torque of the knee extensors (KE) and knee flexors (KF) was greater before exercise [KE: 232+/-37, 182+/-34, 129+/-27, 219+/-41 N x m at 1.05, 2.09 and 5.23 rad x s(-1) (concentric) and 2.09 rad x s(-1) (eccentric), respectively; KF: 126+/-20, 112+/-19, 101+/-16, 137+/-23 N x m] than at half-time (KE: 209+/-45, 177+/-35, 125+/-36, 214+/-43 N x m; KF: 114+/-31, 102+/-20, 92+/-15, 125+/-25 N x m) and greater at half-time than after exercise (KE: 196+/-43, 167+/-35, 118+/-24, 204+/-43 N x m; KF: 104+/-25, 95+/-21, 87+/-13, 114+/-27 N x m). For the hamstrings:quadriceps ratio, significant changes were found (P < 0.05) for both legs, the ratio being greater before than after exercise. For fast:slow speed and left:right ratios, no significant changes were found. We conclude that there is a progressive reduction in muscle strength that applies across a range of functional characteristics during exercise that mimics the work rate in soccer. PMID:14626373

  1. The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Krainski, Felix; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Heinicke, Katja; Romain, Nadine; Pacini, Eric L; Snell, Peter G; Wyrick, Phil; Palmer, M Dean; Haller, Ronald G; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-06-15

    Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P = 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P = 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P = 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P = 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P = 0.238 and +13 ± 28%, P = 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, (31)P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning. PMID:24790012

  2. Exercise performance is regulated during repeated sprints to limit the development of peripheral fatigue beyond a critical threshold.

    PubMed

    Hureau, Thomas J; Olivier, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Meste, Olivier; Blain, Gregory M

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that exercise performance is adjusted during repeated sprints in order not to surpass a critical threshold of peripheral fatigue. Twelve men randomly performed three experimental sessions on different days, i.e. one single 10s all-out sprint and two trials of 10נ10s all-out sprints with 30s of passive recovery in between. One trial was performed in the unfatigued state (CTRL) and one following electrically induced quadriceps muscle fatigue (FTNMES). Peripheral fatigue was quantified by comparing pre- with postexercise changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force (?Qtw-pot) evoked by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve. Central fatigue was estimated by comparing pre- with postexercise voluntary activation of quadriceps motor units. The root mean square (RMS) of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis EMG normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude (RMS.Mmax (-1)) was also calculated during sprints. Compared with CTRL condition, pre-existing quadriceps muscle fatigue in FTNMES (?Qtw-pot=-294%) resulted in a significant (P<0.05) reduction in power output (-4.00.9%) associated with a reduction in RMS.Mmax (-1). However, ?Qtw-pot postsprints decreased by 51% in both conditions, indicating that the level of peripheral fatigue was identical and independent of the degree of pre-existing fatigue. Our findings show that power output and cycling EMG are adjusted during exercise in order to limit the development of peripheral fatigue beyond a constant threshold. We hypothesize that the contribution of peripheral fatigue to exercise limitation involves a reduction in central motor drive in addition to the impairment in muscular function. PMID:24728680

  3. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    DOEpatents

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  4. Burnishing Techniques Strengthen Hip Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.

  5. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  6. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  7. Exercise and age

    MedlinePLUS

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  8. Differences in Neuromuscular Control and Quadriceps Morphology Between Potential Copers and Noncopers Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, Toran D.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Buchanan, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Objectives To compare knee muscle morphology and voluntary neuromuscular control in individuals who sustained an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and were identified as being capable of avoiding surgery (potential copers) and those who were recommended for surgery (noncopers), within 6 months of injury. Background Quadriceps atrophy and poor neuromuscular control have been found in noncopers. However, the reasons why some noncopers may be able to avoid surgery remain elusive. Methods Twenty participants (10 ACL-deficient noncopers and 10 ACL-deficient potential copers) were included in this study. Axial spin-echo, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data of the lower extremities were captured. The volume and maximum cross-sectional area (CSA) of each muscle of the quadriceps and hamstrings were calculated following digital reconstruction. In addition, voluntary neuromuscular control was evaluated using an established target-matching task that required participants to produce static isometric loads across the knee joint. Electromyography was acquired from 5 muscles as participants performed the target-matching task. Circular statistics were used to calculate a specificity index to describe how well focused each muscle was activated toward its primary direction of muscle action. The ACL-deficient limb was then compared to the uninvolved limb of the noncopers and potential copers. Results The vasti (vastus medialis and vastus intermedius) of the involved limb of the noncopers were significantly smaller (P<.031) in comparison to those of their uninvolved limb. The potential copers' vastus lateralis maximum CSA (P = .047), total quadriceps muscle volume (P = .020) and maximum CSA (P = .015), and quadriceps-hamstring ratio volume (P = .021) and maximum CSA (P = .007) demonstrated quadriceps atrophy. However, only the ACL-deficient limb of the older (mean SD age, 27.4 11.4 versus 19.9 3.3 years; P = .032) and lower-activity-level (3.3 0.5 versus 3.6 0.5; P = .098) noncoper group demonstrated reduced rectus femoris (P = .057) and lateral hamstring (P = .064) neuromuscular control in comparison to their uninvolved limb. Conclusion These findings suggest that quadriceps and hamstring muscle function, rather than muscle size, may be an important factor in the varied response early after ACL injury. PMID:24261930

  9. Rethinking health research capacity strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Emily; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an NIH-funded HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain under-articulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing 1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, 2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborating in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and 3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

  10. Exercise Physiologists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trainers) or athletic trainers . <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Exercise physiologists perform fitness and ... also covers different types of occupational specialties. Work Environment The Work Environment tab includes the number of ...

  11. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  12. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:26311953

  13. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:26311953

  14. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  15. Decision rules for egg recognition are related to functional roles and chemical cues in the queenless ant Dinoponera quadriceps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannure-Nascimento, Ivelize C.; Nascimento, Fabio S.; Dantas, Jos O.; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-07-01

    The capacity to distinguish colony members from strangers is a key component in social life. In social insects, this extends to the brood and involves discrimination of queen eggs. Chemical substances communicate colony affiliation for both adults and brood; thus, in theory, all colony members should be able to recognize fellow nestmates. In this study, we investigate the ability of Dinoponera quadriceps workers to discriminate nestmate and non-nestmate eggs based on cuticular hydrocarbon composition. We analyzed whether cuticular hydrocarbons present on the eggs provide cues of discrimination. The results show that egg recognition in D. quadriceps is related to both age and the functional role of workers. Brood care workers were able to distinguish nestmate from non-nestmate eggs, while callow and forager workers were unable to do so.

  16. Adaptive Force Regulation of Muscle Strengthening Rehabilitation Device With Magnetorheological Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

  17. The effect of fatigue and velocity on the relative timing of hamstring activation in relation to quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro; Talebian, Saeed; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    Inter-muscular coordination has an important role in proper function and prevention of injuries in the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of velocity and fatigue on the relative activation onset of hamstring to quadriceps muscles during knee extension. Thirty one healthy and non-athletic volunteers (24 women, 7 men) were recruited for the study. The onset time of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial and lateral hamstring were measured during maximum voluntary extension of the knee joint at velocities of 45° /s, 150° /s & 300° /s before and after fatigue and the mean delay onset of all pairs of H-Q were measured. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare across the mean delayed onset of hamstring related to quadriceps muscles at various velocities. Hamstring muscle showed a delayed activation related to quadriceps and increasing the velocity of shortening has a prominent effect on the inter-muscular coordination with early activation of hamstring related to quadriceps muscles (F = 6.7, p < 0.002 for Biceps-rectus femoris, F = 6.31, p < 0.003 for semitendinosus-rectus femoris, F = 6.26, p < 0.003 for biceps-vastus lateralis, F = 5.98, p < 0.004 for semitendinosus-vastus lateralis, F = 3.19, p < 0.04 for biceps-vastus medialis and F = 3.2, p < 0.04 for semitendinosus-vastus medialis). This could predispose these muscles to over strain and possible injuries. The main effect of fatigue condition and its interaction with velocity however, showed statistically nonsignificant result. PMID:23036879

  18. Use of the Quadriceps Tendon in Arthroscopic Acetabular Labral Reconstruction: Potential and Benefits as an Autograft Option

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Eun; Ko, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    The acetabular labrum serves many integral functions within the hip joint. As a result, novel surgical techniques that aim to preserve or reconstruct the labrum have entered the spotlight. We have performed labral reconstruction using the quadriceps tendon as an autograft for a patient with a moderate labral defect. The purpose of this report is to propose this novel donor site as a viable alternative for labral reconstruction using an autograft; the potential benefits over currently popular methods are discussed. PMID:24265987

  19. The influence of velocity-specific resistance training on the in vivo torque-velocity relationship and the cross-sectional area of quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S R; Bagnall, K M; Wenger, H A; Reid, D C; Castor, W R; Quinney, H A

    1989-01-01

    This work was supported by Sport Canada end Hydra-Fitness Industries. In order to investigate the effects of velocity-specific resistance training, 30 healthy, male varsity athletes were assigned to either high (HVR) or low (LVR) velocity training or control (CG) groups. Subjects completed two 20-sec sets of maximal exercise at each of six hydraulic resistance stations for the lower limb. Resistances were adjusted as necessary to maintain consistent average angular velocities of approximately 1.05 and 3.14 rad/sec for the LVR and HVR groups, respectively. Subjects trained on alternate days for 6 weeks, completing either two (weeks 1 and 2) or three (weeks 3-6) circuits of the six stations each session. Peak knee extension torques were improved (p < 0.05) for the LVR group at all of seven angular velocities tested between 1.05 and 4.19 rad/sec. Improvements (p < 0.05) were also observed for the HVR group, but only at angular velocities of 2.62, 3.14, 3.66, and 4.19 rad/sec. Cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris muscle group obtained from serial computer tomography (CT) scans was increased (p < 0.05) for both training groups. No significant changes in either strength or cross-sectional area were observed for control subjects. These results indicate that while both of the training programs resulted in increased cross-sectional area of the knee extensors, the observed changes in strength performance are likely due to other factors which may be mediated by the different training velocities. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989;10(11):456-462. PMID:18796947

  20. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Rutkowski, Radosław; Gruszczyński, Jakub; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Łochyński, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. Study Design. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Methods. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT) and with KT or placebo taping (PT) in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Results. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm), total work (J), or mean power (W) were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. Conclusion. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men. PMID:26819953

  1. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Rutkowski, Radosław; Gruszczyński, Jakub; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Łochyński, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. Study Design. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Methods. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT) and with KT or placebo taping (PT) in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Results. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm), total work (J), or mean power (W) were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. Conclusion. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men. PMID:26819953

  2. Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Gillian Hatfield; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal characteristics of all gait variables. The fatigue protocol resulted in decreased knee extensor torque generation and quadriceps median power frequencies for 18 of 20 participants (p < 0.05). The gait data from these 18 participants was analyzed. The knee external rotation angle increased (p < 0.05), the net external flexion and external rotation moments decreased (p < 0.05), and the net external adduction moment increased (p < 0.05). Post-fatigue changes in periarticular muscle activation patterns were consistent with the biomechanical changes, but were not significantly altered. Even for this low demand task of walking the knee motion and loading characteristics were altered following a high intensity fatigue protocol in a manner that may place the knee joint at greater risk for joint pathology and injury. PMID:21573776

  3. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    PubMed Central

    How, Moo Ing; Lee, Puah Ken; Wei, Tan See; Chong, Chua Tai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compartment syndrome isolated to the anterior thigh is a rare complication of soccer injury. Previous reports in the English literature on sports trauma-related compartment syndrome of the thigh are vague in their description of the response of thigh musculature to blunt trauma, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of high-risk features of compartment syndrome, vascular injury in quadriceps trauma, and the role of vascular study in blunt thigh injury. Case report We present herein the rare case of a 30-year-old man who developed thigh compartment syndrome 8 days after soccer injury due to severe edema of vastus intermedius and large thigh hematoma secondary to rupture of the profunda femoris vein. MRI revealed blow-out rupture of the vastus lateralis. Decompressive fasciotomy and vein repair performed with subsequent split-skin grafting of the wound defect resulted in a good functional outcome at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and blow-out tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome. PMID:25931302

  4. Effects of quadriceps fatigue on the biomechanics of gait and slip propensity

    PubMed Central

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how lower extremity fatigue of the quadriceps alters gait variables related to slip propensity. Sixteen healthy young adults were recruited to walk across vinyl floor surfaces in states of fatigue and no fatigue. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plates. The results indicated a significant increase in both the heel contact velocity and required coefficient of friction and a decrease in the transitional acceleration of the whole body center of mass and peak knee joint moment in the fatigue trials. Thus, suggesting that slip propensity could increase with fatigue. Additionally, there was increased knee flexion and reduced ankle dorsiflexion at the heel contact phase of the gait cycle during fatigue trials. These findings provide new insights into the biomechanical relationship between localized muscle fatigue and gait parameters associated with slip propensity. The present study concluded that localized muscle fatigue affects gait parameters and hence can be considered as a potential risk factor for slip-induced falls. PMID:18514522

  5. Modulation of non-monosynaptic excitation from ankle dorsiflexor afferents to quadriceps motoneurones during human walking

    PubMed Central

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nielsen, J B

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of non-monosynaptic excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to quadriceps (Q) motoneurones during human treadmill walking was investigated in 25 healthy human subjects. Stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) evoked a biphasic facilitation in the rectified and averaged (n = 50) Q electromyographic (EMG) activity between 0 and 100 ms after heel strike. Prior to heel strike, the stimulation had no effect on the Q EMG. The latency of both peaks in the response was too long to be explained by a monosynaptic pathway to Q motoneurones. During voluntary tonic co-contraction of Q and tibialis anterior (TA) while standing, only the first of the two peaks was evoked by the CPN stimulation despite a background EMG activity level in the Q and TA muscles corresponding to that observed 30–60 ms after heel strike during walking. Stimulation of cutaneous nerves did not evoke a similar biphasic facilitation in the Q motoneurones, which suggests that muscular afferents mediate the response. The second peak had a higher threshold than the earlier peak. During cooling of the CPN, the latency of the second peak was more prolonged than the latency of the earlier peak. This suggests that afferents of different diameters contributed to the two peaks. It is proposed that afferents from TA assist the contraction of Q during walking via spinal interneurones to stabilize the knee joint and maintain upright posture during walking. PMID:11790826

  6. Minimally Invasive Reconstruction of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Using Quadriceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Christian; Veselko, Matjaz; Herbort, Mirco; Hoser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) for the treatment of patellar instability has received increased attention over the past few years. Most operative techniques use hamstring grafts fixed with bone tunnels and/or anchors on the patella. Despite good clinical results using these techniques, complications such as implant breakage, patellar fractures through bone tunnels, and loss of knee motion have occurred. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using a strip of quadriceps tendon. With the use of specially designed instruments, the graft is harvested through a 3-cm transverse incision at the proximal pole of the patella. The tendon strip is then dissected distally on the patella, left attached, and diverged 90 medially underneath the medial prepatellar tissue. The graft is fixed on the femur in 20 of knee flexion in a bone tunnel with a bioabsorbable interference screw (adults) or a bone anchor (children). We think that this technique presents a valuable alternative to common hamstring techniques for primary MPFL reconstruction in children and adults, as well as for MPFL revision surgery. PMID:25126496

  7. Hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength and size ratios of male professional soccer players with muscle imbalance.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; de Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Camarda, Sérgio Ricardo de Abreu; Ribeiro, Leandro; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength (Hcon :Qcon ) and cross-sectional area ratios (Hcsa :Qcsa ) in professional soccer players with Hcon :Qcon imbalance. Nine male professional soccer players (25·3 ± 4·1 years) performed five maximal concentric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60 s(-1) to assess Hcon :Qcon . The test was performed using the dominant (preferred kicking), and non-dominant limb with a 5-min recovery period was allowed between them. Only players with Hcon :Qcon  < 0·60 (range: 0·45-0·59) in both limbs were included in this study. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of KE and KF was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The correlations between Hcon :Qcon and Hcsa :Qcsa in the dominant leg (r = -0·33), non-dominant leg (r = 0·19) and in the both legs combined (r = 0·28) were not statistically significant (P>0·05). Thus, the Hcon :Qcon seems not to be determined by Hcsa :Qcsa in professional soccer players with Hcon :Qcon imbalance. PMID:25348722

  8. An age-related shift in the force-frequency relationship affects quadriceps fatigability in old adults.

    PubMed

    Allman, Brian L; Rice, Charles L

    2004-03-01

    We examined the effect of an age-related leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship on the comparative quadriceps fatigability of nine young (27 +/- 1 yr old) and nine old men (78 +/- 1 yr old) during low-frequency electrical stimulation. Two different protocols of intermittent trains (6 pulses on, 650 ms off) of electrical stimulation at 25% maximum voluntary contraction were performed by both groups: 1) 180 trains at 14.3 Hz [constant frequency (CF) protocol], and 2) 180 trains at the frequency corresponding to 60% of each subject's force-frequency curve [normalized frequency (NF) protocol; young 14.9 +/- 0.4 vs. old 12.7 +/- 0.5 Hz; P < 0.05]. The quadriceps of the old men were weaker (approximately 31%) and relaxation was slower compared with the young men, as assessed by the maximal relaxation rate constant of the 50-Hz tetanus (young 12.1 +/- 0.2 vs. old 9.2 +/- 0.5 s(-1); P < 0.05) and a leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship. The NF protocol revealed a decreased fatigability in the quadriceps with old age (percentage of 1st contraction force remaining at 180th: old 63.4 +/- 1.5 vs. young 58.2 +/- 1.7%; P < 0.05) that was masked during the CF protocol (old 60.7 +/- 1.6 vs. young 58.6 +/- 2.3%; P > 0.05). Irrespective of the protocol, the maximal relaxation rate was reduced to approximately 73 and approximately 57% of the prefatigue value in the young and old men, respectively. The age-related leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship of the quadriceps contributed to an underestimation of the fatigue resistance with old age during the CF protocol. However, when the stimulation frequency used in the NF protocol was adjusted to account for the age-related shift in the force-frequency relationship, the quadriceps muscles of the old men were less fatigable than those of the young men. Thus we suggest that whole muscle fatigability is better examined by electrical stimulation protocols that are adjusted for inter- and intragroup differences in the force-frequency relationship. PMID:14594856

  9. Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

  10. Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Ogborn, Daniel I; Cupido, Colleen; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Massage therapy is commonly used during physical rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to ameliorate pain and promote recovery from injury. Although there is evidence that massage may relieve pain in injured muscle, how massage affects cellular function remains unknown. To assess the effects of massage, we administered either massage therapy or no treatment to separate quadriceps of 11 young male participants after exercise-induced muscle damage. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the quadriceps (vastus lateralis) at baseline, immediately after 10 min of massage treatment, and after a 2.5-hour period of recovery. We found that massage activated the mechanotransduction signaling pathways focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), potentiated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling [nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?)], and mitigated the rise in nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) (p65) nuclear accumulation caused by exercise-induced muscle trauma. Moreover, despite having no effect on muscle metabolites (glycogen, lactate), massage attenuated the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and reduced heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) phosphorylation, thereby mitigating cellular stress resulting from myofiber injury. In summary, when administered to skeletal muscle that has been acutely damaged through exercise, massage therapy appears to be clinically beneficial by reducing inflammation and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22301554

  11. Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

    2001-06-01

    The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

  12. The effects of trunk stability exercise and a combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Gak; Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Hyeon-Su

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of trunk stability exercise and combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty persons diagnosed with chronic low back pain were divided into a trunk stability exercise group and a combined exercise group and then conducted exercise for six weeks. [Results] VAS and sway lengths decreased significantly in both groups. A comparison of sway lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the trunk stability exercise group had a bigger decrease than the combined exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that trunk stability exercise would have bigger effect than combined exercise on the daily activities of chronic low back pain patients as it strengthens deep abdominal muscles and improves flexibility and balancing ability. PMID:25995577

  13. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 802 Exercise and HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES ... http://positivelyaware.com/2009/09_05/exercise.shtml HIV and Exercise : http://www.thebody.com/tpan/julaug_ ...

  14. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  15. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... asthma? How does exercise-induced bronchospasm differ from asthma? Is it safe for me to exercise? What kind of exercise can I do? What other ... Recognition and Management of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm by T Sinha, MD; ...

  16. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  17. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise Print A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...

  18. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Why Exercise Is Wise KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Exercise Is ... exercise, strength training, and flexibility training. continue Aerobic Exercise Like other muscles, the heart enjoys a good ...

  19. Sagittal plane knee translation and electromyographic activity during closed and open kinetic chain exercises in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Kvist, J; Gillquist, J

    2001-01-01

    Using electrogoniometry and electromyography, we measured tibial translation and muscle activation in 12 patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament injury and in 12 control subjects. Measurements were made during an active extension exercise with 0-, 4-, and 8-kg weights and during squats on two legs and on one leg where the projection of the center of gravity was placed over, behind, and in front the feet. In the uninjured subjects, tibial translation increased with increasing load except during the squat with the center of gravity behind the feet, which produced the smallest translation. For the active extension exercises, translation was greater during eccentric activity. In the anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees, all squats resulted in similar translation, which was smaller than that during the active extension exercise. The highest muscle activation was seen during squats. Hamstring muscle activity was low. Increased static laxity in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee can be controlled during closed but not during open kinetic chain exercises. Coactivation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles seems to be important for knee stability, whereas hamstring muscle coactivation was insignificant. To minimize sagittal translation during nonoperative management of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees, closed kinetic chain exercises are preferable to open kinetic chain exercises, and importance should be attached to the spontaneous coactivation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. PMID:11206260

  20. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  1. 27 CFR 41.122 - Strengthening bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bond. 41.122 Section 41.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products 41.122 Strengthening bond. Where...

  2. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  3. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training appeared to attenuate the increased Passive tilt-tolerance.

  4. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  5. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  6. AMPK? is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjbsted, Rasmus; Kristensen, Caroline Maag; Hingst, Janne Rasmus; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Gudiksen, Anders; Foretz, Marc; Schjerling, Peter; Viollet, Benoit; Pilegaard, Henriette; Wojtaszewski, Jrgen F P

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training increases skeletal muscle expression of metabolic proteins improving the oxidative capacity. Adaptations in skeletal muscle by pharmacologically induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are dependent on the AMPK?2 subunit. We hypothesized that exercise training-induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins, as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation, would be compromised in muscle-specific AMPK?1 and -?2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, glucose transporter 4, and VEGF in an AMPK-dependent manner, whereas cluster of differentiation 36 and fatty acid transport protein 1 mRNA content increased similarly in AMPK? wild-type (WT) and mdKO mice. During 4 wk of voluntary running wheel exercise training, the AMPK? mdKO mice ran less than WT. Maximal running speed was lower in AMPK? mdKO than in WT mice but increased similarly in both genotypes with exercise training. Exercise training increased quadriceps protein content of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1 (UQCRC1), cytochrome c, hexokinase II, plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein, and citrate synthase activity more in AMPK? WT than in mdKO muscle. However, analysis of a subgroup of mice matched for running distance revealed that only UQCRC1 protein content increased more in WT than in mdKO mice with exercise training. Thus, AMPK?1 and -?2 subunits are important for acute exercise-induced mRNA responses of some genes and may be involved in regulating basal metabolic protein expression but seem to be less important in exercise training-induced adaptations in metabolic proteins. PMID:26419588

  7. Exercise Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Martin G.; Sharman, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of apparent ‘normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a ‘hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory ‘masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE. PMID:26587435

  8. Exercise Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ?210 mm Hg in men or ?190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ?110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE. PMID:26587435

  9. Arterial oxygenation influences central motor output and exercise performance via effects on peripheral locomotor muscle fatigue in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Markus; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Lovering, Andrew T; Stickland, Michael K; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2006-01-01

    Changing arterial oxygen content (CaO2) has a highly sensitive influence on the rate of peripheral locomotor muscle fatigue development. We examined the effects of CaO2 on exercise performance and its interaction with peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Eight trained males performed four 5 km cycling time trials (power output voluntarily adjustable) at four levels of CaO2 (17.624.4 ml O2 dl?1), induced by variations in inspired O2 fraction (0.151.0). Peripheral quadriceps fatigue was assessed via changes in force output pre- versus post-exercise in response to supra-maximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (? Qtw; 1100 Hz). Central neural drive during the time trials was estimated via quadriceps electromyogram. Increased CaO2 from hypoxia to hyperoxia resulted in parallel increases in central neural output (43%) and power output (30%) during cycling and improved time trial performance (12%); however, the magnitude of ? Qtw (?33 to ?35%) induced by the exercise was not different among the four time trials (P > 0.2). These effects of CaO2 on time trial performance and ? Qtw were reproducible (coefficient of variation = 16%) over repeated trials at each FIO2 on separate days. In the same subjects, changing CaO2 also affected performance time to exhaustion at a fixed work rate, but similarly there was no effect of ? CaO2 on peripheral fatigue. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the effect of CaO2 on locomotor muscle power output and exercise performance time is determined to a significant extent by the regulation of central motor output to the working muscle in order that peripheral muscle fatigue does not exceed a critical threshold. PMID:16793898

  10. Recovery from cycling exercise: effects of carbohydrate and protein beverages.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A; Luden, Nicholas D; Smith, Alexia G; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO(2peak): 65 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285-300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO(2peak) + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. PMID:22852050

  11. Current ISS Exercise Countermeasures: Where are we now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Loerch, L.; Davis-Street, J.; Haralson, Cortni; Sams, C.

    2006-01-01

    Current International Space Station (ISS) crew schedules include 1.5 h/d for completion of resistive exercise and 1 h/d of aerobic exercise , 6 d/wk. While ISS post flight decrements in muscle strength, bone m ineral density, and aerobic capacity improved in some crewmembers, de conditioning was still evident even with this volume of exercise. Res ults from early ISS expeditions show maximum loss in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and pelvis in excess of 1.5% per month, with all crewmembers demonstrating significant bone loss in one or more re gions. Similarly, post flight muscle strength losses in the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups exceeded 30% in the immediate post miss ion period in some crewmembers. Measures of aerobic capacity early in the mission show average decrements of 15%, but with onboard aerobic exercise capability, the crew has been able to "train up" over the co urse of the mission. These findings are highly variable among crewmem bers and appear to be correlated with availability and reliability of the inflight resistive exercise device (RED), cycle ergometer, and t readmill. This suite of hardware was installed on ISS with limited op erational evaluation in groundbased test beds. As a result, onorbit hardware constraints have resulted in inadequate physical stimulus, d econditioning, and increased risk for compromised performance during intra and extravehicular activities. These issues indicate that the c urrent ISS Countermeasures System reliability or validity are not ade quate for extendedduration exploration missions. Learning Objective: A better understanding of the status of ISS exercise countermeasures , their ability to protect physiologic systems, and recommendations for exploration exercise countermeasures.

  12. Changes in transmission in the pathway of heteronymous spinal recurrent inhibition from soleus to quadriceps motor neurons during movement in man.

    PubMed

    Iles, J F; Pardoe, J

    1999-09-01

    H reflexes were induced in the human quadriceps muscle by electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve. The reflexes were conditioned by prior stimulation of the inferior soleus nerve. The conditioning stimulus produced an inhibition of long duration (>20 ms). The threshold of this inhibition was at zero soleus motor discharge and the inhibition scaled with soleus motor discharge. It was concluded that the inhibition was a heteronymous recurrent inhibition of quadriceps motor neurons mediated by Renshaw cells which had been activated by soleus motor neuron discharge. This recurrent inhibition declined during voluntary tonic contraction of the quadriceps, falling to zero at around one-third of maximum voluntary contraction. Antagonist contraction and weak co-contraction of the quadriceps and its antagonists did not lead to any significant change in recurrent inhibition. It is concluded that motor commands descending from the brain reduce heteronymous recurrent inhibition during isolated quadriceps muscle contraction, but to a much lesser extent during co-contraction. No evidence was obtained for any descending facilitation of heteronymous recurrent inhibition. PMID:10468514

  13. Analysis of three different equations for predicting quadriceps femoris muscle strength in patients with COPD *

    PubMed Central

    Nellessen, Aline Gonçalves; Donária, Leila; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida; Pitta, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare equations for predicting peak quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle force; to determine the agreement among the equations in identifying QF muscle weakness in COPD patients; and to assess the differences in characteristics among the groups of patients classified as having or not having QF muscle weakness by each equation. Methods: Fifty-six COPD patients underwent assessment of peak QF muscle force by dynamometry (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee extension). Predicted values were calculated with three equations: an age-height-weight-gender equation (Eq-AHWG); an age-weight-gender equation (Eq-AWG); and an age-fat-free mass-gender equation (Eq-AFFMG). Results: Comparison of the percentage of predicted values obtained with the three equations showed that the Eq-AHWG gave higher values than did the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, with no difference between the last two. The Eq-AHWG showed moderate agreement with the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, whereas the last two also showed moderate, albeit lower, agreement with each other. In the sample as a whole, QF muscle weakness (< 80% of predicted) was identified by the Eq-AHWG, Eq-AWG, and Eq-AFFMG in 59%, 68%, and 70% of the patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Age, fat-free mass, and body mass index are characteristics that differentiate between patients with and without QF muscle weakness. Conclusions: The three equations were statistically equivalent in classifying COPD patients as having or not having QF muscle weakness. However, the Eq-AHWG gave higher peak force values than did the Eq-AWG and the Eq-AFFMG, as well as showing greater agreement with the other equations. PMID:26398750

  14. Technical note: double tibial tunnel using quadriceps tendon in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pederzini, L; Adriani, E; Botticella, C; Tosi, M

    2000-07-01

    To avoid complications related to the use of patellar tendon and hamstring (semitendinosus and gracilis) tendon and to create a more anatomic reconstruction, we present a new technique based on the use of quadriceps tendon placed in a single half femoral tunnel and double tibial tunnels. The graft, harvested by a central longitudinal incision, possesses the following characteristics: (1) a bone plug 20 mm long and 10 mm in diameter; (2) a tendon component 7 to 8 cm long, 10 mm wide, and 8 mm thick; and (3) division of the tendon longitudinally into 2 bundles while maintaining the patellar insertion. Every bundle has a width and thickness of approximately 5 mm and 8 mm, respectively. The total length of the graft is 9 to 10 cm. A 10-mm half femoral tunnel is drilled through a low anteromedial portal with the knee flexed at 120 degrees. A suture loop is left in place in the half tunnel. A double tibial tunnel is drilled in a convergent manner (from outside to inside) obtaining an osseous bridge between the 2 tunnels. Two suture loops are passed trough the tibial tunnels and retrieved in a plastic cannula (10 mm) positioned in the anteromedial portal to allow the passage of the 2 bundles in the tibial tunnels. The suture loop left in the half tunnel permits the transportation of the bone plug in the femoral tunnel. Fixation is achieved by an interference screw at the femoral side and by 2 absorbable interference screws (1 for each tunnel). The advantages of this technique are a more cross-sectional area (80 mm(2)), greater bone-tendon interface, and a more anatomic reconstruction. Theoretically, easier bone incorporation, decreased windshield wiper and bungee effect, fewer donor site problems, and less tunnel enlargement can also be possible. PMID:10882460

  15. Biomechanical Evaluation of the Quadriceps Tendon Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Norihiro; Farraro, Kathryn F.; Kim, Kwang E.; Woo, Savio L-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, many surgeons have chosen the quadriceps tendon (QT) as an autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, there have not been biomechanical studies that quantitatively evaluated knee function after reconstruction using a QT autograft. Purpose To measure the 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics and in situ graft forces after reconstruction with a QT autograft compared with a quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis (QSTG) tendon autograft. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten human cadaveric knees (age, 5464 years) were tested in 3 conditions: (1) intact, (2) ACL deficient, and (3) after ACL reconstruction using a QT or QSTG autograft. With use of a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system, knee kinematics and in situ forces in the ACL and autografts were obtained at 5 knee flexion angles under externally applied loads: (1) 134-N anterior tibial load, (2) 134-N anterior tibial load with 200-N axial compression, and (3) 10-Nm valgus and 5-Nm internal tibial torque. Results Under the anterior tibial load, both autografts restored anterior tibial translation to within 2.5 mm of the intact knee and in situ forces to within 20 N of the intact ACL at 15, 30, and 60. Adding compression did not change these findings. With the combined rotatory load, the anterior tibial translation and graft in situ forces were again not significantly different from the intact ACL. There were no significant differences between the grafts under any experimental condition. Conclusion Reconstruction of the ACL with a QT autograft restored knee function to similar levels as that reconstructed with a QSTG autograft under loads simulating clinical examinations. Clinical Relevance The positive biomechanical results of this cadaveric study lend support to the use of a QT autograft for ACL reconstruction, as it could restore knee function immediately after surgery under applied loads that mimic clinical examinations. PMID:24401682

  16. Quadriceps muscle weakness and atrophy are associated with a differential epigenetic profile in advanced COPD.

    PubMed

    Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Martnez-Llorens, Juana; Ausin, Pilar; Roca, Josep; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle dysfunction and atrophy. We assessed whether quadriceps muscle weakness and atrophy are associated with a differential expression profile of epigenetic events in patients with advanced COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). In vastus lateralis (VL) of sedentary severe COPD patients (n=41), who were further subdivided into those with (n=25) and without (n=16) muscle weakness and healthy controls (n=19), expression of muscle-enriched miRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), growth and atrophy signalling markers, total protein and histone acetylation, transcription factors, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligases and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared with controls, in VL of all COPD together and in muscle-weakness patients, expression of miR-1, miR-206 and miR-27a, levels of lysine-acetylated proteins and histones and acetylated histone 3 were increased, whereas expression of HDAC3, HDAC4, sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) were decreased, Akt (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) expression did not differ, follistatin expression was greater, whereas myostatin expression was lower, serum reponse factor (SRF) expression was increased and fibre size of fast-twitch fibres was significantly reduced. In VL of severe COPD patients with muscle weakness and atrophy, epigenetic events regulate muscle differentiation rather than proliferation and muscle growth and atrophy signalling, probably as feedback mechanisms to prevent those muscles from undergoing further atrophy. Lysine-hyperacetylation of histones may drive enhanced protein catabolism in those muscles. These findings may help design novel therapeutic strategies (enhancers of miRNAs promoting myogenesis and acetylation inhibitors) to selectively target muscle weakness and atrophy in severe COPD. PMID:25628226

  17. Electromyographic Analysis of Four Popular Abdominal Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Piering, Andrew W.; Janowski, Alex P.; Wehrenberg, William B.; Moore, Martin T.; Snyder, Ann C.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis. PMID:16558218

  18. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries. PMID:25007200

  19. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  20. Exercise prescriptions to prevent musculoskeletal disorders in dentists.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Rathan, Neelima; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-07-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises - concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises - that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises - that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  1. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    PubMed

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity. PMID:25073098

  2. Bonds that strengthen under force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Viola

    2006-03-01

    While the adhesive strength of most receptor-ligand interactions is exponentially reduced if strained, some receptor-ligand complexes exist that strengthen under force which is the hallmark of catch bonds. Although the existence of catch bonds was theoretically predicted, the first experimental demonstrations of their existence were given only recently, i.e. for the bacterial adhesin FimH that is located at the tip of type I fimbriae of E. coli and for p-selectin. In a major collaborative effort, we studied the structural origin by which the FimH-mannose bond is switched by force to a high binding state. Mutational studies were thereby combined with steered molecular dynamic simulations to decipher how force might affect protein conformation. Force-activation of FimH leads to a complex `stick-and-roll' bacterial adhesion behavior in which E. coli preferentially rolls over mannosylated surfaces at low shear but increasingly sticks firmly as the shear is increased. Interesting similarities are further seen if comparing the structural mechanisms by which liganded FimH and liganded integrins are switched to a high binding state. This comparison was made possible by docking fibronectin's 10^th type III module (fnIII10) to ?V?3 integrin. ?V?3 can switch from the ``closed'' ?V?3 integrin headpiece to the ``open'' conformation by opening the hinge angle between the ?A domain and the hybrid domain of the ?-integrin. The ``open'' state has been implicated by many experimental laboratories to correspond to the activated state of integrins. W. E. Thomas, E. Trintchina, M. Forero, V. Vogel, E. Sokurenko, Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear-force, Cell, 109 (2002) 913. W. E. Thomas, L. M. Nilsson, M. Forero, E. V. Sokurenko, V. Vogel, Shear-dependent `stick-and-roll' adhesion of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli, Molecular Microbiology 53 (2004) 1545. W. Thomas, M. Forero, O. Yakovenko, L. Nilsson, P. Vicini, E. Sokurenko, V. Vogel, Catch Bond Model Derived from Allostery Explains Force-Activated Bacterial Adhesion, Biophys. J, in press E. Puklin-Faucher, M. Gao, K. Schulten, V. Vogel, How the opening of the ?A/hybrid domain hinge angle in the ?v?3 integrin headpiece is regulated by the liganded MIDAS conformation and by ligand-mediated mechanical force, submitted.

  3. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpo; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felcio, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosngela Corra; Assis, Marcella Guimares; Pereira, Leani Souza Mximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  4. The muscle oxidative regulatory response to acute exercise is not impaired in less advanced COPD despite a decreased oxidative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Slot, Ilse G M; van den Borst, Bram; Hellwig, Valry A C V; Barreiro, Esther; Schols, Annemie M W J; Gosker, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    Already in an early disease stage, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are confronted with impaired skeletal muscle function and physical performance due to a loss of oxidative type I muscle fibers and oxidative capacity (i.e. oxidative phenotype; Oxphen). Physical activity is a well-known stimulus of muscle Oxphen and crucial for its maintenance. We hypothesized that a blunted response of Oxphen genes to an acute bout of exercise could contribute to decreased Oxphen in COPD. For this, 28 patients with less advanced COPD (age 65 7 yrs, FEV1 59 16% predicted) and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed an incremental cycle ergometry test. The Oxphen response to exercise was determined by the measurement of gene expression levels of Oxphen markers in pre and 4h-post exercise quadriceps biopsies. Because exercise-induced hypoxia and oxidative stress may interfere with Oxphen response, oxygen saturation and oxidative stress markers were assessed as well. Regardless of oxygen desaturation and absolute exercise intensities, the Oxphen regulatory response to exercise was comparable between COPD patients and controls with no evidence of increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, the muscle Oxphen regulatory response to acute exercise is not blunted in less advanced COPD, regardless of exercise-induced hypoxia. Hence, this study provides further rationale for incorporation of exercise training as integrated part of disease management to prevent or slow down loss of muscle Oxphen and related functional impairment in COPD. PMID:24587251

  5. Resting and active motor thresholds versus stimulusresponse curves to determine transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity in quadriceps femoris

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely-used investigative technique in motor cortical evaluation. Recently, there has been a surge in TMS studies evaluating lower-limb fatigue. TMS intensity of 120-130% resting motor threshold (RMT) and 120% active motor threshold (AMT) and TMS intensity determined using stimulusresponse curves during muscular contraction have been used in these studies. With the expansion of fatigue research in locomotion, the quadriceps femoris is increasingly of interest. It is important to select a stimulus intensity appropriate to evaluate the variables, including voluntary activation, being measured in this functionally important muscle group. This study assessed whether selected quadriceps TMS stimulus intensity determined by frequently employed methods is similar between methods and muscles. Methods Stimulus intensity in vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles was determined by RMT, AMT (i.e. during brief voluntary contractions at 10% maximal voluntary force, MVC) and maximal motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude from stimulusresponse curves during brief voluntary contractions at 10, 20 and 50% MVC at different stimulus intensities. Results Stimulus intensity determined from a 10% MVC stimulusresponse curve and at 120 and 130% RMT was higher than stimulus intensity at 120% AMT (lowest) and from a 50% MVC stimulusresponse curve (p??0.05). Conclusions Similar optimal stimulus intensity and maximal MEP amplitudes at 20 and 50% MVC and the minimal risk of residual fatigue at 20% MVC suggest that a 20% MVC stimulusresponse curve is appropriate for determining TMS stimulus intensity in the quadriceps femoris. The higher selected stimulus intensities at 120-130% RMT have the potential to cause increased coactivation and discomfort and the lower stimulus intensity at 120% AMT may underestimate evoked responses. One muscle may also act as a surrogate in determining optimal quadriceps femoris stimulation intensity. PMID:24655366

  6. The effect of mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy on the quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion in elite fencers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Eunkuk; Park, Jongchul; Kang, Hyunyong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy (PT) affects quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion, this case-control study examined elite fencers who continue to train and play fully with mild tendon pains. Twenty-four elite fencers (10 women) with mild symptomatic PT and 24 controls (10 women) participated in the study. Concentric/eccentric isokinetic strength of the quadriceps was tested, and peak torque and total work were recorded. Kinematic data from the knee during the Fente motion were collected. The first analysis period (P1) was after heel contact to the maximal flexion of the knee, and the second (P2) was right after P1 to heel-off. Normalized peak torque and work of concentric/eccentric contractions were not significantly different. Affected fencers demonstrated significantly reduced angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.042). The male fencers did not demonstrate any differences. The affected female fencers demonstrated significantly weaker concentric peak torque at 60s(-1) (p = 0. 009) and 180s(-1) (p = 0.047) and less concentric work at 60s(-1) (p = 0.020). They also demonstrated significantly reduced average angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.001). Therefore, mild symptomatic PT seems to have an effect on the isokinetic concentric contraction of the quadriceps and the angular velocity of the knee during the backward Fente motion in elite female fencers who are participating fully in training and competition. Key pointsIt is likely that even mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy could affect the athletic performances in elite fencers.Elite female fencers are more likely to be affected substantially by symptomatic patellar tendinopathy in their sporting ability than male fencers.Because weak concentric knee extensors may affect the performance in fencing, not only eccentric training for symptomatic patellar tendinopathy but also proper concentric training of the quadriceps may be helpful in a rehabilitation program of elite female fencers who are participating fully in their training and competition. PMID:24149561

  7. The Independent and Interactive Effects of Navicular Drop and Quadriceps Angle on Neuromuscular Responses to a Weight-Bearing Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sandra J; Carcia, Christopher R; Gansneder, Bruce M; Perrin, David H

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the effects of static alignment on neuromuscular control of the knee during dynamic motion. Objective: To evaluate the isolated and combined effects of quadriceps angle (QA) and navicular drop (ND) on neuromuscular responses to a weight-bearing perturbation. Design: Mixed-model, repeated-measures design. Setting: Sports medicine and athletic training research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seventy-nine National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate female athletes, classified with below-average ND and QA (LND-LQA); below-average ND and above-average QA (LND-HQA); above-average ND and below-average QA (HND-LQA); or above-average ND and QA (HND-HQA). Intervention(s): A lower extremity perturbation device produced a forward and either internal or external rotation of the trunk and femur on the weight-bearing tibia to evoke a reflex response. Main Outcome Measure(s): Neuromuscular responses were examined in the quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius muscles: preperturbation amplitude 50 milliseconds before the perturbation, reflex time, and postperturbation amplitude 150 milliseconds immediately postperturbation. Results: Navicular drop had the greatest effect on preperturbation amplitude of the lateral hamstrings and postperturbation amplitude of all muscles, with greater activation amplitude noted in subjects in the HND classifications. Quadriceps angle primarily affected reflex time of the quadriceps; in subjects with LQA, reflex time was faster for internal rotation than external rotation perturbations. The interaction between ND and QA had the greatest effect on reflex time of the lateral hamstrings. For internal rotation perturbations, subjects in the LND classifications had faster reflex times in the lateral hamstrings if they had HQA values rather than LQA values. With external rotation perturbations, HND-LQA subjects had slower reflex times than those in all other alignment classifications. Conclusions: Navicular drop and QA have both independent and interactive effects on neuromuscular responses to a weight-bearing, rotational perturbation. These interactive effects highlight the importance of considering the entire lower extremity posture rather than a single alignment characteristic, given the potential for one alignment factor to compensate for or interact with another. PMID:17043692

  8. Transcriptome Analysis in Venom Gland of the Predatory Giant Ant Dinoponera quadriceps: Insights into the Polypeptide Toxin Arsenal of Hymenopterans

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Leung, Siu Wai; Prieto-da-Silva, lvaro R. B.; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves P.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Rdis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Dinoponera quadriceps is a predatory giant ant that inhabits the Neotropical region and subdues its prey (insects) with stings that deliver a toxic cocktail of molecules. Human accidents occasionally occur and cause local pain and systemic symptoms. A comprehensive study of the D. quadriceps venom gland transcriptome is required to advance our knowledge about the toxin repertoire of the giant ant venom and to understand the physiopathological basis of Hymenoptera envenomation. Results We conducted a transcriptome analysis of a cDNA library from the D. quadriceps venom gland with Sanger sequencing in combination with whole-transcriptome shotgun deep sequencing. From the cDNA library, a total of 420 independent clones were analyzed. Although the proportion of dinoponeratoxin isoform precursors was high, the first giant ant venom inhibitor cysteine-knot (ICK) toxin was found. The deep next generation sequencing yielded a total of 2,514,767 raw reads that were assembled into 18,546 contigs. A BLAST search of the assembled contigs against non-redundant and Swiss-Prot databases showed that 6,463 contigs corresponded to BLASTx hits and indicated an interesting diversity of transcripts related to venom gene expression. The majority of these venom-related sequences code for a major polypeptide core, which comprises venom allergens, lethal-like proteins and esterases, and a minor peptide framework composed of inter-specific structurally conserved cysteine-rich toxins. Both the cDNA library and deep sequencing yielded large proportions of contigs that showed no similarities with known sequences. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the venom gland transcriptome of the New World giant ant D. quadriceps. The glandular venom system was dissected, and the toxin arsenal was revealed; this process brought to light novel sequences that included an ICK-folded toxins, allergen proteins, esterases (phospholipases and carboxylesterases), and lethal-like toxins. These findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology, behavior and venomics of hymenopterans. PMID:24498135

  9. Testing a model of post-stroke exercise behavior.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Marianne; Resnick, Barbara M; Macko, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in older Americans, and survivors tend to be sedentary, thereby risking loss of functional gains achieved during rehabilitation and increasing cardiovascular risk. Studies of motivation to exercise in older adults suggest that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are key determinants of initiation and adherence to exercise programs. This study tested a theoretical model of physical activity in stroke survivors. A survey of exercise beliefs and patterns was sent to National Stroke Association stroke support groups. Responses from 312 stroke survivors (mean age 63 years, 57% female, 70% White) indicated that only 31% exercised four times weekly. Self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise, before exercise history, and physician recommendation all directly and indirectly influenced self-reported exercise behavior and accounted for 33% of the total variance in exercise behavior. Model testing supported the theory and the model fit the data. Interventions to strengthen self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise, along with reminders for clinicians to encourage regular exercise programs, may increase the likelihood of initiating and maintaining an exercise program, potentially improving physical function and cardiovascular fitness in this population. PMID:16422040

  10. Strengthening Concurrent Enrollment through NACEP Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Kent; McLemore, Yvette; Lowe, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how implementing the National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships' 17 accreditation standards strengthens a concurrent enrollment program, enhances secondary-postsecondary relations, and benefits students, their families, and secondary and postsecondary institutions.

  11. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum...

  12. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.94 Strengthening bonds. (a... sufficient, the principal may prepay the tax on beer as provided in subpart K of this part, or give...

  13. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.94 Strengthening bonds. (a... sufficient, the principal may prepay the tax on beer as provided in subpart K of this part, or give...

  14. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.94 Strengthening bonds. (a... sufficient, the principal may prepay the tax on beer as provided in subpart K of this part, or give...

  15. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.94 Strengthening bonds. (a... sufficient, the principal may prepay the tax on beer as provided in subpart K of this part, or give...

  16. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.94 Strengthening bonds. (a... sufficient, the principal may prepay the tax on beer as provided in subpart K of this part, or give...

  17. Acute exercise induced mitochondrial H₂O₂ production in mouse skeletal muscle: association with p(66Shc) and FOXO3a signaling and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Li, Chun Guang; Qi, Zhengtang; Cui, Di; Ding, Shuzhe

    2015-01-01

    Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p(66Shc), FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris) were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p(66Shc) and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p(66Shc) and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p(66Shc) or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p(66Shc) and FOXO3a. The association of p(66Shc) and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise. PMID:25874020

  18. Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

  19. Posterior Rotator Cuff Strengthening Using Theraband in a Functional Diagonal Pattern in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phillip A.; Lamberth, John; Abadie, Ben; Boling, Robert; Collins, Robert; Linton, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The deceleration phase of the pitching mechanism requires forceful eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff. Because traditional isotonic strengthening may not be specific to this eccentric pattern, a more effective and functional means of strengthening the posterior rotator cuff is needed. Twelve collegiate baseball pitchers performed a moderate intensity isotonic dumbbell strengthening routine for 6 weeks. Six of the 12 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group and placed on a Theraband Elastic Band strengthening routine in a functional-diagonal pattern to emphasize the eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff, in addition to the isotonic routine. The control group (n = 6) performed only the isotonic exercises. Both groups were evaluated on a KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer in a functional diagonal pattern. Pretest and posttest average eccentric force production of the posterior rotator cuff was compared at two speeds, 60 and 180/s. Data were analyzed with an analysis of covariance at the .05 level with significance at 60/s. Values at 180/s, however, were not significant. Eccentric force production at 60/s increased more during training in the experimental group (+19.8%) than in the control group (-1.6%). There was no difference in the two groups at 180/s; both decreased (8 to 15%). Theraband was effective at 60/s in functional eccentric strengthening of the posterior rotator cuff in the pitching shoulder. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558251

  20. An exercise programme for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulou, K; Johnson, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Home exercise programmes and exercise programmes carried out in a clinical setting are commonly advocated for the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), a very common lesion of the arm with a well-defined clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to describe the use and effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes in the treatment of LET. Eccentric exercises: Slow progressive eccentric exercises for LET should be performed with the elbow in extension, forearm in pronation, and wrist in extended position (as high as possible). However, it is unclear how the injured tendon, which is loaded eccentrically, returns to the starting position without experiencing concentric loading and how the "slowness" of eccentric exercises should be defined. Nor has the treatment regimen of the eccentric exercises of a supervised exercise programme been defined. Stretching exercises: Static stretching is defined as passively stretching a given muscle-tendon unit by slowly placing and maintaining it in a maximal position of stretch. We recommend the position should be held for 3045 s, three times before and three times after eccentric exercises during each treatment session with a 30 s rest interval between each procedure. The treatment region of static stretching exercises when a supervised exercise programme is performed is unknown. Discussion: A well designed trial is needed to study the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for LET consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises. The issues relating to the supervised exercise programme should be defined so that therapists can replicate the programme. PMID:16306504

  1. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  2. Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings and functional ability of anterior cruciate deficient knees in recreational athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Li, R C; Maffulli, N; Hsu, Y C; Chan, K M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that increasing the hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) isokinetic strength ratio will, in the short term, improve the functional ability of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. METHODS: The isokinetic muscular characteristics at a speed of 60 degrees s-1 and 180 degrees s-1 of 46 recreational athletes with an arthroscopically confirmed ACL tear were determined using the Cybex II+ isokinetic dynamometer. The variables tested included peak torque, endurance ratio, total work output, and explosive power. Functional ability was scored with the Cincinnati rating system, measuring the severity of pain and swelling, the degree of giving way, and the overall ability to walk, run, ascent and descent stairs, jump and twist. RESULTS: Among all muscular characteristics, the H:Q ratio at 180 degrees s-1 at 30 degrees of knee flexion was shown to have the highest correlation to the functional score (r = 0.6249, P < 0.001). All variables involving hamstring strength were shown to be significantly correlated to the functional ability score (P < 0.01), while none of the variables involving quadriceps strength showed significant correlation with the functional ability of the injured knee. CONCLUSIONS: The H:Q ratio is strongly correlated to the functional ability of ACL deficient knees in Chinese recreational athletes. It could be used as an additional measure to guide in the decision making process in the management of ACL deficient knees. PMID:8799604

  3. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  4. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exercise videos/DVDs made for older people. • Add music to the exercises if it helps the person with Alzheimer’s disease. Dance to the music if possible. • Break exercises into simple, easy-to- ...

  5. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...

  6. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

  7. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using a resistance band can build strength. Balance exercises help prevent falls Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber NIH: National Institute on Aging

  8. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  9. Comparison of intersegmental tibiofemoral joint forces and muscle activity during various closed kinetic chain exercises.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M J; Meglan, D A; Lutz, G E; Growney, E S; An, K N

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze intersegmental forces at the tibiofemoral joint and muscle activity during three commonly prescribed closed kinetic chain exercises: the power squat, the front squat, and the lunge. Subjects with anterior cruciate ligament-intact knees performed repetitions of each of the three exercises using a 223-N (50-pound) barbell. The results showed that the mean tibiofemoral shear force was posterior (tibial force on femur) throughout the cycle of all three exercises. The magnitude of the posterior shear forces increased with knee flexion during the descent phase of each exercise. Joint compression forces remained constant throughout the descent and ascent phases of the power squat and the front squat. A net offset in extension for the moment about the knee was present for all three exercises. Increased quadriceps muscle activity and the decreased hamstring muscle activity are required to perform the lunge as compared with the power squat and the front squat. A posterior tibiofemoral shear force throughout the entire cycle of all three exercises in these subjects with anterior cruciate ligament-intact knees indicates that the potential loading on the injured or reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament is not significant. The magnitude of the posterior tibiofemoral shear force is not likely to be detrimental to the injured or reconstructed posterior cruciate ligament. These conclusions assume that the resultant anteroposterior shear force corresponds to the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament forces. PMID:8947402

  10. Are flexibility and muscle-strengthening activities associated with a higher risk of developing low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Robert D.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Beattie, Paul F.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between participation in flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities with the development of low back pain (LBP). Design Observational cohort study. Methods The cohort included 4,610 adults, 17% female, between 20 and 81 years of age (mean 46.6, s.d. 4.96). The cohort was followed for a mean of 4.9 years for self-reported LBP. All participants reported at baseline whether they performed flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities, including specific sub-types. Results Neither general performance of flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities were associated with a higher incidence of LBP compared to those who did not perform these activities. Those who reported stretching, as a specific flexibility activity were at a higher risk of developing LBP compared with those who performed no flexibility exercises, reported calisthenic flexibility activities, or attended exercise classes. Those who reported using weight training machines, as part of muscle-strengthening activities, had a higher risk of reporting LBP, compared with those who did not perform muscle-strengthening activities or performed calisthenic or free weight activities. Conclusion In this sample, stretching or use of weight training machines is associated with increased risk of developing LBP compared to use of free weights, calisthenics or flexibility classes. PMID:23988784

  11. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use. PMID:24666811

  12. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John M.; Strong, David R.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relative untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n = 25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use. PMID:24666811

  13. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  14. Quadriceps tendon tear rupture in healthy patients treated with patellar drilling holes: clinical and ultrasonographic analysis after 36 months of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Zanelli, Matteo; Aliani, Davide; Corsini, Tiziana; Pellegrini, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: quadriceps tendon subcutaneous rupture is an uncommon injury affecting predominantly middle-aged men as a result of direct or indirect trauma; aim of this work is to evaluate clinical outcome and tendon morphology in patients treated surgically with transpatellar drilling suture. Methods: 20 patients (20 male) with an average age of 54 (4259) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 36 months. Measurements of range of motion (ROM) and of tight circumference were collected. Lysholm and Rougraff Score were also performed. All the patients underwent a US evaluation the morphologic changes of the repaired tendon. Results: mean active ROM was 1117; average difference in the circumference of the quadriceps was 2.6% 10 C and 3.3% 15 C. The mean Lysholm Score calculated was 88/100; the mean Rougraff Score 17/25. At ultrasonographic evaluation all tendons were continuous; heterotopic ossification was present in 18 quadriceps tendons. Thickness was augmented in 18 quadriceps tendons and in 5 patellar tendons. Vascularization was always conserved. Lateral subluxation of patella was reported in 1 case. Conclusions: patellar drilling holes repair is a non-demanding procedure, inexpensive and technically uncomplicated. US evaluation confirms tendon healing; tendon remodeling does not affect patients clinical outcome and quality of life. Level of incidence: IV PMID:25332935

  15. Correlation of remaining patellar tendon width with quadriceps strength after autogenous bone-patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shelbourne, K D; Rubinstein, R A; VanMeter, C D; McCarroll, J R; Rettig, A C

    1994-01-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients were prospectively studied to determine whether the different remaining patellar tendon widths after central 10-mm bone-patellar tendon-bone graft harvest influenced the rate and level of quadriceps strength achieved during rehabilitation. Size of the patellar tendon width, measured at the same location in each patient, ranged from 24 to 35 mm. For this study, patients were grouped according to their remaining tendon size into small (14 to 17 mm; mean, 15.8), medium (18 to 20 mm; mean, 19.2), and large (21 to 25 mm; mean, 22.5) widths. Postoperatively, the patient's isokinetic quadriceps scores were determined at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. At 6 weeks, the small- and medium-width tendon groups were significantly weaker than the large-width tendon group. At 3 months, only the small-width tendon group continued to be significantly weaker than the large-width tendon group. At and beyond 6 months, no statistically significant differences were seen between remaining patellar tendon width groups and their isokinetic quadriceps scores. A constant-sized autogenous patellar tendon graft may be harvested for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction without compromising ultimate postoperative quadriceps strength recovery. PMID:7856801

  16. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C.; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  17. Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether ?-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Methods Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the ?-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Results Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ?0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0.554). Conclusions ?-loop dysfunction may contribute to AMI in individuals with knee joint OA, partially explaining the marked quadriceps weakness and atrophy that is often observed in this population. PMID:21933392

  18. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience☆

    PubMed Central

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. Method The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM), apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10) and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. Results Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07). Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. Conclusion Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon, was technically safe and presented good objective and subjective clinical results in this case series with a short follow-up. PMID:26962504

  19. Effect of resistance training on muscle use during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz, Lori L.; Tesch, Per A.; Biro, Ronald L.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effect of resistance training on exercise-induced contrast shift in magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was hypothesized that a given load could be lifted after training with less muscle showing contrast shift, thereby suggesting less muscle was used to perform the exercise. Nine males trained the left quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle 2 days/wk for 9 wk using 3-6 sets of 12 knee extensions each day. The right QF served as a control. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in MR images evoked by each of three bouts of exercise (5 sets of 10 knee extensions with a load equal to 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum pretraining load that could be lifted for 5 sets of 10 repetitions) were quantified pre- and posttraining. MR image contrast shift was quantified by determining QF cross-sectional area (CSA) showing increased spin-spin relaxation time. One repetition maximum increased 14% in the left trained QF and 7% in the right untrained QF. Left QF CSA increased 5%, with no change in right QSF CSA. Left QF CSA showing contrast shift was less after each bout of the exercise test posttraining. This was also true, to a lesser extent, for the right QF at the higher two loads. The results suggest that short-term resistance training reduces MR image contrast shift evoked by a given effort, thereby reflecting the use of less muscle to lift the load. Because this response was evident in both trained and contralateral untrained muscle, neural factors are suggested to be responsible. The consequence of this adaptation could be to increase 'stress' per unit area of active muscle during the course of training and thereby evoke hypertrophy.

  20. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Continuous Femoral Nerve Blocks: Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method (Bolus versus Basal) to Minimize Quadriceps Motor Block while Maintaining Sensory Block

    PubMed Central

    Charous, Matthew T.; Madison, Sarah J.; Suresh, J.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Mariano, Edward R.; Donohue, Michael C.; Dutton, Pascual H.; Ferguson, Eliza J.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whether the method of local anesthetic administration for continuous femoral nerve blocks basal infusion versus repeated hourly bolus doses influences block effects remains unknown. Methods Bilateral femoral perineural catheters were inserted in volunteers (n = 11). Ropivacaine 0.1% was administered through both catheters concurrently: a 6-h continuous 5 ml/h basal infusion on one side and 6 hourly bolus doses on the contralateral side. The primary endpoint was the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle at Hour 6. Secondary end points included quadriceps MVIC at other time points, hip adductor MVIC, and cutaneous sensation 2 cm medial to the distal quadriceps tendon in the 22 h following local anesthetic administration initiation. Results Quadriceps MVIC for limbs receiving 0.1% ropivacaine as a basal infusion declined by a mean (SD) of 84% (19) compared with 83% (24) for limbs receiving 0.1% ropivacaine as repeated bolus doses between baseline and Hour 6 (paired t test P = 0.91). Intrasubject comparisons (left vs. right) reflected a lack of difference as well: the mean basal-bolus difference in quadriceps MVIC at Hour 6 was ?1.1% (95% CI ?22.0 to 19.8%). The similarity did not reach our a priori threshold for concluding equivalence, which was the 95% CI falling within 20%. There were similar minimal differences in the secondary endpoints during local anesthetic administration. Conclusions This study did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that varying the method of local anesthetic administration basal infusion versus repeated bolus doses influences continuous femoral nerve block effects to a clinically significant degree. PMID:21394001

  2. Continuous Femoral Nerve Blocks: The Impact of Catheter Tip Location Relative to the Femoral Nerve (Anterior Versus Posterior) on Quadriceps Weakness and Cutaneous Sensory Block

    PubMed Central

    Ilfeld, Brian M.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Suresh, Preetham J.; Bishop, Michael J.; Donohue, Michael C.; Ferguson, Eliza J.; Madison, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background During a continuous femoral nerve block, the influence of catheter tip position relative to the femoral nerve on infusion characteristics remains unknown. Methods We inserted bilateral femoral perineural catheters in volunteers (ultrasound-guided, needle in-plane). Subjects dominant side was randomized to have the catheter tip placed either anterior or posterior to the femoral nerve. The contralateral limb received the alternative position. Ropivacaine 0.1% was administered through both catheters concurrently for 6 hours (4 mL/h). Outcome measures included the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and tolerance to cutaneous electrical current over to the distal quadriceps tendon. Measurements were performed at Hour 0 (baseline), and on the hour until Hour 9, as well as Hour 22. The primary endpoint was the MVIC of the quadriceps at Hour 6. Results As a percentage of the baseline measurement, quadriceps MVIC for limbs with anterior (n=16) and posterior (n=16) catheter tip placement did not differ to a statistically significant degree at Hour 6 (mean [SD] 29% [26] vs. 30% [28], respectively; 95% CI: ?22% to 20%; p=0.931), or at any other time point. However, the maximum tolerance to cutaneous electrical current was higher in limbs with anterior compared to posterior catheter tip placement at Hour 6 (20 [23] vs. 6 [4] mA, respectively; 95% CI: 1 mA to 27 mA; p=0.035), as well as at Hours 1, 7, 8, and 9 (p<0.04). Conclusions This study documents the significant (7080%) quadriceps femoris weakness induced by a continuous femoral nerve block infusion at a relatively low dose of ropivacaine (4 mg/h) delivered through a perineural catheter located both anterior and posterior to the femoral nerve. In contrast, an anterior placement increases cutaneous sensory block compared with a posterior insertion, without a concurrent relative increase in motor block. PMID:22745116

  3. Anatomic reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in children and adolescents using a pedicled quadriceps tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Nelitz, Manfred; Williams, Sean Robert M

    2014-04-01

    Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has recently become a popular procedure for children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability. Nevertheless, high complication rates of up to 26% have been reported. The traditionally used technique requires patellar bone tunnels that may place the proportionately smaller patella at higher risk of fracture. Because of the adjacent physis of the femoral insertion, anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL has the risk of injury to the growth plate. This technical report therefore presents a technique for anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL in a skeletally immature population using a pedicled superficial quadriceps tendon graft, hardware-free patellar graft attachment, and anatomic femoral fixation distal to the femoral physis. The advantages of this technique include avoidance of bony patellar complications, an anatomically truer reconstruction, a single incision, and sparing of the hamstring tendons for reconstruction of any future ligamentous injuries. PMID:24904782

  4. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    PubMed

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'. PMID:26519522

  5. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  6. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  7. Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

    2007-01-01

    The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

  8. The "Drug Court Strengthening Families" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, TK; Leukefeld, Carl; Minton, Lisa; Abrahmson, Joanie; Hughes, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Children of Drug Court clients are at high-risk for substance abuse and other risk factors. This paper summarizes the results of a program needs assessment, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation from the Kentucky Drug Court Strengthening Families Pilot Program. Results indicated overall positive changes for families in the program.

  9. Strengthening Language Experiences for Children through Fingerplays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Betty Ruth

    Fingerplays--brief stories that rhyme and can be dramatized by using the fingers--are an old activity for children that can be traced in Indian lore to a time before Columbus. Today, fingerplays delight and fascinate young children and provide a variety of learning opportunities. Fingerplays can provide a source for strengthening language

  10. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak

  11. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:

  12. Ideas for Strengthening Mathematics Skills. Greek Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    Presented is an overview of some specific schemes that have been used successfully by teachers throughout New York State to strengthen basic mathematics skills. Components offer ideas that have been successful with primary, intermediate and secondary students. The contents of this Greek language edition are identical to the English language and

  13. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  14. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted

  15. Strengthening the Nation by Narrowing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen; Montoya, James

    2009-01-01

    A 2007 report by Jobs for the Future concluded that the United States "has miles to go to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in degree production, strengthen the domestic workforce to meet demand for higher skills and knowledge, and remain internationally competitive." That the United States must educate more of its citizens for an

  16. 78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Systems Strengthening AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...-1, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 32, Silver Spring, MD 20993,...

  17. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  18. Downregulation of the serum response factor/miR-1 axis in the quadriceps of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amy; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Natanek, Samantha A; Donaldson, Anna; Man, William D-C; Moxham, John; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Polkey, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Muscle atrophy confers a poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet the molecular pathways responsible are poorly characterised. Muscle-specific microRNAs and serum response factor (SRF) are important regulators of muscle phenotype that contribute to a feedback system to regulate muscle gene expression. The role of these factors in the skeletal muscle dysfunction that accompanies COPD is unknown. Methods 31 patients with COPD and 14 healthy age-matched controls underwent lung and quadriceps function assessments, measurement of daily activity and a percutaneous quadriceps muscle biopsy. The expression of muscle-specific microRNAs, myosin heavy chains and components of the serum response factor signalling pathway were determined by qPCR. Results A reduction in expression of miR-1 (2.5-fold, p=0.01) and the myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) A and B was observed in patients compared with controls (MRTF-A mRNA: twofold, p=0.028; MRTF-B mRNA: fourfold, p=0.011). miR-1 expression was associated with smoking history, lung function, fat-free mass index, 6 min walk distance and percentage of type 1 fibres. miR-133 and miR-206 were negatively correlated with daily physical activity. Insulin-like growth factor 1 mRNA was increased in the patients and miR-1 was negatively correlated with phosphorylation of the kinase Akt. Furthermore, the protein levels of histone deacetylase 4, another miR-1 target, were increased in the patients. Conclusions Downregulation of the activity of the MRTF-SRF axis and the expression of muscle-specific microRNAs, particularly miR-1, may contribute to COPD-associated skeletal muscle dysfunction. PMID:21998125

  19. Extended healing validation of an artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the Tibia: 180-day study.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 93 N (vs. 1,179 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 3 N/mm (vs. 37 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 3.8 mm; mean SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

  20. Strength Training to Contraction Failure Increases Voluntary Activation of the Quadriceps Muscle Shortly After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Andersen, Lars Louis; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to investigate voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during one set of knee extensions performed until contraction failure in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. Design This was a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with total knee arthroplasty. One set of knee extensions was performed until contraction failure, using a predetermined 10 repetition maximum loading. In the operated leg, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral and medial vastus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles was recorded during the set. Muscle activity (%EMGmax) and median power frequency of the EMG power spectrum were calculated for each repetition decile (10%–100% contraction failure). Results Muscle activity increased significantly over contractions from a mean of 90.0 and 93.6 %EMGmax (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 99.3 and 105.5 %EMGmax at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.009 and 0.004). Median power frequency decreased significantly over contractions from a mean of 66.8 and 64.2 Hz (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 59.9 and 60.1 Hz at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.0006 and 0.0187). Conclusion In patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty, 10 repetition maximum–loaded knee extensions performed in one set until contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during the set. Clinical Trials Gov-identifier: NCT01713140 to the abstract to increase trial transparency. PMID:26339729

  1. Postpartum Exercise and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Bane, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Many women who are breastfeeding also want to participate in exercise, but have concerns about the safety of their newborn. The following chapter reviews issues related to postpartum exercise and lactation. The goals of the chapter are to help clinicians understand the benefits of exercise, examine the impact of postpartum exercise on breastfeeding, and provide practical recommendations for exercise during the postpartum period in women who are breastfeeding. PMID:26398298

  2. Physiological Correlates of Endurance Time Variability during Constant-Workrate Cycling Exercise in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Gagnon, Philippe; Pepin, Vronique; Saey, Didier; Laviolette, Louis; Brouillard, Cynthia; Maltais, Franois

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The endurance time (Tend) during constant-workrate cycling exercise (CET) is highly variable in COPD. We investigated pulmonary and physiological variables that may contribute to these variations in Tend. Methods Ninety-two patients with COPD completed a CET performed at 80% of peak workrate capacity (Wpeak). Patients were divided into tertiles of Tend [Group 1: <4 min; Group 2: 46 min; Group 3: >6 min]. Disease severity (FEV1), aerobic fitness (Wpeak, peak oxygen consumption [peak], ventilatory threshold [VT]), quadriceps strength (MVC), symptom scores at the end of CET and exercise intensity during CET (heart rate at the end of CET to heart rate at peak incremental exercise ratio [HRCET/HRpeak]) were analyzed as potential variables influencing Tend. Results Wpeak, peak, VT, MVC, leg fatigue at end of CET, and HRCET/HRpeak were lower in group 1 than in group 2 or 3 (p?0.05). VT and leg fatigue at end of CET independently predicted Tend in multiple regression analysis (r?=?0.50, p?=?0.001). Conclusion Tend was independently related to the aerobic fitness and to tolerance to leg fatigue at the end of exercise. A large fraction of the variability in Tend was not explained by the physiological parameters assessed in the present study. Individualization of exercise intensity during CET should help in reducing variations in Tend among patients with COPD. PMID:21386991

  3. The effects of electrical stimulation and exercise therapy in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Yıldırım, Sibel A.; Tan, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of exercise therapy and electrical stimulation on muscle strength and functional activities in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Methods: This controlled clinical trial included 24 subjects who were diagnosed with LGMD by the Neurology Department of the Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey and were referred to the Physical Therapy Department between May 2013 and December 2014. Subjects were enrolled into an electrical stimulation (11 patients) group, or an exercise therapy (13 patients) group. Results: The mean age of patients was 31.62 years in the electrical stimulation group, and 30.14 years in the exercise therapy group. The most important results in this controlled clinical study were that the muscle strength in both groups was significantly decreased and post-treatment evaluation results indicated that muscle strength of the Deltoideus was higher in the electrical stimulation group, and the difference between the groups was maintained in the follow-up period (p<0.05). However, the muscle strength of quadriceps was similar in both groups, according to the post-treatment and follow-up evaluation results (p>0.05). Additionally, the electrical stimulation group presented more obvious overall improvements than the exercise therapy group according to muscle strength, endurance, and timed performance tests. Conclusions: Since no definitive treatments currently exist for patients with LGMD, these results provide important information on the role of exercise therapy and electrical stimulation for clinicians working in rehabilitation. PMID:26166595

  4. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  5. Exercise with and without gravitational gradient: evaluation with the new random access mass spectrometer (RAMS).

    PubMed

    Hughson, R L; Shoemaker, J K; Tschakovsky, M E; Corsale, D; Dietrich, B H

    1995-01-01

    Gravity adds about 40-50 mmHg perfusion pressure to the arterial supply of the quadriceps muscles in the upright posture. This could have important implications in supply of blood flow during exercise. Recently, we have shown that when subjects exercise in the supine posture the rate of increase in VO2 is considerably slower then when cycling exercise takes place in the upright posture. The most probable explanation for this slower adaptation was the altered perfusion gradient. Indeed, when the perfusion gradient from heart to legs was restored by placing the lower part of the body of supine subjects in a negative pressure chamber, the rate of increase in VO2 returned to upright values. The hypothesis advanced from these studies was that skeletal muscle blood flow was reduced at the onset of supine exercise. Exercise in the microgravity environment of space should be similar to that in the supine posture. The only experiments conducted in space to this date that have addressed the question of cardiorespiratory adaptation to changing work rates were performed on the German D2 mission using the methodology proposed by Stegemann and colleagues. To conduct these experiments, it is necessary to utilize sensitive breath-by-breath technology. Recently, NASA and the Russian space programs have commissioned a new mass spectrometer based system as part of the GASMAP project. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the new mass spectrometer under conditions in which the gravitational effects on the cardiorespiratory response were being challenged. PMID:11538934

  6. Increased hypoxic ventilatory sensitivity during exercise in man: are neural afferents necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, J J; Bergstrom, E; Frankel, H L; Robbins, P A

    1994-01-01

    1. The acute ventilatory response to 3 min periods of hypoxia (AHR) was examined in nine patients with clinically complete spinal cord transection (T4-T7) during (a) rest and (b) electrically induced leg exercise (EEL). 2. EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps muscles so as to cause the legs to extend at the knee against gravity. End-tidal PCO2 was held constant 1-2 mmHg above resting values throughout both protocols. 3. On exercise, the average increase in metabolic CO2 production (VCO2 +/- S.E.M.) was 41 +/- 5 ml min-1. Venous lactate levels did not rise with exercise. 4. Baseline euoxic ventilation did not increase significantly with EEL, but there was a consistent and highly significant increase in the ventilatory response to hypoxia during EEL (mean delta AHR +/- S.E.M. of 1.6 +/- 0.21 min-1). 5. We conclude that an increase in hypoxic sensitivity during exercise can occur in the absence of volitional control of exercise and in the absence of afferent neural input from the limbs. PMID:8071884

  7. Locomotor muscle fatigue modifies central motor drive in healthy humans and imposes a limitation to exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Markus; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2008-01-01

    We asked whether the central effects of fatiguing locomotor muscle fatigue exert an inhibitory influence on central motor drive to regulate the total degree of peripheral fatigue development. Eight cyclists performed constant-workload prefatigue trials (a) to exhaustion (83% of peak power output (Wpeak), 10 1 min; PFT83%), and (b) for an identical duration but at 67%Wpeak (PFT67%). Exercise-induced peripheral quadriceps fatigue was assessed via changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force (?Qtw,pot) from pre- to post-exercise in response to supra-maximal femoral nerve stimulation (?Qtw,pot). On different days, each subject randomly performed three 5 km time trials (TTs). First, subjects repeated PFT83% and the TT was started 4 min later with a known level of pre-existing locomotor muscle fatigue (?Qtw,pot?36%) (PFT83%-TT). Second, subjects repeated PFT67% and the TT was started 4 min later with a known level of pre-existing locomotor muscle fatigue (?Qtw,pot?20%) (PFT67%-TT). Finally, a control TT was performed without any pre-existing level of fatigue. Central neural drive during the three TTs was estimated via quadriceps EMG. Increases in pre-existing locomotor muscle fatigue from control TT to PFT83%-TT resulted in significant dose-dependent changes in central motor drive (?23%), power output (?14%), and performance time (+6%) during the TTs. However, the magnitude of locomotor muscle fatigue following various TTs was not different (?Qtw,pot of ?35 to ?37%, P= 0.35). We suggest that feedback from fatiguing muscle plays an important role in the determination of central motor drive and force output, so that the development of peripheral muscle fatigue is confined to a certain level. PMID:17962334

  8. Reduction of O2 slow component by priming exercise: novel mechanistic insights from time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiwaki, Masato; Okushima, Dai; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-01-01

    Novel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS), with adipose tissue thickness correction, was used to test the hypotheses that heavy priming exercise reduces the V?O2 slow component (V?O2SC) (1) by elevating microvascular [Hb] volume at multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris (2) rather than reducing the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics. Twelve subjects completed two 6-min bouts of heavy work rate exercise, separated by 6min of unloaded cycling. Priming exercise induced faster overall V?O2 kinetics consequent to a substantial reduction in the V?O2SC (0.270.12 vs. 0.110.09Lmin?1, P<0.05) with an unchanged primary V?O2 time constant. An increased baseline for the primed bout [total (Hb+Mb)] (197.521.6 vs. 210.722.5?molL?1, P<0.01), reflecting increased microvascular [Hb] volume, correlated significantly with the V?O2SC reduction. At multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris, priming exercise reduced the baseline and slowed the increase in [deoxy (Hb+Mb)]. Changes in the intersite coefficient of variation in the time delay and time constant of [deoxy (Hb+Mb)] during the second bout were not correlated with the V?O2SC reduction. These results support a mechanistic link between priming exercise-induced increase in muscle [Hb] volume and the reduced V?O2SC that serves to speed overall V?O2 kinetics. However, reduction in the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics does not appear to be an obligatory feature of the priming response. PMID:26109190

  9. Effects of isokinetic soreness-inducing exercise on blood levels of C-reactive protein and creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    Franklin, M E; Chamness, M; Smith, L L; Chenier, T C; Sizemore, C S; Rogers, M; Forgione, K

    1992-01-01

    This study examined whether acute inflammation was the mechanism underlying delayed muscle soreness (DMS) by assessing the effect of soreness-inducing exercise on blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute inflammation marker. Sixteen female college students (= 20.6 +/- 2.6 years) performed three sets of 35 isokinetic contractions of the knee flexors and extensors at 120 degrees /set on a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Group 1 (N = 8) exercised eccentrically and Group 2 (N = 8) concentrically at an intensity of 80% of a concentric 120 degrees /set peak torque. Pre-exercise and 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours postexercise, DMS of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings (HA) were assessed and blood samples were collected for creatine kinase (CK), an indicator of muscle damage, and CRP, which was measured by a radial immunodiffusion procedure. The mean CK values 72 hours postexercise were 14,856 and 360 IU/L for groups 1 and 2, respectively. No significant elevations of CRP occurred in either group. ANOVAs using a split plot factorial design found Group 1 to have significantly larger logarithmic CK elevations, ranked QF soreness, and ranked HA soreness than Group 2. In contrast to myocardial infarct patients and marathon runner investigations, this study did not demonstrate abnormal elevations of CRP when increases in CK were induced. With high-repetition submaximal isokinetic exercise, eccentric contractions induce higher levels of muscle damage and DMS than concentric contractions. Further, the hamstrings are more susceptible to DMS than the quadriceps femoris when eccentric isokinetic exercise is performed at the same relative intensity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(5):208-214. PMID:18796751

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity affects exercise-induced changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation.

    PubMed

    Bachasson, D; Temesi, J; Gruet, M; Yokoyama, K; Rupp, T; Millet, G Y; Verges, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex during voluntary contractions elicits electrophysiological and mechanical responses in the target muscle. The effect of different TMS intensities on exercise-induced changes in TMS-elicited variables is unknown, impairing data interpretation. This study aimed to investigate TMS intensity effects on maximal voluntary activation (VATMS), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and silent periods (SPs) in the quadriceps muscles before, during, and after exhaustive isometric exercise. Eleven subjects performed sets of ten 5-s submaximal isometric quadriceps contractions at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength until task failure. Three different TMS intensities (I100, I75, I50) eliciting MEPs of 536%, 385% and 253% of maximal compound action potential (Mmax) at 20% MVC were used. MEPs and SPs were assessed at both absolute (40% baseline MVC) and relative (50%, 75%, and 100% MVC) force levels. VATMS was assessed with I100 and I75. When measured at absolute force level, MEP/Mmax increased during exercise at I50, decreased at I100 and remained unchanged at I75. No TMS intensity effect was observed at relative force levels. At both absolute and relative force levels, SPs increased at I100 and remained stable at I75 and I50. VATMS assessed at I75 tended to be lower than at I100. TMS intensity affects exercise-induced changes in MEP/Mmax (only when measured at absolute force level), SPs, and VATMS. These results indicate a single TMS intensity assessing maximal voluntary activation and exercise-induced changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability/inhibition may be inappropriate. PMID:26642805

  11. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  12. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  13. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; ??towski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  14. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, Marc; Rupp, Thomas; Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2014-01-01

    Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 9%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (25 11%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (? 8%, P<0.05 and ? 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

  15. Neuromuscular function following prolonged intense self-paced exercise in hot climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Priard, Julien D; Cramer, Matthew N; Chapman, Phillip G; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2011-08-01

    Muscle weakness following constant load exercise under heat stress has been associated with hyperthermia-induced central fatigue. However, evidence of central fatigue influencing intense self-paced exercise in the heat is lacking. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate force production capacity and central nervous system drive in skeletal muscle pre- and post-cycle ergometer exercise in hot and cool conditions. Nine trained male cyclists performed a 20-s maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) prior to (control) and following a 40-km time trial in hot (35C) and cool (20C) conditions. MVC force production and voluntary activation of the knee extensors was evaluated via percutaneous tetanic stimulation. In the cool condition, rectal temperature increased to 39.0C and reached 39.8C in the heat (P<0.01). Following exercise in the hot and cool conditions, peak force declined by ~90 and ~99N, respectively, compared with control (P<0.01). Mean force decreased by 15% (hot) and 14% (cool) (P<0.01 vs. control). Voluntary activation during the post-exercise MVC declined to 93.7% (hot) and 93.9% (cool) (P<0.05 vs. control). The post-exercise decline in voluntary activation represented ~20% of the decrease in mean force production in both conditions. Therefore, the additional increase in rectal temperature did not exacerbate the loss of force production following self-paced exercise in the heat. The impairment in force production indicates that the fatigue exhibited by the quadriceps is mainly of peripheral origin and a consequence of the prolonged contractile activity associated with exercise. PMID:21188412

  16. Changes in Voluntary Activation Assessed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during Prolonged Cycling Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y.

    2014-01-01

    Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (139%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (2511%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (?8%, P<0.05 and ?14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

  17. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A. J.

    1993-04-06

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and omposite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400.degree. C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts , or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  18. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A.J.

    1991-03-07

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and composite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400{degrees}C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts, or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  19. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Oak Ridge, TN); Moorhead, A. J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and omposite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400.degree. C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts , or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  20. Strengthening an affiliation without a merger.

    PubMed

    Hegwer, Laura Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Froedtert Health and the Medical College of Wisconsin have created a shared governance structure with joint committees focused on value, IT, marketing, strategic planning, and other areas. A new funds-flow model shifts a percentage of the health system's bottom line to the medical college to support physician recruitment,joint initiatives, academic programs, and a strategic reserve. The strengthened affiliation has enhanced the ability of the organizations to engage in accountable care and population health initiatives, among other benefits. PMID:26665524

  1. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  2. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R.; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190– -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29–150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72–0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

  3. Effects of Neuromuscular Fatigue on Quadriceps Strength and Activation and Knee Biomechanics in Individuals Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abbey C; Lepley, Lindsey K; Wojtys, Edward M; McLean, Scott G; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Laboratory-based experiment using a pretest/posttest design. Objectives To determine the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on quadriceps strength and activation and sagittal and frontal plane knee biomechanics during dynamic landing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Background Impaired quadriceps central activation occurs post-ACLR, likely altering lower extremity biomechanics. Neuromuscular fatigue similarly reduces volitional muscle activation and impairs neuromuscular control. Upon return to full activity post-ACLR, individuals likely concurrently experience quadriceps central activation deficits and neuromuscular fatigue, though the effects of fatigue on muscle strength and activation and biomechanics post-ACLR are unknown. Methods Seventeen individuals 7 to 10 months post-ACLR and 16 controls participated. Quadriceps strength and central activation ratio were recorded prefatigue and postfatigue, which was induced via sets of double-leg squats. Knee biomechanics were recorded during a dynamic landing activity prefatigue and postfatigue. Results Both groups demonstrated smaller knee flexion (initial contact, P = .017; peak, P = .004) and abduction (initial contact, P = .005; peak, P = .009) angles postfatigue. The ACLR group had smaller peak knee flexion angles (P<.001) prefatigue and postfatigue than controls. Knee flexion moment was smaller in those post-ACLR than controls prefatigue (P<.001), but not postfatigue (P = .103). Controls had smaller knee flexion moments postfatigue (P = .001). Knee abduction moment was smaller in both groups postfatigue (P = .003). All participants demonstrated significantly lower strength (P<.001) and activation (P = .003) postfatigue. Conclusion Impaired strength, central activation, and biomechanics were present postfatigue in both groups, suggesting that neuromuscular fatigue may increase noncontact ACL injury risk. However, these changes were not exaggerated in those post-ACLR, likely because they already demonstrated a stiff-legged landing strategy prefatigue. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(12):1042-1050. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5785. PMID:26471851

  4. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  5. How Exercise Can Help

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen the effects of arthritis, but ... We know that if a physician or a health care provider encourages someone to exercise, that's very ...

  6. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can join. Choose your sweet spot. Do you love being outdoors? Choose activities that get you outside, ... Council on Exercise. 5 Tips for Learning to Love Exercise (or at Least Develop a Crush on ...

  7. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  8. Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the need for exercise intensity to become physically fit, concluding that intensity is not important for improving health, only for improving performance. What is important is routinely performing some sort of exercise. (GLR)

  9. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hint: This is like the backhand swing in tennis.) Lower the arm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ... Hint: This is like the forehand swing in tennis.) Lower the forearm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ...

  10. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  11. Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; González-Alonso, José; Ali, Leena; Ross, Emma Z; Romer, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate cerebral O2 availability has been proposed to be an important contributing factor to the development of central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that supraspinal processes of fatigue would be increased after locomotor exercise in acute hypoxia compared to normoxia, and that such change would be related to reductions in cerebral O2 delivery and tissue oxygenation. Nine endurance-trained cyclists completed three constant-load cycling exercise trials at ∼80% of maximal work rate: (1) to the limit of tolerance in acute hypoxia; (2) for the same duration but in normoxia (control); and (3) to the limit of tolerance in normoxia. Throughout each trial, prefrontal cortex tissue oxygenation and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAV) were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler sonography, respectively. Cerebral O2 delivery was calculated as the product of arterial O2 content and MCAV. Before and immediately after each trial, twitch responses to supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. Exercise time was reduced by 54% in hypoxia compared to normoxia (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 8.1 ± 2.9 min; P < 0.001). Cerebral O2 delivery, cerebral oxygenation and maximum O2 uptake were reduced whereas muscle electromyographic activity was increased in hypoxia compared to control (P < 0.05). Maximum voluntary force and potentiated quadriceps twitch force were decreased below baseline after exercise in each trial; the decreases were greater in hypoxia compared to control (P < 0.001), but were not different in the exhaustive trials (P > 0.05). Cortical voluntary activation was also decreased after exercise in all trials, but the decline in hypoxia (Δ18%) was greater than in the normoxic trials (Δ5–9%) (P < 0.05). The reductions in cortical voluntary activation were paralleled by reductions in cerebral O2 delivery. The results suggest that curtailment of exercise performance in acute severe hypoxia is due, in part, to failure of drive from the motor cortex, possibly as a consequence of diminished O2 availability in the brain. PMID:22473785

  12. Comparison of Active and Electrostimulated Recovery Strategies After Fatiguing Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Makrof, Souleyma; Demoulin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks) which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR) recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer), an electrostimulated (ESR) recovery (25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the quadriceps) or a strictly passive recovery (PR). Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10) were evaluated before (pre-ex), immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex), after the recovery period (post-rec), as well as 75 minutes (1h15) and one day (24h) after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 10.7%, AR: 105.3 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 10.5%). VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and post-rec (p < 0.001); there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64). In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery. Key points Three sets of submaximal isometric contractions at 60%, 55% and 50% of MVC induced an early fatigue without DOMS but did not lead to exhaustion. In comparison with passive recovery, active and electrostimulated recovery did not lead to significantly higher MVC torques 24h after the exercise bout. No significant differences were demonstrated between the effects of passive, active and electrostimulated recoveries on muscle pain after repeated submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:24149681

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft and press-fit fixation using an anteromedial portal technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article describes an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique with a quadriceps tendon autograft using an anteromedial portal technique. Methods A 5?cm quadriceps tendon graft is harvested with an adjacent 2?cm bone block. The femoral tunnel is created through a low anteromedial portal in its anatomical position. The tibial tunnel is created with a hollow burr, thus acquiring a free cylindrical bone block. The graft is then passed through the tibial tunnel and the bone block, customized at its tip, is tapped into the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal to provide press-fit fixation. The graft is tensioned distally and sutures are tied over a bone bridge at the distal end of the tibial tunnel. From the cylindrical bone block harvested from the tibia the proximal end is customized and gently tapped next to the graft tissue into the tibial tunnel to assure press fitting of the graft in the tibial tunnel. The distal part of the tibial tunnel is filled up with the remaining bone. All patients were observed in a prospective fashion with subjective and objective evaluation after 6?weeks, 6 and 12?months. Results Thirty patients have been evaluated at a 12?months follow-up. The technique achieved in 96.7% normal or nearly normal results for the objective IKDC. The mean subjective IKDC score was 86.1 15.8. In 96.7% the Tegner score was the same as before injury or decreased one category. A negative or 1+ Lachman test was achieved in all cases. Pivot-shift test was negative or (+) glide in 86.7%. The mean side-to-side difference elevated by instrumental laxity measurement was 1.6 1.1?mm. Full ROM has been achieved in 92.3%. The mean single one-leg-hop index was 91.9 8.0 at the follow-up. Conclusions Potential advantages include minimum bone loss specifically on the femoral side and graft fixation without implants. PMID:22925587

  14. An EMG comparative analysis of quadriceps during isoinertial strength training using nonlinear scaled wavelets.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Nicholas J; Mixco, Anthony R; Bohorquez, Jorge E; Signorile, Joseph F

    2015-04-01

    High-speed resistance training is used to increase power; however, momentum can reduce the effectiveness of high-speed (HS) training when using weight-stack (WS) machines. This study used a non-linear scaled wavelet analysis to assess differences between pneumatic (P) and WS during seven HS or controlled speed (CS) repetitions. Vastus medialis (VM) and lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) EMG data were collected during leg extension exercises performed by five regular weight-trainers (mean age SD, 23.2 2.9 years). Data were analyzed using continuous wavelet analysis to assess temporal Intensity distribution across eight frequency bands. Significant differences occurred due to speed for all muscles (p<.0001). P produced higher Intensity than WS for all muscles during HS (p<.0001), and VM and RF during CS (p<.001). The CON phase produced higher Intensity than ECC for the vasti muscles during CS (p<.0003), and VM and RF during HS (p<.0001). Intensity increased across repetitions plateauing earlier for the vasti than RF during CS. Regardless of the machine, Intensity levels peaked between the 25-53 Hz and 46-82 Hz (2nd and 3rd wavelets) bands. The results indicate that when the objective is increasing power through isoinertial training, P machines at HS appear to be the most effective alternative. PMID:25553560

  15. Do Three Different Passive Assessments of Quadriceps Spasticity Relate to the Functional Activity of Walking for Children Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed Central

    White, Hank; Uhl, Tim L.; Augsburger, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A stiff-knee gait pattern is frequently associated with several impairments including quadriceps spasticity in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). The relationship of clinical measures of quadriceps spasticity and the stiff-knee gait pattern in children diagnosed with CP has not been well established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the ability of clinical measures of quadriceps spasticity (modified Ashworth scale [MAS], Ely tests, and pendulum test) to categorize a stiff-knee gait pattern in children with CP. Children were categorized as having a stiff-knee gait pattern based on kinematic and EMG gait data. Results of a logistic regression model revealed that the only significant measure was A1 of the pendulum test. Discriminant analysis functions were used to predict group membership (stiff-knee, not stiff-knee gait pattern) for each measure. The A1 of the pendulum test demonstrated the highest classification accuracy and the highest sensitivity compared to the other measures. Therefore, a negative pendulum test (indicated by an A1 value of 45 degrees or more) is more useful for ruling out a stiff-knee gait pattern compared to the other clinical measures. PMID:26576411

  16. A clinically relevant BTX-A injection protocol leads to persistent weakness, contractile material loss, and an altered mRNA expression phenotype in rabbit quadriceps muscles.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco A; Sawatsky, Andrew; Hart, David A; Herzog, Walter

    2015-07-16

    Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injections have become a common treatment modality for patients suffering from muscle spasticity. Despite its benefits, BTX-A treatments have been associated with adverse effects on target muscles. Currently, application of BTX-A is largely based on clinical experience, and research quantifying muscle structure following BTX-A treatment has not been performed systematically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate strength, muscle mass, and contractile material six months following a single or repeated (2 and 3) BTX-A injections into the quadriceps femoris of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty three skeletally mature rabbits were divided into four groups: experimental group rabbits received 1, 2, or 3 injections at intervals of 3 months (1-BTX-A, 2-BTX-A, 3-BTX-A, respectively) while control group rabbits received volume-matched saline injections. Knee extensor strength, quadriceps muscle mass, and quadriceps contractile material of the experimental group rabbits were expressed as a percentage change relative to the control group rabbits. One-way ANOVA was used to determine group differences in outcome measures (α=0.05). Muscle strength and contractile material were significantly reduced in experimental compared to control group rabbits but did not differ between experimental groups. Muscle mass was the same in experimental BTX-A and control group rabbits. We concluded from these results that muscle strength and contractile material do not fully recover within six months of BTX-A treatment. PMID:26087882

  17. Facial cooling-induced bradycardia: attenuating effect of central command at exercise onset.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Stephens, D P; Winchester, P K; Williamson, J W

    1997-03-01

    Facial cooling (FC) elicits a marked bradycardia at rest that appears to be reduced during exercise. This study was done to delineate the effects of exercise mediated central command from those of muscle afferent feedback and sympathetic stimulation on the attenuation of the bradycardic effect of FC during the onset of exercise. Ten healthy subjects (26 +/- 2 yr) were exposed to FC under five different conditions: 1) seated rest on the cycle ergometer, 2) onset of mild exercise (resting HR + 20 beats.min-1), 3) onset of moderate exercise (resting HR + 50 beats.min-1), 4) seated rest on the ergometer during electrical stimulation, and 5) seated rest on the ergometer during a cold immersion test (CT) (one hand immersed in an ice slurry at 0 degree C). The two exercise intensities were presumed to provide different degrees of central command. Electrical stimulation of the quadriceps was assumed to provide isolated muscle afferent feedback, while the CT served as a sympathetic stimulus. Beat-by-beat data were recorded for HR and mean arterial blood pressure for the duration of each test (50 s), and a rating of perceived pain was taken after each FC. FC elicited significant increases in mean arterial pressure during mild and moderate exercise compared with resting control (P < 0.05) and during moderate exercise compared to exercise without FC (P < 0.05). Mean decreases in HR during FC were similar for resting control (-12 +/- 3 beats.min-1), electrical stimulation (-10 +/- 3 beats.min-1), and CT (-9 +/- 3 beats.min-1). The HR response to FC during mild exercise (-7 +/- 2 beats.min-1) was significantly different (P < 0.05) from the rest condition; however, there was no significant bradycardia (-2 +/- 2 beats.min-1; P > 0.05) during onset of moderate exercise. These findings suggest that the magnitude of cold face-induced bradycardia may be attenuated at exercise onset by neural signals related to the higher levels of central motor command associated with heavier exercise. PMID:9139170

  18. A Comprehensive Review of the Effectiveness of Different Exercise Programs for Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Allen, Kelli D.; Caine, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available, and scientific evidence is necessary for advising patients with OA on the optimal treatment strategy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild to moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, gender and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial. PMID:23306415

  19. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  20. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  1. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  2. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers

  3. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  4. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  5. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  6. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College Print A A A Text Size ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...

  7. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,

  8. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  9. Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; Dsouza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. Smile is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

  10. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Erika Y.; Ramos, Lidiane G.; Carvalho, Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ≥7/10 points). Conclusions The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported. PMID:24760166

  11. Acute Post-Exercise Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Is Not Correlated with Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K.; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m2) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-13C6] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001) above rest 60–180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037) 180–360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (−1.9–24.7%) (P<0.001) after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1–3 h (r = 0.02), 3–6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1–6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT. PMID:24586775

  12. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  13. Exercise in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Abresch, R Ted; Carter, Gregory T; Han, Jay J; McDonald, Craig M

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the benefits and contraindications of exercise on individuals with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). Specific exercise prescriptions for individuals with NMDs do not exist because the evidence base is limited. Understanding the effect of exercise on individuals with NMDs requires the implementation of a series of multicenter, randomized controlled trials that are sufficiently powered and use reliable and valid outcome measures to assess the effect of exercise interventions-a major effort for each NMD. In addition to traditional measures of exercise efficacy, outcome variables should include measures of functional status and health-related quality of life. PMID:22938880

  14. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring eccentric isokinetic strength and unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz De Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines: (a) on peak torque, total external work and joint angle at peak torque of the hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic leg flexion; (b) on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios; as well as (c) to determine whether static and dynamic routines elicit similar responses. A total of 49 active adults completed the following intervention protocols in a randomised order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control condition), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, eccentric isokinetic peak torque, the angle of peak torque and total external work were assessed with participants prone at 1.04 and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Unilateral strength ratios of the knee were also recorded. Measures were compared via a fully-within-groups factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no main effects for eccentric isokinetic peak torque, angle of peak torque, total external work and unilateral H/Q strength ratios. The results suggest that dynamic and static stretching has no influence on eccentric strength profile and unilateral H/Q strength ratios and hence both forms of stretching do not reduce these two primary risk factors for muscle injury. PMID:23230900

  15. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8?mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1?h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4?N?m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5?N?m, P?=?0.004), 22.5?N?m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0?N?m, P?=?0.025) and 22.5?N?m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7?N?m, P?=?0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode. PMID:25969895

  16. Effect of a Short Time Concentric Versus Eccentric Training Program on Electromyography Activity and Peak Torque of Quadriceps

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, Carlos; Abade, Eduardo; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum strength of the knee extensors were assessed. Eighteen physically healthy male subjects (age 22 1 years, body height 177 4 cm, body mass 73 7 kg) performed four weeks of unilateral CON isokinetic training for the quadriceps of the dominant leg on a REV9000 dynamometer. At the end of the fourth week, the sample was divided into two groups, with one group performing additional four weeks of unilateral ECC training and the other continuing with CON training. The training sessions consisted of three sets of ten maximal repetitions at a velocity of 60s-1, three days per week for eight weeks. The results showed that CON and ECC groups improved the peak torque in all types of contractions. Also, both groups presented increases in the avgEMG for VL, VM and RF. The present investigation showed that CON training elicited increases of the ISO peak torque and VM avgEMG in the CON contraction. Additionally, significant gains were reported after the ECC training on the VM avgEMG in all contractions and RM avgEMG in CON contraction. PMID:25114726

  17. Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in the Quadriceps Using Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity in Young Females

    PubMed Central

    Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; DAntona, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Fisher, Beth; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Clijsen, Ron; Cescon, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans. Methods A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean agestandard deviation: 244 years) and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years) performed two knee extensions: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 s, and (2) at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays. Results Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, p<0.01) was found during the sustained 60% MVC, probably as a result of simultaneous motor unit synchronization and a decrease in muscle fiber CV during the fatiguing task. Conclusions Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:25880369

  18. Linearity and reliability of the mechanomyographic amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships for the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matthew S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the linearity and reliability of the mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Nine healthy men and 11 healthy women performed submaximal to maximal, concentric, isokinetic muscle actions of the leg extensors at 30 degrees s(-1) on two occasions. Surface MMG signals were detected from the VL, RF, and VM of the dominant thigh during both trials. The ranges of the coefficients of determination for the MMG amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships were 0.01-0.94 for the VL, 0.01-0.84 for the RF, and 0.19-0.96 for the VM. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the linear MMG amplitude versus torque slope coefficients were 0.823 (VL), 0.792 (RF), and 0.927 (VM). These results indicate that, when analyzed for individual subjects, the MMG amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships demonstrated inconsistent linearity. When using MMG in the clinical setting, dynamic muscle actions of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles do not appear to be appropriate for assessing changes in muscle function during strength training. PMID:19813206

  19. Cross-correlation analyses of mechanomyographic signals from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles during concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J T; Housh, T J; Weir, J P; Ebersole, K T; Perry-Rana, S R; Bull, A J; Johnson, G O

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the cross-correlation coefficients of mechanomyographic (MMG) signals recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles during maximal, concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions. Eleven females (mean +/- SD age = 21 +/- 1 yr) performed such muscle actions of the leg extensors at 60 degrees.s-1 on a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. MMG signals were sampled simultaneously from the VL, RF, and VM at 1000 Hz by piezoelectric crystal contact sensors. Peak composite cross-correlation coefficients (rxy) and common variances (rxy2) were determined for each between-muscle comparison (VL vs. RF, VL vs. VM, and RF vs. VM). The results indicated peak cross-correlation coefficients ranging from rxy = 0.38 to 0.52, while common variances (rxy2) between signals ranged from 14% to 27% across all time lags (tau = -50...). In conjunction with other studies, these results suggested that despite the potential for some cross-talk, MMG measurements can be used to examine differences between the patterns of MMG amplitude and frequency responses of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. PMID:12964257

  20. Effect of a short time concentric versus eccentric training program on electromyography activity and peak torque of quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alberto; Caserotti, Paolo; Carvalho, Carlos; Abade, Eduardo; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training program on the electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Also, the isometric (ISO) and dynamic maximum strength of the knee extensors were assessed. Eighteen physically healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years, body height 177 ± 4 cm, body mass 73 ± 7 kg) performed four weeks of unilateral CON isokinetic training for the quadriceps of the dominant leg on a REV9000 dynamometer. At the end of the fourth week, the sample was divided into two groups, with one group performing additional four weeks of unilateral ECC training and the other continuing with CON training. The training sessions consisted of three sets of ten maximal repetitions at a velocity of 60ºs-1, three days per week for eight weeks. The results showed that CON and ECC groups improved the peak torque in all types of contractions. Also, both groups presented increases in the avgEMG for VL, VM and RF. The present investigation showed that CON training elicited increases of the ISO peak torque and VM avgEMG in the CON contraction. Additionally, significant gains were reported after the ECC training on the VM avgEMG in all contractions and RM avgEMG in CON contraction. PMID:25114726

  1. The highest antagonistic coactivation of the vastus intermedius muscle among quadriceps femoris muscles during isometric knee flexion.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Although the possibility that the vastus intermedius (VI) muscle contributes to flexion of the knee joint has been suggested previously, the detail of its functional role in knee flexion is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the antagonist coactivation of VI during isometric knee flexion. Thirteen men performed 25-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 90°, 120°, and 150° knee joint angles. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the four individual muscles in the quadriceps femoris (QF) was recorded and normalized by the EMG signals during isometric knee extension at MVC. Cross-talk on VI EMG signal was assessed based on the median frequency response to selective cooling of hamstring muscles. Normalized EMG of the VI was significantly higher than that of the other synergistic QF muscles at each knee joint angle (all P<0.05) with minimum cross-talk from the hamstrings to VI. There were significant correlations between the EMG signal of the hamstrings and VI (r=0.55-0.85, P<0.001). These results suggest that VI acts as a primary antagonistic muscle of QF during knee flexion, and that VI is presumably a main contributor to knee joint stabilization. PMID:23489717

  2. Effects of prolonged patellar tendon vibration on force steadiness in quadriceps femoris during force-matching task.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Ando, Ryosuke; Akima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle group plays an essential role in human movement, such as standing, walking and running. The ability to maintain a steady force during physical activity of the human lower limb is important for mobility, postural control and balance. Although prolonged mechanical vibration of the muscle-tendon unit can moderate the efficacy of synaptic input from Ia afferent onto the ?-motor neuron pathway, the effect of prolonged tendon vibration on fluctuations of knee extensor force has received little attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of prolonged patellar tendon vibration on the force steadiness of the QF muscle. Nine healthy men performed a submaximal force-matching task involving isometric knee extension before and after patellar tendon vibration or quiet seated rest (n=7, control condition) for 30min. The target force was 2.5, 10 and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Surface electromyography (EMG) of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized to EMG amplitude during the MVC. The knee extension force and the EMG amplitude of vastus medialis during the MVC were significantly reduced after the vibration, but did not significantly decrease in the control condition. Fluctuations of force and normalized EMG of individual QF muscles at each submaximal force level did not significantly change after the vibration. We conclude that prolonged patellar tendon vibration does not influence the force steadiness of the QF muscle during an isometric force-matching task. PMID:26419664

  3. Strengthening And stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH). A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark A; Williamson, Esther M; Heine, Peter J; Nichols, Vivien; Glover, Matthew J; Dritsaki, Melina; Adams, Jo; Dosanjh, Sukhdeep; Underwood, Martin; Rahman, Anisur; McConkey, Christopher; Lord, Joanne; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effectiveness of exercise for improving hand and wrist function in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is uncertain. OBJECTIVES The study aims were (1) to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to standard care for patients with RA; and (2) to qualitatively describe the experience of participants in the trial with a particular emphasis on acceptability of the intervention, exercise behaviours and reasons for adherence/non-adherence. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentred, individually randomised controlled trial with an embedded qualitative study. Outcome assessors were blind to group assignment and independent of treatment delivery. SETTING Seventeen NHS trusts in England comprising 21 rheumatology and therapy departments. PARTICIPANTS Adults with RA who had pain and dysfunction of the hands and/or wrists and had been on stable medication for at least 3 months. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years old, had undergone upper limb surgery/fracture in the last 6 months, were on a waiting list for upper limb surgery or were pregnant. INTERVENTIONS Usual care or usual care plus an individualised exercise programme. Usual care consisted of joint protection education, general exercise advice and functional splinting if required. The exercise programme consisted of six sessions of strengthening and stretching exercises with a hand therapist, daily home exercises and strategies to maximise adherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) overall hand function subscale score at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures included the full MHQ, pain, health-related quality of life (Short Form questionnaire-12 items), impairment (grip strength, dexterity and range of motion) and self-efficacy. European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, medication and health-care use were collected for the health economics evaluation. Follow-up was at 4 and 12 months post randomisation. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS We randomised 490 patients (244 to usual care, 246 to exercise programme). Compliance with the treatments was very good (93% of usual care participants and 75% of exercise programme participants completed treatment). Outcomes were obtained for 89% of participants at 12 months (222 for usual care, 216 for exercise programme). There was a statistically significant difference in favour of the exercise programme for the primary outcome at 4 and 12 months [mean difference 4.6 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 7.0 points; and mean difference 4.4 points, 95% CI 1.6 to 7.1 points, respectively]. There were no significant differences in pain scores or adverse events. The estimated difference in mean quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 12 months was 0.01 greater (95% CI -0.03 to 0.05) in the exercise programme group. Imputed analysis produced incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates of £17,941 (0.59 probability of cost-effectiveness at willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 per QALY). The qualitative study found the exercise programme to be acceptable and highlighted the importance of the therapist in enabling patients to establish a routine and incorporate the exercises into their lives. CONCLUSIONS The results of the Strengthening And stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand trial suggest that the addition of an exercise programme for RA hands/wrists to usual care is clinically effective and cost-effective when compared with usual care alone. No adverse effects were associated with the exercise programme. The economic analysis suggests that the intervention is likely to be cost-effective. STUDY REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 89936343. PMID:25748549

  4. Exercise and the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Orla; Cronin, Owen; Clarke, Siobhan F; Murphy, Eileen F; Molloy, Micheal G; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is linked with poor health, most commonly obesity and associated disorders, the corollary being that exercise offers a preventive strategy. However, the scope of exercise biology extends well beyond energy expenditure and has emerged as a great ‘polypill’, which is safe, reliable and cost-effective not only in disease prevention but also treatment. Biological mechanisms by which exercise influences homeostasis are becoming clearer and involve multi-organ systemic adaptations. Most of the elements of a modern lifestyle influence the indigenous microbiota but few studies have explored the effect of increased physical activity. While dietary responses to exercise obscure the influence of exercise alone on gut microbiota, professional athletes operating at the extremes of performance provide informative data. We assessed the relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota. PMID:25800089

  5. Practical Approaches to Prescribing Physical Activity and Monitoring Exercise Intensity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Pipe, Andrew L

    2016-04-01

    Regular physical activity helps to prevent heart disease, and reduces the risk of first or subsequent cardiovascular events. It is recommended that Canadian adults accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more, and perform muscle- and bone-strengthening activities at least 2 days per week. Individual exercise prescriptions can be developed using the frequency, intensity, time, and type principles. Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity interval training is efficacious for a broad spectrum of heart health outcomes. Several practical approaches to prescribing and monitoring exercise intensity exist including: heart rate monitoring, the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, the Talk Test, and, motion sensors. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale matches a numerical value to an individual's perception of effort, and can also be used to estimate heart rate. The Talk Test, the level at which simple conversation is possible, can be used to monitor desired levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. Motion sensors can provide users with practical and useful exercise training information to aid in meeting current exercise recommendations. These approaches can be used by the public, exercise scientists, and clinicians to easily and effectively guide physical activity in a variety of settings. PMID:26897182

  6. Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S

    2014-02-01

    The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences. PMID:24525556

  7. Motor Skills Are Strengthened through Reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Nicholas F; Bastian, Amy J; Celnik, Pablo A

    2016-02-01

    Newly acquired motor skills become stabilized through consolidation [1]. However, we know from daily life that consolidated skills are modified over multiple bouts of practice and in response to newfound challenges [2]. Recent evidence has shown that memories can be modified through reconsolidation, in which previously consolidated memories can re-enter a temporary state of instability through retrieval, and in order to persist, undergo re-stabilization [3-8]. Although observed in other memory domains [5, 6], it is unknown whether reconsolidation leads to strengthened motor skills over multiple episodes of practice. Using a novel intervention after the retrieval of a consolidated skill, we found that skill can be modified and enhanced through exposure to increased sensorimotor variability. This improvement was greatest in those participants who could rapidly adjust their sensorimotor output in response to the relatively large fluctuations presented during the intervention. Importantly, strengthening required the reactivation of the consolidated skill and time for changes to reconsolidate. These results provide a key demonstration that consolidated motor skills continue to change as needed through the remapping of motor command to action goal, with strong implications for rehabilitation. PMID:26832444

  8. Strengthening under Load: Experimental and Numerical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vild, M.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents experimental and numerical research of strengthening of columns under load using welded plates. Three sets of three columns each were tested. All columns were 3 m long. The load from loading cylinders was transmitted through knife-edge bearings, which ensured pinned boundary condition perpendicular to the weaker axis. Set (A) comprised columns with welded T shaped cross-section. Set (B) comprised columns with welded monosymmetric I shaped cross-section. Both sets (A) and (B) had been loaded monotonically until collapse occurred. Set (C) contained columns with T shaped cross-section with the same dimensions as the columns in set (A). The columns from set (C) were first loaded to 70 kN. The force was being held constant and the second flange was being welded to the web under load. After the welding process was finished and the specimen cooled, the column was loaded to failure. The average forces at collapse of column sets (A), (B) and (C) were 143 kN, 308 kN and 323 kN, respectively. It was unexpected that the columns strengthened under load (C) had higher average resistance than the columns welded without preload (B). It could be caused by the residual stress and distortion caused by welding. The study includes the results of finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  9. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper. PMID:25857990

  10. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  11. Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Demko, J.A.; Tomsic, M.; Sinha, U.

    1997-12-31

    In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.

  12. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. We report 2 studies that test this hypothesis in

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

  14. Trigger Point Dry Needling and Proprioceptive Exercises for the Management of Chronic Ankle Instability: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ayuso-Casado, Blanca; Tamaral-Costa, Beatriz; Sánchez-Milá, Zacarías; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of combined trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) and proprioceptive/strengthening exercises to proprioceptive/strengthening exercises on pain and function in ankle instability. Methods. Twenty-seven (44% female, mean age: 33 ± 3 years) individuals with unilateral ankle instability were randomly assigned to an experimental group who received proprioceptive/strengthening exercises combined with TrP-DN into the lateral peroneus muscle and a comparison group receiving the same proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program alone. Outcome included function assessed with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and ankle pain intensity assessed with a numerical pain rate scale (NPRS). They were captured at baseline and 1-month follow-up after the intervention. Results. The ANOVAs found significant Group ∗ Time Interactions for both subscales of the FAAM (ADL: F = 8.211; P = 0.008; SPORTS: F = 13.943; P < 0.001) and for pain (F = 44.420; P < 0.001): patients receiving TrP-DN plus proprioceptive/strengthening exercises experienced greater improvements in function and pain than those receiving the exercise program alone. Between-groups effect sizes were large in all outcomes (SMD > 2.1) in favor of the TrP-DN group. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that the inclusion of TrP-DN within the lateral peroneus muscle into a proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program resulted in better outcomes in pain and function 1 month after the therapy in ankle instability. PMID:26064172

  15. Trigger Point Dry Needling and Proprioceptive Exercises for the Management of Chronic Ankle Instability: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ayuso-Casado, Blanca; Tamaral-Costa, Beatriz; Snchez-Mil, Zacaras; Fernndez-de-Las-Peas, Csar; Alburquerque-Sendn, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of combined trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) and proprioceptive/strengthening exercises to proprioceptive/strengthening exercises on pain and function in ankle instability. Methods. Twenty-seven (44% female, mean age: 33 3 years) individuals with unilateral ankle instability were randomly assigned to an experimental group who received proprioceptive/strengthening exercises combined with TrP-DN into the lateral peroneus muscle and a comparison group receiving the same proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program alone. Outcome included function assessed with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and ankle pain intensity assessed with a numerical pain rate scale (NPRS). They were captured at baseline and 1-month follow-up after the intervention. Results. The ANOVAs found significant Group ? Time Interactions for both subscales of the FAAM (ADL: F = 8.211; P = 0.008; SPORTS: F = 13.943; P < 0.001) and for pain (F = 44.420; P < 0.001): patients receiving TrP-DN plus proprioceptive/strengthening exercises experienced greater improvements in function and pain than those receiving the exercise program alone. Between-groups effect sizes were large in all outcomes (SMD > 2.1) in favor of the TrP-DN group. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that the inclusion of TrP-DN within the lateral peroneus muscle into a proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program resulted in better outcomes in pain and function 1 month after the therapy in ankle instability. PMID:26064172

  16. Effects of lifting the non-paretic foot on muscle activity during the semi-squat exercise in hemiplegic patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Yu, Il-Young; Jung, In-Gui; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps in hemiplegic patients during the downward, maintenance, and upward phases of squat exercises performed with the feet parallel and with the non-paretic foot lifted. [Subjects] A total of 17 hemiplegic patients (9 males and 8 females) volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed squat exercises with the knees flexed to 30 and with the feet parallel (shoulder-width apart) or with lifting of the non-paretic foot (normalized to 25% of the knee height). [Results] The activity of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, and vastus lateralis muscles was significantly higher during squat exercises performed with the non-paretic foot lifted than with the feet parallel to each other. The activity of all muscles during the maintenance phase of the exercises was greater than that during the downward and upward phases. [Conclusion] Lifting the non-paretic foot during squats may represent an effective exercise for motor function rehabilitation in hemiplegic patients. PMID:26180338

  17. Articulating Support for Horizontal Resistive Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mechanical device provides support for a user engaged in any of a variety of resistive exercises in a substantially horizontal orientation. The unique features and versatility of the device promise to be useful in bedrest studies, rehabilitation, and specialized strength training. The device affords a capability for selectively loading and unloading of portions of the user s body through its support mechanisms, so that specific parts of the body can be trained with little or no effect on other parts that may be disabled or in the process of recovery from injury. Thus, the device is ideal for rehabilitation exercise programs prescribed by physicians and physical therapists. The capability for selective loading and support also offers potential benefits to strength and conditioning trainers and athletes who wish to selectively strengthen selected parts. The principal innovative aspect of the device is that it supports the subject s weight while enabling the subject, lying substantially horizontally, to perform an exercise that closely approximates a full standing squat. The device includes mechanisms that support the subject in such a way that the hips are free to translate both horizontally and vertically and are free to rotate about the line connecting the hips. At the same time, the shoulders are free to translate horizontally while the upper back is free to rotate about the line connecting the shoulders. Among the mechanisms for hip motion and support is a counterbalance that offsets the weight of the subject as the subject s pelvis translates horizontally and vertically and rotates the pelvis about the line connecting the hips. The counterbalance is connected to a pelvic support system that allows these pelvic movements. The subject is also supported at the shoulder by a mechanism that can tilt to provide continuous support of the upper back while allowing the rotation required for arching the back as the pelvis is displaced. The shoulder support also affords a capability for horizontal motion, and acts as the point of attachment of a load that is provided for squat and heel-raise exercises. The device is compatible with any resistive-exercise machine that provides bilateral loading via a moving cable or other mechanical linkage. The hip-translation and shoulder-translation and -rotation degrees of freedom of the supports can be locked individually or in combination in order to support the subject as necessary for exercises other than the standing squat. If necessary, for such exercises, the load can be applied directly to the subject by use of various attachments. In addition to the aforementioned heel raise, such exercises include the upright row, leg press, curls, extension of the triceps, front raise, lateral raise, and rear raise.

  18. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Lvind; Beyer, Nina; Isaksson, Fredrik; Larsson, Benny; Rasmussen, Michael Hjby; Juul, Anders; Blow, Jens; Kjaer, Michael

    2002-02-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed at baseline and after 12 wk. The final GH dose was 1.77 +/- 0.18 IU x d(-1) (approximately 7.2 +/- 0.8 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). GH alone had no effect on isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength, power, CSA, or fiber size. However, a substantial increase in MHC 2X isoform was observed with GH administration alone, and this may be regarded as a change into a more youthful MHC composition, possibly induced by the rejuvenating of systemic IGF-I levels. RT + placebo caused substantial increases in quadriceps isokinetic strength, power, and CSA; but these RT induced improvements were not further augmented by additional GH administration. In the RT + GH group, there was a significant decrease in MHC 1 and 2X isoforms, whereas MHC 2A increased. RT, therefore, seems to overrule the changes in MHC composition induced by GH administration alone. Changes in body composition confirmed previous reports of decreased fat mass, increased fat-free mass, and unchanged bone mineral content with GH administration. A high incidence of side effects was reported. Our results do not support a role for GH as a means of increasing muscle strength or mass, either alone or combined with RT, in healthy elderly men; although GH administration alone may induce changes in MHC composition. PMID:11836279

  19. Magnesium carbonate precipitate strengthened aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic granules were precipitated internally with magnesium carbonate to enhance their structural stability under shear. The strengthened granules were tested in continuous-flow reactors for 220 days at organic loadings of 6-39 kg/m(3)/day, hydraulic retention times of 0.44-19 h, and temperatures of 10 or 28C. The carbonate salt had markedly improved the granule strength without significant changes in granule morphology or microbial communities (with persistent strains Streptomyces sp., Rhizobium sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Nitratireductor sp.), or sacrifice in biological activity for organic degradation. MgCO3 precipitated granules could be used in continuous-flow reactor for wastewater treatment at low cost and with easy processing efforts. PMID:25727761

  20. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9–12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families. PMID:20871785

  1. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dr) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  2. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH THE CENTRAL THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE TENDON: ANALYSIS OF 10-YEAR RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint.

  3. Roller-Massager Application to the Quadriceps and Knee-Joint Range of Motion and Neuromuscular Efficiency During a Lunge

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury-Squires, David J.; Noftall, Jennifer C.; Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Behm, David G.; Power, Kevin E.; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Roller massagers are used as a recovery and rehabilitative tool to initiate muscle relaxation and improve range of motion (ROM) and muscular performance. However, research demonstrating such effects is lacking. Objective: To determine the effects of applying a roller massager for 20 and 60 seconds on knee-joint ROM and dynamic muscular performance. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten recreationally active men (age = 26.6 ± 5.2 years, height = 175.3 ± 4.3 cm, mass = 84.4 ± 8.8 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 3 randomized experimental conditions separated by 24 to 48 hours. In condition 1 (5 repetitions of 20 seconds) and condition 2 (5 repetitions of 60 seconds), they applied a roller massager to the quadriceps muscles. Condition 3 served as a control condition in which participants sat quietly. Main Outcome Measure(s): Visual analog pain scale, electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris during roller massage and lunge, and knee-joint ROM. Results: We found no differences in pain between the 20-second and 60-second roller-massager conditions. During 60 seconds of roller massage, pain was 13.5% (5.7 ± 0.70) and 20.6% (6.2 ± 0.70) greater at 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively, than at 20 seconds (P < .05). During roller massage, VL and biceps femoris root mean square (RMS) EMG was 8% and 7%, respectively, of RMS EMG recorded during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Knee-joint ROM was 10% and 16% greater in the 20-second and 60-second roller-massager conditions, respectively, than the control condition (P < .05). Finally, average lunge VL RMS EMG decreased as roller-massage time increased (P < .05). Conclusions: Roller massage was painful and induced muscle activity, but it increased knee-joint ROM and neuromuscular efficiency during a lunge. PMID:25415414

  4. Molecular profiles of Quadriceps muscle in myostatin-null mice reveal PI3K and apoptotic pathways as myostatin targets

    PubMed Central

    Chelh, Ilham; Meunier, Bruno; Picard, Brigitte; Reecy, Mark James; Chevalier, Catherine; Hocquette, Jean-Franois; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the TGF-? superfamily, has been identified as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Inactivating mutations in the MSTN gene are responsible for the development of a hypermuscular phenotype. In this study, we performed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to detect altered expression/abundance of genes and proteins. These differentially expressed genes and proteins may represent new molecular targets of MSTN and could be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Results Transcriptomic analysis of the Quadriceps muscles of 5-week-old MSTN-null mice (n = 4) and their controls (n = 4) was carried out using microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences) of 6,473 genes expressed in muscle. Proteomic profiles were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Comparison of the transcriptomic profiles revealed 192 up- and 245 down- regulated genes. Genes involved in the PI3K pathway, insulin/IGF pathway, carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis regulation were up-regulated. Genes belonging to canonical Wnt, calcium signalling pathways and cytokine-receptor cytokine interaction were down-regulated. Comparison of the protein profiles revealed 20 up- and 18 down-regulated proteins spots. Knockout of the MSTN gene was associated with up-regulation of proteins involved in glycolytic shift of the muscles and down-regulation of proteins involved in oxidative energy metabolism. In addition, an increased abundance of survival/anti-apoptotic factors were observed. Conclusion All together, these results showed a differential expression of genes and proteins related to the muscle energy metabolism and cell survival/anti-apoptotic pathway (e.g. DJ-1, PINK1, 14-3-3? protein, TCTP/GSK-3?). They revealed the PI3K and apoptotic pathways as MSTN targets and are in favour of a role of MSTN as a modulator of cell survival in vivo. PMID:19397818

  5. Locomotor muscle fatigue is not critically regulated after prior upper body exercise.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R; Williams, N C; Hannah, R

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the effects of prior upper body exercise on subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise tolerance and associated changes in neuromuscular function and perceptual responses. Eight men performed three fixed work-rate (85% peak power) cycling tests: 1) to the limit of tolerance (CYC); 2) to the limit of tolerance after prior high-intensity arm-cranking exercise (ARM-CYC); and 3) without prior exercise and for an equal duration as ARM-CYC (ISOTIME). Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force during supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation. Voluntary activation was assessed using twitch interpolation during maximal voluntary contractions. Cycling time during ARM-CYC and ISOTIME (4.33 1.10 min) was 38% shorter than during CYC (7.46 2.79 min) (P < 0.001). Twitch force decreased more after CYC (-38 13%) than ARM-CYC (-26 10%) (P = 0.004) and ISOTIME (-24 10%) (P = 0.003). Voluntary activation was 94 5% at rest and decreased after CYC (89 9%, P = 0.012) and ARM-CYC (91 8%, P = 0.047). Rating of perceived exertion for limb discomfort increased more quickly during cycling in ARM-CYC [1.83 0.46 arbitrary units (AU)/min] than CYC (1.10 0.38 AU/min, P = 0.003) and ISOTIME (1.05 0.43 AU/min, P = 0.002), and this was correlated with the reduced cycling time in ARM-CYC (r = -0.72, P = 0.045). In conclusion, cycling exercise tolerance after prior upper body exercise is potentially mediated by central fatigue and intolerable levels of sensory perception rather than a critical peripheral fatigue limit. PMID:26272315

  6. Exercise-training-induced changes in metabolic capacity with age: the role of central cardiovascular plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eivind; Nss, Morten Svendsen; Hoff, Jan; Albert, Tobias Lie; Pham, Quan; Richardson, Russell S; Helgerud, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Although aging is typically associated with a decline in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), young and old subjects, of similar initial muscle metabolic capacity, increased quadriceps VO2max equally when this small muscle mass was trained in isolation. As it is unclear if this preserved exercise-induced plasticity with age is still evident with centrally challenging whole body exercise, we assessed maximal exercise responses in 13 young (24??2years) and 13 old (60??3years) males, matched for cycling VO2max (3.82??0.66 and 3.69??0.30Lmin(-1), respectively), both before and after 8weeks of high aerobic intensity cycle exercise training. As a consequence of the training both young and old significantly improved VO2max (13??6 vs. 6??7%) and maximal power output (20??6 vs. 10??6%, respectively) from baseline, however, the young exhibited a significantly larger increase than the old. Similarly, independently assessed maximal cardiac output (Q max) tended to increase more in the young (16??14%) than in the old (11??12%), with no change in a-vO2 difference in either group. Further examination of the components of Q max provided additional evidence of reduced exercise-induced plasticity in both maximal heart rate (young -3%, old 0%) and stroke volume (young 19??15, old 11??11%) in the old. In combination, these findings imply that limited central cardiovascular plasticity may be responsible, at least in part, for the attenuated response to whole body exercise training with increasing age. PMID:24243396

  7. Partial neuromuscular blockade and cardiovascular responses to static exercise in man.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, B; Mitchell, J H; Mizuno, M; Rube, N; Saltin, B; Secher, N H

    1985-01-01

    In human subjects sustained static contractions of the quadriceps femoris in one leg were performed with the same absolute and the same relative intensity before and after partial neuromuscular blockade with either decamethonium or tubocurarine which reduced strength to about 50% of the control value. During the contractions performed with the same absolute force, the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses (heart rate and blood pressure) was greater during neuromuscular blockade than during control contractions. During the contractions involving the same relative force the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses was almost the same with and without neuromuscular blockade. These findings were independent of the drug used. The metabolic part of the exercise pressor reflex was assessed by the application of an arterial cuff 1/2 min before cessation of exercise and for the following 3 min of rest. Although heart rate and blood pressure decreased after cessation of exercise, application of the tourniquet resulted in higher post-exercise values and this effect was seen both with and without neuromuscular blockade. Muscle biopsies from the subjects' m. vastus lateralis were analysed for fast- and slow-twitch fibre composition showing 27-66% slow-twitch fibres. No correlation was found between cardiovascular responses to static exercise, with or without neuromuscular blockade, and fibre type predominance. The results suggest that the involvement of fast- or slow-twitch muscle fibres does not play a dominant role in the cardiovascular responses to static exercise in man. Both central command and reflex neural mechanisms are of importance, and it appears that these two control mechanisms are redundant and that neural occlusion may be operative. However, when partial neuromuscular blockade induces a disproportion between an increase in central command and a constant or decreasing muscle tension and metabolism, the larger signal arising from central command determines the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses. PMID:3999043

  8. The influence of ice slushy on voluntary contraction force following exercise-induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Catriona A; Easthope, Christopher S; Johnson, Nathan A; Chapman, Phillip G; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on central fatigue and force decline in exercised and nonexercised muscles and whether ingestion of ice slushy (ICE) ameliorates fatigue. Eight participants (5 males, 3 females) completed 45 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) with elbow flexors and knee extensors at baseline and following an exercise-induced rectal temperature (Trec) of 39.3 0.2 C. Percutaneous electrical muscle stimulation was superimposed at 15, 30 and 44 s during MVICs to assess muscle activation. To increase Trec to 39.3 C, participants cycled at 60% maximum power output for 42 11 min in 40 C and 50% relative humidity. Immediately prior to each MVIC, participants consumed 50 g of ICE (-1 C) or thermoneutral drink (38 C, CON) made from 7.4% carbohydrate beverage. Participants consumed water (19 C) during exercise to prevent hypohydration. Voluntary muscle force production and activation in both muscle groups were unchanged at Trec 39.3 C with ICE (knee extensors: 209 152 N) versus CON (knee extensors: 255 157 N, p = 0.19). At Trec 39.3 C, quadriceps mean force (232 151 N) decreased versus baseline (302 180 N, p < 0.001) and mean voluntary activation was also decreased (by 15% 11%, p < 0.001). Elbow flexor mean force decreased from 179 67 N to 148 65 N when Trec was increased to 39.3 C (p < 0.001) but mean voluntary activation was not reduced at 39.3 C (5% 25%, p = 0.79). After exercise-induced hyperthermia, ICE had no effect on voluntary activation or force production; however, both were reduced from baseline in the exercised muscle group. Peripheral fatigue was greater than the central component and limited the ability of an intervention designed to alter central fatigue. PMID:24971678

  9. Myoglobin O2 desaturation during exercise. Evidence of limited O2 transport.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, R S; Noyszewski, E A; Kendrick, K F; Leigh, J S; Wagner, P D

    1995-01-01

    The assumption that cellular oxygen pressure (PO2) is close to zero in maximally exercising muscle is essential for the hypothesis that O2 transport between blood and mitochondria has a finite conductance that determines maximum O2 consumption. The unique combination of isolated human quadriceps exercise, direct measures of arterial, femoral venous PO2, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect myoglobin desaturation enabled this assumption to be tested in six trained men while breathing room air (normoxic, N) and 12% O2 (hypoxic, H). Within 20 s of exercise onset partial myoglobin desaturation was evident even at 50% of maximum O2 consumption, was significantly greater in H than N, and was then constant at an average of 51 +/- 3% (N) and 60 +/- 3% (H) throughout the incremental exercise protocol to maximum work rate. Assuming a myoglobin PO2 where 50% of myoglobin binding sites are bound with O2 of 3.2 mmHg, myoglobin-associated PO2 averaged 3.1 +/- .3 (N) and 2.1 +/- .2 mmHg (H). At maximal exercise, measurements of arterial PO2 (115 +/- 4 [N] and 46 +/- 1 mmHg [H]) and femoral venous PO2 (22 +/- 1.6 [N] and 17 +/- 1.3 mmHg [H]) resulted in calculated mean capillary PO2 values of 38 +/- 2 (N) and 30 +/- 2 mmHg(H). Thus, for the first time, large differences in PO2 between blood and intracellular tissue have been demonstrated in intact normal human muscle and are found over a wide range of exercise intensities. These data are consistent with an O2 diffusion limitation across the 1-5-microns path-length from red cell to the sarcolemma that plays a role in determining maximal muscle O2 uptake in normal humans. PMID:7560083

  10. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  11. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  12. Exercise in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajarajeswaran, P.; Vishnupriya, R.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med), Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription. PMID:20596305

  13. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  14. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob . E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

    2005-07-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

  15. Evaluating the performance of skewed prestressed concrete bridge after strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naser, Ali; Zonglin, Wang

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this paper are to explain the application of repairing and strengthening methods on the damaged members of the bridge structure, to analyze the static and dynamic structural response under static and dynamic loads after strengthening, and to evaluate the structural performance after application of strengthening method. The repairing and strengthening methods which are used in this study include treatment of the cracks, thickening the web of box girder along the bridge length and adding internal pre-stressing tendons in the thickening web, and construct reinforced concrete cross beams (diaphragms) between two box girders. The results of theoretical analysis of static and dynamic structural responses after strengthening show that the tensile stresses are decreased and become less than the allowable limit values in the codes. The values of vertical deflection are decreased after strengthening. The values of natural frequencies after strengthening are increased, indicating that the strengthening method is effective to reduce the vibration of the bridge structure. Therefore, the strengthening methods are effective to improve the bearing capacity and elastic working state of the bridge structure and to increase the service life of the bridge structure.

  16. Fatigue test of RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Xie, Jianhe

    2008-11-01

    Applying prestress to fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) can be used more efficiently since a greater portion energy of its tensile capacity is engaged. Based on carbon fiber laminate (CFL), fatigue tests are made to find out the fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with prestressed CFL. The interfacial debonding is a main failure mode for RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs under the cyclic loading. Furthermore, it has been found that the stress value of CFLs decide whether the additional prestressing has a negative or positive effect on the fatigue behavior of the strengthened beam, and the excessive prestressing would reduce the fatigue life of the strengthened beam.

  17. Exercise and Children's Health: A Little Counseling Can Pay Lasting Dividends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Theodore; Sherman, Carl

    2000-01-01

    Regular exercise is important for children's and adolescents' health maintenance, facilitating weight control, strengthening bones, and improving cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. Active childhoods help promote lifetime fitness. Physicians can assess children's weight and activity levels during routine exams. With simple

  18. Lipid metabolism during exercise.

    PubMed

    Ranallo, R F; Rhodes, E C

    1998-07-01

    Fat is an extremely important substrate for muscle contraction, both at rest and during exercise. Triglycerides (TGs), stored in adipose tissue and within muscle fibres, are considered to be the main source of the free fatty acids (FFAs) oxidised during exercise. It is still unclear, however, how the use of these substrates is regulated during exercise. The regulation seems to be multifactorial and includes: (i) dietary and nutritional status; (ii) hormonal milieu; (iii) exercise mode, intensity and duration; and (iv) training status. On the other hand, the mechanism for FFA transport from its storage as triglycerides in adipose tissue and muscle to its place of utilisation in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver is more clearly understood. It has been determined that the plasma FFA turnover rate is sufficiently rapid to account for most of the fat metabolised during low intensity exercise (25 to 40% VO2max). However, an exercise intensity of 65% VO2max results in a slight decrease in the amount of plasma FFA uptake by muscle tissue. Other studies have found that during prolonged exercise, muscle TGs become the predominant source of energy obtained from fat. Furthermore, it is widely documented that endurance activities increase the energy utilisation from fat while sparing carbohydrate sources. For example, during exercise on a cycle ergometer, nonplasma FFAs and plasma FFAs contribute 40%, and carbohydrates 60%, of the total calculated amount of energy expenditure before exercise and vice versa after exercise (60% nonplasma and plasma FFAs and 40% carbohydrates). Although it was many years before it was fully demonstrated, fat is now known to be transported in the blood as FFA bound to the protein carrier albumin. The mobilisation of FFA is primarily a function of sympathetic nervous activity directed towards the adipocytes, or the 'fat pad'. This nervous activity can be direct or may be an effect of circulating catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine). This article summarises the role of fat metabolism during exercise. PMID:9739539

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft: intermediate-term clinical outcome after 2436 months

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Arndt P; Lange, Vivien; Gille, Justus; Voigt, Christine; Frhlich, Susanne; Stuhr, Markus; Jrgens, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although known as a possible graft option for decades, quadriceps tendon grafts have often been termed a second-line graft option. We report a consecutive case series using this method as the primary treatment line. The rationale for this study was to evaluate the midterm results of this method in a prospective and consecutive case series. The primary study question was to determine the clinical results 2436 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft fixed with bioabsorbable cross-pins. Materials and methods The study population included 55 patients, of whom 24 were female (43.6%). The mean age at the index procedure was 31.7 years (1558 years). All patients received an ACL construction using a bone block-free quadriceps tendon graft fixed with resorbable cross-pins. The postoperative regimen included partial weight-bearing for 3 weeks and flexion limited to 90 for six weeks; an orthosis was not used. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months (24.338.5 months) after the index procedure. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score and examination form was assessed, as well as the Lysholm and Gillquist score and the Tegner activity index. The Rolimeter arthrometer was used to assess the anterior laxity of the knee. Results Graft harvesting was possible in all cases; a bony extension was never required. On average, graft length was measured at 8.8 cm (7.510 cm). The mean IKDC subjective score at follow-up was 80.44 points (55.17100 points, standard deviation [SD] 12.05). The mean preinjury Tegner activity index was 4.98 (27) compared to a mean value of 4.16 (27, SD 0.8) at follow-up. There was a mean loss of 0.82 index points. The average Lysholm and Gillquist score was 89 points (65100, SD 17.7). Of the results, 89.1% were in the good or very good groups; in one case (1.8%), the result was poor, while the rest were fair. Conclusion ACL reconstruction using a bone plug-free quadriceps tendon autograft achieved satisfactory results in a midterm review. PMID:24379730

  20. Exercise Helps Ease Psychosis Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has shown that exercise can benefit people with schizophrenia. The study was published recently in the journal ... News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise ...