Science.gov

Sample records for quadrupolar-fluctuation mediated odd-parity

  1. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  2. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779

  3. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  4. Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayshi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio

    2014-03-01

    Nontrivial nodal structures are one of the most salient features of gap functions of the unconventional superconductors. In a system with spin-orbit coupling and crystal field, the group theory plays a key role to determine the node of the gap function. From the group theoretical ground, Blount proved that the line node is ``vanishingly improbable'' in spin-triplet superconductors. Namely, it is impossible to create a stable line node in odd-parity superconductors. Our motivation is to compare the group theoretical result with topological stability of nodes by K-theory As a result, we found that K-theory not only rebuilds the original Blount's argument but also exhibits counterexamples with the stable line node. In this talk, we will show the physical interpretation of them.

  5. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  6. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  7. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  8. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  9. Parallel FE Approximation of the Even/Odd Parity Form of the Linear Boltzmann Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, Clifton R.; Lorenz, Jens

    1999-07-21

    A novel solution method has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann equation on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the equation, this approach is based on the even/odd-parity form in conjunction with the conventional mdtigroup discrete-ordinates approximation. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, and the method is well suited for massively parallel computers.

  10. Odd-parity topological superconductor with nematic order: Application to CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    CuxBi2Se3 was recently proposed as a promising candidate for time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. In this work, we argue that the unusual anisotropy of the Knight shift observed by Zheng and co-workers (unpublished), taken together with specific heat measurements, provides strong support for an unconventional odd-parity pairing in the two-dimensional Eu representation of the D3d crystal point group, which spontaneously breaks the threefold rotational symmetry of the crystal, leading to a subsidiary nematic order. We predict that the spin-orbit interaction associated with hexagonal warping plays a crucial role in pinning the two-component order parameter and makes the superconducting state generically fully gapped, leading to a topological superconductor. Experimental signatures of the Eu pairing related to the nematic order are discussed.

  11. Compositeness of the strange, charm, and beauty odd parity Λ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the dependence on the quark mass of the compositeness of the lowest-lying odd parity hyperon states. Thus, we pay attention to Λ -like states in the strange, charm, and beauty sectors which are dynamically generated using a unitarized meson-baryon model. In the strange sector we use a SU(6) extension of the Weinberg-Tomozawa meson-baryon interaction, and we further implement the heavy-quark spin symmetry to construct the meson-baryon interaction when charmed or beauty hadrons are involved. In the three examined flavor sectors, we obtain two JP=1 /2- and one JP=3 /2- Λ states. We find that the Λ states which are bound states (the three Λb) or narrow resonances [one Λ (1405 ) and one Λc(2595 )] are well described as molecular states composed of s -wave meson-baryon pairs. The 1/2- wide Λ (1405 ) and Λc(2595 ) as well as the 3/2- Λ (1520 ) and Λc(2625 ) states display smaller compositeness so they would require new mechanisms, such as d -wave interactions.

  12. Evidence for spin-triplet odd-parity superconductivity close to type-II van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Kuang-Shing; Yao, Hong; Kee, Hae-Young

    2015-05-01

    Searching for unconventional Cooper pairing states has been at the heart of superconductivity research since the discovery of BCS superconductors. In particular, spin-triplet odd-parity pairing states were recently revisited due to the possibility of tuning towards topological superconductors. In this context, it is interesting to note a recent proposal that such a spin-triplet pairing instability occurs when the band filling is near van Hove singularities (vHS) associated with momenta away from time-reversal invariant momenta named type-II vHS. However, this result was obtained within a weak coupling renormalization group with Fermi surface patch approximation. To explore superconducting instabilities beyond this weak coupling Fermi surface patch approximation, we perform systematic study on the Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice using three different methods: random phase approximation, large-scale dynamical mean-field theory simulations with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) impurity solver, and large-scale dynamical cluster simulations with the CTQMC cluster solver. We find, in a wide doping range centered around the type-II van Hove filling, a twofold degenerate, spin-triplet, odd-parity p -wave pairing state emerges due to repulsive interaction, when the Fermi surface is not sufficiently nested. Possible relevance of our findings to the recently discovered superconductors LaO1 -xFxBiS2 ,Ir1 -xPtxTe2 , and proposed doped BC3 are also discussed.

  13. Correlation-enhanced odd-parity inter-orbital singlet pairing in the iron-pnictide superconductor LiFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourafkan, Reza; Kotliar, Gabriel; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    The rich variety of iron-based superconductors and their complex electronic structure lead to a wide range of possibilities for gap symmetry and pairing components. Here we solve in the 2-Fe Brillouin zone the full frequency-dependent linearized Eliashberg equations for LiFeAs with spin-fluctuation mediated pairing interactions. The magnetic excitations are calculated with the random phase approximation on a correlated electronic structure obtained with density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. Correlations induce long-lived local moments with orbital-dependent dynamics. The interaction between electrons through Hund's coupling promotes both the intra-orbital dxz (yz) and the inter-orbital magnetic susceptibility. As a consequence, the leading pairing channel acquires sizeable inter-orbital dxy-dxz (yz) singlet pairing with odd parity under glide-plane symmetry. These components reduce the superconducting gap magnitude induced by the intra-orbital components of the gap function at the electron pockets intersection where the Fe-d t2 g orbitals strongly mix. The combination of intra- and inter-orbital components makes the results consistent with available experiments on the angular dependence of the gaps observed on the different Fermi surfaces. Supported by NSERC, CIFAR and the Tier I Canada Research Chair Program.

  14. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Odd-Parity 3 d 2 D → nf 2 F Transitions of Neutral Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, A.; Shah, M.; Shahzada, S.; Ahmed, M.; Haq, S. U.

    2015-11-01

    We report new experimental data on term energies and effective quantum numbers of the odd parity Rydberg states of sodium in the 40687-41408 cm-1 energy range. The experiment was performed using a two-color scheme of three-photon laser excitation in conjunction with a thermionic diode ion detector. The new observation includes much extended nf 2 F (12 ≤ n ≤ 51) series excited from the 3 d 2 D intermediate state. In addition, oscillator strengths of the 3 d 2 D → nf 2 F (16 ≤ n ≤ 45) Rydberg transitions have been determined and a complete picture is presented from n = 4-45 incorporating the present work and earlier computed results.

  15. Spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity superconductivity in the quasi-one-dimensional compound Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Christian; Cho, Weejee; McKenzie, Ross H.; Thomale, Ronny; Raghu, S.

    2016-06-01

    Previous theoretical studies [W. Cho, C. Platt, R. H. McKenzie, and S. Raghu, Phys. Rev. B 92, 134514 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.134514; N. Lera and J. V. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. B 92, 174523 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.174523] have suggested that Li0.9Mo6O17 , a quasi-one-dimensional "purple bronze" compound, exhibits spin-triplet superconductivity and that the gap function changes sign across the two nearly degenerate Fermi surface sheets. We investigate the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in determining the symmetry and orientation of the d vector associated with the superconducting order parameter. We propose that the lack of local inversion symmetry within the four-atom unit cell leads to a spin-orbit coupling analogous to that proposed for graphene, MoS2, or SrPtAs. In addition, from a weak-coupling renormalization group treatment of an effective model Hamiltonian, we find that SOC favors the odd parity A1 u state with Sz=±1 over the B states with Sz=0 , where z denotes the least-conducting direction. We discuss possible definitive experimental signatures of this superconducting state.

  16. Three-step laser excitation of the odd-parity 5s5d 3D → 5s nf 3F states of cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Ali; Shah, M.; Haq, S. U.; Shahzada, S.; Mumtaz, M.; Waheed, A.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    We report new experimental data on the term energies and effective quantum numbers of the highly excited odd parity states of cadmium in the 71 773-72 500 cm-1 energy range. The experiment was performed using three dye lasers simultaneously pumped by the second harmonic (532 nm) of the Nd;YAG laser. The vapor containment and detection system was a thermionic diode ion detector working in a space charge limited mode. The new observations include the 5snf3F3 (12 ⩽ n ⩽ 52), 5snf3F4 (13 ⩽ n ⩽ 33) and 5snf3F2 (12 ⩽ n ⩽ 22) Rydberg series excited from the 5s5d3D multiplet. A two parameter fit to the transitions energies of the 5snf3F3 series yields the binding energy of the 5snd 2D2 level as 13 042.178 ± 0.02 cm-1 and consequently the first ionization of cadmium is determined as 72 540.05 ± 0.13 cm-1, which is in good agreement with the previously reported value.

  17. The non-local odd-parity {ital O}({ital e}{sup 2}) effective action of QED{sub 3} at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Aitchison, I.J.R. |; Zuk, J.A. |

    1995-08-15

    We study the odd-parity part of the one-loop gauge field self-energy in QED{sub 3} with massive fermions at finite temperature, with particular emphasis on the non-analyticity at zero momentum of the relevant scalar amplitude {ital F}{sub {beta}}({ital p}), which renders the {ital O}({ital e}{sup 2}) action intrinsically non-local. We analyze {ital F}{sub {beta}}({ital p}) in Minkowski space (real-time formalism) both by dispersion relations and by direct evaluation. {ital F}{sub {beta}}({ital p}) is also studied in Euclidean space (imaginary-time formalism). In particular, we show explicitly how to analytically continue the Feynman-parametrized amplitude to Minkowski space, avoiding spurious singularities. We obtain the limiting behavior of {ital F}{sub {beta}}({ital p}) along the lines {ital p}{sup 0}={ital a}{vert_bar}{bold p}{vert_bar} for {vert_bar}{bold p}{vert_bar}{much_lt}{vert_bar}{ital M}{vert_bar} (where {ital M} is the fermion mass) in both Euclidean and Minkowski space, and we show that the results are fully consistent. Useful approximate closed-form expressions are given for this low-{ital p} behavior, which are shown numerically to be valid for energies and momenta up to the order of the fermion mass scale. The possibility that the action might be approximately local for some appropriate regime of parameters is explored using a simple non-static external gauge field configuration. Copyright {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

  18. Topological odd-parity superconductivity at type-II two-dimensional van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Yang, Fan

    2015-07-01

    We study unconventional superconductivity induced by weak repulsive interactions in 2D electronic systems at van Hove singularity (VHS) where density of states is logarithmically divergent. We define two types of VHS. For systems at type-I VHS, weak repulsive interactions generically induce unconventional singlet pairing. However, and more interestingly, for type-II VHS renormalization group analysis shows that weak repulsive interactions favor triplet pairing (e.g., p wave) when the Fermi surface is not sufficiently nested. For type-II VHS systems respecting tetragonal symmetry, topological superconductivity (either chiral p +i p pairing or time-reversal invariant Z2p +i p pairing) occurs generally. We shall also discuss relevance of our study to materials including recently discovered superconductors LaO1 -xFxBiS2 , which can be tuned to type-II VHS by doping.

  19. Topological Odd-Parity Superconductivity Close to Type-II 2D Van Hove Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Yang, Fan

    2014-03-01

    We study unconventional superconductivity induced by weak repulsive interactions in 2D electronic systems at Van Hove singularity (VHS) where electronic density of states is logarithmically divergent. We define two types of VH saddle points. For type-I VH systems, weak repulsive interactions generically induce unconventional singlet pairing. However and more interestingly, for type-II VH systems renormalization group treatment shows that weak repulsive interactions favor triplet pairing (e.g. p-wave) when the Fermi surface has no good nesting. When such type-II VH systems respecting tetragonal or hexagonal point group symmetry, topological superconductivity (chiral p +ip or time reversal invariant Z2 p +ip pairing) will generally occur. We shall also discuss implications of this study to recently discovered BiS2-based superconductors and other superconducting materials that host type-II VH singularities in their Fermi surfaces.

  20. Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer

    2005-03-01

    We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.

  1. Poincare gauge theory of gravity: Friedman cosmology with even and odd parity modes: Analytic part

    SciTech Connect

    Baekler, Peter; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Nester, James M.

    2011-01-15

    We propose a cosmological model in the framework of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity (PG). The gravitational Lagrangian is quadratic in both curvature and torsion. In our specific model, the Lagrangian contains (i) the curvature scalar R and the curvature pseudoscalar X linearly and quadratically (including an RX term) and (ii) pieces quadratic in the torsion vector V and the torsion axial vector A (including a VA term). We show generally that in quadratic PG models we have nearly the same number of parity conserving terms ('world') and of parity violating terms ('shadow world'). This offers new perspectives in cosmology for the coupling of gravity to matter and antimatter. Our specific model generalizes the fairly realistic ''torsion cosmologies'' of Shie-Nester-Yo (2008) and Chen et al. (2009). With a Friedman type ansatz for an orthonormal coframe and a Lorentz connection, we derive the two field equations of PG in an explicit form and discuss their general structure in detail. In particular, the second field equation can be reduced to first order ordinary differential equations for the curvature pieces R(t) and X(t). Including these along with certain relations obtained from the first field equation and curvature definitions, we present a first order system of equations suitable for numerical evaluation. This is deferred to the second, numerical part of this paper.

  2. HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS OF ENERGETICALLY HIGH-LYING LEVELS OF ODD PARITY OF ATOMIC VANADIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Güzelçimen, F.; Yapıcı, B.; Demir, G.; Er, A.; Öztürk, I. K.; Başar, Gö.; Kröger, S.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Docenko, D.; Başar, Gü. E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of a vanadium-argon plasma have been recorded in the wavelength range of 365-670 nm (15,000-27,400 cm{sup –1}). Optical bandpass filters were used in the experimental setup to enhance the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer. In total, 138 atomic vanadium spectral lines showing resolved or partially resolved hyperfine structure have been analyzed to determine the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A of the involved energy levels. One of the investigated lines has not been previously classified. As a result, the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A for 90 energy levels are presented: 35 of them belong to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 55 to the configuration 3d {sup 4}4p. Of these 90 constants, 67 have been determined for the first time, with 23 corresponding to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 44 to 3d {sup 4}4p.

  3. Three-step resonant photoionization spectroscopy of Ni and Ge: ionization potential and odd-parity Rydberg levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, T.; Brück, K.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J. R.; Geppert, Ch; Havener, C. C.; Krause, H. F.; Liu, Y.; Schultz, D. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Vane, C. R.; Wendt, K.

    2007-12-01

    In preparation of a laser ion source, we have investigated multi-step laser ionization via Rydberg and autoionizing states for atomic Ni and Ge using a mass separator with an ion beam energy of 20 keV. For both elements resonant three-step excitation schemes suitable for modern Ti:sapphire laser systems were developed. Rydberg series in the range of principal quantum numbers 20 <= n <= 80 were localized, assigned and quantum numbers were allocated to the individual resonances. Ionization potentials (IP) were extracted from fits of the individual series and quantum defects of individual levels were analysed for confirmation of series assignment. For Ni the ionization potential could be extracted with significantly increased precision compared to literature with a value of EIP (Ni) = 61 619.77(14) cm-1. Also, at least one notable autoionizing state above the first IP was discovered for both elements, and the different ionization schemes via Rydberg or autoionizing states were compared with respect to line shape, ionization efficiency and selectivity.

  4. Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed. PMID:16968208

  5. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators. PMID:25580377

  6. Evidence for hidden quadrupolar fluctuations behind the octupole order in Ce0.7La0.3B6 from resonant x-ray diffraction in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Michimura, Shinji; Inami, Toshiya; Otsubo, Toru; Tanida, Hiroshi; Iga, Fumitoshi; Sera, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The multipole ordered phase in Ce0.7La0.3B6, emerging below 1.5 K and named phase IV, has been studied by resonant x-ray diffraction in magnetic fields. By utilizing diamond x-ray phase plates to rotate the incident linear polarization and a conventional crystal analyzer system, full linear polarization analysis has been performed to identify the order parameters. The analysis shows that the Γ5g(Oyz, Ozx, Oxy) quadrupoles are more induced by the field than the Γ3g (O20 and O22) quadrupoles on the Γ5u (Tx+y +zβ) antiferro-octupole order in phase IV. The problem is that this result is contradictory to a mean-field calculation, which inevitably gives the Γ3g quadrupole as the main induced moment. This result indicates that the Γ5g quadrupole order is close in energy. We consider that a large fluctuation of the Γ5g quadrupole is hidden behind the primary ordering of the Γ5u octupole and that the multipolar fluctuation significantly affects the ordering phenomenon.

  7. Specialized Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…

  8. Mediator Deathwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The most discussed and analyzed form of deathwork is the dyadic "therapist" [double arrow] "client" relationship, but this far from exhausts the various types of professional work involving the dead. Mediator deathwork is where the professional gleans or constructs information about the dead, edits and polishes it, and publicly presents the edited…

  9. Student Mediator's Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Shepherd Neighborhood House, Philadelphia, PA.

    Mediation is a process that enables two or more persons in a dispute to find mutually agreeable solutions to their differences with the aid of a mediator. The mediator does not take sides, but helps the disputants consider their options. Mediation is voluntary, and disputing parties must agree to participate. Furthermore, the mediator does not…

  10. School Mediation Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Shepherd Neighborhood House, Philadelphia, PA.

    Mediation is a process that enables two or more persons in a dispute to find mutually agreeable solutions to their differences with the aid of a mediator. The mediator does not take sides, but helps the disputants consider their options. Mediation is voluntary, and disputing parties must agree to participate. The mediator does not have the power…

  11. Resolving Problems through Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Examines state variations in use of mediation to resolve domestic relations disputes. Mediation may be optional or mandatory, requested by the parties or the judge. Mediator qualifications vary considerably. Child support is less likely than custody and visitation to be the sole topic for mediation. More states are likely to use mediation in…

  12. Causal mediation analysis with a latent mediator.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jeffrey M; Geng, Cuiyu; Nelson, Suchitra

    2016-05-01

    Health researchers are often interested in assessing the direct effect of a treatment or exposure on an outcome variable, as well as its indirect (or mediation) effect through an intermediate variable (or mediator). For an outcome following a nonlinear model, the mediation formula may be used to estimate causally interpretable mediation effects. This method, like others, assumes that the mediator is observed. However, as is common in structural equations modeling, we may wish to consider a latent (unobserved) mediator. We follow a potential outcomes framework and assume a generalized structural equations model (GSEM). We provide maximum-likelihood estimation of GSEM parameters using an approximate Monte Carlo EM algorithm, coupled with a mediation formula approach to estimate natural direct and indirect effects. The method relies on an untestable sequential ignorability assumption; we assess robustness to this assumption by adapting a recently proposed method for sensitivity analysis. Simulation studies show good properties of the proposed estimators in plausible scenarios. Our method is applied to a study of the effect of mother education on occurrence of adolescent dental caries, in which we examine possible mediation through latent oral health behavior. PMID:26363769

  13. The importance of mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Nastri, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental mediation involving hazardous materials often includes a neutral, third party to assist other groups with resolving disputes or with negotiations. Most often, mediators facilitate discussion and suggest possible resolutions among parties, rather than advise as to what action must be taken to reach an agreement. There is opportunity for all sides to express grievances and frustrations as well as hearing possible solutions to resolve discrepancies. Most often, those involved with mediation attain a sense of confidence, competency, and satisfaction with the mediation process. An honest broker is an example of a third party mediator believed capable of assisting mediation in an unbiased manner. The opposing groups must be confident that an honest broker is credible and will provide his/her services to reach a satisfactory conclusion; therefore, the reputation of the mediator is crucial to the success of the mediation process.

  14. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  15. Causal Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, R M; De Stavola, B L; Cousens, S N; Vansteelandt, S

    2015-01-01

    In diverse fields of empirical research—including many in the biological sciences—attempts are made to decompose the effect of an exposure on an outcome into its effects via a number of different pathways. For example, we may wish to separate the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on systolic blood pressure (SBP) into effects via body mass index (BMI), via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and via other pathways. Much progress has been made, mainly due to contributions from the field of causal inference, in understanding the precise nature of statistical estimands that capture such intuitive effects, the assumptions under which they can be identified, and statistical methods for doing so. These contributions have focused almost entirely on settings with a single mediator, or a set of mediators considered en bloc; in many applications, however, researchers attempt a much more ambitious decomposition into numerous path-specific effects through many mediators. In this article, we give counterfactual definitions of such path-specific estimands in settings with multiple mediators, when earlier mediators may affect later ones, showing that there are many ways in which decomposition can be done. We discuss the strong assumptions under which the effects are identified, suggesting a sensitivity analysis approach when a particular subset of the assumptions cannot be justified. These ideas are illustrated using data on alcohol consumption, SBP, BMI, and GGT from the Izhevsk Family Study. We aim to bridge the gap from “single mediator theory” to “multiple mediator practice,” highlighting the ambitious nature of this endeavor and giving practical suggestions on how to proceed. PMID:25351114

  16. Peer-Mediated Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter S.

    The concept of peer-mediated instruction (PMI) grew out of the author's earlier research on applying techniques of drill and practice computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to language skills learning. Peer-mediated instruction directs pupils to work in pairs, interacting with one another according to structured pattern of dialogue. This book…

  17. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  18. Generalized Causal Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Nelson, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Summary The goal of mediation analysis is to assess direct and indirect effects of a treatment or exposure on an outcome. More generally, we may be interested in the context of a causal model as characterized by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where mediation via a specific path from exposure to outcome may involve an arbitrary number of links (or ‘stages’). Methods for estimating mediation (or pathway) effects are available for a continuous outcome and a continuous mediator related via a linear model, while for a categorical outcome or categorical mediator, methods are usually limited to two-stage mediation. We present a method applicable to multiple stages of mediation and mixed variable types using generalized linear models. We define pathway effects using a potential outcomes framework and present a general formula that provides the effect of exposure through any specified pathway. Some pathway effects are nonidentifiable and their estimation requires an assumption regarding the correlation between counterfactuals. We provide a sensitivity analysis to assess of the impact of this assumption. Confidence intervals for pathway effect estimates are obtained via a bootstrap method. The method is applied to a cohort study of dental caries in very low birth weight adolescents. A simulation study demonstrates low bias of pathway effect estimators and close-to-nominal coverage rates of confidence intervals. We also find low sensitivity to the counterfactual correlation in most scenarios. PMID:21306353

  19. [Mediation in health].

    PubMed

    Decastello, Alice

    2008-02-10

    The author presents mediation as an alternative dispute resolution method. Mediation is a process where the parties are ready to settle their dispute out of court, by way of negotiation and with the involvement of an independent third person as mediator. In the mediation process the mediator shall not decide the dispute, nor examine the default or give legal advice or express his/her opinion - the mediator's duty is to help the parties bring their positions closer and come to a settlement agreement within a short time (120 days). The author gives a summary of the applications of the Hungarian Act on Mediation in Public Health and draws conclusions from the practical experience since entry into force of the legislation and illustrates the advantages of mediation over the court procedure (which may drag on for years). The primary advantages of mediation are that both the mediators and the parties are bound by the obligation of secrecy, the procedure is cheaper than the court proceedings, and the parties can "save their faces" because in mediation the winner-winner formula asserts itself - against lawsuits where the winner-loser positions are confronted. The author also analyses the specific data and information available so far. As for the future, the legislation needs to be amended at several points. It is particularly expedient to regulate the legal relationship between the insurance companies and the health service providers because the liability insurance may not cover the damages the courts adjudicate. And so some of the service providers may go bankrupt as the difference in excess of the upper limit of coverage - it might as well be up to HUF 5 million per case - shall be paid from own budget, to the charge of the upkeep costs. It is also required to review and amend the regulations on expert activities, just as it is inevitable to make data supply compulsory - otherwise it will be impossible to monitor the number of mediation procedures in health. At present

  20. [Interleukin-1-mediated diseases].

    PubMed

    Holzinger, D; Becker, H; Jacobi, A M

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated diseases are caused by an inappropriately high production and release of IL-1 beta which results in a multitude of symptoms, e.g. arthritis, exanthema, conjunctivitis, serositis, fever and loss of hearing. If IL-1-mediated diseases remain unrecognized or are recognized and treated too late, long-term complications, such as amyloidosis may occur. In recent years the diagnostic and therapeutic options with respect to IL-1-mediated diseases have drastically improved. These diseases often manifesting in childhood can now be treated with monoclonal antibodies against IL-1 or with IL-1 receptor antagonists. Increased IL-1 secretion does not only play a role in relatively rare hereditary diseases, such as cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes or familial Mediterranean fever but also in widespread diseases, such as gout or type 2 diabetes. This article will focus on pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of IL-1-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23460390

  1. Metadata based mediator generation

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T

    1998-03-01

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse, particularly one utilizing partially materialized views; they transform data from its source format to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases, requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. This maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. However, failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the m current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. This paper describes a metadata framework, and associated software designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting the schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  2. [Immune-mediated neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Stoll, G; Reiners, K

    2016-08-01

    The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are the most common immune-mediated polyneuropathies, which can show variable clinical and electrophysiological manifestations. Rarer immune-mediated neuropathies encompass paraproteinemic neuropathies (PPN), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and vasculitic neuropathies. The diagnosis usually relies on the history of symptom evolution, distribution of nerve dysfunction and particularly on characteristic features in nerve conduction studies, aided by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy findings. The therapeutic toolbox encompasses corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis often accompanied by long-term immunosuppression. It is important to note that immune-mediated neuropathies selectively respond to treatment and contraindications need to be considered. Despite treatment a considerable number of patients suffer from permanent neurological deficits. PMID:27474733

  3. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  4. Immunologically Mediated Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Michael H.; Smith, Sallie; Akdal, Gulden; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Although most dementias are due to neurodegenerative or vascular disease, it is important to diagnose immunologically mediated dementias quickly because they can be both rapidly progressive and readily treatable. They usually affect function of limbic and cortical structures, but subcortical involvement can also occur. Because of the variety of symptoms and the rapid course, these dementias present a particular challenge to the clinician and may require evaluation and intervention in the inpatient setting. Diagnostic workup typically reveals evidence of an autoimmune process and, in some cases, cancer. In contrast to the neurodegenerative processes, many of the immunologically mediated dementias respond to immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:19664365

  5. Mediator-nucleosome interaction.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Y; Beve, J; Gustafsson, C M; Myers, L C; Kornberg, R D

    2000-07-01

    Mediator, a multiprotein complex involved in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription, binds to nucleosomes and acetylates histones. Three lines of evidence identify the Nut1 subunit of Mediator as responsible for the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. An "in-gel" HAT assay reveals a single band of the appropriate size. Sequence alignment shows significant similarity of Nut1 to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Finally, recombinant Nut1 exhibits HAT activity in an in-gel assay. PMID:10949041

  6. Hypercharged anomaly mediation.

    PubMed

    Dermísek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2008-04-01

    We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 < or = |alpha| < or = 0.25 and m(3/2) > or = 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario. PMID:18517937

  7. Carrier-mediated electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steven P; Fyles, Thomas M

    2011-06-14

    Supported liquid membranes containing valinomycin or a calix[4]arene carrier can support electrodialysis under an imposed transmembrane potential. Under optimal conditions both transmembrane flux and carrier-based cation selectivity are enhanced relative to simple dialysis mediated by the same carriers. PMID:21308126

  8. Phenomenologically Investigating Mediated "Nature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Tony E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2001 I worked as a bartender in Wyoming, two miles east of Yellowstone National Park. This opportunity provided me with unique experiences of "the wilderness" and as a result, allowed me to become aware of intricacies of living within a primarily simulated and mass mediated culture, i.e., the United States. Following tenets of…

  9. Bradykinin-mediated angioedema.

    PubMed

    Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    2016-02-01

    Angioedema and urticaria often constitute a challenge in daily clinical practice. They may either co- -occur or present as independent conditions. They are characterized by a complex pathomechanism, and their symptoms may be triggered by diverse factors. These differences are crucial for developing a successful treatment regimen. Both conditions may have an allergic origin (immunoglobulin [Ig] E and non-IgE-related), usually induced by histamine, or a nonallergic one, such as bradykinin-mediated angioedema in patients with C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency or angioedema induced by certain drugs (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors). Currently, we distinguish 5 types of nonallergic angioedema: hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-INH deficiency, acquired angioedema (AAE), and angioedema induced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, all of which are mediated by bradykinin, as well as pseudoallergic angioedema and idiopathic angioedema. Bradykinin-mediated angioedema (eg, laryngeal angioedema) may be life-threatening because of resistance to corticosteroids and antihistamine drugs. C1-INH concentrates are the drugs of choice in the treatment of HAE and AAE. In recent years, some new drugs have been introduced in the treatment of bradykinin-mediated angioedema, such as bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, icatibant, and kallikrein inhibitor, ecallantide, which allow to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:26842379

  10. Axionic mirage mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Shuntaro; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2008-06-01

    Although mirage mediation is one of the most plausible mediation mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, it suffers from two crucial problems. One is the {mu}/B{mu} problem, and the second is the cosmological one. The former stems from the fact that the B parameter tends to be comparable with the gravitino mass, which is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the other soft masses. The latter problem is caused by the decay of the modulus whose branching ratio into the gravitino pair is sizable. In this paper, we propose a model of mirage mediation, in which Peccei-Quinn symmetry is incorporated. In this axionic mirage mediation, it is shown that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale is dynamically determined around 10{sup 10} GeV to 10{sup 12} GeV due to the supersymmetry breaking effects, and the {mu} problem can be solved naturally. Furthermore, in our model, the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is the axino, that is, the superpartner of the axion. The overabundance of the LSPs due to decays of the modulus/gravitino, which is the most serious cosmological difficulty in the mirage mediation, can be avoided if the axino is sufficiently light. The next-LSPs (NLSPs) produced by the gravitino decay eventually decay into the axino LSPs, yielding the dominant component of the axinos remaining today. It is shown that the axino with a mass of O(100) MeV is naturally realized, which can constitute the dark matter of the Universe, with a free-streaming length of the order of 0.1 Mpc. The saxion, the real scalar component of the axion supermultiplet, can also be cosmologically harmless due to the dilution of the modulus decay. The lifetime of the NLSP is relatively long, but much shorter than 1 sec, when the big-bang nucleosynthesis commences. The decay of the NLSP would provide intriguing collider signatures.

  11. Mediation analysis with multiple versions of the mediator

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2013-01-01

    The causal inference literature has provided definitions of direct and indirect effects based on counterfactuals that generalize the approach found in the social science literature. However, these definitions presuppose well defined hypothetical interventions on the mediator. In many settings there may be multiple ways to fix the mediator to a particular value and these different hypothetical interventions may have very different implications for the outcome of interest. In this paper we consider mediation analysis when multiple versions of the mediator are present. Specifically, we consider the problem of attempting to decompose a total effect of an exposure on an outcome into the portion through the intermediate and the portion through other pathways. We consider the setting in which there are multiple versions of the mediator but the investigator only has access to data on the particular measurement, not which version of the mediator may have brought that value about. We show that the quantity that is estimated as a natural indirect effect using only the available data does indeed have an interpretation as a particular type of mediated effect; however, the quantity estimated as a natural direct effect in fact captures both a true direct effect and an effect of the exposure on the outcome mediated through the effect of the version of the mediator that is not captured by the mediator measurement. The results are illustrated using two examples from the literature, one in which the versions of the mediator are unknown and another in which the mediator itself has been dichotomized. PMID:22475830

  12. Current Directions in Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Mediating variables continue to play an important role in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an antecedent variable on to a dependent variable, thereby providing more detailed understanding of relations among variables. Methods to assess mediation have been an active area of research for the last two decades. This paper describes the current state of methods to investigate mediating variables. PMID:20157637

  13. [Anorexia and corporal mediations].

    PubMed

    Bureau, Hélène; Moro, Marie Rose

    2013-01-01

    The body, the central point of expression of the anorexic symptom, is an important therapeutic lever.The young anorexic girl protects herself through corporal hypertonicity. This tension is consistent with her fears of seeing her body becoming that of an adult and to feel emotions and sensations with too much force. Corporal mediation consists in helping the young girls get to grips with this body. PMID:23923454

  14. An Alternative Framework for Defining Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.; Flaherty, Brian P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. The distinguishing feature of mediation is that mediation involves a chain reaction. The definition presented emphasizes the intra-individual, time-ordered nature of mediation. (SLD)

  15. Merlin Mediation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-10-16

    Merlin Mediation System (a.k.a., Merlin) is a set of reusable software components that provide seamless integration of information contained in multiple, heterogeneous data sources located across many computers. These software components utilize a combination of mediator and expert system technologies to provide intelligence for understanding and integrating data. Merlin provides a virtual database independent of operating systems, platforms, and user applications. Merlin in an implementation of "intelligent middleware" that solves data access and integration issues.more » Merlin resides between user applications and their independent data sources. a user application may be invoked via a Web browser or reside on an individual's workstation. The data sources can reside on multiple separate heterogeneous computer polatforms and may be recorded in a variety of formats (e.g., relational databases, flat files, object-oriented databases). Merlin creates a "virtual object database" so that the user application sees the data retrieved from the various sources as though it wre returned from a single, integrated database. In addition, Merlin provides advanced data instance integration capabilities such as object unification and fusion, abstraction, aggregation, and data and schema translations. It is important to note that Merlin is not bound to any single user application nor to any specific data source. Merlin's software components utilize a combination of mediator and expert system technologies to assure their adaptability for use by various disciplines. These software components accept domain-specific details (e.g., schema, mappings, expert system rules) as data from a "knowledge base". This enables the same software to be used for a variety of domains and user applications with no source code modifications or recompilations required.« less

  16. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    PubMed

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal

  17. Ferrofluid mediated nanocytometry.

    PubMed

    Kose, Ayse Rezzan; Koser, Hur

    2012-01-01

    We present a low-cost, flow-through nanocytometer that utilizes a colloidal suspension of non-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for label-free manipulation and separation of microparticles. Our size-based separation is mediated by angular momentum transfer from magnetically excited ferrofluid particles to microparticles. The nanocytometer is capable of rapidly sorting and focusing two or more species, with up to 99% separation efficiency and a throughput of 3 × 10(4) particles/s per mm(2) of channel cross-section. The device is readily scalable and applicable to live cell sorting with biocompatible ferrofluids, offering competitive cytometer performance in a simple and inexpensive package. PMID:22076536

  18. Molecular Mediators of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ucuzian, Areck A.; Gassman, Andrew A.; East, Andrea T.; Greisler, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels from the preexisting vasculature, is a key component in numerous physiologic and pathologic responses and has broad impact in many medical and surgical specialties. In this review, we discuss the key cellular steps which lead to the neovascularization of tissues, and highlight the main molecular mechanisms and mediators in this process. We include discussions on proteolytic enzymes, cell/matrix interactions, pertinent cell signaling pathways, and end with a survey of the mechanisms which lead to the stabilization and maturation of neovasculatures. PMID:20061852

  19. Holographic Gauge Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Benini, Francesco; Dymarsky, Anatoly; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-06-19

    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

  20. Copper mediated carbometalation reactions.

    PubMed

    Müller, D S; Marek, I

    2016-08-01

    Since the first discovery of carbocupration of alkynes in the 1970s a tremendous amount of research has been carried out in this field. The exceptionally high selectivities obtained attribute to the great synthetic value of carbocupration reactions. This tutorial review will present the most important features of carbocupration of alkynes and highlight the most relevant reviews. Then a comprehensive review of copper mediated carbometalation of cyclopropenes will follow. The latter method has received much attention over the last decade as it allows the highly selective construction of poly-substituted cyclopropanes which can be transformed into acyclic derivatives bearing one or multiple tertiary or quaternary carbon stereocenters. PMID:26808300

  1. Magnetically mediated thermoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaohua; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, alternating magnetic field is explored for inducing thermoacoustic effect on dielectric objects. Termed as magnetically mediated thermo-acoustic (MMTA) effect that provides a contrast in conductivity, this approach employs magnetic resonance for delivering energy to a desired location by applying a large transient current at radio frequency below 50MHz to a compact magnetically resonant coil. The alternating magnetic field induces large electric field inside conductive objects, which then undergoes joule heating and emanates acoustic signal thermo-elastically. The magnetic mediation approach with low radio frequency can potentially provide deeper penetration than microwave radiation due to the non-magnetic nature of human body and therefore extend thermoacoustic imaging to deep laid organs. Both incoherent time domain method that applies a pulsed radio frequency current and coherent frequency domain approach that employs a linear chirp signal to modulate the envelop of the current are discussed. Owing to the coherent processing nature, the latter approach is capable of achieving much better signal to noise ratio and therefore potential for portable imaging system. Phantom experiments are carried out to demonstrate the signal generation together with some preliminary imaging results. Ex-vivo tissue studies are also investigated.

  2. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  3. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use. PMID:22080073

  4. Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gilor; Moshelion, Menachem; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Halperin, Ofer; Wallach, Rony; Attia, Ziv; Belausov, Eduard; Granot, David

    2013-09-01

    Stomata, composed of two guard cells, are the gates whose controlled movement allows the plant to balance the demand for CO2 for photosynthesis with the loss of water through transpiration. Increased guard-cell osmolarity leads to the opening of the stomata and decreased osmolarity causes the stomata to close. The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal aperture. We show here that increased expression of HXK in guard cells accelerates stomatal closure. We further show that this closure is induced by sugar and is mediated by abscisic acid. These findings support the existence of a feedback-inhibition mechanism that is mediated by a product of photosynthesis, namely sucrose. When the rate of sucrose production exceeds the rate at which sucrose is loaded into the phloem, the surplus sucrose is carried toward the stomata by the transpiration stream and stimulates stomatal closure via HXK, thereby preventing the loss of precious water. PMID:23738737

  5. Protein mediated membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    Adhesion in the context of mechanical attachment, signaling, and movement in cellular dynamics is mediated by the kinetic interactions between membrane-embedded proteins in an aqueous environment. Here, we present a minimal theoretical framework for the dynamics of membrane adhesion that accounts for the kinetics of protein binding, the elastic deformation of the membrane, and the hydrodynamics of squeeze flow in the membrane gap. We analyze the resulting equations using scaling estimates to characterize the spatiotemporal features of the adhesive patterning and corroborate them using numerical simulations. In addition to characterizing aspects of cellular dynamics, our results might also be applicable to a range of phenomena in physical chemistry and materials science where flow, deformation, and kinetics are coupled to each other in slender geometries.

  6. Symbiont-mediated protection

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that all vertically transmitted symbionts sequester resources from their hosts and are therefore costly to maintain, there is an extraordinary diversity of them in invertebrates. Some spread through host populations by providing their hosts with fitness benefits or by manipulating host sex ratio, but some do not: their maintenance in host lineages remains an enigma. In this review, I explore the evolutionary ecology of vertically transmitted symbionts and their impact on host resistance, and provide an overview of the evidence for the three-way interactions between these symbionts, natural enemies and invertebrate hosts. A number of recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that vertically transmitted symbionts may protect their hosts from pathogens. If this ‘symbiont-mediated protection’ is widespread, it is likely that vertically transmitted symbionts contribute significantly to variation in measures of invertebrate resistance to natural enemies. PMID:18055391

  7. Colistin-mediated neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wadia, Subeer; Tran, Betty

    2014-01-01

    We describe a 51-year-old man who developed renal and neural toxicity after the administration of colistin. He developed respiratory apnoea, neuromuscular blockade and severe comatose encephalopathy with the lack of brainstem reflexes. After discontinuation of the antibiotic, he made a prompt recovery to his baseline neurological function. The case illustrates the importance of recognising the toxicities associated with colistin. Although recent literature details its nephrotoxicity, current data have been discordant with the rare cases of respiratory apnoea or neuromuscular blockade once cited over 30 years ago. Additionally, no cases have ever described the profound encephalopathy with lack of brainstem function described here. The awareness of colistin's potentially fatal effects must be kept in mind when administering this antibiotic. Vigilance of the encephalopathic picture can also facilitate the diagnosis of colistin-mediated neurotoxicity in a patient with altered mental status of otherwise unknown aetiology. PMID:25199193

  8. Microbially mediated phosphine emission.

    PubMed

    Roels, Joris; Huyghe, Gwen; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-02-15

    There is still a lot of controversy in literature concerning the question whether a biochemical system exists enabling micro-organisms to reduce phosphate to phosphine gas. The search for so-called 'de novo synthesised' phosphine is complicated by the fact that soils, slurries, sludges, etc., which are often used as inocula, usually contain matrix bound phosphine (MBP). Matrix bound phosphine is a general term used to indicate non-gaseous reduced phosphorus compounds that are transformed into phosphine gas upon reaction with bases or acids. A study was carried out to compare the different digestion methods, used to transform matrix bound phosphine into phosphine gas. It was demonstrated that caustic and acidic digestion methods should be used to measure the matrix bound phosphine of the inoculum prior to inoculation to avoid false positive results concerning de novo synthesis. This is especially true if anthropogenically influenced inocula possibly containing minute steel or aluminium particles are used. The comparative study on different digestion methods also revealed that the fraction of phosphorus in mild steel, converted to phosphine during acid corrosion depended on the temperature. Following these preliminary studies, anaerobic growth experiments were set up using different inocula and media to study the emission of phosphine gas. Phosphine was detected in the headspace gases and its quantity and timeframe of emission depended on the medium composition, suggesting microbially mediated formation of the gas. The amount of phosphine emitted during the growth experiments never exceeded the bound phosphine present in inocula, prior to inoculation. Hence, de novo synthesis of phosphine from phosphate could not be demonstrated. Yet, microbially mediated conversion to phosphine of hitherto unknown reduced phosphorus compounds in the inoculum was evidenced. PMID:15713333

  9. Mediation and managed care.

    PubMed

    Dubler, N N

    1998-03-01

    Managed care has not only intensified existing conflicts between patient and provider, it has, by its very nature, changed the shape and scope of the healthcare enterprise and introduced an entirely new set of disputes. The decision-making dynamics have been altered, and the cast of players has expanded. Traditionally, the therapeutic interaction took place between the physician and the patient although it occasionally included the patient's family. Whatever obligations existed, such as fidelity, confidentiality, and standard of care, they bound only those parties. Now, as the managed care organization has interposed itself between the patient and the physician, the dyad has become a triad. The power balance has shifted, and a new set of rights and responsibilities now flows between and among the players, each of whom has interests that may or may not coincide. This article argues that, because of its cost containment origins and orientation, managed care increases the likelihood that misunderstandings, disagreements and disputes will develop into full-blown conflicts. If managed care is to succeed financially and operate with integrity, it must develop techniques for managing the increasing conflicts that arise inevitably between and among the organizations, physicians, and patients. It is clear that the voice of the patient needs to be strengthened within the new complex decision-making, review, and appeal procedures. Mediation is the most appropriate method of dispute resolution for the managed care setting because it balances the disparities in power endemic to the bureaucratization of medicine and refocuses the interests of the various parties. Using bioethics consultation as a model for dispute mediation provides a set of principles and guideline tasks that can be applied effectively to managed care. PMID:9514387

  10. Moral Functioning as Mediated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappan, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that it is quite useful, both theoretically and empirically, to adopt a socio-cultural approach to the study of moral development. This entails viewing "moral functioning" as a form of mediated action, and moral development as the process by which persons gradually appropriate a variety of "moral mediational means". Mediated…

  11. 29 CFR 1203.1 - Mediation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mediation services. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.1 Mediation services. Applications for the mediation services of the National Mediation Board under section 5, First, of the...

  12. 22 CFR 143.33 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 143.33 Section 143.33 Foreign... Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an...

  13. 29 CFR 1202.1 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 1202.1 Section 1202.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.1 Mediation. The mediation..., or where conferences are refused. The National Mediation Board may proffer its services in case...

  14. 29 CFR 1203.1 - Mediation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation services. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.1 Mediation services. Applications for the mediation services of the National Mediation Board under section 5, First, of the...

  15. 32 CFR 776.38 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 776.38 Section 776.38 National... Professional Conduct § 776.38 Mediation. (a) Mediation: (1) A covered attorney may act as a mediator between... mediation, including the advantages and risks involved, and the effect on the...

  16. 29 CFR 35.32 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mediation. (a) Referral to mediation. CRC will promptly refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under 45 CFR part... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 35.32 Section 35.32 Labor Office of the...

  17. 34 CFR 81.13 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 81.13 Section 81.13 Education Office of the... Mediation. (a) Voluntary mediation is available for proceedings that are pending before the OALJ. (b) A... mediation by filing a motion with the ALJ assigned to the case. The OALJ arranges for a mediator if...

  18. 24 CFR 3288.35 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 3288.35 Section 3288.35...-Administered States § 3288.35 Mediation. (a) Mediator. The dispute resolution provider will provide for the... identifies any other party that should be included in the mediation, the mediator will contact the...

  19. 29 CFR 1203.1 - Mediation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mediation services. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.1 Mediation services. Applications for the mediation services of the National Mediation Board under section 5, First, of the...

  20. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  1. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  2. 44 CFR 7.942 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or for the mediator to make... reach an agreement, the mediator shall prepare a written statement of the agreement and have...

  3. An Alternative Framework for Defining Mediation.

    PubMed

    Collins, L M; Graham, J J; Flaherty, B P

    1998-04-01

    The present article provides an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. From this perspective. a mediated process is a chain reaction, beginning with an independent variable that affects a mediator that in turn affects an outcome. The definition of mediation offered here, presented for stage sequences, states three conditions for establishing mediation: (a) the independent variable affects the probability of the sequence no mediator to mediator to outcome; (b) the independent variable affects the probability of a transition into the mediator stage; (c) the mediator affects the probability of a transition into the outcome stage at every level of the independent variable. This definition of mediation is compared and contrasted with the well-known definition of mediation for continuous variables discussed in Baron and Kenny (1986), Judd and Kenny (1981), and Kenny, Kashy, and Bolger (1997). The definition presented in this article emphasizes the intraindividual, time-ordered nature of mediation. PMID:26771887

  4. Estimation of Causal Mediation Effects for a Dichotomous Outcome in Multiple-Mediator Models using the Mediation Formula

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Suchitra; Albert, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediators are intermediate variables in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. Mediation analysis investigates the extent to which exposure effects occur through these variables, thus revealing causal mechanisms. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the mediation effect when the outcome is binary and multiple mediators of different types exist. We give a precise definition of the total mediation effect as well as decomposed mediation effects through individual or sets of mediators using the potential outcomes framework. We formulate a model of joint distribution (probit-normal) using continuous latent variables for any binary mediators to account for correlations among multiple mediators. A mediation formula approach is proposed to estimate the total mediation effect and decomposed mediation effects based on this parametric model. Estimation of mediation effects through individual or subsets of mediators requires an assumption involving the joint distribution of multiple counterfactuals. We conduct a simulation study that demonstrates low bias of mediation effect estimators for two-mediator models with various combinations of mediator types. The results also show that the power to detect a non-zero total mediation effect increases as the correlation coefficient between two mediators increases, while power for individual mediation effects reaches a maximum when the mediators are uncorrelated. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a retrospective cohort study of dental caries in adolescents with low and high socioeconomic status. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the robustness of conclusions regarding mediation effects when the assumption of no unmeasured mediator-outcome confounders is violated. PMID:23650048

  5. Mediator-Generated Pressure Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Joseph F.

    1978-01-01

    Two examples of bluff pressures (as opposed to real pressures) used by mediators to effect contract settlements are presented, along with advice to negotiators on avoiding or minimizing such tactics. (Author/IRT)

  6. Mediated Character of Economic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanic, Josip; Bertovic, Igor; Kasac, Josip

    2003-06-01

    Economic interactions are conducted between economic agents - individuals and collectives, through exchange of natural or artificial entities - goods, services and money, in a myriad of combinations. In this article we adopt a microscopic point of view, concentrate on the exchanged entities, and extract their relevant attributes as seen from structurally simple economic processes. Following that, we approach the interpretation of the economic interactions with their mediated character emphasized. Mediators of the interaction are locally available environment units. They are locally recognized and appropriately interpreted in a given value set as goods and money. The overall intensity of economic interactions considered is related to mediators' spatial and temporal characteristics. Extracted characteristics of mediators and economic processes are compacted in the set of formal rules. The approach is connected with similar approaches in economy and physics.

  7. Bradykinin-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    Diseases which have been demonstrated to be caused by increased plasma levels of bradykinin all have angioedema as the common major clinical manifestation. Angioedema due to therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is caused by suppressed bradykinin degradation so that it accumulates. This occurs because ACE metabolizes bradykinin by removal of Phe-Arg from the C-terminus, which inactivates it. By contrast, angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (either hereditary types I and II, or acquired) is caused by bradykinin overproduction. C1 inhibitor inhibits factor XIIa, kallikrein and activity associated with the prekallikrein-HK (high-molecular-weight kininogen) complex. In its absence, uncontrolled activation of the plasma bradykinin cascade is seen once there has been an initiating stimulus. C4 levels are low in all types of C1 inhibitor deficiency due to the instability of C1 (C1r, in particular) such that some activated C1 always circulates and depletes C4. In the hereditary disorder, formation of factor XIIf (factor XII fragment) during attacks of swelling causes C4 levels to drop toward zero, and C2 levels decline. A kinin-like molecule, once thought to be a cleavage product derived from C2 that contributes to the increased vascular permeability seen in hereditary angioedema (HAE), is now thought to be an artifact, i.e. no such molecule is demonstrable. The acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency is associated with clonal disorders of B cell hyperreactivity, including lymphoma and monoclonal gammopathy. Most cases have an IgG autoantibody to C1 inhibitor which inactivates it so that the presentation is strikingly similar to type I HAE. New therapies for types I and II HAE include C1 inhibitor replacement therapy, ecallantide, a kallikrein antagonist, and icatibant, a B2 receptor antagonist. A newly described type III HAE has normal C1 inhibitor, although it is thought to be mediated by bradykinin, as is an antihistamine-resistant subpopulation of

  8. 15 CFR 20.12 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 20.12 Mediation. (a) DOC will refer to a mediation service designated by the Secretary all... mediator shall send a copy of the agreement to DOC. DOC will take no further action on the complaint unless... DOC. Mediation ends if: (1) 60 days elapse from the time DOC receives the complaint; or (2) Prior...

  9. 15 CFR 20.12 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures § 20.12 Mediation. (a) DOC will refer to a mediation service designated by the Secretary all... mediator shall send a copy of the agreement to DOC. DOC will take no further action on the complaint unless... DOC. Mediation ends if: (1) 60 days elapse from the time DOC receives the complaint; or (2) Prior...

  10. 15 CFR 20.12 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures § 20.12 Mediation. (a) DOC will refer to a mediation service designated by the Secretary all... mediator shall send a copy of the agreement to DOC. DOC will take no further action on the complaint unless... DOC. Mediation ends if: (1) 60 days elapse from the time DOC receives the complaint; or (2) Prior...

  11. 15 CFR 20.12 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures § 20.12 Mediation. (a) DOC will refer to a mediation service designated by the Secretary all... mediator shall send a copy of the agreement to DOC. DOC will take no further action on the complaint unless... DOC. Mediation ends if: (1) 60 days elapse from the time DOC receives the complaint; or (2) Prior...

  12. 7 CFR 900.108 - Mediator's report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediator's report. 900.108 Section 900.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Mediator's report. The mediator, upon the completion of mediation proceedings, shall submit to...

  13. Mediation in Schools: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the developing role of mediation as a conflict resolution process in schools. It gives an accepted definition and clarifies the purposes of mediation, outlining the range of contexts in and beyond schools in which mediation is already offered as a formal intervention. The typical process of mediation itself is described. The…

  14. 14 CFR 1252.402 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 1252.402 Section 1252.402... Procedures § 1252.402 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. NASA will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) Fall within the jurisdiction of the Act...

  15. 15 CFR 20.12 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 20.12 Section 20.12... Procedures § 20.12 Mediation. (a) DOC will refer to a mediation service designated by the Secretary all... further processing. (b) Both the complainant and the recipient shall participate in the mediation...

  16. 7 CFR 614.11 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 614.11 Section 614.11 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS NRCS APPEAL PROCEDURES § 614.11 Mediation. (a) A participant who wishes to pursue mediation must file request for mediation under this part with the NRCS official designated in...

  17. 15 CFR 923.54 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 923.54 Section 923.54... Mediation. (a) Section 307(h) of the Act provides for mediation of serious disagreement between any Federal... cases, mediation by the Secretary, with the assistance of the Executive Office of the President, may...

  18. 15 CFR 930.111 - OCRM mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OCRM mediation. 930.111 Section 930... FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.111 OCRM mediation. The availability of mediation does not preclude use by the parties of alternative means...

  19. Mediation and Counseling Services: A Viable Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Mediation has become common in many areas of society, including marital dissolution, community disputes, governmental agencies, and business and industry. Though higher education has been slower than society to adopt mediation services, campus mediation is becoming increasingly more common. This article explains why mediation is a viable…

  20. 45 CFR 91.43 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 91.43 Section 91.43 Public Welfare... Enforcement Procedures § 91.43 Mediation. (a) HHS will promptly refer to a mediation agency designated by the... mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an informed judgment that...

  1. 24 CFR 146.35 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 146.35 Section 146.35... ASSISTANCE Investigation, Settlement, and Enforcement Procedures § 146.35 Mediation. (a) HUD shall refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, a mediation agency designated by the Secretary...

  2. 34 CFR 110.32 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 110.32 Section 110.32 Education Regulations..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 110.32 Mediation. (a) ED promptly refers to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or to the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and...

  3. 38 CFR 18.543 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 18.543 Section... Enforcement Procedures § 18.543 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. VA will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) Fall within the jurisdiction of...

  4. 10 CFR 4.333 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 4.333 Section 4.333 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.333 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. NRC will refer to a mediation agency designated by the Secretary of the Department of Health...

  5. 45 CFR 1156.16 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 1156.16 Section 1156.16 Public Welfare... Procedures § 1156.16 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The Endowment will promptly refer all complaints to the agency designated by the Secretary of HHS to manage the mediation process...

  6. 7 CFR 780.9 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 780.9 Section 780.9 Agriculture Regulations... PROGRAMS APPEAL REGULATIONS § 780.9 Mediation. (a) Any request for mediation must be submitted after... once: (1) If resolution of an adverse decision is not achieved in mediation, a participant may...

  7. 22 CFR 218.33 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 218.33 Section 218.33 Foreign... § 218.33 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) fall within the jurisdiction of...

  8. 43 CFR 17.332 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and Enforcement Procedures § 17.332 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOI will... it. The FMCS shall send the agreement to DOI. DOI, however, retains the right to monitor the... process without prior approval of the head of the mediation agency. (e) DOI will use the mediation...

  9. Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

  10. Mediation Analysis in Psychosomatic Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Ginger; MacKinnon, David P.; Ohlrich, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of statistical mediation analysis and its application to psychosomatic medicine research. The article begins with a description of the major approaches to mediation analysis and an evaluation of the strengths and limits of each. Emphasis is placed on longitudinal mediation models, and an application using latent growth modeling is presented. The article concludes with a description of recent developments in mediation analysis and suggestions for the use of mediation for future work in psychosomatic medicine research. PMID:21148809

  11. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  12. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Zavada, Scott R; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes--catalytic proteins--owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol-ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  13. Gauge mediated mini-split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  14. Fracture healing and lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J Patrick; Manigrasso, Michaele B; Kim, Brian D; Subramanian, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Lipid mediators regulate bone regeneration during fracture healing. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are well-known lipid mediators that regulate inflammation and are synthesized from the Ω-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase (COX-1 or COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyze the initial enzymatic steps in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, respectively. Inhibition or genetic ablation of COX-2 activity impairs fracture healing in animal models. Genetic ablation of COX-1 does not affect the fracture callus strength in mice, suggesting that COX-2 activity is primarily responsible for regulating fracture healing. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is performed clinically to reduce heterotopic ossification, although clinical evidence that NSAID treatment impairs fracture healing remains controversial. In contrast, inhibition or genetic ablation of 5-LO activity accelerates fracture healing in animal models. Even though prostaglandins and leukotrienes regulate inflammation, loss of COX-2 or 5-LO activity appears to primarily affect chondrogenesis during fracture healing. Prostaglandin or prostaglandin analog treatment, prostaglandin-specific synthase inhibition and prostaglandin or leukotriene receptor antagonism also affect callus chondrogenesis. Unlike the Ω-6-derived lipid mediators, lipid mediators derived from Ω-3 fatty acids, such as resolvin E1 (RvE1), have anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo, RvE1 can inhibit osteoclastogenesis and limit bone resorption. Although Ω-6 and Ω-3 lipid mediators have clear-cut effects on inflammation, the role of these lipid mediators in bone regeneration is more complex, with apparent effects on callus chondrogenesis and bone remodeling. PMID:24795811

  15. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  16. Water-Mediated Hydrophobic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-05-01

    Hydrophobic interactions are driven by the combined influence of the direct attraction between oily solutes and an additional water-mediated interaction whose magnitude (and sign) depends sensitively on both solute size and attraction. The resulting delicate balance can lead to a slightly repulsive water-mediated interaction that drives oily molecules apart rather than pushing them together and thus opposes their direct (van der Waals) attraction for each other. As a consequence, competing solute size-dependent crossovers weaken hydrophobic interactions sufficiently that they are only expected to significantly exceed random thermal energy fluctuations for processes that bury more than ˜1 nm2 of water-exposed area.

  17. Water-Mediated Hydrophobic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-05-27

    Hydrophobic interactions are driven by the combined influence of the direct attraction between oily solutes and an additional water-mediated interaction whose magnitude (and sign) depends sensitively on both solute size and attraction. The resulting delicate balance can lead to a slightly repulsive water-mediated interaction that drives oily molecules apart rather than pushing them together and thus opposes their direct (van der Waals) attraction for each other. As a consequence, competing solute size-dependent crossovers weaken hydrophobic interactions sufficiently that they are only expected to significantly exceed random thermal energy fluctuations for processes that bury more than ∼1 nm(2) of water-exposed area. PMID:27215821

  18. [Aesthetic surgeons and mediatic field].

    PubMed

    Volte, Ray

    2003-10-01

    Media alter our image; aesthetic surgery has become a good thing for journalists wanting a better TV audience. The standard plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon does not recognize himself in most of the TV shows: operate prepuberic children, enhance buttocks and pectoralis muscles, struggle with transsexuals em leader What is become whim mammoplasties, abdominoplasties, face lifts? We are partially responsible for this mediatic lynchage because we do not occupy the mediatic field. The journalists, without any professional ethical code, make an object out of us. So now is the time of our uprising. PMID:14599902

  19. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  20. Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-17

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  1. Mediation: A Violence Prevention Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conflict Resolution Unlimited, Inc., Bellevue, WA.

    Young people need help in learning alternative dispute resolution skills. A program that aims to do this, set in a context of preventing violent behavior, is presented here. It is structured into sixteen 45-minute sessions which can be presented by one teacher. The training is organized around the following seven themes: The Mediation Process,…

  2. Counterpoint: Response to Mediator Caraway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gordon A.; Heinen, Mark

    1991-01-01

    In the Fall 1989 issue, Caraway discussed the advantages of grievance mediation, compared with arbitration. This article reexamines the issue from the viewpoint of the individual grievant and points to recent conflicting developments in the National Labor Relations Board's deferral doctrine. An introduction by Perry A. Zirkel summarizes the…

  3. Re/Mediating Adolescent Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John, Ed.; Luke, Allan, Ed.

    Suggesting that teaching in New Times requires that educators read and re/mediate the social relations, the cultural knowledges, and the relationships of power between adolescents and their social, biological, and semiotic universes, this collection of essays offers new ways of seeing and talking about adolescents and their literacies. Most of the…

  4. Mediation analysis with principal stratification.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Robert; Small, Dylan S; Lin, Julia Y; Elliott, Michael R; Joffe, Marshall; Ten Have, Thomas R

    2009-03-30

    In assessing the mechanism of treatment efficacy in randomized clinical trials, investigators often perform mediation analyses by analyzing if the significant intent-to-treat treatment effect on outcome occurs through or around a third intermediate or mediating variable: indirect and direct effects, respectively. Standard mediation analyses assume sequential ignorability, i.e. conditional on covariates the intermediate or mediating factor is randomly assigned, as is the treatment in a randomized clinical trial. This research focuses on the application of the principal stratification (PS) approach for estimating the direct effect of a randomized treatment but without the standard sequential ignorability assumption. This approach is used to estimate the direct effect of treatment as a difference between expectations of potential outcomes within latent subgroups of participants for whom the intermediate variable behavior would be constant, regardless of the randomized treatment assignment. Using a Bayesian estimation procedure, we also assess the sensitivity of results based on the PS approach to heterogeneity of the variances among these principal strata. We assess this approach with simulations and apply it to two psychiatric examples. Both examples and the simulations indicated robustness of our findings to the homogeneous variance assumption. However, simulations showed that the magnitude of treatment effects derived under the PS approach were sensitive to model mis-specification. PMID:19184975

  5. Mediation and the Electronic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss the issue of the mediator's role in the library of the electronic age. Topics addressed include computer-assisted instruction; online catalogs; computer networks; professional identity; reference service and bibliographic instruction; CD-ROMs; online systems; personal home microcomputers; Internet and list servers;…

  6. Eicosanoids mediate insect hemocyte migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemocyte chemotaxis toward infection and wound sites is an essential component of insect defense reactions, although the biochemical signal mechanisms responsible for mediating chemotaxis in insect cells are not well understood. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test the hyp...

  7. Bioanalytical insights into mediator lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Kie; Suga, Takahiro; Mano, Nariyasu

    2015-09-10

    The importance of lipids in health and disease has been widely acknowledged. Lipids are well known to undergo enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic conversions to lipid mediators (LMs), which demonstrate potent actions in various biological events, such as the regulation of cellular signaling pathways and the promotion and resolution of inflammation. LMs activate G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to exert various functions. Monitoring these mediators in disease is essential to uncover the mechanisms of pathogenesis for many diseases, such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Along with technical developments in mass spectrometry, highly sensitive and multiplexed analyses of LMs in the human periphery and other tissues have become available. These advancements enable the temporal and spatial profiling of LMs; therefore, the findings obtained from LM profiling are expected to decode pathology. As trace amounts of LMs can exert functions, the development of a highly sensitive, accurate, and robust analytical method is necessary. Although not mandatory, mediator lipidomics validation is becoming popular and remains challenging. Because LMs already exist in biological matrices, evaluations of the matrix effect and extraction efficiencies are important issues. Thus, more careful analyses are required. In this review, we focus on mediator lipidomics, including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and LMs derived from PUFAs, such as eicosanoids, lipoxins and resolvins. In addition to the recent progress in human mediator lipidomics, bioanalytical insights derived from this field (i.e., effective sample preparation from biological matrices and evaluation of the matrix effect) are described herein. PMID:25769667

  8. [Familiy mediation within the counselling system].

    PubMed

    Bastine, Reiner; Römer-Wolf, Birgit; Decker, Frauke; Haid-Loh, Achim; Mayer, Stefan; Normann, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    Family mediation has been established as a method of resolving family conflicts within the counselling system. Unfortunately there existed only rare information about the real presence and efficacy of family mediation services within this system. 726 counselling centres from all over the country participated at the present study, which was outlined to evaluate their supply of family mediation and the use of it. The results show that nearly one third of the centres are offering family mediation as a regular service to their clients, and that mediative skills are quite frequently used by the counselling professionals. Centres, which offer a regular service of mediation, have an obviously higher percentage of honorary staff, indicating that this service might have a more fragile status. Each centre, which conducted mediation, had an average mediation caseload of 32 in 2003, which means a percentage of 7 percent of all counselling cases treated in this year. These mediations needed an average treatment of 7 hours. Most frequent cases in mediation are separated married or separated non-married parents with 2 children. In most cases, family mediation was used to regulate conflicts in separation, divorce or post divorce, mainly concerned with issues of child custody. In contrast to the researchers' expectations, children were introduced at the mediation process only rarely. The need for mediation in the local population was rated much higher than the factual demand for and the factual supply of mediation. Based on the outcomes of the study, some recommendations are made: for the improvement of the supply of family mediation, for the expansion of the issues to which mediation is offered, and for strengthening the approaches to include children into the mediation process. PMID:17152893

  9. Ratio-of-Mediator-Probability Weighting for Causal Mediation Analysis in the Presence of Treatment-by-Mediator Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Guanglei; Deutsch, Jonah; Hill, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods for mediation analysis generate biased results when the mediator--outcome relationship depends on the treatment condition. This article shows how the ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting (RMPW) method can be used to decompose total effects into natural direct and indirect effects in the presence of treatment-by-mediator…

  10. 13 CFR 117.12 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... complainant in the mediation process in an effort to reach a mutually satisfactory settlement of the complaint... mediator at the same time. (c) If the complainant and the recipient reach a mutually...

  11. 22 CFR 218.33 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the recipient shall participate in the mediation process to the extend necessary to reach an agreement... complainant and the recipient reach an agreement, the mediator shall prepare a written statement of...

  12. 22 CFR 143.33 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an informed... complainant need not meet with the mediator at the same time. (c) If the complainant and the recipient...

  13. Mediation from Multilevel to Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Valente, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this article is to outline multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) for mediation analysis of longitudinal data. The introduction of mediating variables can improve experimental and nonexperimental studies of child growth in several ways as discussed throughout this article. Single-mediator individual-level and multilevel mediation models illustrate several current issues in the estimation of mediation with longitudinal data. The strengths of incorporating structural equation modeling (SEM) with multilevel mediation modeling are described. Summary and Key Messages Longitudinal mediation models are pervasive in many areas of research including child growth. Longitudinal mediation models are ideally modeled as repeated measurements clustered within individuals. Further, the combination of MSEM and SEM provides an ideal approach for several reasons, including the ability to assess effects at different levels of analysis, incorporation of measurement error and possible random effects that vary across individuals. PMID:25413658

  14. An Adviser Agent for Mediator Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Katagami, Daisuke; Nitta, Katsumi

    This paper describes an agent that shows advices for supporting mediator on our online mediation support system. The purpose of the advice is an education of mediator, and the agent presents it instead of the teacher. In this research, at first, we defined a mediation model that is an argumentation model between 3 people. Then, we defined some advice models based on the mediation model. The advice models create advice elements. The adviser agent monitors the mediation, gathers advice elements referring to advice models, and creates advice from elements according to the mediation scene. As a result, it becomes possible that is advising instead of the teacher according to the situation, education purpose and learner's level. We inspected the effectiveness of the advice by the experiment of moot mediation.

  15. Mediator Architecture and RNA Polymerase II Interaction.

    PubMed

    Plaschka, Clemens; Nozawa, Kayo; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-06-19

    Integrated structural biology recently elucidated the architecture of Mediator and its position on RNA polymerase II. Here we summarize these achievements and list open questions on Mediator structure and mechanism. PMID:26851380

  16. Nodal-mediated epigenesis requires dynamin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Robin P.; Robertson, Anthony J.; Saunders, Diane; Coffman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Nodal proteins are diffusible morphogens that drive pattern formation via short-range feedback activation coupled to long-range Lefty-mediated inhibition. In the sea urchin embryo, specification of the secondary (oral-aboral) axis occurs via zygotic expression of nodal, which is localized to the prospective oral ectoderm at early blastula stage. In mid-blastula stage embryos treated with low micromolar nickel or zinc, nodal expression expands progressively beyond the confines of this localized domain to encompass the entire equatorial circumference of the embryo, producing radialized embryos lacking an oral-aboral axis. RNAseq analysis of embryos treated with nickel, zinc or cadmium (which does not radialize embryos) showed that several genes involved in endocytosis were similarly perturbed by nickel and zinc but not cadmium. Inhibiting dynamin, a GTPase required for receptor-mediated endocytosis, phenocopies the effects of nickel and zinc, suggesting that dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required as a sink to limit the range of Nodal signaling. PMID:21337468

  17. Causal Mediation Analysis: Warning! Assumptions Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keele, Luke

    2015-01-01

    In policy evaluations, interest may focus on why a particular treatment works. One tool for understanding why treatments work is causal mediation analysis. In this essay, I focus on the assumptions needed to estimate mediation effects. I show that there is no "gold standard" method for the identification of causal mediation effects. In…

  18. Axino dark matter in mirage mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Shuntaro; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2009-04-17

    The mirage mediation of supersymmetry breaking is a phenomenologically quite interesting possibility, however, it suffers from two major problems: the moduli-induced gravitino problem and the {mu}-B{mu} problem. In this paper, we propose that the axionic extension of mirage mediation, axionic mirage mediation can solve both problems simultaneously. We address the cosmological consequences of the scenario extensively.

  19. Mediation in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevaskis, David Keller

    This digest discusses mediation as a form of conflict management that is receiving widespread attention in schools. Mediation involves a neutral third person, called a mediator, who assists the disputants in resolving their problem with the consent of all parties. It offers a risk-free way to settle disputes for the parties involved. Unresolved…

  20. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  1. 7 CFR 900.109 - Mediation agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation agreement. 900.109 Section 900.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Mediation agreement. An agreement arrived at by mediation shall not become effective until approved by...

  2. 45 CFR 617.10 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 617.10 Section 617.10 Public Welfare... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM NSF § 617.10 Mediation. (a) NSF will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that fall...

  3. 34 CFR 300.506 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 300.506 Section 300.506 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.506 Mediation. (a... due process complaint, to resolve disputes through a mediation process. (b) Requirements....

  4. 41 CFR 101-8.717 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 101-8.717... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.717 Mediation. (a) GSA promptly refers to the mediation agency designated by the Secretary, HHS, all sufficient complaints...

  5. 7 CFR 205.663 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.663 Mediation. Any dispute with respect... a qualified mediator mutually agreed upon by the parties to the mediation. If a State...

  6. 7 CFR 205.663 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.663 Mediation. Any dispute with respect... a qualified mediator mutually agreed upon by the parties to the mediation. If a State...

  7. 7 CFR 205.663 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.663 Mediation. Any dispute with respect... a qualified mediator mutually agreed upon by the parties to the mediation. If a State...

  8. Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

  9. Elastocapillary-mediated interfacial assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Particles confined to an interface are present in a large number of industrial applications and ubiquitous in cellular biophysics. Interactions mediated by the interface, such as capillary effects in the presence of surface tension, give rise to rafts and aggregates whose structure is ultimately determined by geometric characteristics of these adsorbed particles. A common strategy for assembling interfacial structures relies on exploiting these interactions by tuning particle anisotropy, either by constructing rigid particles with heterogeneous wetting properties or fabricating particles that have a naturally anisotropic shape. Less explored, however, is the scenario where the interface causes the particles to deform. In this talk I will discuss the implications for interfacial assembly using elastocapillary-mediated interactions. The competition between surface energy and elasticity can wrinkle and buckle adsorbed soft particles, leading to complicated (but programmable) aggregates.

  10. Sequestered gravity in gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Benakli, Karim; Quiros, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel mechanism of supersymmetry breaking embeddable in string theory and simultaneously sharing the main advantages of (sequestered) gravity and gauge mediation. It is driven by a Scherk-Schwarz deformation along a compact extra dimension, transverse to a brane stack supporting the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. This fixes the magnitude of the gravitino mass, together with that of the gauginos of a bulk gauge group, at a scale as high as 10^{10} GeV. Supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the observable sector dominantly by gauge interactions using massive messengers transforming non-trivially under the bulk and Standard Model gauge groups and leading to a neutralino LSP as dark matter candidate. The Higgsino mass μ and soft Higgs-bilinear B_μ term could be generated at the same order of magnitude as the other soft terms by effective supergravity couplings as in the Giudice-Masiero mechanism.

  11. General gauge mediation and deconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2010-11-01

    We locate a supersymmetry breaking hidden sector and supersymmetric standard model on different lattice points of an orbifold moose. The hidden sector is encoded in a set of current correlators and the effects of the current correlators are mediated by the lattice site gauge groups with "lattice hopping" functions and through the bifundamental matter that links the lattice sites together. We show how the gaugino mass, scalar mass and Casimir energy of the lattice can be computed for a general set of current correlators and then give specific formulas when the hidden sector is specified to be a generalised messenger sector. The results reproduce the effect of five dimensional gauge mediation from a purely four dimensional construction.

  12. Direct mediation, duality and unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Khoze, Valentin V.

    2008-11-01

    It is well-known that in scenarios with direct gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking the messenger fields significantly affect the running of Standard Model couplings and introduce Landau poles which are difficult to avoid. Among other things, this appears to remove any possibility of a meaningful unification prediction and is often viewed as a strong argument against direct mediation. We propose two ways that Seiberg duality can circumvent this problem. In the first, which we call ``deflected-unification'', the SUSY-breaking hidden sector is a magnetic theory which undergoes a Seiberg duality to an electric phase. Importantly, the electric version has fewer fundamental degrees of freedom coupled to the MSSM compared to the magnetic formulation. This changes the β-functions of the MSSM gauge couplings so as to push their Landau poles above the unification scale. We show that this scenario is realised for recently suggested models of gauge mediation based on a metastable SCQD-type hidden sector directly coupled to MSSM. The second possibility for avoiding Landau poles, which we call ``dual-unification'', begins with the observation that, if the mediating fields fall into complete SU(5) multiplets, then the MSSM+messengers exhibits a fake unification at unphysical values of the gauge couplings. We show that, in known examples of electric/magnetic duals, such a fake unification in the magnetic theory reflects a real unification in the electric theory. We therefore propose that the Standard Model could itself be a magnetic dual of some unknown electric theory in which the true unification takes place. This scenario maintains the unification prediction (and unification scale) even in the presence of Landau poles in the magnetic theory below the GUT scale. We further note that this dual realization of grand unification can explain why Nature appears to unify, but the proton does not decay.

  13. Mediators and Metaphorical Analysis: A Phenomenological Study of Florida Family Court Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storrow, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Florida family court mediation programs have typically been assessed with quantitative analysis. To understand the complexity of the experience of being a family mediator, it was necessary to explore how mediators practiced through qualitative research. Metaphors have been considered to be representations of mediators' mental models regarding…

  14. Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fejerskov, Betina; Zelikin, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT) as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s) into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol), β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose – dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:23152927

  15. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  16. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

  17. Flavor mediation delivers natural SUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    If supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the hierarchy problem, then naturalness considerations coupled with recent LHC bounds require non-trivial superpartner flavor structures. Such "Natural SUSY" models exhibit a large mass hierarchy between scalars of the third and first two generations as well as degeneracy (or alignment) among the first two generations. In this work, we show how this specific beyond the standard model (SM) flavor structure can be tied directly to SM flavor via "Flavor Mediation". The SM contains an anomaly-free SU(3) flavor symmetry, broken only by Yukawa couplings. By gauging this flavor symmetry in addition to SM gauge symmetries, we can mediate SUSY breaking via (Higgsed) gauge mediation. This automatically delivers a natural SUSY spectrum. Third-generation scalar masses are suppressed due to the dominant breaking of the flavor gauge symmetry in the top direction. More subtly, the first-two-generation scalars remain highly degenerate due to a custodial U(2) symmetry, where the SU(2) factor arises because SU(3) is rank two. This custodial symmetry is broken only at order ( m c /m t )2. SUSY gauge coupling unification predictions are preserved, since no new charged matter is introduced, the SM gauge structure is unaltered, and the flavor symmetry treats all matter multiplets equally. Moreover, the uniqueness of the anomaly-free SU(3) flavor group makes possible a number of concrete predictions for the superpartner spectrum.

  18. Selectron NLSP in gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Mariotti, Alberto; Petersson, Christoffer; Redigolo, Diego

    2014-09-01

    We discuss gauge mediation models in which the smuon and the selectron are mass-degenerate co-NLSP, which we, for brevity, refer to as selectron NLSP. In these models, the stau, as well as the other superpartners, are parametrically heavier than the NLSP. We start by taking a bottom-up perspective and investigate the conditions under which selectron NLSP spectra can be realized in the MSSM. We then give a complete characterization of gauge mediation models realizing such spectra at low energies. The splitting between the slepton families is induced radiatively by the usual hierarchies in the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and hence, no new sources of flavour misalignment are introduced. We construct explicit weakly coupled messenger models which give rise to selectron NLSP, while accommodating a 126 GeV MSSM Higgs mass, both within the framework of General Gauge Mediation and in extensions where direct couplings between the messengers and the Higgs fields are present. In the latter class of models, large A-terms and relatively light stops can be achieved. The collider signatures of these models typically involve multilepton final states. We discuss the relevant LHC bounds and provide examples of models where the decay of the NLSP selectron is prompt, displaced or long-lived. The prompt case can be viewed as an ultraviolet completion of a simplified model recently considered by the CMS collaboration.

  19. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  20. Hydrological models are mediating models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  1. Computer-mediated focus groups.

    PubMed

    Walston, J T; Lissitz, R W

    2000-10-01

    This article discusses the feasibility and effectiveness of computer-mediated (CM) focus groups. The study describes technological and practical considerations the authors learned from conducting such groups and reports on a comparison of the reactions of CM and face-to-face (FTF) participants in focus groups discussing academic dishonesty. The results suggest that the CM environment, in comparison to FTF, may lessen members' concern about what the moderator thinks of them and discourage participants from withholding embarrassing information. The article concludes with a list of suggestions for this technique and a discussion of the potential advantages and limitations associated with CM focus groups. PMID:11183483

  2. The evolution of inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Andrew F.

    1996-01-01

    Invertebrates do not display the level of sophistication in immune reactivity characteristic of mammals and other ‘higher’ vertebrates. Their great number and diversity of forms, however, reflect their evolutionary success and hence they must have effective mechanisms of defence to deal with parasites and pathogens and altered self tissues. Inflammation appears to be an important first line defence in all invertebrates and vertebrates. This brief review deals with the inflammatory responses of invertebrates and fish concentrating on the cell types involved and the mediators of inflammation, in particular, eicosanoids, cytokines and adhesion molecules. PMID:18475690

  3. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as “plug-and-play” biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance. PMID:23613592

  4. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance. PMID:23613592

  5. Lipid mediators in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The implications of lipid lowering drugs in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy have been considered. At the same time, the clinical efficacy of lipid lowering drugs has resulted in improvement in the cardiovascular functions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with or without diabetes, but no remarkable improvement has been observed in the kidney outcome. Earlier lipid mediators have been shown to cause accumulative effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here, we attempt to analyze the involvement of lipid mediators in DN. The hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of diacyglycerol (DAG) is one of the causes for the activation of protein kinase C (PKCs), which is responsible for the activation of pathways, including the production of VEGF, TGFβ1, PAI-1, NADPH oxidases, and NFҟB signaling, accelerating the development of DN. Additionally, current studies on the role of ceramide are one of the major fields of study in DN. Researchers have reported excessive ceramide formation in the pathobiological conditions of DN. There is less report on the effect of lipid lowering drugs on the reduction of PKC activation and ceramide synthesis. Regulating PKC activation and ceramide biosynthesis could be a protective measure in the therapeutic potential of DN. Lipid lowering drugs also upregulate anti-fibrotic microRNAs, which could hint at the effects of lipid lowering drugs in DN. PMID:25206927

  6. [Progress in natural laccase mediators from lignocelluloses].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weihua; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Laccase is one of the most important oxidoreductase with industrialization potential. However, due to the high cost and catalytic toxicity of laccase synthetic mediator, the laccase-mediator-system still cannot achieve industrialization. Therefore, searching for high efficient, environment-friendly, and cheap natural mediator from small molecule precursors or intermediates and degradation products of lignin has been considered as a hot research topic. Therefore, we introduce the type and catalytic mechanism of laccase mediator, the composition and separation of natural laccase mediator from water washed solution of steam exploded straw, black liquor and lignocelluloses degradation products during the fermentation of white-rot fungi. We also provide the theoretical and technical direction for exploring of high reactive of laccase natural mediators and achieving the oriented high-value utilization of lignocellulose degradation products. PMID:25118396

  7. Head module control of mediator interactions.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yuichiro; Calero, Guillermo; Komori, Hirofumi; Brown, Jesse A; Ehrensberger, Andreas H; Hudmon, Andy; Asturias, Francisco; Kornberg, Roger D

    2006-08-01

    Yeast Mediator proteins interacting with Med17(Srb4) have been expressed at a high level with the use of recombinant baculoviruses and recovered in homogeneous form as a seven subunit, 223 kDa complex. Electron microscopy and single-particle analysis identify this complex as the Mediator head module. The recombinant head module complements "headless" Mediator for the initiation of transcription in vitro. The module interacts with an RNA polymerase II-TFIIF complex, but not with the polymerase or TFIIF alone. This interaction is lost in the presence of a DNA template and associated RNA transcript, recapitulating the release of Mediator that occurs upon the initiation of transcription. Disruption of the head module in a temperature-sensitive mutant in vivo leads to the release of middle and tail modules from a transcriptionally active promoter. The head module evidently controls Mediator-RNA polymerase II and Mediator-promoter interactions. PMID:16885025

  8. Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925

  9. Hyaluronan-mediated cellular adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Many cells surround themselves with a cushioning halo of polysaccharides that is further strengthened and organized by proteins. In fibroblasts and chrondrocytes, the primary component of this pericellular matrix is hyaluronan, a large linear polyanion. Hyaluronan production is linked to a variety of disease, developmental, and physiological processes. Cells manipulate the concentration of hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors for numerous activities including modulation of cell adhesion, cell motility, and differentiation. Recent investigations by identify hyaluronan's role in mediating early-stage cell adhesion. An open question is how the cell removes the 0.5-10 micron thick pericellular matrix to allow for further mature adhesion events requiring nanometer scale separations. In this investigation, holographic optical tweezers are used to study the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes' pericellular matrix. Ultimately, we aim to shed further light on the spatial and temporal details of the dramatic transition from micron to nanometer gaps between the cell and its adhesive substrate.

  10. Mediating consolation with suicidal patients.

    PubMed

    Gilje, Fredricka; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2007-07-01

    Psychiatric nurses frequently encounter suicidal patients. Caring for such patients often raises ethical questions and dilemmas. The research question for this study was: 'What understandings are revealed in texts about consolation and psychiatric nurses' responses to suicidal patients?' A Gadamerian approach guided re-interpretation of published texts. Through synthesizing four interpretive phases, a comprehensive interpretation emerged. This revealed being 'at home' with self, or an ethical way of being, as a hermeneutic understanding of a way to become ready to mediate consolation with suicidal patients. Trustworthiness was addressed by means of the qualities of auditability, credibility and confirmability. This re-interpretation adds to nursing knowledge, enhances understanding of previous research findings, provides pre-understanding for further research and reveals the value of hermeneutic inquiry in nursing. It also deepens understanding of a published model of consolation. These understandings may help to guide nurses who are struggling with suicidal patients. PMID:17562733

  11. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E.; Privé, Gilbert G.; Pomès, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein’s hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation. PMID:23466535

  12. RNA mediated assembly of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouge, Jessica Lynn

    The first chapter of this work presents a comprehensive look at RNA mediated nanoparticle formation. The overall goal of this research is to gain a deeper understanding of the RNA-particle formation mechanism and the basic properties of the materials selected by modified RNA molecules. Understanding such RNA-substrate interactions and how they translate into the physical and chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles they create are important fundamental concepts when considering these biotemplated materials as potential chemical catalysts. The RNA sequences discussed in the first chapter (referred to as Pdases) were discovered using RNA in vitro selection techniques. These Pdases were found to be capable of forming inorganic palladium (Pd) containing nanoparticles with impressive control over an individual particle's size and shape, despite incubation with the same organometallic precursor. This discovery held exciting implications for inorganic nanoparticle design while also generating numerous questions regarding the mechanism of RNA mediated particle growth. The central question that arose after this initial discovery was how could a biomolecule be used to tailor the physical size and shape of inorganic materials? Starting with a chemical proof designed to uncover the composition of the nanoparticles formed by RNA mediation, this chapter investigates the basic material properties of the nanoparticles while also introducing surprising results regarding the effect of multiple sequences on nanoparticle growth outcomes. In the second chapter, the experiments shift to developing methods to investigate nanoparticle growth mechanisms by fluorescence spectroscopy. A fluorescence polarization anisotropy (FPA) assay is presented in which the strengths of the technique are adapted for studying the formation of RNA mediated Pd nanoparticles in real time. This is a unique application of FPA, as it has been adapted to encompass both the biochemical and materials analysis

  13. Forms of Mediation: The Case of Interpreter-Mediated Interactions in Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the forms of mediation in interlinguistic interactions performed in Italian healthcare services and in contexts of migration. The literature encourages dialogic transformative mediation, empowering participants' voices and changing cultural presuppositions in social systems. It may be doubtful, however, whether mediation can…

  14. Tests of Mediation: Paradoxical Decline in Statistical Power as a Function of Mediator Collinearity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, T. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the correlation between the independent variable and the mediator ("a" coefficient) increases the effect size ("ab") for mediation analysis; however, increasing a by definition increases collinearity in mediation models. As a result, the standard error of product tests increase. The variance inflation caused by…

  15. Mediation Training for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conflict Resolution Unlimited, Inc., Bellevue, WA.

    Young people need help in learning how to use alternative dispute resolution skills at school. Methods for teaching these skills are presented in this manual. The training centers on the following major themes: The Mediation Process, Cultural Diversity, Communication Skills, Feelings, Mediation Techniques, Dealing with Difficult Situations, and…

  16. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: (a) Appellants have the right to seek mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution in... without resolution. If a new adverse decision that raises new matters or relies on different grounds is... in certified States that are not currently offering mediation on the subject in dispute. An...

  17. A General Approach to Causal Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Kosuke; Keele, Luke; Tingley, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally in the social sciences, causal mediation analysis has been formulated, understood, and implemented within the framework of linear structural equation models. We argue and demonstrate that this is problematic for 3 reasons: the lack of a general definition of causal mediation effects independent of a particular statistical model, the…

  18. On Mediation in Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Larry; Hassan, W. Shukry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses concepts of mediation and focuses on the importance of implementing comprehensive virtual learning environments. Topics include education and technology as they relate to cultural change, social institutions, the Internet and computer-mediated communication, software design and human-computer interaction, the use of MOOs, and language.…

  19. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES OF THE DEPARTMENTAL GRANT APPEALS BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that...

  20. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES OF THE DEPARTMENTAL GRANT APPEALS BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that...

  1. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES OF THE DEPARTMENTAL GRANT APPEALS BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that...

  2. Is Retrieval Mediated after Repeated Testing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kole, James A.; Healy, Alice F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2 main experiments, the mediated priming effect was used to determine whether retrieval continues to be mediated after repeated testing. In each experiment, participants used the keyword method to learn French vocabulary, then completed a modified lexical decision task in which they first translated a French word, and then made a lexical…

  3. A Mediation Strategy for Special Education Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Guy E.; Duff-Mallams, Karla

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the development of mediation as an alternative to litigation in resolving special education disputes. It describes the successes and challenges associated with special education mediation cases in Missouri prior to the 1997 IDEA amendments, which require such intervention, with an examination of four specific cases.…

  4. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be made after issuance of the adverse decision by the Agency and before the appellant has a NAD... have any balance of the days remaining in the 30-day period to appeal to NAD if mediation is concluded... issued as a result of mediation, the participant will have a new 30-day period for appeals to NAD. (e)...

  5. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be made after issuance of the adverse decision by the Agency and before the appellant has a NAD... have any balance of the days remaining in the 30-day period to appeal to NAD if mediation is concluded... issued as a result of mediation, the participant will have a new 30-day period for appeals to NAD. (e)...

  6. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be made after issuance of the adverse decision by the Agency and before the appellant has a NAD... have any balance of the days remaining in the 30-day period to appeal to NAD if mediation is concluded... issued as a result of mediation, the participant will have a new 30-day period for appeals to NAD. (e)...

  7. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be made after issuance of the adverse decision by the Agency and before the appellant has a NAD... have any balance of the days remaining in the 30-day period to appeal to NAD if mediation is concluded... issued as a result of mediation, the participant will have a new 30-day period for appeals to NAD. (e)...

  8. 45 CFR 617.10 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... the complainant and the recipient shall participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary... participate in the mediation process. (c) If the complainant and the recipient reach an agreement,...

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Mediated Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immersive virtual worlds are one of a range of different platforms that can be grouped under the concept of mediated environments, i.e. environments that create a metaphorical space in which participants can position themselves and be embodied. Synthesising the literatures concerning the various mediated environment technologies…

  10. Computer-Mediated Communication and Shared Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-mediated communication focuses on techniques developed to help groups of people communicate effectively, including cooperative learning, team building, groupware for cooperative work, decision support systems, organizational design, and shared learning. Implications for the design of computer-mediated communication systems…

  11. Que Es la Mediacion? (What Is Mediation?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), Eugene, OR.

    This brief paper, in Spanish, discusses the use of mediation as a method for resolving disagreements between schools or early intervention programs and parents of children with disabilities. It identifies benefits of mediation such as maintenance of an ongoing and positive relationship between the school and family, simple resolution of conflicts…

  12. State Mediation Systems. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

    This report presents an analysis of the results of a survey of State Directors of Special Education on their state mediation systems. It notes requirements under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that a mediation process must be available to parents desiring its use in conflict resolution. This report…

  13. Intercultural Conflict and Mediation: An Intergroup Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenfeld, Sara; Clement, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of components of intercultural competence in the use of intercultural mediation behaviors. Through the use of the Revised Intercultural Mediation Measure, an instrument revised by the authors, 291 Anglophone and 161 Francophone participants in Canada were asked to indicate their likelihood of employing various…

  14. Parent Mediation Empowers Sibling Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hildy S.; Lazinski, Marysia J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: For the current study, formal mediation procedures were adapted for families and parents were trained and asked to mediate their children's disputes; control group parents intervened as they normally would. Conflict negotiations with parents and their children (ages 3½-11 years) occurring 3 and 7 weeks following training,…

  15. Semiotic Mediation within an AT Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maracci, Mirko; Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    This article is meant to present a specific elaboration of the notion of mediation in relation to the use of artefacts to enhance mathematics teaching and learning: the elaboration offered by the Theory of Semiotic Mediation. In particular, it provides an explicit model--consistent with the activity-actions-operations framework--of the actions…

  16. Verbal Mediation and Satiation in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Harold; Smothergill, Daniel

    The study demonstrates: (1) the occurrence of verbal mediation with its facilitory effect, and (2) the interfering effect of verbal satiation on mediational processes in a three-state chaining paradigm. 40 preschool children were randomly assigned to either a control (no satiation) or an experimental (satiation) group. The subjects in the control…

  17. 45 CFR 617.10 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM NSF § 617.10 Mediation. (a) NSF will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that fall within... possible. NSF will take no further administrative action on any complaint if the complainant refuses...

  18. 45 CFR 617.10 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM NSF § 617.10 Mediation. (a) NSF will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that fall within... possible. NSF will take no further administrative action on any complaint if the complainant refuses...

  19. 45 CFR 617.10 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM NSF § 617.10 Mediation. (a) NSF will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that fall within... possible. NSF will take no further administrative action on any complaint if the complainant refuses...

  20. Integrating Mediators and Moderators in Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, David P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mediating variables and moderating variables and provide reasons for integrating them in outcome studies. Separate sections describe examples of moderating and mediating variables and the simplest statistical model for investigating each variable. The strengths and limitations of incorporating mediating…

  1. Sociocultural Theory and the Mediated Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the two theories that have contributed most to the development of the mediational approach to learning, Vygotskian sociocultural theory and Feuerstein's theory of Mediated Learning Experience. Both theories emphasize the importance of sociocultural forces in shaping a child's development and learning, and have generated a number of…

  2. Meta-data based mediator generation

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlaw, T

    1998-06-28

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse; they transform data from source formats to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. Failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the most current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. Unfortunately, this maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. This paper describes a meta-data framework, and associated software, designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting to schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  3. Causal Mediation Analyses for Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kevin G; Cary, Mark; Gallop, Robert; Ten Have, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    In the context of randomized intervention trials, we describe causal methods for analyzing how post-randomization factors constitute the process through which randomized baseline interventions act on outcomes. Traditionally, such mediation analyses have been undertaken with great caution, because they assume that the mediating factor is also randomly assigned to individuals in addition to the randomized baseline intervention (i.e., sequential ignorability). Because the mediating factors are typically not randomized, such analyses are unprotected from unmeasured confounders that may lead to biased inference. We review several causal approaches that attempt to reduce such bias without assuming that the mediating factor is randomized. However, these causal approaches require certain interaction assumptions that may be assessed if there is enough treatment heterogeneity with respect to the mediator. We describe available estimation procedures in the context of several examples from the literature and provide resources for software code. PMID:19484136

  4. Confounding in the Estimation of Mediation Effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, David A

    2007-03-01

    A mediation effect explains the relationship of a risk factor and an outcome through a mediator variable which is a step in their pathway. Under the assumption of no cycling in the causal relationship, we consider various situations in which a fourth variable may interfere the estimation of a mediation effect as a confounding factor. Our asymptotic results, which are supported by a Monte Carlo study, show that adjusting for confounding factors under certain conditions might lead to biased estimates. A general guideline is provided for when it is appropriate to adjust for confounding factors in estimating a mediation effect. We apply the guideline to the estimation of the mediation effect of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the relationship between the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cognitive function among 125 deceased participants from the Religious Orders Study, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17940582

  5. Confounding in the Estimation of Mediation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary A mediation effect explains the relationship of a risk factor and an outcome through a mediator variable which is a step in their pathway. Under the assumption of no cycling in the causal relationship, we consider various situations in which a fourth variable may interfere the estimation of a mediation effect as a confounding factor. Our asymptotic results, which are supported by a Monte Carlo study, show that adjusting for confounding factors under certain conditions might lead to biased estimates. A general guideline is provided for when it is appropriate to adjust for confounding factors in estimating a mediation effect. We apply the guideline to the estimation of the mediation effect of Alzheimer’s disease pathology in the relationship between the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cognitive function among 125 deceased participants from the Religious Orders Study, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic study of aging and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:17940582

  6. 7 CFR 785.5 - Fees for mediation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for mediation services. 785.5 Section 785.5... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS CERTIFIED STATE MEDIATION PROGRAM § 785.5 Fees for mediation services. A requirement that non-USDA parties who elect to participate in mediation pay a fee for mediation services...

  7. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated priming (e.g., "spoon" [right…

  8. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  9. Mediation: A Process That Works (Some Practical Thoughts for School Systems on Mediation of Special Education Disputes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Richard E.

    The paper examines the issues and process involved in mediation of special education disputes. Mediation is an informal, optional procedure that may save time, money, and emotional strain for both staff and parents. Issues should not be mediated if there is no willingness to accept the mediation decision. Mediation should begin after all efforts…

  10. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joao Paulo Mattos; Figueroa, Elizabeth Raquel; Drezek, Rebekah Anna

    2013-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy, where the goal is to activate or modulate the body’s immune response against cancer. However, current immunotherapy approaches exhibit limitations of safety and efficacy due to systemic delivery. In this context, the use of nanotechnology for the delivery of cancer vaccines and immune adjuvants presents a number of advantages such as targeted delivery to immune cells, enhanced therapeutic effect, and reduced adverse outcomes. Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been explored as immunotherapy carriers, creating new AuNP applications that merit a critical overview. This review highlights recent advances in the development of AuNP mediated immunotherapies that harness AuNP biodistribution, optical properties and their ability to deliver macromolecules such as peptides and oligonucleotides. It has been demonstrated that the use of AuNP carriers can improve the delivery and safety of immunotherapy agents, and that AuNP immunotherapies are well suited for synergistic combination therapy with existing cancer therapies like photothermal ablation. PMID:24103304

  11. Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a common soil bacterium, plays an active role in the formation of spheroidal vaterite. Bacterial production of CO 2 and NH 3 and the transformation of the NH 3 to NH4+ and OH -, thus increasing solution pH and carbonate alkalinity, set the physicochemical conditions (high supersaturation) leading to vaterite precipitation in the microenvironment around cells, and directly onto the surface of bacterial cells. In the latter case, fossilization of bacteria occurs. Vaterite crystals formed by aggregation of oriented nanocrystals with c-axis normal to the bacterial cell-wall, or to the core of the spherulite when bacteria were not encapsulated. While preferred orientation of vaterite c-axis appears to be determined by electrostatic affinity (ionotropic effect) between vaterite crystal (0001) planes and the negatively charged functional groups of organic molecules on the bacterium cell-wall or on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), analysis of the changes in the culture medium chemistry as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations point to polymorph selection by physicochemical (kinetic) factors (high supersaturation) and stabilization by organics, both connected with bacterial activity. The latter is in agreement with inorganic precipitation of vaterite induced by NH 3 and CO 2 addition in the protein-rich sterile culture medium. Our results as well as recent studies on vaterite precipitation in the presence of different types of bacteria suggest that bacterially mediated vaterite precipitation is not strain-specific, and could be more common than previously thought.

  12. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  13. Nucleotide-mediated airway clearance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas; Clunes, Lucy A; Salathe, Mathias; Verdugo, Pedro; Dietl, Paul; Davis, C William; Tarran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lines the entire surface of the lung and is the first point of contact between the lung and the environment. Surfactants contained within this layer are secreted in the alveolar region and are required to maintain a low surface tension and to prevent alveolar collapse. Mucins are secreted into the ASL throughout the respiratory tract and serve to intercept inhaled pathogens, allergens and toxins. Their removal by mucociliary clearance (MCC) is facilitated by cilia beating and hydration of the ASL by active ion transport. Throughout the lung, secretion, ion transport and cilia beating are under purinergic control. Pulmonary epithelia release ATP into the ASL which acts in an autocrine fashion on P2Y(2) (ATP) receptors. The enzymatic network describes in Chap. 2 then mounts a secondary wave of signaling by surface conversion of ATP into adenosine (ADO), which induces A(2B) (ADO) receptor-mediated responses. This chapter offers a comprehensive description of MCC and the extensive ramifications of the purinergic signaling network on pulmonary surfaces. PMID:21560046

  14. Immune-mediated disorders of cats.

    PubMed

    Werner, L L; Gorman, N T

    1984-09-01

    Immune-mediated disorders in cats share many clinical and pathologic similarities with their counterparts in other species. Cats, however, are unique among domestic animals owing to the involvement of feline leukemia virus. In addition, a number of other infectious organisms can produce immune-mediated sequelae--that is, FIP virus, FeSFV, and H. felis. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aims in the management of feline immune-mediated disorders must take into account the probability of a primary or underlying disease process. PMID:6149649

  15. Resistance Factor-Mediated Spectinomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David H.; Janjigian, J. A.; Prescott, Naomi; Anderson, Porter W.

    1970-01-01

    Of 100 natural isolates of drug-resistant enteric bacteria, 51 were resistant to spectinomycin (Spc) and 46 contained transferable R factors mediating Spc resistance. All SpcR R factors mediated streptomycin and bluensomycin resistance and were fi+ type. Extracts of R-SpcR strains adenylated Spc, dihydrospectinomycin, actinamine, streptomycin, and bluensomycin in vitro in the presence of adenosine triphosphate and Mg++. Results of genetic and biochemical studies support the hypothesis that these reactions are mediated by a single enzyme. PMID:16557684

  16. Gauge - Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking in String Compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Florea, Bogdan; Kachru, Shamit; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    We provide string theory examples where a toy model of a SUSY GUT or the MSSM is embedded in a compactification along with a gauge sector which dynamically breaks supersymmetry. We argue that by changing microscopic details of the model (such as precise choices of flux), one can arrange for the dominant mediation mechanism transmitting SUSY breaking to the Standard Model to be either gravity mediation or gauge mediation. Systematic improvement of such examples may lead to top-down models incorporating a solution to the SUSY flavor problem.

  17. kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of Drosophila Notch

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Toby; Kidd, Simon; Young, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    Loss of Kuzbanian, a member of the ADAM family of metalloproteases, produces neurogenic phenotypes in Drosophila. It has been suggested that this results from a requirement for kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of the Notch ligand Delta. Using transgenic Drosophila expressing transmembrane Notch proteins, we show that kuzbanian, independent of any role in Delta processing, is required for the cleavage of Notch. We show that Kuzbanian can physically associate with Notch and that removal of kuzbanian activity by RNA-mediated interference in Drosophila tissue culture cells eliminates processing of ligand-independent transmembrane Notch molecules. Our data suggest that in Drosophila, kuzbanian can mediate S2 cleavage of Notch. PMID:11799064

  18. Towards the natural gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ran; Li, Tianjun; Wang, Liucheng; Zhu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    The sweet spot supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the μ/ B μ problem in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) via the generalized Giudice-Masiero (GM) mechanism where only the μ-term and soft Higgs masses are generated at the unification scale of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) due to the approximate PQ symmetry. Because all the other SUSY breaking soft terms are generated via the GMSB below the GUT scale, there exists SUSY electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem to explain the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass due to small trilinear soft term. Thus, to explain the Higgs boson mass, we propose the GMSB with both the generalized GM mechanism and Higgs-messenger interactions. The renormalization group equations are runnings from the GUT scale down to EW scale. So the EW symmetry breaking can be realized easier. We can keep the gauge coupling unification and solution to the flavor problem in the GMSB, as well as solve the μ/ B μ -problem. Moreover, there are only five free parameters in our model. So we can determine the characteristic low energy spectra and explore its distinct phenomenology. The fine-tuning measure can be as low as 100. For some benchmark points, the stop mass can be as low as 1.7 TeV while the glunio mass is around 2.5 TeV. The gravitino dark matter can come from a thermal production with the correct relic density and be consistent with the thermal leptogenesis. Because gluino and stop can be relatively light in our model, how to search for such GMSB at the upcoming run II of the LHC experiment could be very interesting.

  19. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D.

    2009-07-01

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms.

  20. Confronting Conflict Peacefully: Peer Mediation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutrona, Cheryl; Guerin, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Suggests peer mediation as an alternative dispute resolution approach. Indicates the need to shift the focus from crisis intervention to prevention and to integrate dispute resolution skills into the school environment. (JOW)

  1. Upscaling of Bio-mediated Soil Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. DeJong; B. C. Martinez; B. M. Mortensen; D. C. Nelson; J. T. Waller; M. H. Weil; T. R. Ginn; T. Weathers; T. Barkouki; Y. Fujita; G. Redden; C. Hunt; D. Major; B. Tunyu

    2009-10-01

    As demand for soil improvement continues to increase, new, sustainable, and innocuous methods are needed to alter the mechanical properties of soils. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of bio-mediated soil improvement for geotechnical applications (DeJong et al. 2006, Whiffin et al. 2007). Upscaling the bio-mediated treatment process for in situ implementation presents a number of challenges to be addressed, including soil and pore fluid interactions, bioaugmentation versus biostimulation of microbial communities, controlled distribution of mediated calcite precipitation, and permanence of the cementation. Current studies are utilizing large-scale laboratory experiments, non-destructive geophysical measurements, and modeling, to develop an optimized and predictable bio-mediated treatment method.

  2. Molecular biology Mediating transcription and RNA export

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan D.; Taatjes, Dylan J.

    2016-01-01

    The finding that the Mediator protein complex contributes to messenger RNA export from the nucleus in yeast adds to a growing list of roles for the complex in regulating transcriptional processes. PMID:26450052

  3. Characterization of the Biomedical Query Mediation Process

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Gregory W.; Boland, Mary Regina; Cimino, James J.; Gao, Junfeng; Wilcox, Adam B.; Hirschberg, Julia; Weng, Chunhua

    To most medical researchers, databases are obscure black boxes. Query analysts are often indispensable guides aiding researchers to perform mediated data queries. However, this approach does not scale up and is time-consuming and expensive. We analyzed query mediation dialogues to inform future designs of intelligent query mediation systems. Thirty-one mediated query sessions for 22 research projects were recorded and transcribed. We analyzed 10 of these to develop an annotation schema for dialogue acts through iterative refinement. Three coders independently annotated all 3160 dialogue acts. We assessed the inter-rater agreement and resolved disagreement by group consensus. This study contributes early knowledge of the query negotiation space for medical research. We conclude that research data query formulation is not a straightforward translation from researcher data needs to database queries, but rather iterative, process-oriented needs assessment and refinement. PMID:24303242

  4. Selecting a model of supersymmetry breaking mediation

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, S. S.; Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, M. J.; Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.

    2009-08-01

    We study the problem of selecting between different mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model using current data. We evaluate the Bayesian evidence of four supersymmetry breaking scenarios: mSUGRA, mGMSB, mAMSB, and moduli mediation. The results show a strong dependence on the dark matter assumption. Using the inferred cosmological relic density as an upper bound, minimal anomaly mediation is at least moderately favored over the CMSSM. Our fits also indicate that evidence for a positive sign of the {mu} parameter is moderate at best. We present constraints on the anomaly and gauge mediated parameter spaces and some previously unexplored aspects of the dark matter phenomenology of the moduli mediation scenario. We use sparticle searches, indirect observables and dark matter observables in the global fit and quantify robustness with respect to prior choice. We quantify how much information is contained within each constraint.

  5. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately. PMID:22628155

  6. 34 CFR 303.419 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH... explain the benefits of the mediation process and encourage the parents to use the process. (Authority:...

  7. Extensible Ontological Modeling Framefork for Subject Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, L. A.; Skvortsov, N. A.

    An approach for extensible ontological model construction in a mediation environment intended for heterogeneous information sources integration in various subject domains is presented. A mediator ontological language (MOL) may depend on a subject domain and is to be defined at the mediator consolidation phase. On the other hand, for different information sources different ontological models (languages) can be used to define their own ontologies. Reversible mapping of the source ontological models into MOL is needed for information sources registration at the mediator. An approach for such reversible mapping is demonstrated for a class of the Web information sources. It is assumed that such sources apply the DAML+OIL ontological model. A subset of the hybrid object-oriented and semi-structured canonical mediator data model is used for the core of MOL. Construction of a reversible mapping of DAML+OIL into an extension of the core of MOL is presented in the paper. Such mapping is a necessary pre-requisite for contextualizing and registration of information sources at the mediator. The mapping shows how extensible MOL can be constructed. The approach proposed is oriented on digital libraries where retrieval is focused on information content, rather than on information entities.

  8. Mediators of transdiagnostic group cognitive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Talkovsky, Alexander M; Norton, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety is well established. Investigations into the mechanisms of change in CBT report changes in cognitive vulnerabilities mediating improvements over the course of treatment. As anxiety disorders share certain risk factors, there is a trend toward CBT emphasizing these vulnerabilities, including negative affectivity (NA) and also more specific constructs such as anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). The purpose of this investigation was to analyze potential mediators of anxiety reduction over the course of transdiagnostic group CBT. NA, AS, and IU all decreased over the course of treatment. Among the potential mediators, change in NA had a significant relationship with change in anxiety but change in AS and change in IU did not. Neither the main effect of primary diagnosis nor the interactions between potential mediators and primary diagnoses were significant, indicating that there were no differential changes in anxiety or the potential mediators across primary diagnoses. Results strongly point toward NA as an overarching mediator of anxiety reduction during transdiagnostic group CBT. PMID:25445082

  9. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

  10. Sharp sensitivity bounds for mediation under unmeasured mediator-outcome confounding

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Peng; Vanderweele, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    It is often of interest to decompose the total effect of an exposure into a component that acts on the outcome through some mediator and a component that acts independently through other pathways. Said another way, we are interested in the direct and indirect effects of the exposure on the outcome. Even if the exposure is randomly assigned, it is often infeasible to randomize the mediator, leaving the mediator-outcome confounding not fully controlled. We develop a sensitivity analysis technique that can bound the direct and indirect effects without parametric assumptions about the unmeasured mediator-outcome confounding.

  11. Estimating and Testing Mediation Effects with Censored Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated influences of censored data on mediation analysis. Mediation effect estimates can be biased and inefficient with censoring on any one of the input, mediation, and output variables. A Bayesian Tobit approach was introduced to estimate and test mediation effects with censored data. Simulation results showed that the Bayesian…

  12. 29 CFR 1403.4 - Assignment of mediators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of mediators. 1403.4 Section 1403.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.4 Assignment of mediators. The Federal Service will assign one or more mediators to each labor-management dispute in which it has...

  13. Mediation...An Alternative That Works. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albie

    A 5-part handbook provides elementary and secondary educators and community organizations with background information and resources for teaching mediation strategies. An introduction (part I) provides a rationale for mediation as a form of dispute resolution and for mediation programs in the schools. Part II seeks to define mediation by describing…

  14. 15 CFR 930.115 - Termination of mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of mediation. 930.115... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.115 Termination of mediation. Mediation shall terminate: (a) At any time the Federal and State agencies agree to...

  15. Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…

  16. 15 CFR 923.83 - Mediation of amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of amendments. 923.83... Programs § 923.83 Mediation of amendments. (a) Section 307(h)(2) of the Act provides for mediation of... management program. Accordingly mediation is available to states or federal agencies when a...

  17. Reducing Levels of Elementary School Violence with Peer Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Rita Cantrell; Parks-Savage, Agatha; Rehfuss, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an existing peer mediation program in a diverse, suburban elementary school was examined. Peer mediation was available to all students (N = 825). Three-year longitudinal data showed significant reductions in the school's out-of-school suspensions after implementation of the peer mediation program. Mediation training also…

  18. A State Space Modeling Approach to Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Mediation is a causal process that evolves over time. Thus, a study of mediation requires data collected throughout the process. However, most applications of mediation analysis use cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data. Another implicit assumption commonly made in longitudinal designs for mediation analysis is that the same mediation…

  19. Guidelines for the Investigation of Mediating Variables in Business Research

    PubMed Central

    Coxe, Stefany; Baraldi, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Business theories often specify the mediating mechanisms by which a predictor variable affects an outcome variable. In the last 30 years, investigations of mediating processes have become more widespread with corresponding developments in statistical methods to conduct these tests. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for mediation studies by focusing on decisions made prior to the research study that affect the clarity of conclusions from a mediation study, the statistical models for mediation analysis, and methods to improve interpretation of mediation results after the research study. Throughout this article, the importance of a program of experimental and observational research for investigating mediating mechanisms is emphasized. PMID:25237213

  20. POWER ANALYSIS FOR COMPLEX MEDIATIONAL DESIGNS USING MONTE CARLO METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Thoemmes, Felix; MacKinnon, David P.; Reiser, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Applied researchers often include mediation effects in applications of advanced methods such as latent variable models and linear growth curve models. Guidance on how to estimate statistical power to detect mediation for these models has not yet been addressed in the literature. We describe a general framework for power analyses for complex mediational models. The approach is based on the well known technique of generating a large number of samples in a Monte Carlo study, and estimating power as the percentage of cases in which an estimate of interest is significantly different from zero. Examples of power calculation for commonly used mediational models are provided. Power analyses for the single mediator, multiple mediators, three-path mediation, mediation with latent variables, moderated mediation, and mediation in longitudinal designs are described. Annotated sample syntax for Mplus is appended and tabled values of required sample sizes are shown for some models. PMID:23935262

  1. What Do Grievants Think of Grievance Mediation: A Riposte to "Counterpoint: Response to Mediator Caraway."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous article, Gordon A. Gregory and Mark Heinen criticized John M. Caraway's article describing recent successful experiences with the use of mediation in place of arbitration for failing to note the perception of the grievants. A reexamination of the data show that 80 percent of the grievants were satisfied with the mediation procedure.…

  2. A neural mediator of human anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ben J; Fullana, Miquel A; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Via, Esther; Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Tinoco-Gonzalez, Daniella; Davey, Christopher G; López-Solà, Marina; Pérez Sola, Victor; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís

    2015-10-01

    Advances in the neuroscientific understanding of bodily autonomic awareness, or interoception, have led to the hypothesis that human trait anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of bodily autonomic arousal-is primarily mediated by the anterior insular cortex. Despite broad appeal, few experimental studies have comprehensively addressed this hypothesis. We recruited 55 individuals exhibiting a range of AS and assessed them with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during aversive fear conditioning. For each participant, three primary measures of interest were derived: a trait Anxiety Sensitivity Index score; an in-scanner rating of elevated bodily anxiety sensations during fear conditioning; and a corresponding estimate of whole-brain functional activation to the conditioned versus nonconditioned stimuli. Using a voxel-wise mediation analysis framework, we formally tested for 'neural mediators' of the predicted association between trait AS score and in-scanner anxiety sensations during fear conditioning. Contrary to the anterior insular hypothesis, no evidence of significant mediation was observed for this brain region, which was instead linked to perceived anxiety sensations independently from AS. Evidence for significant mediation was obtained for the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex-a finding that we argue is more consistent with the hypothesized role of human cingulofrontal cortex in conscious threat appraisal processes, including threat-overestimation. This study offers an important neurobiological validation of the AS construct and identifies a specific neural substrate that may underlie high AS clinical phenotypes, including but not limited to panic disorder. PMID:26147233

  3. Architecture of the Mediator head module.

    PubMed

    Imasaki, Tsuyoshi; Calero, Guillermo; Cai, Gang; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Yamada, Kentaro; Cardelli, Francesco; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Berger, Imre; Kornberg, Guy Lorch; Asturias, Francisco J; Kornberg, Roger D; Takagi, Yuichiro

    2011-07-14

    Mediator is a key regulator of eukaryotic transcription, connecting activators and repressors bound to regulatory DNA elements with RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator comprises 25 subunits with a total mass of more than one megadalton (refs 5, 6) and is organized into three modules, called head, middle/arm and tail. Our understanding of Mediator assembly and its role in regulating transcription has been impeded so far by limited structural information. Here we report the crystal structure of the essential Mediator head module (seven subunits, with a mass of 223 kilodaltons) at a resolution of 4.3 ångströms. Our structure reveals three distinct domains, with the integrity of the complex centred on a bundle of ten helices from five different head subunits. An intricate pattern of interactions within this helical bundle ensures the stable assembly of the head subunits and provides the binding sites for general transcription factors and Pol II. Our structural and functional data suggest that the head module juxtaposes transcription factor IIH and the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of Pol II, thereby facilitating phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of Pol II. Our results reveal architectural principles underlying the role of Mediator in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21725323

  4. Light mediators in dark matter direct detections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tai; Miao, Sen; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2015-03-17

    In an extended effective operator framework, we investigate in detail the effects of light mediators on the event spectra of dark matter (DM)-nucleus scatterings. The presence of light mediators changes the interpretation of the current experimental data, especially the determination of DM particle mass. We show by analytic and numerical illustrations that in general for all the operators relevant to spin-independent scatterings, the DM particle mass allowed by a given set of experimental data increases significantly when the mediator particle becomes lighter. For instance, in the case of CDMS-II-Si experiment, the allowed DM particle mass can reach ∼50 (100) GeV at 68% (90%) confidence level, which is much larger than ∼10 GeV in the case with contact interactions. The increase of DM particle mass saturates when the mediator mass is below O(10) MeV. The upper limits from other experiments such as SuperCDMS, CDMSlite, CDEX, XENON10/100, LUX, PandaX etc. all tend to be weaker toward high DM mass regions. In a combined analysis, we show that the presence of light mediators can partially relax the tension in the current results of CDMS-II-Si, SuperCDMS and LUX.

  5. Surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    This article describes, analyzes, and advocates for management of clinical healthcare conflict by a process commonly referred to as bioethics mediation. Section I provides a brief introduction to classical mediation outside the realm of clinical healthcare. Section II highlights certain distinguishing characteristics of bioethics mediation. Section III chronicles the history of bioethics mediation and references a number of seminal writings on the subject. Finally, Section IV analyzes barriers that have, thus far, limited the widespread implementation of bioethics mediation. PMID:23631331

  6. mitochondrial pathway for biosynthesis of lipid mediators

    PubMed Central

    Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Jiang, Jianfei; Anthonymuthu, Tamil Selvan; Kapralova, Valentina I.; Vikulina, Anna S.; Jung, Mi-Yeon; Epperly, Michael W.; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Jackson, Travis C.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Vladimirov, Yury A.; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2014-01-01

    The central role of mitochondria in metabolic pathways and in cell death mechanisms requires sophisticated signaling systems. Essential in this signaling process is an array of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the molecular machinery for the production of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids is localized in the cytosol and their biosynthesis has not been identified in mitochondria. Here we report that a range of diversified polyunsaturated molecular species derived from a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, are oxidized by the intermembrane space hemoprotein, cytochrome c. We show that an assortment of oxygenated cardiolipin species undergoes phospholipase A2-catalyzed hydrolysis thus generating multiple oxygenated fatty acids, including well known lipid mediators. This represents a new biosynthetic pathway for lipid mediators. We demonstrate that this pathway including oxidation of polyunsaturated cardiolipins and accumulation of their hydrolysis products – oxygenated linoleic, arachidonic acids and monolyso-cardiolipins – is activated in vivo after acute tissue injury. PMID:24848241

  7. Intercellular Lipid Mediators and GPCR Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Im, Dong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest superfamily of receptors responsible for signaling between cells and tissues, and because they play important physiological roles in homeostasis, they are major drug targets. New technologies have been developed for the identification of new ligands, new GPCR functions, and for drug discovery purposes. In particular, intercellular lipid mediators, such as, lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate have attracted much attention for drug discovery and this has resulted in the development of fingolimod (FTY-720) and AM095. The discovery of new intercellular lipid mediators and their GPCRs are discussed from the perspective of drug development. Lipid GPCRs for lysophospholipids, including lysophosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives, and other lipid mediators are reviewed. PMID:24404331

  8. Tau pathology-mediated presynaptic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moreno, H; Morfini, G; Buitrago, L; Ujlaki, G; Choi, S; Yu, E; Moreira, J E; Avila, J; Brady, S T; Pant, H; Sugimori, M; Llinás, R R

    2016-06-14

    Brain tauopathies are characterized by abnormal processing of tau protein. While somatodendritic tau mislocalization has attracted considerable attention in tauopathies, the role of tau pathology in axonal transport, connectivity and related dysfunctions remains obscure. We have previously shown using the squid giant synapse that presynaptic microinjection of recombinant human tau protein (htau42) results in failure of synaptic transmission. Here, we evaluated molecular mechanisms mediating this effect. Thus, the initial event, observed after htau42 presynaptic injection, was an increase in transmitter release. This event was mediated by calcium release from intracellular stores and was followed by a reduction in evoked transmitter release. The effect of htau42 on synaptic transmission was recapitulated by a peptide comprising the phosphatase-activating domain of tau, suggesting activation of phosphotransferases. Accordingly, findings indicated that htau42-mediated toxicity involves the activities of both GSK3 and Cdk5 kinases. PMID:27012611

  9. Antibody-Mediated Lung Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Hachem, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation remains enigmatic. However, emerging evidence over the past several years suggests that humoral immunity plays an important role in allograft rejection. Indeed, the development of donor-specific antibodies after transplantation has been identified as an independent risk factor for acute cellular rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Furthermore, cases of acute antibody-mediated rejection resulting in severe allograft dysfunction have been reported, and these demonstrate that antibodies can directly injure the allograft. However, the incidence and toll of antibody-mediated rejection are unknown because there is no widely accepted definition and some cases may be unrecognized. Clearly, humoral immunity has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:23002428

  10. Mediator kinase module and human tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alison D.; Oldenbroek, Marieke; Boyer, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit “kinase” module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26182352