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1

Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are

Allen N. Garroway; M. L. Buess; J. P. Yesinowski; J. B. Miller; Ronald A. Krauss

1994-01-01

2

Quadrupole coupling parameters and structural aspects of crystalline and amorphous solids by NMR and NQR  

SciTech Connect

NMR and NQR techniques were combined to obtain the quadrupole coupling constant (Qcc) and asymmetry parameter ({eta}) and extract structural information for several borate, gallate, and metavanadate compounds and glasses. {sup 71}Ga and {sup 69}Ga NMR was used to study crystalline {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and several gallate glasses. Quadrupole parameters were acquired for GaO{sub 6} and GaO{sub 4} units in {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} by the computer simulation of the NMR powder patterns. A sensitive CW NQR spectrometer was built to detect NQR resonances below 2 MHz. The spectrometer includes a modified Robinson oscillator-detector, a new bi-symmetric square wave Zeeman modulator and a computerized data acquisition system. {sup 51}V (I = 7/2) NQR resonances below 850 kHz were detected for several metavanadates at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Two methods, Zeeman perturbed NQR powder pattern and {sup 10}B NQR, can be employed to obtain both Qcc and {eta}. With a double coil tank circuit design, pure {sup 11}B NQR was used to determine the fraction of borons in BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} configurations in hydrated zinc borates. {sup 11}B NMR and NQR were also used to study lead borate glasses.

Mao, Degen.

1991-01-01

3

Nuclear quadrupole resonances in compact vapor cells: the crossover from the NMR to the NQR interaction regimes  

E-print Network

We present the first experimental study that maps the transformation of nuclear quadrupole resonances from the pure nuclear quadrupole regime to the quadrupole-perturbed Zeeman regime. The transformation presents an interesting quantum-mechanical problem, since the quantization axis changes from being aligned along the axis of the electric-field gradient tensor to being aligned along the magnetic field. We achieve large nuclear quadrupole shifts for I = 3/2 131-Xe by using a 1 mm^3 cubic cell with walls of different materials. When the magnetic and quadrupolar interactions are of comparable size, perturbation theory is not suitable for calculating the transition energies. Rather than use perturbation theory, we compare our data to theoretical calculations using a Liouvillian approach and find excellent agreement.

E. A. Donley; J. L. Long; T. C. Liebisch; E. R. Hodby; T. A. Fisher; J. Kitching

2008-10-21

4

Nuclear electric quadrupole moment of 9Li using zero-field ?-detected NQR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ?-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrometer becomes a powerful tool to study changes in nuclear ground-state properties along isotopic chains when coupled to a laser excitation beamline to polarize the nuclei of interest. Recently, the ?-NQR technique in a zero magnetic field has been applied for the first time to measure the ratio of static nuclear quadrupole moments of 8, 9Li, Q9/Q8 = 0.966 75(9) denoted by Q8 for 8Li and Q9 for 9Li, respectively. This shows agreement with present literature values but with significantly improved precision. Based on the literature, the quadrupole moment for 8Li has been re-evaluated to be |Q8| = 32.6(5) mb. From this, the quadrupole moment for 9Li is calculated as |Q9| = 31.5(5) mb with the error being dominated by the error of Q8.

Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

2011-07-01

5

New technologies: nuclear quadrupole resonance as an explosive and narcotic detection technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities of detecting nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals in explosives and drugs are considered. Direct and indirect NQR techniques for searching substances are described and the potentialities of various experimental methods are compared.

Vadim S Grechishkin; Nikolai Ya Sinyavskii

1997-01-01

6

Structure-activity study of thiazides by magnetic resonance methods (NQR, NMR, EPR) and DFT calculations.  

PubMed

The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the electronic structure of thiazides and their biological activity. The compounds of interest were studied in solid state by the resonance methods nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and quantum chemistry (ab inito and DFT) methods. Detailed parallel analysis of the spectroscopic parameters such as quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) NQR chemical shift (delta), chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), asymmetry parameter (eta), NMR and hyperfine coupling constant (A), EPR was performed and the electronic effects (polarisation and delocalisation) were revealed and compared. Biological activity of thiazides has been found to depend on many factors, but mainly on the physico-chemical properties whose assessment was possible on the basis of electron density determination in the molecules performed by experimental and theoretical methods. PMID:15670953

Latosi?ska, J N

2005-01-01

7

Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

Black, B.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01

8

Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure nuclear quadrupole resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are

Allen N. Garroway; M. L. Buess; J. P. Yesinowski; J. B. Miller

1994-01-01

9

Detection of RDX and TNT mine like targets by nuclear quadrupole resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is being researched in order to confirm the presence of explosives as part of landmine sensor suites for the UK MOD hand held and vehicle mounted detection applied research programs. A low power NQR system has been developed as a non-contacting, but short range, detection method for explosives typically found in landmines. The results of stand-off

Robert M. Deas; Ian A. Burch; Daniel M. Port

2002-01-01

10

The two-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance for explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of14N nuclei is described for purposes of explosives detection. Two applications are known: two-frequency NQR for increasing the\\u000a signal intensity, two-frequency NQR for improved reliability of explosives detection. The two-frequency experiments were carried\\u000a out in hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine C3H6N6O6 and sodium nitrite NaNO2 as a substitute for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocycine C4H8N8O8. The two-frequency sequences for NQR are proposed

G. V. Mozjoukhine

2000-01-01

11

Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID  

SciTech Connect

Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

Chang, J.W.

1991-07-01

12

Subfemtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance  

E-print Network

Subfemtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance S 20 November 2006 A radio-frequency tunable atomic magnetometer is developed for detection of nuclearHz 14 N NQR frequency of ammonium nitrate. A potential application of the magnetometer is detection

Romalis, Mike

13

The development of pure ?-NQR techniques for measurements of nuclear ground state quadrupole moments in lithium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ?-NQR spectrometer becomes a powerful tool to study changes in nuclear ground state properties along isotopic chains when coupled to a laser excitation beamline to polarise the nuclei of interest. Recently, the ?-NQR technique in a zero magnetic field has been applied for the first-time to measure ratios of static nuclear quadrupole moments of, Li. Preliminary results of the experiment determining the ratios Q9/Q8 and Q11/Q9 show agreement with present literature values with improved precision.

Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

2011-09-01

14

Sensing of chemical substances using SQUID-based nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a high- Tc radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with a normal metal transformer, we successfully detected the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at about 888 kHz of 14N in p-nitrotoluene (PNT) at room temperature. Only one coil was used as the resonator coil for the transmission and the pickup coil of the transformer. To reduce the influence of the strong excitation field, cross diodes and switches were inserted in the transformer. The signal-to-noise ratio of the NQR spectrum using high- Tc rf SQUID system was comparable to that of using a low noise preamplifier.

Tachiki, M.; He, D. F.; Itozaki, H.

2007-10-01

15

Landmine detection using feedback NQR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is well suited for detecting land mines with non-metallic cases. It provides both spatial localization and chemical identification of explosives. A search coil produces a train of radio frequency (RF) magnetic pulses that perturb the orientation of nitrogen nuclei contained within the explosive material. Following each RF pulse, the nuclei rotate back to orientations of lower

Andrew J. Blauch; Jeffrey L. Schiano; Mark D. Ginsberg

1999-01-01

16

14N nuclear quadrupole resonance of p-nitrotoluene using a high-Tc rf SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a high-Tc radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID), we successfully detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at about 887 kHz for 14N in p-nitrotoluene (PNT). A normal metal transformer made of copper wire was used to improve the sensitivity of the high-Tc rf SQUID and pulse-controlled rf switches and cross diodes were inserted in the transformer to reduce the influence of the strong excitation field. The preliminary results for NQR detection using the high-Tc SQUID had a similar signal-to-noise ratio to that of using a low noise preamplifier.

He, D. F.; Tachiki, M.; Itozaki, H.

2007-03-01

17

Nuclear quadrupole resonance of explosives: Simultaneous detection of RDX and PETN in semtex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) for the detection of14N in explosives and introduce a new method for the simultaneous detection of the explosives cyclotrimethylene trinitramine\\u000a (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). We have developed an interleaved pulse sequence, which provides efficient excitation\\u000a of both RDX and PETN, to drive a solenoid coil that is doubly resonant at 3.41 and

R. I. Jenkinson; J. M. Bradley; G. N. Shilstone

2004-01-01

18

Weak itinerant antiferromagnetism in PuIn3 explored using 115In nuclear quadrupole resonance.  

PubMed

The results of (115)In nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements on PuIn3 are reported. Three of the four NQR lines of (115)In expected for nuclear spin I = 9/2 are observed. The equal spacing of these lines at 20 K yields the NQR frequency of ?Q = 10.45 MHz, and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient ? = 0. The NQR line profile and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 display an abrupt change at 14 K, which is associated with the onset of long-range antiferromagnetic order. The temperature dependences of the staggered magnetization MQ(T), extracted from the NQR spectra, and 1/T1 below TN = 14 K are well explained by the self-consistent renormalization (SCR) theory for spin fluctuations. In addition, the scaling between T1T and MQ(T)/MQ(0) is also consistent with the predictions of SCR theory, providing further evidence that PuIn3 is a weak itinerant antiferromagnet in which spin fluctuations around the antiferromagnetic wavevector play a major role in the system's behavior at finite temperatures. PMID:24334529

Chudo, H; Koutroulakis, G; Yasuoka, H; Bauer, E D; Tobash, P H; Mitchell, J N; Thompson, J D

2014-01-22

19

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Nitrogen Mustards and Local Anesthetics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density matrix description of pulsed nitrogen -14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echoes is presented. The parallel between this problem, when formulated in terms of the fictitious spin- 1/2 operators, and that of spin - 1/2 NMR spin-echoes in liquids is discussed along with the complications which arise in multiple-pulse NQR experiments in powders due to the random orientation of the electric field gradient tensors. The equipment and procedures involved in searching for, detecting and identifying NQR resonances using pulsed techniques are described. The ('14)N NQR spectra of several nitrogen mustard compounds in the solid state are reported and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. For the aniline derivatives, a correlation exists between l -(sigma), l being the nitrogen lone-pair electron density and (sigma) the average N-C sigma bond electron density, and the enhanced Hammett sigma constant (sigma)('-). An improved correlation is obtained between l-(sigma) and (sigma)(,R)('-), which emphasizes the importance of resonance effects in determining l-(sigma). The increase of hydrolysis and alkylation rates with increasing values of l-(sigma) is in agreement with the identification of the cyclic immonium ion as the intermediate in the hydrolysis and alkylation processes of the aromatic nitrogen mustards. A possible correlation is noted between the ('35)Cl NQR spectra for some of the mustards and measures of toxic and antitumor activity. ('14)N NQR spectra for several local anesthetics in the solid state are also reported and analyzed using the Townes and Dailey approach. The changes in the electron distributions at various nitrogen sites, produced by protonating the tertiary amino nitrogen, are discussed and shown to be in general agreement with expectations bases on the increased electrophilic character of the protonated amino group.

Buess, Michael Lee

20

Investigation of structural information for boron-rich solids and aluminates via NMR and NQR studies  

SciTech Connect

Along with NMR, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has become important recently for obtaining structural information from oxide glasses. The NQR studies prove in this thesis that they provide more accurate structural information than the NMR studies have done. This study presents boron and aluminum NMR, and NQR studies for some borate glasses and compounds, icosahedral boron-rich solids, some crystalline aluminosilicates. Various borates were employed to acquire structural information as well as to determine the quadrupole parameters (the quadrupole coupling constant Qcc and the asymmetry parameter {eta}) using NQR under a guidance of NMR or vice versa. By NQR a previously unknown boron site was observed for vitreous Li{sub 2}O{center dot}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The NMR and NQR studies were performed on some icosachedral boron-rich solids: {alpha}-rhombohedral boron (B{sub 12}), {beta}-boron (B{sub 105}) and boron carbide (B{sub 12}C{sub 3}). Three different forms of crystalline aluminosilicate (Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) were studied by NQR. The NQR study yielded more accurate values of the quadrupole parameters for {sup 27}Al than the previous NMR single crystal study did.

Lee, D.

1991-01-01

21

Rabi and Larmor nuclear quadrupole double resonance of spin-1 nuclei.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the creation of two novel double-resonance conditions between spin-1 and spin-1/2 nuclei in a crystalline solid. Using a magnetic field oscillating at the spin-1/2 Larmor frequency, the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency is matched to the Rabi or Rabi plus Larmor frequency, as opposed to the Larmor frequency as is conventionally done. We derive expressions for the cross-polarization rate for all three conditions in terms of the relevant secular dipolar Hamiltonian, and demonstrate with these expressions how to measure the strength of the heterogenous dipolar coupling using only low magnetic fields. In addition, the combination of different resonance conditions permits the measurement of the spin-1/2 angular momentum vector using spin-1 NQR, opening up an alternate modality for the monitoring of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. We use ammonium nitrate to explore these resonance conditions, and furthermore use the oscillating field to increase the signal-to-noise ratio per time by a factor of 3.5 for NQR detection of this substance. PMID:23231223

Prescott, D W; Malone, M W; Douglass, S P; Sauer, K L

2012-12-01

22

? -detected nuclear quadrupole resonance with a low-energy beam of 8Li+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of Li8 has been observed in a single crystal of SrTiO3 using a beam of low-energy highly polarized radioactive Li+8 . The resonances were detected by monitoring the ? -decay anisotropy as a function of a small audio frequency magnetic field. These results demonstrate that low energy nuclear spin polarized Li8 can be used as a sensitive probe of the local magnetic and electronic environment in nanostructures and ultrathin films in zero static applied magnetic field.

Salman, Z.; Reynard, E. P.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Chow, K. H.; Chakhalian, J.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Daviel, S.; Levy, C. D. P.; Poutissou, R.; Kiefl, R. F.

2004-09-01

23

A study of the semiconductor compound ?uAlO2 by the method of nuclear quadrupole resonance of Cu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of nuclear quadrupole resonance of Cu (NQR Cu) is used to study the samples of a semiconductor compound CuAlO2. The crystal structure of CuAlO2 belongs to the family of delafossite - the mineral of a basic CuFeO2 structure. Transparent semiconductor oxides, such as CuAlO2, have attracted recent attention as promising thermoelectric materials.

Matukhin, V. L.; Khabibulin, I. Kh.; Shul'gin, D. A.; Smidt, S. V.

2012-07-01

24

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies of Charge Distributions in Molecular Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description of an NMR-NQR double resonance spectrometer designed and constructed in this laboratory is given, including some instruction on its use. ('14)N NQR data obtained by pulse methods for six classes of nitrogen-containing compounds are presented and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. A study of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide, isophosphamide and triphosphamide suggests

Steven Garry Greenbaum

1982-01-01

25

Direct current superconducting quantum interference device spectrometer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance at frequencies up to 5 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrometer based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed for the direct detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at frequencies up to 5 MHz. The sample is coupled to the input coil of the niobium-based SQUID via a nonresonant superconducting circuit. The flux locked loop involves the direct offset integration technique with additional positive feedback in which the output of the SQUID is coupled directly to a low-noise preamplifier. Precession of the nuclear quadrupole spins is induced by a magnetic field pulse with the feedback circuit disabled; subsequently, flux locked operation is restored and the SQUID amplifies the signal produced by the nuclear free induction signal. The spectrometer has been used to detect 27Al NQR signals in ruby (Al2O3[Cr3+]) at 359 and 714 kHz.

TonThat, Dinh M.; Clarke, John

1996-08-01

26

Noise-resilient multi-frequency surface sensor for nuclear quadrupole resonance.  

PubMed

A planar nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) sensor has been developed. The sensor is resilient to environmental noise and is capable of simultaneous independent multi-frequency operation. The device was constructed as an open multimodal birdcage structure, in which the higher modes, generally not used in magnetic resonance, are utilized for NQR detection. These modes have smooth distributions of the amplitudes of the corresponding radiofrequency magnetic fields everywhere along the sensor's surface. The phases of the fields, on the other hand, are cyclically shifted across the sensor's surface. Noise signals coming from distant sources, therefore, induce equal-magnitude cyclically phase-shifted currents in different parts of the sensor. When such cyclically phase-shifted currents arrive at the mode connection point, they destructively interfere with each other and are cancelled out. NQR signals of polycrystalline or disordered substances, however, are efficiently detected by these modes because they are insensitive to the phases of the excitation/detection. No blind spots exist along the sensor's surface. The sensor can be used for simultaneous detection of one or more substances in locations with environmental noise. PMID:18667343

Peshkovsky, A S; Cattena, C J; Cerioni, L M; Osán, T M; Forguez, J G; Peresson, W J; Pusiol, D J

2008-10-01

27

Phase diagram in bilayered-hydrate NaxCoO2·yH2O revealed by Co nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements in various bilayered-hydrate (BLH) NaxCoO2·yH2O compounds, showing superconducting (SC) and non-SC characteristics. A weak magnetic order was found in a BLH sample with a longer c-axis lattice parameter. We also found that the NQR frequency ?Q arising from the ±{7}/{2}?±{5}/{2} transition is related to the ground state of this system. A phase diagram is developed, in which the superconducting and magnetic-order temperature Tc and TM are plotted with respect to ?Q.

Ishida, K.; Ihara, Y.; Takeya, H.; Michioka, C.; Yoshimura, K.; Takada, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

2006-05-01

28

Giant Quadrupole-Resonance in Ni Isotopes  

E-print Network

Inelastic scattering of 129 MeV alpha particles has been used to excite the giant quadrupole resonance in Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-62, Ni-64. The resonance was found to exhaust 58 +/- 12%, 76 +/- 14%, 78 +/- 14%, and 90 +/-16% of the E2 energy-weighted sum...

Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Garg, U.; Peterson, R. J.

1992-01-01

29

High precision measurement of the 11Li and 9Li quadrupole moment ratio using zero-field ?-NQR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio of electric quadrupole moments of 11Li and 9Li was measured using the zero-field ?-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance technique at Triumf-Isac. The precision on the ratio Q11/Q9 = 1.0775(12) was improved by more than one order of magnitude and an absolute value for the quadrupole moment of 11Li was inferred. Systematic effects, as argued here, are not expected to contribute to the ratio on this scale. The zero-field spin-lattice relaxation time for 8Li implanted within SrTiO3 at 295?K in zero-field was found to be T1 = 1.73(2)?s. A comparison of the quadrupole moments of 9, 11Li and their ratio is made with the latest models, however, no conclusion may yet be drawn owing to the size of the theoretical uncertainties.

Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J. E.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Shelbaya, O. T. J.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

2014-01-01

30

Variable-Pitch Rectangular Cross-section Radiofrequency Coils for the Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Investigation of Sealed Medicines Packets  

PubMed Central

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from 14N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

2012-01-01

31

Variable-pitch rectangular cross-section radiofrequency coils for the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance investigation of sealed medicines packets.  

PubMed

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S

2012-11-01

32

Local electric state of noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C revealed by Mo NQR and NMR experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements were performed on a noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C to investigate the local electronic state at Mo nuclei, which carries the electrons responsible for superconductivity. The NQR frequency, which is linked to the electric field gradient at Mo site, was determined from 95Mo NMR spectrum and the result was verified by the independent 97Mo NQR measurement. The experimentally obtained value is compared to the result of a point charge calculation to extract the EFG induced by conduction electrons and reveal the local electronic state.

Ihara, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Kumagai, K.; Bauer, E.; Rogl, G.; Rogl, P.

2012-12-01

33

Rapid detection of arsenic minerals using portable broadband NQR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

remote real-time detection of specific arsenic species would significantly benefit in minerals processing to mitigate the release of arsenic into aquatic environments and aid in selective mining. At present, there are no technologies available to detect arsenic minerals in bulk volumes outside of laboratories. Here we report on the first room-temperature broadband 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detection of common and abundant arsenic ores in the Earth crust using a large sample (0.78 L) volume prototype sensor. Broadband excitation aids in detection of natural minerals with low crystallinity. We briefly discuss how the proposed NQR detector could be employed in mining operations.

Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Miljak, D. G.; O'Dell, L. A.; Yong, R.; Bastow, T. J.

2014-10-01

34

Structure and transport properties of stephanite (Ag5SbS4) according to antimony nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver sulfo-antimonide Ag5SbS4 (stephanite) has been studied by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy on antimony nuclei. The temperature dependences of the spectroscopic and relaxation parameters have been examined in the range of 4.2-395 K. A phase transition at 140 K and internal motions with an activation energy of 0.29 eV have been experimentally detected. The nature of the phase transition and diffusion of silver ions has been discussed in view of the reported data.

Orlova, A. Yu.; Gainov, R. R.; Dooglav, A. V.; Pen'kov, I. N.; Korolev, E. A.

2012-11-01

35

Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies in semi-metallic structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented on spectrum analysis of nuclear quadrupole resonance of antimony and arsenic tellurides. Numerical solutions for secular equations of the quadrupole interaction energy are also discussed.

Murty, A. N.

1974-01-01

36

Staggered magnetization in La2-xSrxCuO4 from 139La NQR and muSR: Effects of Sr doping in the range 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used 139La nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and positive muon spin rotation (muSR) measurements to probe the weakly doped antiferromagnetic (AF) region (x<0.02) of the La2-xSrxCuO4 system below the three-dimensional (3D) AF ordering (Néel) temperature TN(x). From these measurements, our previous 139La NQR measurements [F. C. Chou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2323, (1993)], and auxiliary 139La nuclear

F. Borsa; P. Carreta; J. H. Cho; F. C. Chou; Q. Hu; D. C. Johnston; A. Lascialfari; D. R. Torgeson; R. J. Gooding; N. M. Salem; K. J. E. Vos

1995-01-01

37

59Co Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies of Superconducting and Nonsuperconducting Bilayer Water Intercalated Sodium Cobalt Oxides NaxCoO2\\cdotyH2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies of bilayer water intercalated sodium cobalt oxides NaxCoO2\\cdotyH2O (BLH) with the superconducting transition temperatures, 2 K < Tc ? 4.6 K, as well as a magnetic BLH sample without superconductivity. We obtained a magnetic phase diagram of Tc and the magnetic ordering temperature TM against the peak frequency ?3 of the 59Co NQR transition Iz = ± 5/2 ?ftrightarrow ± 7/2 and found a dome-shaped superconducting phase. The 59Co NQR spectrum of the nonsuperconducting BLH shows a broadening below TM without the critical divergence of 1/T1 or 1/T2, suggesting an unconventional magnetic ordering. The degree of enhancement of 1/T1T at low temperatures increases with the increase of ?3 though the optimal ?3 of approximately 12.30 MHz. In the NaxCoO2\\cdotyH2O system, the optimal-Tc superconductivity emerges close to the magnetic instability. Tc is suppressed near the phase boundary at ?3 ˜ 12.50 MHz, which is not a conventional magnetic quantum critical point.

Michioka, C.; Ohta, H.; Itoh, Y.; Yoshimura, K.

2006-06-01

38

Nondestructive testing of adhesive bonds by nuclear quadrupole resonance method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inert, strain sensitive tracer, cuprous oxide, added to polymeric adhesive ensures sufficiently large signal to noise ratio in NQR system output. Method is successful, provided that RF-transparent structural materials are used between modified adhesive and probe of NQR spectrometer.

Hewitt, R. R.

1971-01-01

39

14N NQR in the tetrazole family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

14N NQR frequencies and spin-lattice relaxation times were measured in technologically important 5-aminotetrazole and 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate at different temperatures between 77 K and 300 K. Five NQR triplets ?+, ?- and ?0 were found for the five inequivalent nitrogen atoms in each compound between 0.7 MHz and 4 MHz. Carr-Purcell based multipulse sequences were used to accumulate quadrupole echo signals before the FFT analysis. Assignment of the frequencies to atomic positions was made and the results are analysed in relation to the molecular chemical bonds and possible H-bonds in the crystal structures. The new NQR frequencies are reasonably related to the previously published NQR spectrum of the third family member, 1H-tetrazole.

Pirnat, Janez; Lužnik, Janko; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Žagar, Veselko; Seliger, Janez; Klapötke, Thomas M.; Trontelj, Zvonko

2009-10-01

40

35Cl-NQR and DFT study of electronic structure of amlodipine and felodipine vascular-selective drugs from the dihydropyridine Ca ++ antagonists group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amlodipine (AM) and felodipine (FL) have been studied in solid state by the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and density functional theory (DFT). The results have shown that NQR data do not permit a differentiation between R and S enantiomers, which is a consequence of the symmetry of the 4-aryl ring, whereas they permit a differentiation between free bases and salts. The HOMO-LUMO gap is smaller for AM than for FL, which suggests smaller energy of excitation for AM. The absolute hardness, chemical potential and electrophilicity of both AM enantiomers are lower than the corresponding values for FL enantiomers, suggesting that AM should be more reactive than FL in unimolecular reactions.

Latosi?ska, J. N.; Latosi?ska, M.; Kasprzak, J.

2008-09-01

41

NQR investigation and characterization of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of 14N NQR to the study of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs is reviewed. In ferroelectric and antiferroelectric organic cocrystals 14N NQR is used to determine proton position in an N-H...O hydrogen bond and proton displacement below TC. In cocrystal isonicitinamide - oxalic acid (2:1) 14N NQR is used to distinguish between two polymorphs and to determine the type of the hydrogen bond (N-...H-O). The difference in the 14N NQR spectra of cocrystal formers and cocrystal is investigated in case of carbamazepine, saccharin and carbamazepine - saccharin (1:1). The experimental resolution allows an unambiguous distinction between the 14N NQR spectrum of the cocrystal and the 14N NQR spectra of the cocrystal formers. The possibility of application of NQR and double resonance for the determination of the inhomogeneity of the sample and for the study of the life time of an unstable polymorph is discussed.

Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko; Asaji, Tetsuo

2013-05-01

42

Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies project. [spectrometer design and spectrum analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The participation of undergraduates in nuclear quadrupole resonance research at Grambling University was made possible by NASA grants. Expanded laboratory capabilities include (1) facilities for high and low temperature generation and measurement; (2) facilities for radio frequency generation and measurement with the modern spectrum analyzers, precision frequency counters and standard signal generators; (3) vacuum and glass blowing facilities; and (4) miscellaneous electronic and machine shop facilities. Experiments carried out over a five year period are described and their results analyzed. Theoretical studies on solid state crystalline electrostatic fields, field gradients, and antishielding factors are included.

Murty, A. N.

1978-01-01

43

Application of an explosive detection device based on quadrupole resonance (QR) technology in aviation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration has deployed Advanced Technology (AT) based explosive detection devices for screening checked baggage in US domestic airports. The paper addresses the application of quadrupole resonance (QR) technology to detect explosives in checked baggage in aviation security. This technology was deployed in combination with advanced X-ray by the US government. The paper focuses on the quadrupole resonance

Ed Rao; William J. Hughes

2001-01-01

44

Topology of the interactions pattern in pharmaceutically relevant polymorphs of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophiline): combined experimental ((1)h-(14)n nuclear quadrupole double resonance) and computational (DFT and hirshfeld-based) study.  

PubMed

Three anhydrous methylxanthines: caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-(3H,7H)-dione) and its two metabolites theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine; 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) and theobromine (3,7-dimethyl-xanthine; 3,7-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione), which reveal multifaceted therapeutic potential, have been studied experimentally in solid state by (1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR (nuclear magnetic resonance-nuclear quadrupole resonance) double resonance (NQDR). For each compound the complete NQR spectrum consisting of 12 lines was recorded. The multiplicity of NQR lines indicates the presence of a stable ? form of anhydrous caffeine at 233 K and stable form II of anhydrous theobromine at 213 K. The assignment of signals detected in NQR experiment to particular nitrogen atoms was made on the basis of quantum chemistry calculations performed for monomer, cluster, and solid at the DFT/GGA/BLYP/DPD level. The shifts due to crystal packing interactions were evaluated, and the multiplets detected by NQR were assigned to N(9) in theobromine and N(1) and N(9) in caffeine. The ordering theobromine > theophylline > caffeine site and theophylline < theobromine < caffeine according to increasing electric field gradient (EFG) at the N(1) and N(7) sites, respectively, reflects the changes in biological activity profile of compounds from the methylxanthines series (different pharmacological effects). This difference is elucidated on the basis of the ability to form intra- and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds and ?···? stacking interactions). The introduction of methyl groups to xanthine restricts the ability of nitrogen atoms to participate in strong hydrogen bonds; as a result, the dominating effect shifts from hydrogen bond (theobromine) to ?···? stacking (caffeine). Substantial differences in the intermolecular interactions in stable forms of methylxanthines differing in methylation (site or number) were analyzed within the Hirshfeld surface-based approach. The analysis of local environment of the nitrogen nucleus permitted drawing some conclusions on the nature of the interactions required for effective processes of recognition and binding of a given methylxanthine to A1-A2A receptor (target for caffeine in the brain). Although the interactions responsible for linking neighboring methylxanthines molecules in crystals and methylxanthines with targets in the human organism can differ significantly, the knowledge of the topology of interactions provides reliable preliminary information about the nature of this binding. PMID:25184363

Latosi?ska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosi?ska, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Grzegorz A; Seliger, Janez; Zagar, Veselko

2014-09-22

45

Electric quadrupole moment of the neutron-rich 33Al  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear electric quadrupole moment ( Q moment) of the neutron-rich nucleus 33Al ( I = 5/2 , T 1/2 = 41 ms) has been measured by the ? -ray detected nuclear quadrupole resonance ( ? -NQR) method for the first time. The 33Al nucleus is considered to be on the border of the island of inversion within which a significant intrusion of the pf orbits occurs across the N = 20 shell gap and the intrusion causes an anomalous enhancement of the Q moment. Polarized 33Al nuclei were produced from 36S (77.5MeV/ u beams through the fragmentation process and separated by LISE fragment separator at GANIL. The 33Al nuclei were implanted into a Al2O3 single-crystal plate and the ? -NQR spectrum was successfully obtained.

Nagatomo, T.; Shimada, K.; Asahi, K.; Balabanski, D. L.; Daugas, J. M.; Depuydt, M.; de Rydt, M.; Gaudefroy, L.; Grévy, S.; Hasama, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kameda, D.; Morel, P.; Perrot, L.; Stödel, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Vanderheijden, W.; Vermeulen, N.; Vingerhoets, P.; Yoshimi, A.; Neyens, G.; Ueno, H.

2009-12-01

46

Ab initio DFT study of bisphosphonate derivatives as a drug for inhibition of cancer: NMR and NQR parameters.  

PubMed

DFT computations were carried out to characterize the (17)Oand (2)H electric field gradient, EFG, in various bisphosphonate derivatives. The computations were performed at the B3LYP level with 6-311++G (d,P) standard basis set. Calculated EFG tensors were used to determine the (17)O and (2)H nuclear quadrupole coupling constant, ? and asymmetry parameter, ?. For better understanding of the bonding and electronic structure of bisphosphonates, isotropic and anisotropic NMR chemical shieldings were calculated for the (13)C, (17)O and (31)P nuclei using GIAO method for the optimized structure of intermediate bisphosphonates at B3LYP level of theory using 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The results showed that various substituents have a strong effect on the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) parameters (?, ?) of (17)O in contrast with (2)H NQR parameters. The NMR and NQR parameters were studied in order to find the correlation between electronic structure and the activity of the desired bisphosphonates. In addition, the effect of substitutions on the bisphosphonates polarity was investigated. Molecular polarity was determined via the DFT calculated dipole moment vectors and the results showed that substitution of bromine atom on the ring would increase the activity of bisphosphonates. PMID:21633790

Aghabozorg, Hussein; Sohrabi, Beheshteh; Mashkouri, Sara; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza

2012-03-01

47

NQR Line Broadening Due to Crystal Lattice Imperfections and Its Relationship to Shock Sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic hot spot model is used to explain the difference between shock sensitive and shock insensitive explosives. Among the major factors that influence the shock sensitivity of energetic compounds are the quality and particle size of the energetic crystals used to formulate the cast plastic bonded explosive. As do all energetic compounds, RDX and HMX exhibit internal crystal defects the magnitude and type of which depend on the manufacturing process used to synthesize and re-crystallize the energetic compound. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectroscopy was used to determine the crystal quality of RDX, HMX and CL-20 obtained from various manufacturers. The NQR experimental results are discussed. Cast plastic bonded explosives were made using the RDX and HMX obtained from the various manufacturers and subsequently subjected to the NOL large-scale gap test (LSGT). The results of the LSGT are discussed and correlated with the NQR results. A relationship between the crystal defect density and shock initiation pressure of the plastic bonded explosive is developed and discussed.

Caulder, S. M.; Buess, M. L.; Garroway, A. N.; Miller, P. J.

2004-07-01

48

High-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Quadrupole Moment Monitor  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of the beam quadrupole moment at several locations can be used to reconstruct the beam envelope and emittance parameters. The measurements can be performed in a non-intercepting way using a set of quadrupole-mode cavities. We present a cavity design with an optimized quadrupole moment shunt impedance. The cavity properties can be characterized using a wire test method to insure symmetry about the central axis, and alignment to nearby position sensing cavities. The design and characterization of the prototype structure is discussed.

Barov, N.; Nantista, C.D.; Miller, R.H.; Kim, J.S.; /FARTECH, San Diego /SLAC

2007-04-13

49

Beta-detected NQR in zero field with a low energy beam of 8Li+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-detected nuclear quadrupole resonances ( ?-NQR) in zero field are observed using a beam of low energy highly polarized radioactive Li+8. The resonances were detected in SrTiO 3, Al 2O 3 and Sr 2RuO 4 single crystals by monitoring the beta-decay anisotropy as a function of a small audio frequency magnetic field. The resonances show clearly that Li+8 occupies one site with non-cubic symmetry in SrTiO 3, two in Al 2O 3 and three sites in Sr 2RuO 4. The resonance amplitude and width are surprisingly large compared to the values expected from transitions between the |±2>?|±1> spin states, indicating a significant mixing between the |±m> quadrupolar split levels.

Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.; Chow, K. H.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Arseneau, D. J.; Daviel, S.; Levy, C. D. P.; Maeno, Y.; Poutissou, R.

2006-03-01

50

Deuterium and sodium quadrupole interactions in sodium hydroxide. II. The monoclinic phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of the 23NaOH pure quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency has been studied from 77 to 550 K and shows a change in slope and a discontinuous change in frequency of 6±2 kHz at the orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition at 505 K. At 292 K the 23Na NQR frequency is 1.778±0.001 MHz, ?<0.04. The temperature dependence of the deuterium quadrupole coupling was fit to a librating molecule model between 293 and 570 K (QCC=245±2 kHz, ?=0.05±0.01 at 293 K) and confirms that the frequency of the OD- libration decreases in the high temperature monoclinic phase.

Amm, D. T.; Segel, S. L.; Bastow, T. J.; Jeffrey, K. R.

1986-01-01

51

Quadrupole resonances in the rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

Calculations that employ a relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation to atomic absorption are used to examine a recent claim to the observation of giant quadrupolar resonances in the electron-energy-loss spectrum of Ce metal near the 4p edge. We confirm the existence of 4p..-->..4f resonances in this energy range but find the polarization effects much smaller than in typical giant dipole resonances.

Liberman, D.; Zangwill, A.

1989-01-01

52

Splitting of the giant monopole and quadrupole resonances in Sm-154  

E-print Network

Strength functions for the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole resonances in Sm-154 have been measured with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV alpha particles at small angles. The E0 strength distribution containing (104(-20)(+15))% of the energy...

Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL.

1999-01-01

53

Ultrahigh refractive index sensing performance of plasmonic quadrupole resonances in gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The refractive index sensing properties of plasmonic resonances in gold nanoparticles (nanorods and nanobipyramids) are investigated through numerical simulations. We find that the quadruple resonance in both nanoparticles shows much higher sensing figure of merit (FOM) than its dipolar counterpart, which is attributed mainly to the reduction in resonance linewidth. More importantly, our results predict that at the same sensing wavelength, the sensing FOM of the quadrupole mode can be significantly boosted from 3.9 for gold nanorods to 7.4 for gold nanobipyramids due to the geometry-dependent resonance linewidth, revealing a useful strategy for optimizing the sensing performance of metal nanoparticles. PMID:24791161

2014-01-01

54

Experimental verification of resonance instability bands in quadrupole doublet focusing channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tabletop plasma trap experiment named "S-POD" is employed to explore the stability of intense charged-particle beams focused by a series of quadrupole doublet cells. S-POD is a compact linear Paul-trap, where we generate a single-species non-neutral ion plasma that can approximately reproduce the collective motion of an intense beam focused by periodic linear forces. Unlike conventional beam-dynamics experiments relying on large-scale transport channels and accelerators, it is straightforward in S-POD to control the functional form of quadrupole beam focusing over a wide range of variation to explore a variety of quadrupole focusing lattices. We systematically measure the loss rate of trapped particles as a function of bare betatron tune to locate resonance bands in which the plasma becomes unstable. It is confirmed that a few bands of coherent resonances appear depending on the beam intensity. When there is an imbalance between the horizontal and vertical focusing, those instability bands split. Experimental results indicate that the instability band is relatively insensitive to the phase of quadrupole focusing element placement within the doublet configuration over a significant range of parameters. Experimental observations are compared with transverse slice particle-in-cell simulations carried out using the Warp code.

Fukushima, K.; Ito, K.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Moriya, K.; Higaki, H.; Okano, T.; Lund, S. M.

2014-01-01

55

Measurement of in-situ stress in salt and rock using NQR techniques  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of how stress and strain affect the quantities which can be measured in an NQR experiment shows that, for stresses of the magnitude to be expected at depths up to about 10,000 feet, quadrupole coupling constants will fall in the range of 1 to 10 kHz for both the sodium and chloride ions in NaCl. The most promising system involves pulsed nuclear double resonance detection; and alterative is to observe the quadrupolar splitting of the NMR signal. Choices to be made in the measurement and mapping techniques are discussed. The well-known perturbation of the homogenous stress field in the neighborhood of a borehole is shown to be advantageous from the point of view of obtaining directional information on the stress. Construction and operation of a borehole stress sensor are considered. The NQR technique seems feasible for measuring the magnitude and direction of underground stress with a resolution of about 25 psi, or 2.5% at 1000 psi. Downhole instrumentation suitable for in-situ determinations of stress appears within the state of the art. Additional tasks required on the project are identified.

Schempp, E.; Hirschfeld, T.; Klainer, S.

1980-12-01

56

Giant Quadrupole and Monopole Resonances in Si-28  

E-print Network

including zero degrees. A total of 66% of the EO energy-weighted sum rule was identified (using a Satchler version 2 form factor) centered at E?=17.9 MeV having a width of 4.8 MeV and 34% of the E2 energy-weighted sum rule was identified above E = 15.3 Me...V centered at 19.0 MeV with a width of 4.4 MeV. The dependence of the extracted EO strength on form factor and optical potential was ex- plored. INTRODUCTION The properties of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) are of particular importance because...

Lui, YW; Bronson, J. D.; Youngblood, David H.; Toba, Y.; Garg, U.

1985-01-01

57

DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers  

DOEpatents

A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced.

Fan, Non Q. (San Diego, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA)

1993-01-01

58

DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers  

DOEpatents

A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced. 7 figures.

Fan, N.Q.; Clarke, J.

1993-10-19

59

Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as 14N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented.

Mandal, S.; Song, Y.-Q.

2014-03-01

60

Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics.  

PubMed

We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as (14)N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented. PMID:24495675

Mandal, S; Song, Y-Q

2014-03-01

61

Robinson-type nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer adapted to field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer, the Robinson circuit adapted with field-effect transistors, has operated satisfactorily up to 30 MHz with rf levels ranging from 40 mV to 2.6 V peak to peak across the sample coil. The S/N ratio of 14N in hexamethylenetetramin is 85 at room temperature and 150 at 77 K, with a sample volume of 6 cm3 and a time constant of 10 s. The spectrometer is also capable of measuring the spin-lattice relaxation time by the saturation method.

Lee, Jongmin; Choh, Sung Ho

1982-02-01

62

A High-Efficiency Resonant Cavity for Measurement of a Beam Quadrupole Moment  

SciTech Connect

Many particle accelerator applications can benefit from online pulse-by-pulse nonintercepting emittance measurement system. Recently, there has been much interest in performing such a measurement with a set of resonant quadrupole-mode cavities. This article explores a geometry to achieve an enhanced shunt impedance in such a cavity by adding a set of posts forming capacitive gaps near the beam pipe outer radius. For typical diagnostic cavity applications, a five-fold increase in shunt impedance can be obtained with this method. The effect of errors in cavity fabrication on the required mode structure are explored.

Barov, N.; Kim, J.S.; /FARTECH, San Diego; Nantista, C.D.; Miller, R.H.; /SLAC

2005-10-26

63

Simplest photonuclear reactions accompanied by the excitation of isovector giant dipole and quadrupole resonances: Semimicroscopic description  

SciTech Connect

A semimicroscopic approach based on the continuum version of the random-phase approximation (CRPA) and on a semiphenomenological inclusion of the fragmentation effect is applied to describing cross sections for photoabsorption and direct plus semidirect and inverse reactions accompanied by the excitation of isovector giant dipole and quadrupole resonances. In addition to the spinless part of the Landau-Migdal interaction and a partly self-consistent phenomenological mean field of the nucleus, that version of the approach which is used here takes into account isovector separable velocity-dependent forces, as well as the effect of the fragmentation shift of the giant-resonance energy. The results obtained by calculating various features of the aforementioned cross sections for a number of magic and semimagic medium-mass nuclei are compared with respective experimental data.

Tulupov, B. A., E-mail: tulupov@cpc.inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Urin, M. H. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

64

Pure Quadrupole Resonance of OXYGEN(17) Compounds by Proton Double Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

('17)O pure quadruple resonance spectra were observed in ice Ih, O(,3), H(,2)O(,2), IrClCO(PPh(,3))(,2)('17)O(,2) (Vaska's Compound) and the bromine analog of the latter. Double resonance between ('17)O and ('1)H in zero applied field was used as described by Slusher and Hahn except that the ice and O(,3) samples did not require modulation of the resonant RF. Observed resonances were: ice 1.70(5),

William Thomas Dixon

1980-01-01

65

Magnetic correlations in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 from NQR relaxation and specific heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

La-139 and Cu-63 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 for x ranging from 0 up to 0.3, with particular emphasis on the effect of doping on the Cu(2+) magnetic correlations and dynamics, are reviewed. In the low doping limit, x less than or equal to 0.05, the results can be interpreted consistently in terms of a simple phenomenological 'two-fluids' model whereby the effect of thermally-activated mobile O(2p) holes is the one of disrupting locally the Cu(2+) spin correlations. For x greater than or equal to 0.1, the results indicate the onset, as T approaches T(sub c)(+), of a strong coupling between Cu(2+) spins and the Fermi liquid of O(2p) holes leading to the apparent disappearance of localized Cu(2+) moment in connection with the opening of a superconducting gap.

Borsa, F.; Rigamonti, A.

1991-01-01

66

Field test results of a nuclear quadrupole resonance land mine detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on field test results conducted during 1999 in Bosnia and at the Army Mine Training School, Fort Leonard Wood, MO, on a ne prototype landmine detection system. In all test, non-metallic, anti-personnel (AP) and anti-tank (AT) landmines were detected via the NQR explosive signature with a probability of detection of 100 percent. The initial false alarm rate for

Andrew D. Hibbs; Geoffrey A. Barrall; Simon Beevor; Lowell J. Burnett; K. Derby; A. J. Drew; Dave Gregory; C. S. Hawkins; S. Huo; A. Karunaratne; Daniel K. Lathrop; Young K. Lee; Robert Matthews; Steve Milberger; B. Oehmen; T. Petrov; David C. Skvoretz; S. A. Vierkoetter; David O. Walsh; Chin Wu

2000-01-01

67

Crystallization of an amorphous solid studied by nuclear quadrupole double resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear quadrupole double resonance (NQDR) is proposed as a method for quantitative observation of crystallization of amorphous solids. NQDR signals from amorphous and crystalline parts of a sample may be separated. The intensity I of the NQDR signal from the crystalline part of the sample is proportional to its mass. With increasing time the amorphous phase in the sample transforms to the crystal phase and the intensity I approaches its limiting value I0 corresponding to the complete transformation to the crystal phase. The ratio I/I0 is equal to the mass fraction of the crystalline part of the sample. The same experimental method can be used to determine the mass fraction of a given crystal polymorph in a mixture of crystal polymorphs. As an example we studied crystallization of amorphous nifedipine at 100 °C. The results of the NQDR study are compared to the published results of other studies.

Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko

2013-06-01

68

Suppression of electron correlations in the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 under ambient pressure demonstrated by As75 NMR/NQR measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static and the dynamic spin correlations in the low-temperature collapsed tetragonal and the high-temperature tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 have been investigated by As75 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements. Through the temperature (T) dependence of the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the Knight shifts, although stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin correlations are realized in the high-temperature tetragonal phase, no trace of the AFM spin correlations can be found in the nonsuperconducting, low-temperature, collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase. Given that there is no magnetic broadening in As75 NMR spectra, together with the T-independent behavior of magnetic susceptibility ? and the T dependence of 1/T1T?, we conclude that Fe spin correlations are completely quenched statically and dynamically in the nonsuperconducting cT phase in CaFe2As2.

Furukawa, Y.; Roy, B.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

2014-03-01

69

A novel shoe scanner using an open-access quadrupole resonance and metal sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airport security and efficiency are both compromised by the process of requiring passengers to remove their shoe. A novel shoe scanner developed at the GE Security San Diego Center of Excellence uses both Quadrupole Resonance (QR) and configuration-sensitive metal detection to identify threats hidden in shoes. The shoe scanner was developed with an open-access chassis and scanning chamber that allows passengers to stand in the system in a natural position during the scanning process. More traditional magnetic resonance systems are closed or partially closed and cannot be used for screening personnel because the scanning chambers confine the object in question. The shoe scanner's novelty lies in a particular chassis geometry that allows both QR and metal screening. The resulting scanning system achieves the same level of performance as a more confining system. The shoe scanner is small enough to allow integration with other sensors such as the GE Itemizer FX TM trace detection system. In fact, the first application of the novel shoe scanner is expected to be as a component in a multi-sensor verification and security system known as the Secure Registered Traveler (SRT) Kiosk. The SRT kiosk is designed to be used as part of the TSA's Registered Traveler Program.

Crowley, C.; Petrov, T.; Mitchell, O.; Shelby, R.; Ficke, L.; Kumar, S.; Prado, P.

2007-04-01

70

Nuclear quadrupole resonance: a technique to control hydration processes in the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals can exist in many solid forms, which can have different physical and chemical properties. These solid forms include polymorphs, solvates, amorphous, and hydrates. Particularly, hydration process can be quite common since pharmaceutical solids can be in contact with water during manufacturing process and can also be exposed to water during storage. In the present work, it is proved that NQR technique is capable of detecting different hydrated forms not only in the pure raw material but also in the final product (tablets), being in this way a useful technique for quality control. This technique was also used to study the dehydration process from pentahydrate to trihydrate. PMID:21314133

Limandri, Silvina; Visñovezky, Claudia; Pérez, Silvina C; Schurrer, Clemar A; Wolfenson, Alberto E; Ferro, Maribel; Cuffini, Silvia L; de Souza, Joel Gonçalves; Aguiar, F Armani; de Gaitani, C Masetto

2011-03-01

71

Copper Nqr and NMR Study of Metal-Substituted Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7) and Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(4) OXYGEN(8)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been used to investigate the effect of metal-substitution for copper in YBa_2Cu_3O_7 (YBCO123) and YBa_2Cu_4O_8 (YBCO124). Among many metal substitutions, Zn has an especially dramatic effect in suppressing the superconducting temperature T_{c}, and hence superconductivity. More interesting is that Zn and Fe have the same T_{c} suppression effect in YBCO124. This study focuses on the Zn substitutions in YBCO123 and Zn, Fe, and Co substitutions in YBCO124. In Zn doped YBCO123, Cu(2), plane site, NQR spectra and the frequency dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rates have been measured over a temperature range from 77 K to 300 K to study the correlation of the suppression of the relaxation rate with the distance between the probe Cu nuclei and the impurity. It is found that the relaxation rate is insensitive to the variation of the NQR resonance frequency. However, by comparing the results of the Zn doped YBCO124 with those of YBCO123, it can be concluded that the suppression of the relaxation rate for both YBCO compounds in the normal state is caused by destruction of short-range antiferromagnetic correlation with substitution of nonmagnetic ion Zn on the Cu(2) sites. NQR and NMR measurements were carried out on both Cu(2), plane, and Cu(1), chain sites, for various concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Co dopants in YBCO124 over a temperature range from 77 K to 300 K. A strong correlation of the enhancement of Cu(2) spin lattice relaxation rate and suppression of superconductivity by impurities was found. The temperature dependence of the Cu(2) NMR linewidth exhibits a strong RKKY type exchange interaction below 225 K for Zn and Fe doped samples, which indicates the formation of the local magnetic moment. The enhancement of the relaxation rate is caused by the local magnetic moment Fe^ {+3} ion and the moments on Cu(2) neighbors when Zn^{+2} is substituted on Cu(2). This study gives us a clear picture of the spin pseudogap behavior in the high temperature superconductor cuprates. It also suggests that the magnetic moment on the CuO_2 plane may relate to the suppression of T_{c} in metal-substituted YBCO124.

Cheng, Show-Jye

72

Unconventional superconductivity near quantum critical point revealed by Co-NQR measurements on Nax(H3O)CoO2·yH2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency of Co nuclei and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 were measured on several bilayered hydrate (BLH) Nax(H3O)CoO2·yH2O (y˜1.3) with variety of superconducting (SC) and magnetic transition temperatures, Tc and TM, together with non-SC mono-layered hydrate (MLH) Nax(H3O)CoO2·yH2O (y˜0.7). In the high temperature region above 70 K, 1/T1T in all the samples follows the same temperature dependence which is interpreted as the pseudogap behavior. In the BLH compounds, 1/T1T increases with decreasing temperature below 70 K, and the values of 1/T1T at Tc are large in high-Tc samples. The magnetic ordering is ascertained from the observation of the prominent divergence of 1/T1T at TM in the samples whose NQR frequency is higher than 12.5 MHz. The temperature dependence of 1/T1T is found to be consistently expressed by a unique function with two fitting parameters. We analyze the temperature dependence of 1/T1T on the basis of this function, and investigate the relationship between the magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in the BLH compounds.

Ihara, Y.; Takeya, H.; Ishida, K.; Michioka, C.; Yoshimura, K.; Takada, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

2007-11-01

73

Field test results of a nuclear quadrupole resonance land mine detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on field test results conducted during 1999 in Bosnia and at the Army Mine Training School, Fort Leonard Wood, MO, on a ne prototype landmine detection system. In all test, non-metallic, anti-personnel (AP) and anti-tank (AT) landmines were detected via the NQR explosive signature with a probability of detection of 100 percent. The initial false alarm rate for the AP mine test was < 5 percent and was reduced to zero by a subsequent remeasurement. The test included typical burial depths and a variety of ground and weather conditions. In addition, the system can tolerate very high levels of metallic clutter and has repeatedly achieved zero false alarm rate when scanning for buried explosives at an EOD test range.

Hibbs, Andrew D.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Beevor, Simon; Burnett, Lowell J.; Derby, K.; Drew, A. J.; Gregory, David M.; Hawkins, C. S.; Huo, S.; Karunaratne, A.; Lathrop, Daniel K.; Lee, Young K.; Matthews, Robert; Milberger, Steve; Oehmen, B.; Petrov, T.; Skvoretz, David C.; Vierkoetter, S. A.; Walsh, David O.; Wu, Chin

2000-08-01

74

First measurement of the giant monopole and quadrupole resonances in a short-lived nucleus: 56Ni.  

PubMed

The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) and giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) have been measured in the 56Ni unstable nucleus by inducing the 56Ni(d,d') reaction at 50A MeV in the Maya active target at the GANIL facility. The GMR and GQR centroids are measured at 19.3+/-0.5 MeV and 16.2+/-0.5 MeV, respectively. The corresponding angular distributions are extracted from 3 degrees to 7 degrees . A multipole decomposition analysis using distorted wave Born approximation with random phase approximation transition densities shows that both the GMR and the GQR exhaust a large fraction of the energy-weighted sum rule. The demonstration of this new method opens a broad range of giant resonance studies at intermediate-energy radioactive beam facilities. PMID:18352262

Monrozeau, C; Khan, E; Blumenfeld, Y; Demonchy, C E; Mittig, W; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Beaumel, D; Caamaño, M; Cortina-Gil, D; Ebran, J P; Frascaria, N; Garg, U; Gelin, M; Gillibert, A; Gupta, D; Keeley, N; Maréchal, F; Obertelli, A; Scarpaci, J-A

2008-02-01

75

Spin diffusion of dipolar energy in NQR.  

PubMed

The theory of spin diffusion was extended to the case of nuclear dipolar order in solids containing paramagnetic impurities and nuclei with spin I > 1/2 having nuclear quadrupole moment. We show that spin diffusion process of dipolar order takes place in solids containing paramagnetic impurities. At the start of relaxation process, the direct relaxation regime is realized with non-exponential time dependence. Then the relaxation regime will be changed to diffusion-limited one. Using obtained expressions for the spin lattice relaxation times for these two relaxation regimes, the diffusion coefficient of the dipolar order in nuclear quadrupole resonance can be estimated from experimental data. PMID:10868572

Furman, G B; Goren, S D

2000-06-01

76

Sub parts-per-million mass measurement accuracy of intact proteins and product ions achieved using a dual electrospray ionization quadrupole fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High mass measurement accuracy (MMA) is demonstrated for intact proteins and subsequent collision-induced dissociation product\\u000a ions using internal calibration. Internal calibration was accomplished using a dual electrospray ionization source coupled\\u000a with a hybrid quadrupole Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (Q-FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Initially, analyte ions generated\\u000a via the first electrospray (ESI) emitter are isolated and dissociated in the external quadrupole.

D. Keith Williams Jr.; Adam M. Hawkridge; David C. Muddiman

2007-01-01

77

35-Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra in diazepam and its 1:1 complex with chloral hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35-Cl NQR spectra of diazepam and some of its related compounds are reported; they yield information about the hydrogen bonded complex that diazepam forms with chloral hydrate. The results reflect large changes in electron distribution at the CCl 3 group while the diazepam chlorine at the 7 position remains almost unaffected.

Brisson, Colette; Durand, Marcel; Jugie, Gérard; Pasdeloup, Maurice

1980-11-01

78

Electronic properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors as seen by Cu and O NMR/NQR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) allow the investigation of electronic properties at the atomic level. We will report on such studies of typical members of the the Y-Ba-Cu-O family such as YBa2Cu30(6 + x) (1-2-3-(6 + x)), YBa2Cu4O8 (1-2-4) and Y2Ba4Cu7015 (2-4-7) with many examples of recent work performed in our laboratory. In particular, we will deal with Knight shift and relaxation studies of copper and oxygen. We will discuss important issues of current studies such as: (1) Existence of a common electronic spin-susceptibility in the planes (and perhaps in the chains) of 1-2-4; (2) Strong evidence for the existence of a pseudo spin-gap of the antiferromagnetic fluctuations in 1-2-4 and 2-4-7; (3) Evidence for d-wave pairing in 1-2-4; (4) Strong coupling of inequivalent Cu-O planes in 2-4-7 and possible origin for the high Tc value of this compound; and (5) The possibility to describe NMR data in the framework of a charge-excitation picture.

Brinkmann, D.

1995-01-01

79

Nuclear quadrupole resonance measurement of the anisotropic magnetic shielding and quadrupole coupling constants of 151Eu3+ and 153Eu3+ dilute in YAlO3 single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra of Eu3+ in YAlO3 single crystal at ~ 10 K are reported. From the ratio of the quadrupole interaction parameters of 151Eu and 153Eu, the ratio of the quadrupole moments corrected for the pseudoquadrupole interaction is obtained Q153Q151=2.5812+/-0.0010. With low-magnetic-field studies the anisotropic magnetic shielding factors are measured. They are ?x=0.58, ?y=0.80, ?z=0.47 compared to an estimate of ?z=0.89 by Elliott. A measured value =39 Å-3 is obtained using Elliott's formulation and the experimental values of the anisotropic magnetic shielding factors.

Erickson, L. E.; Sharma, K. K.

1981-10-01

80

Radio-frequency mass selective excitation and resonant ejection of ions in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional quadrupole ion store (QUISTOR) has been employed as a reactor for the study of ion/molecule reactions using external mass analysis, and as an ion trap for the study of stored ion dynamics using either external mass or in situ resonant absorption. Excitation of the axial frequency component of ion motion is accomplished by application of small (approx.1 V) RF potentials to an end-cap of the QUISTOR. The frequencies at which ion resonance is observed differ from those predicted by theory and are dependent upon trapped ion density. Thus, the frequency shift may be related to both the space charge within the QUISTOR and perturbation of the stability diagram. the simultaneous application of in situ resonance absorption and external mass analysis has been utilized in three separate studies. (1) In ionized argon, Ar/sup +/ has been ejected by resonance absorption and the rate constant for the subsequent partial charge reaction of Ar/sup 2 +/ with argon has been determined to be 4.8 +- 1.6 x 10/sup -1/2 cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/s/sup -1/. (2) In ionized 2-propanol at approx.0.1 Pa and 4 ms after the ionizing pulse, we have found the ambient space charge experienced simultaneously by nine ion species to be sensibly constant. (3) The coupling of precursor to product ions in ion/molecule reactions of the 2-propanol system has been investigated: this particular application closely resembles the double resonance technique in ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

Fulford, J.E.; Nhu-Hoa, D.; Hughes, R.J.; March, R.E.; Bonner, R.F.; Wong, G.J.

1980-07-01

81

a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and a Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Phases and Solid State Transformations in the Alkali Metal Hydroxides - Lithium-Hydroxide Sodium - Potassium-Hydroxide Rubidium-Hydroxide Cesium - and Cesium-Hydroxide - Water.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proton NMR lineshapes for all alkali metal hydroxides, except LiOH, have a weak doublet structure (most pronounced in KOH). This structure was explained by modelling the arrangement of hydrogen atoms with a 4 -spin planar zig-zag chain. The second moments of proton NMR recorded at 27 MHz and at 295 K are 8.8, 10.8, 6.5, 4.8 and 4.1 (gauss)('2) for LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH and CsOH respectively. The phase diagram for NaOH and Na(,2)CO(,3) has been reviewed and appended using DTA results. The NMR of ('23)NaOH (QCC = 3.52 (+OR-) 0.06 MHz and (eta) < 0.04 at 295 K) has been measured from 77 K to 570 K. The temperature dependence of the NQR of ('23)NaOH, studied from 77 K to 550 K, shows a change in slope and a discontinuous change in NQR frequency of 6 (+OR-) 2 kHz on crossing from the orthorhombic to monoclinic phases. At 292 K, the sodium NQR frequency was 1.778 (+OR-) 0.001 MHz. The DTA and NQR results for ('23)NaOD show a phase transition at 160 K with an enthalpy change of 200 (+OR-) 75 J/mol. There is no corresponding transition in NaOH above 110 K. The deuterium NMR in NaOD was studied from 293 K to 570 K (QCC = 245 (+OR-) 2 kHz and (eta) = 0.05 (+OR-) 0.01 at 293 K). The decrease in deuterium QCC with increasing temperature was fitted to a librating molecule model and confirmed that the frequency of the OD('-) libration decreases in the monoclinic phase. The proton NMR linewidth in NaOH narrows from 10 gauss FWHM at 295 K to 1 gauss at 550 K due to proton conduction. The proton T(,1) (T(,1) = 300 sec. at 41 MHz and 293 K) decreases with increasing temperature and is extremely dependent on H(,2)O content. From the NMR of ('87)RbOH at 293 K, it was estimated that QCC = 9 (+OR-) 1 MHz. The ('133)Cs NMR in CsOH(.)H(,2)O was studied from 230 K to 470 K. At 293 K, QCC = 101 (+OR -) 2 kHz with (eta) = 0. The ('133)Cs NMR changes at the 232 K transition but varies smoothly through the 340 K transition in CsOH(.)H(,2)O. The unusual deuterium quadrupole coupling for the OD('-) ion in CsOD (QCC = 143 (+OR-) 2 kHz, (eta) = 0.66 (+OR-) 0.01 at 295 K) indicates that the OD('-) ion is orientationally disordered, with two equivalent deuterium sites in the orthorhombic phase. Below 247 K in CsOD (232 K in CsOH), the deuterium NMR suggests that the OD('-) ions are not orientationally disordered.

Amm, David Thomas

82

Magnetic correlations in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 from NQR relaxation and specific heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

La-139 and Cu-63 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 for O = to or less than 0.3 and in the temperature range 1.6 + 450 K are analyzed in terms of Cu(++) magnetic correlations and dynamics. It is described how the magnetic correlations that would result from Cu-Cu exchange are reduced by mobile charge defects related to x-doping. A comprehensive picture is given which explains satisfactorily the x and T dependence of the correlation time, of the correlation length and of the Neel temperature T(sub n)(x) as well as being consistent with known electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. It is discussed how, in the superconducting samples, the mobile defects also cause the decrease, for T yields T(sub c)(+) of the hyperfine Cu electron-nucleus effective interaction, leading to the coexistence of quasi-localized, reduced magnetic moments from 3d Cu electrons and mobile oxygen p-hole carriers. The temperature dependence of the effective hyperfine field around the superconducting transition yields an activation energy which could be related to the pairing energy. New specific heat measurements are also presented and discussed in terms of the above picture.

Borsa, F.; Rigamonti, A.

1990-01-01

83

Role of spin state on the geometry and nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters in hemin complex.  

PubMed

Theoretical calculations of structural parameters, 57Fe, 14N and 17 O electric field gradient (EFG) tensors for full size-hemin group have been carried out using density functional theory. These calculations are intended to shed light on the difference between the geometry parameters, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (QCC), and asymmetry parameters (eta Q) found in three spin states of hemin; doublet, quartet and sextet. The optimization results reveal a significant change for propionic groups and porphyrin plane in different spin states. It is found that all principal components of EFG tensor at the iron site are sensitive to electronic and geometry structures. A relationship between the EFG tensor at the 14N and 17 O sites and the spin state of hemin complex is also detected. PMID:18353527

Behzadi, Hadi; van der Spoel, David; Esrafili, Mehdi D; Parsafar, Gholam Abbas; Hadipour, Nasser L

2008-05-01

84

Quadrupole parameters of 11B in crystalline CaO.B2O3.  

PubMed

The quadrupole coupling constant (Qcc) and asymmetry parameter (eta) of 11B in crystalline CaO.B2O3 have been measured employing three different NQR and NMR methods: (1) 11B and 10B NQR; (2) 11B NQR and NMR; and (3) the 11B Zeeman NQR powder pattern. It is found that Qcc = 2594.3 +/- 0.5 kHz and eta = 0.515 +/- 0.001 at 77 K, and Qcc = 2573.5 +/- 0.5 kHz and eta = 0.511 +/- 0.002 at 300 K. These values are in agreement with, but far more accurate than, values obtained from a fourth procedure: measurement of the second-order quadrupolar effects evident in the m = + 1/2<-->m = - 1/2 transition of the 11B NMR spectrum. PMID:1365740

Mao, D; Bray, P J

1992-12-01

85

A miniaturized NQR spectrometer for a multi-channel NQR-based detection device.  

PubMed

A low frequency (0.5-5MHz) battery operated sensitive pulsed NQR spectrometer with a transmitter power up to 5W and a total mass of about 3kg aimed at detecting (14)N NQR signals, predominantly of illicit materials, was designed and assembled. This spectrometer uses a standard software defined radio (SDR) platform for the data acquisition unit. Signal processing is done with the LabView Virtual instrument on a personal computer. We successfully tested the spectrometer by measuring (14)N NQR signals from aminotetrazole monohydrate (ATMH), potassium nitrate (PN), paracetamol (PCM) and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Such a spectrometer is a feasible component of a portable single or multichannel (14)N NQR based detection device. PMID:25233110

Beguš, Samo; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

2014-10-01

86

A miniaturized NQR spectrometer for a multi-channel NQR-based detection device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low frequency (0.5-5 MHz) battery operated sensitive pulsed NQR spectrometer with a transmitter power up to 5 W and a total mass of about 3 kg aimed at detecting 14N NQR signals, predominantly of illicit materials, was designed and assembled. This spectrometer uses a standard software defined radio (SDR) platform for the data acquisition unit. Signal processing is done with the LabView Virtual instrument on a personal computer. We successfully tested the spectrometer by measuring 14N NQR signals from aminotetrazole monohydrate (ATMH), potassium nitrate (PN), paracetamol (PCM) and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Such a spectrometer is a feasible component of a portable single or multichannel 14N NQR based detection device.

Beguš, Samo; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

2014-10-01

87

Intermetallic solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3}: Synthesis, structure, NQR study and electronic band structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

Unlimited solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} was prepared from Ga flux. Its crystal structure was refined for Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 3} (P4{sub 2}/mnm, a=6.2436(9), c=6.4654(13), Z=4) and showed no ordering of the metal atoms. A combination of the electronic band structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) approach and {sup 69,71}Ga nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy clearly shows that the Fe-Fe and Co-Co dumbbells are preferred to the Fe-Co dumbbells in the crystals structure. The band structure features a band gap of about 0.4 eV, with the Fermi level crossing peaks of a substantial density of electronic states above the gap for x>0. The solid solution is metallic for x>0.025. The study of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation shows that the rate of the relaxation, 1/T{sub 1}, is very sensitive to the Co concentration and correlates well with the square of the density of states at the Fermi level, N{sup 2}(E{sub F}). - Graphical abstract: Rate of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, 1/T{sub 1}, observed in the {sup 69}Ga NQR experiments for the intermetallic solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} is the highest for x=0.25 with the highest calculated density of electronic states at the Fermi level, N(E{sub F}); in general, 1/T{sub 1} correlates with N{sup 2}(E{sub F}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} solid solution is prepared in single crystalline form from Ga flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the crystal structure Fe-Fe and Co-Co dumbbells are preferred to Fe-Co dumbbells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-to-semiconductor transition occurs at 0NQR spectra efficiently probe local environment of two independent Ga atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rate of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation follows squared DOS at the Fermi level.

Verchenko, V.Yu.; Likhanov, M.S.; Kirsanova, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Gippius, A.A; Tkachev, A.V.; Gervits, N.E. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Galeeva, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Buettgen, N.; Kraetschmer, W. [Institut fuer Physik, University of Augsburg, Augsburg D-86135 (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physik, University of Augsburg, Augsburg D-86135 (Germany); Lue, C.S. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Okhotnikov, K.S. [Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Shevelkov, A.V., E-mail: shev@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15

88

Part I. Analyzing the distribution of gas law questions in chemistry textbooks. Part II. Chlorine-35 NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Two studies involving the gas law questions in eight high school and Advanced Placement/college chemistry textbooks were performed using loglinear analysis to look for associations among six variables. These variables included Bloom's Taxonomy (higher-order, lower-order), Book Type (high school, college), Question Format (multiple-choice, problem, short answer), Question Placement (in-chapter, end-of-chapter, test bank), Representation (macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and Arkansas Science Standard (conceptual, mathematical; gas laws, pressure conversion, stoichiometry). The first study, involving the conceptual gas law questions, found the Book Type and Question Placement variables had the biggest impact, each appearing in 5 of the 11 significant associations. The second study, involving the mathematical gas law questions, found the Question Placement had the biggest impact, appearing in 7 of the 11 significant associations, followed by Book Type and the Arkansas Science Standard variables, which appeared in 5 of the 11 significant associations. These studies showed that compared to the high school books, college books have fewer multiple-choice questions (compared to short-answer and problem questions), fewer in-chapter questions (compared to end-of-chapter and test bank questions), fewer questions in the chapters and more questions at the end of the chapters and fewer multiple-choice questions in and at the end of the books and more multiple-choice questions in the test banks. Part II. The dichloromethanesulfonate salts of several +1 charged cations, M+Cl2CHSO3 - (M = Li, Na, K, Rb Ag, Cs Tl) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, which was neutralized with the metal carbonates to produce the corresponding metal dichloromethanesulfonate salts. This study completed the NQR investigation of the family of chloroacetates and chloromethanesulfonates of silver. The study suggests that the ability of organochlorine atoms to coordinate to silver ions decreases as the number of electron-withdrawing groups attached to carbon atom bound to the coordinating chlorine atom increases. The unusually large NQR spectral width found among M+Cl2CHCO2 - salts are not present among M+Cl2CHSO 3- salts and does not appear to be generally characteristic of the dichloromethyl family of salts.

Gillette, Gabriel

89

Heteronuclear and quadrupolar second moment determination of the NQR line of 127I in NaIO4.  

PubMed

This work reports on a theoretical expression of the heteronuclear dipolar second moment (M2IS) of a NQR line of spin 5/2 nuclei. The result is applied to obtain M2IS for the resonance line of 127I in NaIO4, and in addition, an indirect determination of the quadrupolar second moment is given. PMID:10023847

Azurmendi, H F; Nagel, O A; Ramia, M E

1998-12-01

90

Giant Quadrupole-Resonance in Mg-24, Al-27 and Si-28  

E-print Network

proton scattering at Oak Ridge" and Orsay' have revealed con- siderable structure in the giant-resonance region for Al and Si and a portion has been attributed to E2 strength although there is some ambiguity in removing contributions of the giant... proton scattering at Oak Ridge' (61 MeV) and at Orsay' (155 MeV) a peak was identified at about 20 MeV with' 30+ 10%% of the E2 EWSR. From 70-MeV inelastic deuteron scattering data Chang et al. ' obtain E?=21MeV, I'=8+1 MeV, and 46+ 15% of the E2...

Youngblood, David H.; Rozsa, C. M.; Moss, JM; Brown, D. R.; Bronson, J. D.

1977-01-01

91

Symmetry energy from the nuclear collective motion: constraints from dipole, quadrupole, monopole and spin-dipole resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental and theoretical studies of Giant Resonances, or more generally of the nuclear collective vibrations, are a well-established domain in which sophisticated techniques have been introduced and firm conclusions reached after an effort of several decades. From it, information on the nuclear equation of state can be extracted, albeit not far from usual nuclear densities. In this contribution, which complements other contributions appearing in this topical issue, we survey some of the constraints that have been extracted recently concerning the parameters of the nuclear symmetry energy. Isovector modes, in which neutrons and protons are in opposite phase, are a natural source of information and we illustrate the values of symmetry energy around saturation deduced from isovector dipole and isovector quadrupole states. The isotopic dependence of the isoscalar monopole energy has also been suggested to provide a connection to the symmetry energy: relevant theoretical arguments and experimental results are thoroughly discussed. Finally, we consider the case of the charge-exchange spin-dipole excitations in which the sum rule associated with the total strength gives in principle access to the neutron skin and thus, indirectly, to the symmetry energy.

Colò, G.; Garg, U.; Sagawa, H.

2014-02-01

92

Secular dynamics of coplanar, non-resonant planetary system under the general relativity and quadrupole moment perturbations  

E-print Network

We construct a secular theory of a coplanar system of N-planets not involved in strong mean motion resonances, and which are far from collision zones. Besides the point-to-point Newtonian mutual interactions, we consider the general relativity corrections to the gravitational potential of the star and the innermost planet, and also a modification of this potential by the quadrupole moment and tidal distortion of the star. We focus on hierarchical planetary systems. A survey regarding model parameters (the masses, semi-major axes, spin rate of the star) reveals a rich and non-trivial dynamics of the secular system. Our study is focused on its equilibria. Such solutions predicted by the classic secular theory, which correspond to aligned (mode I) or anti-aligned (mode II) apsides, may be strongly affected by the gravitational corrections. The so called true secular resonance, which is a new feature of the classic two-planet problem discovered by Michtchenko & Malhotra (2004), may appear in other, different regions of the phase space of the generalized model. We found bifurcations of mode II which emerge new, yet unknown in the literature, secularly unstable equilibria and a complex structure of the phase space. These equilibria may imply secularly unstable orbital configurations even for nitially moderate eccentricities. The point mass gravity corrections can affect the long term-stability in the secular time scale, which may directly depend on the age of the host star through its spin rate. We also analyze the secular dynamics of the upsilon Andromede system in the realm of the generalized model. Also in this case of the three-planet system, new secular equilibria may appear.

Cezary Migaszewski; Krzysztof Gozdziewski

2008-09-30

93

Experimental Test of a Newly Proposed Empirical Relationship between the Centroid and Width of the Giant Quadrupole-Resonance and the Neutron Binding-Energy of the Nucleus  

E-print Network

' printed pages and must be accompanied by an abstract. Experimental test of a newly proposed empirical relationship between the centroid and width of the giant quadrupole resonance and the neutron binding energy of the nucleus U. Garg, K. B. Beard, and D... oscillations in which the neutrons and protons undergo in-phase, incompressible, irrotational How with unit effective mass. Recently, a new empirical relationship has been pro- posed for the centroids and widths of the GQR by Love- man and Peterson (LP...

Garg, U.; Beard, K. B.; Ye, D.; Galonsky, A.; Murakami, T.; Winfield, J. S.; Lui, YW; Youngblood, David H.

1990-01-01

94

Electron density distribution in cladribine (2-chloro-2?-deoxyadenosine) - A drug against leukemia and multiple sclerosis - Studied by multinuclear NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2-Chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (Cladribine) chemotherapeutic drug has been studied experimentally in solid state by 35Cl NQR and NMR-NQR double resonance and theoretically by the Density Functional Theory. Fifteen resonance frequencies on 14N have been detected and assigned to particular nitrogen sites in the 2-CdA molecule. The effects of tautomerism, regioisomerism, conformations and molecular aggregations, related to intermolecular hydrogen bond formation, on the NQR parameters have been analysed within the DFT and AIM ( Atoms in Molecules) formalism. The properties of the whole molecule, the so-called global reactivity descriptors, have been calculated for a comparison of both syn and anti conformations of 2-CdA molecule to check the effect of crystal packing on molecular conformation.

Latosi?ska, J. N.; Latosi?ska, M.; Seliger, J.; Žagar, V.; Kazimierczuk, Z.

2009-07-01

95

Measurement of Electric Quadrupole Moments for 31Al Using Spin Polarized RI Beams  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic moment is a sensitive probe to investigate microscopic structure. In order to measure the electromagnetic moment, {beta}-NMR and {beta}-NQR methods are employed taking advantage of the fragment spin polarization produced by the fragmentation reaction. The measurement of the electric quadrupole moment for ground-state 31Al has been been carried out by {beta}-NQR method. Spin-polarized 31Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of 40Ar projectiles, and were implanted in {alpha}-Al2O3 stopper. The electric quadrupole moment was deduced from the measured quadrupole coupling constant. The obtained value is |Q(31Al)| 104(9) e{center_dot}mb.

Nagae, D.; Asahi, K.; Takemura, M.; Takase, K.; Uchida, M.; Shimada, K.; Arai, T.; Inoue, T.; Kagami, S.; Hatakeyama, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ueno, H.; Kameda, D.; Yoshimi, A.; Sugimoto, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Kobayashi, Y. [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2007-06-13

96

A study of the spin-echo spin-locking effect in multi-pulse sequences in 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental evidence of observing a rather unusual spin-locking spin echo (SLSE) effect in the fields of two multi-pulse sequences ( ?0) x - ( ? - ?x - 2 ? - ?x - 2 ? - ?- x - 2 ? - ?- x - ?) n and ( ?0) x - ( ? - ?x - 2 ? - ?y - ?) n in 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance is presented. It was demonstrated that the SLSE effect is observed only in the even pulse intervals of both sequences. All experiments were carried out at room temperature on a powder sample of NaNO 2. A theoretical description of the effect is given.

Mikhaltsevitch, V. T.

2005-12-01

97

Detection of {sup 14}N and {sup 35}Cl in cocaine base and hydrochloride using NQR, NMR, and SQUID techniques  

SciTech Connect

Results from {sup 14}N pure NQR of cocaine in the free base form (cocaine base) yield a nuclear quadrupole coupling constant (NQCC) e{sup 2}Qq/h of 5.0229 ({+-}0.0001) MHz and an asymmetry parameter {eta} of 0.0395 ({+-}0.0001) at 295 K, with corresponding values of 5.0460 ({+-}0.0013) MHz and 0.0353 ({+-}0.0008) at 77 K. Both pure NQR (at 295-77 K) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detector (at 4.2 K) were used to measure the very low (<1 MHz) {sup 14}N transition frequencies in cocaine hydrochloride; at 295 K the NQCC is 1.1780 ({+-}0.0014) MHz and the asymmetry parameter is 0.2632 ({+-}0.0034). Stepping the carrier frequency enables one to obtain a powder pattern without the severe intensity distortions that otherwise arise from finite pulse power. A powder pattern simulation using an NQCC value of 5.027 MHz and an asymmetry parameter {eta} of 0.2 agrees reasonably well with the experimental stepped-frequency spectrum. The use of pure NQR for providing nondestructive, quantitative, and highly specific detection of crystalline compounds is discussed, as are experimental strategies. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Yesinowski, J.P.; Buess, M.L.; Garroway, A.N. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Ziegeweid, M.; Pines, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-07-01

98

NQR studies of gallium and bismuth trichlorides complexes with n- and ? -donors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35,37C1, 69,71Ga and 209Bi NQR spectra of the charge-transfer complexes of GaCl 3 with ketones, nitriles and BiCl 3 with methyl substituted derivatives of benzene at 77K have been investigated. The complexing of BiCl 3 with methyl substituted derivatives of benzene leads to an increase in 209Bi Quadrupole Coupling Constant (QCC) along the direction of the maximum field gradient of e 2Qq zzh. The nature of the frequency changes of 35,37 Cl in the acceptor molecule is different for axial and equatorial chlorine atoms. There is a correlation between the QCC 14N of the nitriles and the shifts of the 69Ga on complexing and also between shifts of the 35Cl and 69 Ga frequencies on complexing.

Popkova, L. A.; Guryanova, E. N.; Volkov, A. F.

99

Relationship between magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in Na x(H 3O) zCoO 2 · yH 2O revealed by a Co nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear quadrupole frequency ( ?Q) and spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/ T1 of Co were measured on various bilayered hydrate (BLH) Na xCoO 2 · yH 2O ( y ? 1.3) with different values of superconducting (SC) and magnetic-transition temperatures, Tc and TM, together with non-SC monolayered hydrate (MLH) Na xCoO 2 · yH 2O ( y ? 0.7). In the temperature range above 70 K, 1/ T1T in all samples follows the similar temperature dependence as each other. In the BLH compounds, 1/ T1T is enhanced with decreasing temperature below 70 K, and the values of 1/ T1T at Tc are larger in the higher- ?3 sample, where ?3 is the peak frequency of the NQR spectrum arising from ±5/2 ? ±7/2 transitions. The magnetic ordering is indicated from the prominent divergence of 1/ T1T at TM and the presence of the internal field at the Co nuclear site in the samples with ?3 higher than 12.5 MHz. We analyze the temperature dependence of 1/ T1T in all samples on the basis of identical formula, and discuss the relationship between magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in the BLH cobaltate.

Ishida, K.; Ihara, Y.; Takeya, H.; Michioka, C.; Yoshimura, K.; Takada, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

2007-09-01

100

I: Low Frequency NMR and NQR Using a dc SQUID. II: Variable-temperature 13C CP/MAS of Organometallics  

SciTech Connect

NMR and NQR at low frequencies are difficult prospects due to small nuclear spin polarization. Furthermore, the sensitivity'of the inductive pickup circuitry of standard spectrometers is reduced as the frequency is lowered. I have used a cw-SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) spectrometer, which has no such frequency dependence, to study the local atomic environment of {sup 14}N via the quadrupolar interaction. Because {sup 14}N has spin I = 1 and a 0-6 MHz frequency range, it is not possible to obtain well-resolved spectra in high magnetic fields. I have used a technique to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances via their effect on neighboring protons mediated by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to study peptides and narcotics. The sensitivity of the SQUID is not enough to measure low-frequency surface (or other low spin density) systems. The application of spin-polarized xenon has been previously used to enhance polarization in conventional NMR experiments. Because xenon only polarizes spins with which it is in contact, it is surface selective. While differences in chemical shifts between surface and bulk spins are not large, it is expected that the differences in quadrupole coupling constant should be very large due to the drastic change of the electric field gradient surrounding spins at the surface. With this in mind, I have taken preliminary steps to measure SQUID detected polarization transfer from Xe to another spin species at 4.2 K and in small magnetic fields (<50 G). In this regime, the spin-lattice relaxation of xenon is dependent on the applied magnetic field. The results of our efforts to characterize the relaxation of xenon are presented. The final section describes the solid-state variable-temperature (VT) one- and two-dimensional {sup 13}C cross polarization (CP)/magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of Hf({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, Zr({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 3}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) and Sn({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 4}. This work was undertaken in the hope of gaining insight into the intramolecuhrr dynamics, specifically which fluxional processes exist in the solid state, by what mechanism rearrangements are occurring, and the activation energies by which these processes are governed.

Ziegeweid, M.A.

1995-11-29

101

35 Cl NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dichloromethanesulfonates of silver and other +1-charged cations, M\\u000a ?+?(Cl2CHSO (M = Ag, Tl, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl NQR. Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, and was then neutralized\\u000a with the carbonates of the +1-charged cations to produce the corresponding dichloromethanesulfonate salt. This NQR study completed\\u000a the investigation of

Gabriel Gillette; Gary Wulfsberg

2008-01-01

102

Nuclear Quadrupole Double Resonance Investigation of the Anomalous Temperature Coefficients of the Strong Hydrogen Bonds in Sodium and Potassium Deuterium Diacetate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis was directed at learning more about the unusual electronic environment near hydrogen within strong hydrogen bonds. "Strong" hydrogen bonds are unique in that the hydrogen atom is symmetrically located, or nearly so, between two electronegative atoms; the bond energies are relatively large. In a "normal" hydrogen bond the hydrogen atom is bonded to, and thus physically closer to, a parent atom, and only weakly attracted to another electronegative atom; bond energies are typically small. To examine these bonds, deuterium was substituted for hydrogen and the electric quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) of deuterium was measured using field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance. The electric quadrupole moment of deuterium is sensitive to changes in the surrounding electric field gradient, and is thus a good probe of the immediate electronic structure. The results show that the temperature dependence of the QCC is opposite to, and much larger than, what one would normally expect to observe for deuterium. The QCC is found to decrease strongly with decreasing temperature. This project was the first to study in detail the temperature dependence of deuterium QCCs in strong hydrogen bonds. The magnitude of the deuterium QCCs for the diacetates was found to be strongly depressed relative to typical values for deuterium. These results parallel large shifts in the infrared vibrational frequencies observed in many molecules which contain strong hydrogen bonds. The asymmetry parameter, which is a measure of the departure from axial symmetry of the electric field gradient (EFG) at deuterium, was found to be unusually large for what are known to be linear, or nearly linear, three-center bonds. Based on ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations aimed at determining the EFG at H in the archetypal bifluoride ion, F-H-F^-, the electronic charge density is drastically depleted at H. It is believed that the large reduction in the charge density allows the deuterium EFG to be highly sensitive to the shape of the charge distribution on the atoms to which deuterium is bonded. If these atoms are at points of low crystallographic symmetry, the polarization of these adjacent atoms by other nearby atoms may cause the EFG to depart substantially from being axially symmetric. Also obtained from the molecular orbital calculations for bifluoride ion were the total electronic energy and the electric field gradient at H. From these calculations potential function models for the asymmetric stretch and the bend were constructed. An attempt was made to correlate the predictions made by these models for the temperature dependence of the deuteron quadrupole coupling constant in bifluoride ion with the experimentally observed results for the diacetates.

Shaw, Eric Max

103

35Cl NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dichloromethanesulfonates of silver and other +1-charged cations, M + (Cl2CHSO3-) ( M = Ag, Tl, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl NQR. Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, and was then neutralized with the carbonates of the +1-charged cations to produce the corresponding dichloromethanesulfonate salt. This NQR study completed the investigation of the chloroacetates and chloromethanesulfonates of silver, Ag + (Cl x CH3 - x SO3-) and Ag + (Cl x CH3 - x CO2-), and suggests (1) that the ability of organochlorine atoms to coordinate to silver decreases as the number of electron-withdrawing groups (Cl, SO3-, CO2-) attached to the carbon atom increases; (2) that the unusually large NQR spectral width found among M + (Cl2CHCO2-) salts is not present among M + (Cl2CHSO3-) salts, and therefore is not generally characteristic of the dichloromethyl group in salts.

Gillette, Gabriel; Wulfsberg, Gary

2008-01-01

104

Nuclear magnetic resonance with dc SQUID (Super-conducting QUantum Interference Device) preamplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitive radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers based on dc Superconducting QUantum Interface Devices (SQUIDS) are available for frequencies up to 200 MHz. At 4.2 K, the gain and noise temperature of a typical tuned amplifier are 18.6 + or - 0.5 dB and 1.7 + or - 0.5 K at 93 MHz. These amplifiers are being applied to a series of novel experiments on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The high sensitivity of these amplifiers was demonstrated in the observation of nuclear spin noise, the emission of photons by Cl-35 nuclei in a state of zero polarization. In the more conventional experiments in which one applies a large RF pulse to the spins, a Q-spoiler, consisting of a series array of Josephson junctions, is used to reduce the Q of the input circuit to a very low value during the pulse. The Q-spoiler enables the circuit to recover quickly after the pulse, and has been used in an NQR experiment to achieve a sensitivity of about 2 x 10(16) nuclear Bohr magnetons in a single free precession signal with a bandwidth of 10 kHz. In a third experiment, a sample containing Cl-35 nuclei was placed in a capacitor and the signal detected electrically using a tuned SQUID amplifier and Q-spoiler. In this way, the electrical polarization induced by the precessing Cl nuclear quadrupole moments was detected: this is the inverse of the Stark effect in NQR. Two experiments involving NMR have been carried out. In the first, the 30 MHz resonance in Sn-119 nuclei is detected with a tuned amplifier and Q-spoiler, and a single pulse resolution of 10(18) nuclear Bohr magnetons in a bandwidth of 25 kHz has been achieved. For the second, a low frequency NMR system has been developed that uses an untuned input circuit coupled to the SQUID. The resonance in Pt-195 nuclei has been observed at 55 kHz in a field of 60 gauss.

Fan, N. Q.; Heaney, Michael B.; Clark, John; Newitt, D.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Hahn, Erwin L.; Bierlecki, A.; Pines, A.

1988-08-01

105

63,65Cu Nuclear Resonance Study of the Coupled Spin Dimers and Chains Compound Cu2Fe2Ge4O13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of Cu have been measured in a coupled spin dimers and chains compound Cu2Fe2Ge4O13. Cu NQR has also been measured in an isostructural material Cu2Sc2Ge4O13 including only spin dimers. Comparison of the temperature dependence of the 63Cu nuclear spin--lattice relaxation rate between the two compounds reveals that the Fe chains in Cu2Fe2Ge4O13 do not change a spin gap energy of the Cu dimers from that in Cu2Sc2Ge4O13, contributing additionally to the relaxation rate at the Cu site. A modestly large internal field of 3.39 T was observed at the Cu site in the antiferromagnetic state of Cu2Fe2 Ge4O13 at 4.2 K, which is partly because of quantum reduction of the ordered moment of a Cu atom. The internal field and the ordered moment of Cu are noncollinear due to large anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction at the Cu site. A model analysis of the internal field based on the fourfold planar coordination of Cu suggests that a 3d hole of the Cu2+ ion is mainly in the d(x2-y2) orbital state.

Kikuchi, Jun; Nagura, Shiro; Murakami, Kazumasa; Masuda, Takatsugu; Redhammer, Günther J.

2013-03-01

106

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project is to examine the relations between the catalytic and magnetic properties of the copper-cobalt higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. We have undertaken to investigate the magnetic character by studying the Nuclear Quadrupole resonance of copper and (Zerofield) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of cobalt in copper cobalt catalysts.

Not Available

1991-12-17

107

Three-dimensional high-inductance birdcage coil for NQR applications.  

PubMed

A birdcage coil capable of operating simultaneously and independently in three orthogonal dimensions has been developed. A co-rotational end-ring mode producing an RF field in the longitudinal direction was utilized in addition to the two common transverse orthogonal modes. Two conductor turns were used for each of the coil's windows, increasing its inductance by a factor of four, thereby, making the coil suitable for low-frequency applications. Two or three-frequency detection can be easily carried out with this device. Orthogonality of the coil's channels allows arbitrarily close frequency positioning of each resonant mode, potentially useful in wide-line NQR studies, in which simultaneous excitation/detection of signals from three adjacent regions of a single wide line can be performed. The coil's performance was evaluated using a three-dimensional scheme, in which a circularly polarized experiment was combined with a linearly polarized measurement at another frequency, resulting in SNR improvement by 55%. PMID:16584871

Peshkovsky, A S; Cerioni, L; Osan, T M; Avdievich, N I; Pusiol, D J

2006-09-01

108

27Al-NQR\\/NMR Study of Kondo Semiconductor CeFe2Al10  

Microsoft Academic Search

27Al-NQR\\/NMR measurements have been performed on CeFe2Al10 in relevance to the novel phase below T0=27 K of isostructural CeRu2Al10. NQR peaks are assigned to five crystallographically inequivalent Al sites. No splitting of the NQR spectra down to 1.5 K confirms the lack of phase transition in this compound. The gaplike decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1\\/T1 above about 20

Yukihiro Kawamura; Shingo Edamoto; Tomoaki Takesaka; Takashi Nishioka; Harukazu Kato; Masahiro Matsumura; Yo Tokunaga; Shinsaku Kambe; Hiroshi Yasuoka

2010-01-01

109

Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

Heaney, M.B. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01

110

35Cl NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dichloromethanesulfonates of silver and other +1-charged cations, M +(Cl2CHSO{3/-}) (M=Ag, Tl, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl NQR. Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, and was then neutralized with the carbonates of the +1-charged cations to produce the corresponding dichloromethanesulfonate salt. This NQR study completed the investigation of the chloroacetates and chloromethanesulfonates of silver, Ag+(Cl x CH3-x SO{3/-}) and Ag+(Cl x CH3-x CO{2/-}), and suggests (1) that the ability of organochlorine atoms to coordinate to silver decreases as the number of electron-withdrawing groups (Cl, SO{3/-} CO{2/-}) attached to the carbon atom increases; (2) that the unusually large NQR spectral width found among M+(Cl2CHCO{2/-}) salts is not present among M+(Cl2CHS0{3/-}) salts, and therefore is not generally characteristic of the dichloromethyl group in salts.

Gillette, Gabriel; Wulfsberg, Gary

111

IMPLEMENTATION OF A -NQR SYSTEM AT THE NSCL FOR GROUND STATE QUADRUPOLE MOMENT  

E-print Network

of multi-radio frequencies, high rf magnetic field strength, short rf application time due to the short.2 Implantation of nuclei and preservation of polarization in a host crystal 13 2.3 Hyperfine interactions

Mantica, Paul F.

112

Molecular near-field antenna effect in resonance hyper-Raman scattering: Intermolecular vibronic intensity borrowing of solvent from solute through dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-?-carotene (?-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute ?-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of ?-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of ?-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of the observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of ?-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute-solvent dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole-dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole-quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.

Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.

2014-05-01

113

Centering of quadrupole family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed.

Pinayev, Igor

2007-01-01

114

Nature of isomerism of solid isothiourea salts, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases, as studied by 1H-14N nuclear quadrupole double resonance, X-ray, and density functional theory/quantum theory of atoms in molecules.  

PubMed

Isothioureas, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases, have been studied experimentally in solid state by nuclear quadrupole double resonance (NQDR) and X-ray methods and theoretically by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules/density functional theory. Resonance frequencies on (14)N have been detected and assigned to particular nitrogen sites in each molecule. The crystal packings of (S)-3,4-dichlorobenzyl-N-methylisothiouronium chloride with the disordered chlorine positions in benzene ring and (S)-butyloisothiouronium bromide have been resolved in X-ray diffraction studies. (14)N NQDR spectra have been found good indicators of isomer type and strength of intra- or intermolecular N-H···X (X = Cl, Br) interactions. From among all salts studied, only for (S)-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium chloride are both nitrogen sites equivalent, which has been explained by the slow exchange. This unique structural feature can be a key factor in the high biological activity of (S)-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium salts. PMID:22283980

Latosi?ska, J N; Latosi?ska, M; Seliger, J; Žagar, V; Maurin, J K; Kazimierczuk, Z

2012-02-01

115

27Al-NQR Study on Novel Phase Transition in CeOs2Al10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed 27Al-NQR measurements in CeOs2Al10 which exhibits a novel phase transition at T0=29 K The NQR parameters determined for all the Al sites in ambient pressure were compared with those in CeRu2Al10 with T0=27 K and CeFe2Al10 with no phase transition. The distinct NQR splitting just below T0=32.5 K under pressure 0.66 GPa ensures an enhancement of T0 and a homogeneous transition. Despite the increase of T0, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/Tl is suppressed over whole range of temperature than in ambient pressure. The characteristic features of no critical slowing down at T0 and of the remarkable decrease of 1/T1T starting at T > T0 become prominent under pressure, suggesting an approach to Kondo semiconductor in a valence fluctuation regime.

Matsumura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, H.; Nishioka, T.; Tanida, H.; Sera, M.

2012-12-01

116

High gradient superconducting quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed.

Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

1987-07-01

117

Multipulse sequences for explosives detection by NQR under conditions of magnetoacoustic and piezoelectric ringing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of methods for cancelling magnetoacoustic and piezoelectric ringing signals in the spectroscopy of the nuclear quadrupole\\u000a resonance are presented. The suggested methods include using the sequence (?0)?-(?-?x-2?-?\\u000a y\\u000a -2?-??x\\u000a -2?-??y\\u000a -?)\\u000a n\\u000a and a multipulse analog of the two-pulse Hahn sequence with the first pulse replaced by a short steady-state sequence. Another\\u000a method presented is the method of

V. T. Mikhaltsevitch; T. N. Rudakov; J. H. Flexman; P. A. Hayes; W. P. Chisholm

2004-01-01

118

A zero-field NQR and low-field NMR study of NaHF 2 and KHF 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters have been measured for 23Na in NaHF 2 and NaDF 2 and an estimate obtained for the quadrupole coupling constant of 39K in KHF 2 using nuclear quadrupole double-resonance (NQDR) techniques. Both fluorine and hydrogen were used as the detecting nuclear species. Using the same field-cycling techniques as are used in NQDR the very low field NMR of the HF2- ion was measured. By a comparison of theory with experiment it was possible to deduce a F-H bond length of 0.115(1) nm for KHF 2 and 0.113(l) nm for NaHF 2.

Gosling, P.; Edmonds, D. T.; Rabbani, S. R.

119

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, June 15--September 15, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project is to examine the relations between the catalytic and magnetic properties of the copper-cobalt higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. We have undertaken to investigate the magnetic character by studying the Nuclear Quadrupole resonance of copper and (Zerofield) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of cobalt in copper cobalt catalysts.

Not Available

1991-12-17

120

Sodium-23 and potassium-39 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in eye lens. Examples of quadrupole ion magnetic relaxation in a crowded protein environment.  

PubMed Central

Single and multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the motional dynamics of sodium and potassium ions in concentrated protein solution, represented in this study by cortical and nuclear bovine lens tissue homogenates. Both ions displayed homogeneous biexponential magnetic relaxation behavior. Furthermore, the NMR relaxation behavior of these ions in lens homogenates was consistent either with a model that assumed the occurrence of two predominant ionic populations, "free" and "bound," in fast exchange with each other or with a model that assumed an asymmetric Gaussian distribution of correlation times. Regardless of the model employed, both ions were found to occur in a predominantly "free" or "unbound" rapidly reorienting state. The fraction of "bound" 23Na+, assuming a discrete two-site model, was approximately 0.006 and 0.017 for cortical and nuclear homogenates, respectively. Corresponding values for 39K+ were 0.003 and 0.007, respectively. Estimated values for the fraction of "bound" 23Na+ or 39K+ obtained from the distribution model (tau C greater than omega L-1) were less than or equal to 0.05 for all cases examined. The correlation times of the "bound" ions, derived using either a two-site or distribution model, yielded values that were at least one order of magnitude smaller than the reorientational motion of the constituent lens proteins. This observation implies that the apparent correlation time for ion binding is dominated by processes other than protein reorientational motion, most likely fast exchange between "free" and "bound" environments. The results of NMR visibility studies were consistent with the above findings, in agreement with other studies performed by non-NMR methods. These studies, in combination with those presented in the literature, suggest that the most likely role for sodium and potassium ions in the lens appears to be the regulation of cell volume by affecting the intralenticular water chemical potential. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:1600073

Stevens, A; Paschalis, P; Schleich, T

1992-01-01

121

Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For advanced undergraduate students: Observe resonance in a collection of driven, damped harmonic oscillators. Vary the driving frequency and amplitude, the damping constant, and the mass and spring constant of each resonator. Notice the long-lived transients when damping is small, and observe the phase change for resonators above and below resonance.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Loeblein, Patricia; Olson, Jonathan; Perkins, Kathy; Gratny, Mindy

2011-07-20

122

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Copper and cobalt are the key elements in syngas conversion catalyst systems used for higher alcohol synthesis. Their proximity and synergy sensitively control the selectivity and efficiency of the process. It is believed that their outer electronic charge distribution which is responsible for their electrical and magnetic properties might be governing their catalytic properties also. To examine the correlation between catalytic and magnetic properties, a series of copper cobalt catalysts (Co/Cu ratio 5:1 to 5:5) with and without a support were prepared. The nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of copper and (zero-field) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of cobalt and magnetization and hysteresis character of the catalyst were analyzed. Similar to the catalytic results, the magnetic results also were found to be very sensitive to the preparation technique. The results indicate possible electron exchange between copper and cobalt, and cobalt and the support Titania.

Not Available

1991-01-14

123

Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole  

SciTech Connect

A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; /Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; /NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

2007-05-23

124

Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole  

DOEpatents

A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

Lancaster, Henry D. (Orinda, CA); Fugitt, Jock A. (Berkeley, CA); Howard, Donald R. (Danville, CA)

1984-01-01

125

Addition compounds of antimony trichloride and tribromide. Crystal structure and charge transfer from NQR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation analysis of the quadrupcle coupling constants(QCC) for the antimony nuclei in the intermolecular compounds of SbCl 3 and SbBr 3 with aromatic hydrocarbons is carried out. The results confirm a supposition about the general similarity of the crystal structures of these complexes. The correlative dependence between the antimony QCC values and also the results of the chlorine and bromine NQR spectra Investigation permit the evaluation of the relative acceptor strength of the antimony trihalide molecules.

Kjuntsel, I. A.; Gordeev, A. D.

126

27Al-NQR/NMR Study of Kondo Semiconductor CeFe2Al10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

27Al-NQR/NMR measurements have been performed on CeFe2Al10 in relevance to the novel phase below T0=27 K of isostructural CeRu2Al10. NQR peaks are assigned to five crystallographically inequivalent Al sites. No splitting of the NQR spectra down to 1.5 K confirms the lack of phase transition in this compound. The gaplike decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 above about 20 K, following the Korringa law (T1T = const.) below 20 K, indicates a pseudogap opening near the Fermi level. The gap magnitude of 70 K with a mid-gap state of 42% is estimated based on a rectangular density of states. The gap magnitude is much larger than the gap of 15 K evaluated previously from the electrical resistivity, which suggests CeFe2Al10 to be a Kondo semiconductor with a Kondo temperature much higher than 300 K.

Kawamura, Yukihiro; Edamoto, Shingo; Takesaka, Tomoaki; Nishioka, Takashi; Kato, Harukazu; Matsumura, Masahiro; Tokunaga, Yo; Kambe, Shinsaku; Yasuoka, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

127

Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The Borrmann effect-a dramatic increase in transparency to X-ray beams-is observed when X-rays satisfying Bragg's law diffract through a perfect crystal. The minimization of absorption seen in the Borrmann effect has been explained by noting that the electric field of the X-ray beam approaches zero amplitude at the crystal planes, thus avoiding the atoms. Here we show experimentally that under conditions of absorption suppression, the weaker electric quadrupole absorption transitions are effectively enhanced to such a degree that they can dominate the absorption spectrum. This effect can be exploited as an atomic spectroscopy technique; we show that quadrupole transitions give rise to additional structure at the L(1), L(2) and L(3) absorption edges of gadolinium in gadolinium gallium garnet, which mark the onset of excitations from 2s, 2p(1/2) and 2p(3/2) atomic core levels, respectively. Although the Borrmann effect served to underpin the development of the theory of X-ray diffraction, this is potentially the most important experimental application of the phenomenon since its first observation seven decades ago. Identifying quadrupole features in X-ray absorption spectroscopy is central to the interpretation of 'pre-edge' spectra, which are often taken to be indicators of local symmetry, valence and atomic environment. Quadrupolar absorption isolates states of different symmetries to that of the dominant dipole spectrum, and typically reveals orbitals that dominate the electronic ground-state properties of lanthanides and 3d transition metals, including magnetism. Results from our Borrmann spectroscopy technique feed into contemporary discussions regarding resonant X-ray diffraction and the nature of pre-edge lines identified by inelastic X-ray scattering. Furthermore, because the Borrmann effect has been observed in photonic materials, it seems likely that the quadrupole enhancement reported here will play an important role in modern optics. PMID:18615080

Pettifer, Robert F; Collins, Stephen P; Laundy, David

2008-07-10

128

Quadrupole plasmon excitations in finite-size atomic chain systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence and the nature of a new mode of electronic collective excitations (quadrupole plasmons) in confined one-dimensional electronic systems, used to mimic finite-size linear metal atomic chains, have been predicted by an eigen-equation method. The eigen-equation based on the time-dependent density-functional theory is presented for calculating the collective excitations in confined systems. With this method, all modes of collective excitations in the 1D systems can be found out. These modes include dipole plasmons and quadrupole plasmons. The dipole plasmon mode corresponds to the antisymmetric oscillation of induced charge, and can be shown as a resonance of the dipole response. In the quadrupole plasmon modes, the induced charge distribution is symmetric, and the dipole response vanishes. The motion of the electrons in the quadrupole modes is similar to the vibration of atoms in the breathing mode of phonons. This type of plasmon can be shown as a resonance of the quadrupole response, and has to be excited by a non-uniform field.

Wu, Reng-lai; Xue, Hong-jie; Yu, Yabin

2014-12-01

129

Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole, and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors, and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model.

Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.-D.

1996-05-01

130

Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Resonance, is the sixth chapter in the Volume II textbook. Topics covered in this chapter include: electric pendulum, simple parallel resonance, simple series resonance, resonance in series-parallel circuits, and Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-07

131

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

Andrew, E. R.

2009-06-01

132

Roles of the Sodium-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on Vibrio cholerae Metabolism, Motility and Osmotic Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J.; Faulkner, Wyatt J.; Aagesen, Alisha M.; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F.; Hase, Claudia C.

2014-01-01

133

Roles of the sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on vibrio cholerae metabolism, motility and osmotic stress resistance.  

PubMed

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Kirkwood, Jay S; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Aagesen, Alisha M; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F; Häse, Claudia C

2014-01-01

134

Combined Panofsky Quadrupole & Corrector Dipole  

SciTech Connect

Two styles of Panofsky Quadrupoles with integral corrector dipole windings are in use in the electron beam line of the Free Electron Laser at Jefferson Lab. We combined steering and focusing functions into single magnets, adding hundreds of Gauss-cm dipole corrector capability to existing quadrupoles because space is at a premium along the beam line. Superposing a one part in 100 dipole corrector field on a 1 part in 1000, weak (600 to 1000 Gauss) quadrupole is possible because the parallel slab iron yoke of the Panofsky Quadrupole acts as a window frame style dipole yoke. The dipole field is formed when two electrically floating “current sources”, designed and made at JLab, add and subtract current from the two opposite quadrupole current sheet windings parallel to the dipole field direction. The current sources also drive auxiliary coils at the yoke’s inner corners that improve the dipole field. Magnet measurements yielded the control system field maps that characterize the two types of fields. Field analysis using TOSCA, construction and wiring details, magnet measurements and reference for the current source are presented.

George Biallas; Nathan Belcher; David Douglas; Tommy Hiatt; Kevin Jordan

2007-07-02

135

Hybridization-driven gap in U3Bi4Ni3: a 209Bi NMR/NQR study  

SciTech Connect

We report {sup 209}Bi nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance measurements on a single crystal of the Kondo insulator U{sub 3}Bi{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}. The {sup 209}Bi nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (T{sub 1}{sup -1}) shows activated behavior and is well fit by a spin gap of 220 K. The {sup 209}Bi Knight shift (K) exhibits a strong temperature dependence arising from 5f electrons, in which K is negative at high temperatures and increases as the temperature is lowered. Below 50 K, K shows a broad maximum and decreases slightly upon further cooling. Our data provide insight into the evolution of the hyperfine fields in a fully gapped Kondo insulator based on 5f electron hybridization.

Baek, Seung H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

136

Quadrupole interactions in tetraoxoferrates (VI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An applicability of the point charge approach for calculations of quadrupole splittings in Mössbauer spectra of ferrates(VI) was studied. The reasonable correlation between calculated and experimental splittings was observed for the majority of ferrates excepting K3Na(FeO4)2. The comparison of ferrates and chromates was made using calculated nucleus independent coefficient.

Dedushenko, Sergey K.; Perfiliev, Yurii D.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Gapochka, Alexei M.

2013-05-01

137

Quadrupole magnets for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

At LBL, we have designed, constructed, and tested ten models (4-1meter, 6-5meter) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) main-ring 5 meter focusing quadrupole magnet (211Tesla/meter). The results of this program are herein summarized.

Lietzke, A.; Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, R.; Caspi, S.; Cortella, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Gilbert, W.; Green, M.I.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.E.; Wandesforde, A.

1992-08-01

138

LCLS Undulator Quadrupole Fiducialization Plan  

SciTech Connect

This note presents the fiducialization plan for the LCLS undulator quadrupoles. The note begins by summarizing the requirements for the fiducialization. A discussion of the measurement equipment is presented, followed by the methods used to perform the fiducialization and check the results. This is followed by the detailed fiducialization plan in which each step is enumerated. Finally, the measurement results and data storage formats are presented. The LCLS is made up of 33 assemblies consisting of an undulator, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and other components mounted on a girder. The components must be mounted in such a way that the beam passes down the axis of each component. In this note, we describe how the ideal beam axis is related to tooling balls on the quadrupole. This step, called fiducialization, is necessary because the ideal beam axis is determined magnetically, whereas tangible objects must be used to locate the quadrupole. The note begins with the list of fiducialization requirements. The laboratory in which the work will be performed and the relevant equipment is then briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the methods used to perform the fiducialization and the methods used to check the results. A detailed fiducialization plan is presented in which all the steps of fiducialization are enumerated. A discussion of the resulting data files and directory structure concludes the note.

Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Michael; Lundahl, Eric; Reese, Ed; LeCocq, Catherine; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-24

139

Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator.  

PubMed

A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 ??mm?mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%. PMID:24593446

Peng, Shixiang; Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ailing; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er

2014-02-01

140

Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Sign-Selected Quadrupole Train for E-815 (NuTeV) is set forth. The relevant physics requirements are explained. The optics of the beam are presented, along with an explanation of the proton dumping scheme. A discussion of rates and backgrounds follows, with special care given to backgrounds from scraping and obstructions. The relevant tolerances for beam construction are given and justified by simulations of the beamline. This leads to a discussion of the beam monitoring.

Bernstein, R.; NuTeV Collaboration

1994-05-03

141

Nuclear quadrupole moment of the {sup 99}Tc ground state  

SciTech Connect

By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2{sup +} ground state of {sup 99}Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc{sub 2} and ZrTc{sub 2}. If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the {sup 99}Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced.

Errico, Leonardo [Departamento de Fisica and Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CCT-La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Coreo 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Noroeste Bonaerense (UNNOBA), Monteagudo 2772, 2700 Pergamino (Argentina); Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario [Departamento de Fisica and Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CCT-La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Coreo 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Tang Zhengning [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universitaet Bayreuth, DE-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Emmerich, Heike [Computational Materials Engineering (CME), Institute for Minerals Engineering (GHI), Center for Computational Engineering Science - CCES and Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance - JARA, RWTH Aachen University, DE-52064 Aachen (Germany); Cottenier, Stefaan [Computational Materials Engineering (CME), Institute for Minerals Engineering (GHI), Center for Computational Engineering Science - CCES and Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance - JARA, RWTH Aachen University, DE-52064 Aachen (Germany) and Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2008-05-15

142

CLAS Measurement of Narrow?(1232) Quadrupole Transition Form Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroproduction of the ?(1232) can be used to study the mechanisms responsible for quark confinement and resonance formation. In particular, the Q^2 dependence of the multipoles E_1+ and S_1+ in the Narrow? quadrupole transition is especially sensitive to the shape of the nucleon and the evolution from pion to quark degrees of freedom. Recent ?^0 electroproduction data taken using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab permit a complete separation of the response functions ?_TT and ?_LT, which show high sensitivity to the quadrupole strength. New experimental results for the ratios E_1+/M_1+ and S_1+/M_1+ are presented using a partial wave analysis over a Q^2 range of 0.4 to 1.8 GeV^2. Results will be compared to quark models as well as recent unitary models which include the dynamical effects of the pion cloud.

Smith, Cole; Joo, Kyungseon

2002-04-01

143

Solid-state NMR/NQR and first-principles study of two niobium halide cluster compounds.  

PubMed

Two hexanuclear niobium halide cluster compounds with a [Nb6X12](2+) (X=Cl, Br) diamagnetic cluster core, have been studied by a combination of experimental solid-state NMR/NQR techniques and PAW/GIPAW calculations. For niobium sites the NMR parameters were determined by using variable Bo field static broadband NMR measurements and additional NQR measurements. It was found that they possess large positive chemical shifts, contrary to majority of niobium compounds studied so far by solid-state NMR, but in accordance with chemical shifts of (95)Mo nuclei in structurally related compounds containing [Mo6Br8](4+) cluster cores. Experimentally determined ?iso((93)Nb) values are in the range from 2,400 to 3,000 ppm. A detailed analysis of geometrical relations between computed electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors with respect to structural features of cluster units was carried out. These tensors on niobium sites are almost axially symmetric with parallel orientation of the largest EFG and the smallest CS principal axes (Vzz and ?33) coinciding with the molecular four-fold axis of the [Nb6X12](2+) unit. Bridging halogen sites are characterized by large asymmetry of EFG and CS tensors, the largest EFG principal axis (Vzz) is perpendicular to the X-Nb bonds, while intermediate EFG principal axis (Vyy) and the largest CS principal axis (?11) are oriented in the radial direction with respect to the center of the cluster unit. For more symmetrical bromide compound the PAW predictions for EFG parameters are in better correspondence with the NMR/NQR measurements than in the less symmetrical chlorine compound. Theoretically predicted NMR parameters of bridging halogen sites were checked by (79/81)Br NQR and (35)Cl solid-state NMR measurements. PMID:24581866

Peri?, Berislav; Gautier, Régis; Pickard, Chris J; Bosio?i?, Marko; Grbi?, Mihael S; Požek, Miroslav

2014-01-01

144

Structure of the Cu-NQR Spectrum in Hg-1223 Between 4.2 K and 145 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extremely low noise RF preamplifier cooled with liquid helium has been developed and is used to perform Cu-NQR measurements for Hg-1223 (Tc=134 K) at temperatures from 4.2 K to 145 K. At temperatures from 4.2 K to 20 K the spectra are centered at 15 MHz with a spectral width of approximately 2 MHz, similar to the Cu-NQR spectra of the other members of the HgBa2Can-1CunO2n+2+? series. The Cu-NQR spectra in this temperature range exhibit some features indicating an unresolved splitting but they can still be fitted quite well by a set of two pairs of 63/65Cu lines, as expected for the 1223 structure. The spectra at 40 K and above clearly show a structure that can not be fitted suitable by a set of two pairs of 63/65Cu lines. However, a fit with a set of four pairs of 63/65Cu lines is in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the spectra at 80 K, 85 K and 90 K show a strong variation with respect to each other which might indicate a structural change like the formation of a superstructure, as discussed for other high-Tc compounds, instead of a simple disorder in the crystal lattice.

Breitzke, H.; Lüders, K.; Gippius, A. A.; Antipov, E. V.

145

DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200700049 Indirect Detection of Nitrogen-14 in Solid-State  

E-print Network

- tentially attractive probe for a variety of materials. The interac- tion between the quadrupole moment Q of a magnetic field, by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR).[4,5] When the sample is placed in a static magnetic and forth between 14 N and suitable "spy" nuclei S such as 13 C or 1 H, the single- or double

146

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 48, NUMBER 13 1 OCTOBER 1993-1 Determination of the absolute sign of nuclear quadrupole interactions by laser radio-frequency  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 48, NUMBER 13 1 OCTOBER 1993-1 Determination of the absolute sign of nuclear quadrupole interactions by laser radio-frequency double-resonance experiments Tilo Blasberg the quadrupole moment of nuclear spins I > + with the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor leads to a splitting

Suter, Dieter

147

Distal and proximal ligand interactions in heme proteins: Correlations between C-O and Fe-C vibrational frequencies, oxygen-17 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, and oxygen-17 nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in C sup 17 O- and sup 13 CO-labeled species  

SciTech Connect

The authors have obtained the oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a variety of C{sup 17}O-labeled heme proteins, including sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobin, two synthetic sperm whale myoglobin mutants (His E7 {yields} Val E7; His E7 {yields} Phe E7), adult human hemoglobin, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) hemoglobin, horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia) peroxidase isoenzymes A and C, and Caldariomyces fumago chloroperoxidase, in some cases as a function of pH, and have determined their isotropic {sup 17}O NMR chemical shifts, {delta}{sub i}, and spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1}. They have also obtained similar results on a picket fence prophyrin. The results show an excellent correlation between the infrared C-O vibrational frequencies, {nu}(C-O), and {delta}{sub i}, between {nu}(C-O) and the {sup 17}O nuclear quadrupole coupling constant, and as expected between e{sup 2}qQ/h and {delta}{sub i}. The results suggest the IR and NMR measurements reflect the same interaction, which is thought to be primarily the degree of {pi}-back-bonding from Fe d to CO {pi}* orbitals, as outlined previously.

Ki Deok Park; Guo, K.; Adebodun, F.; Chiu, M.L.; Sligar, S.G.; Oldfield, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

1991-03-05

148

A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization  

SciTech Connect

A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method of choice. We then give an overview of the measurement system showing how the vibrating wire is positioned onto the quadrupole axis, how the wire position detectors locate the wire relative to tooling balls without touching the wire, and how the tooling ball positions are all measured. The novel feature of this system is the vibrating wire which we discuss in depth. We analyze the wire dynamics and calculate the expected sensitivity of the system. The note should be an aid in debugging the system by providing calculations to compare measurements to.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

149

Quadrupole coupling and crystal-field shielding in CaF2:Eu3+:O2- under hydrostatic pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear quadrupole interactions in the 7F0 ground electronic state and the 5D0 excited state of the 151Eu3+ and 153Eu3+ ions have been investigated by optical means. The optically detected nuclear quadrupole resonance, excitation, and luminescence of the Eu3+-O2- C3v symmetry center have been studied at 4.2 K in single crystals of CaF2:Eu:O under hydrostatic pressure up to 7.5 kbar.

Andrzej P. Radlinski; A. J. Silversmith

1986-01-01

150

Electrostatic quadrupoles for heavy-ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Voltage-holding data for three quadrupole electrode sizes and inter-electrode spacings are reported. The dependence of the breakdown voltage on system size and its influence on the optimum quadrupole size for beam transport in a multiple beam array are discussed.

Seidl, P.; Faltens, A.

1993-05-01

151

Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

2014-08-01

152

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

153

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

154

Integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole  

DOEpatents

An improved radio frequency quadrupole (10) is provided having an elongate housing (11) with an elongate central axis (12) and top, bottom and two side walls (13a-d) symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes (14a-d) formed integrally with the walls (13a-d), the vanes (14a-d) each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis (12) which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips (15a-d) spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls (13a-d), and the vanes (14a-d) integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane (16) passing through the tip of the vane, the walls (13a-d) having flat mounting surfaces (17, 18) at right angles to and parallel to the control plane (16), respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other.

Abbott, Steven R. (Concord, CA)

1989-01-01

155

Central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) in sodium bioenergetics of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Abstract Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in brackish or sea water environments. Strains of V. cholerae carrying the pathogenicity islands infect the human gut and cause the fatal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae maintains a Na+ gradient at its cytoplasmic membrane that drives substrate uptake, motility, and efflux of antibiotics. Here, we summarize the major Na+-dependent transport processes and describe the central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), a primary Na+ pump, in maintaining a Na+-motive force. The Na+-NQR is a membrane protein complex with a mass of about 220 kDa that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. We describe the molecular architecture of this respiratory complex and summarize the findings how electron transport might be coupled to Na+-translocation. Moreover, recent advances in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this complex are reported. PMID:25205724

Steuber, Julia; Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steffen, Wojtek; Vohl, Georg; Fritz, Günter

2014-12-01

156

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole  

DOEpatents

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

Tatchyn, R.O.

1997-01-21

157

Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole  

DOEpatents

Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

Tatchyn, Roman O. (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01

158

arXiv:physics/0609196v122Sep2006 Detection of radio frequency magnetic fields using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation  

E-print Network

magneto-optical rotation M. P. Ledbetter, V. M. Acosta, S. M. Rochester, and D. Budker Department for detection of small, high frequency magnetic fields. The magnetometer operates by detecting optical rotation), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) [1] and has been used in tests

159

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, September 14--December 15, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Copper and cobalt are the key elements in syngas conversion catalyst systems used for higher alcohol synthesis. Their proximity and synergy sensitively control the selectivity and efficiency of the process. It is believed that their outer electronic charge distribution which is responsible for their electrical and magnetic properties might be governing their catalytic properties also. To examine the correlation between catalytic and magnetic properties, a series of copper cobalt catalysts (Co/Cu ratio 5:1 to 5:5) with and without a support were prepared. The nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of copper and (zero-field) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of cobalt and magnetization and hysteresis character of the catalyst were analyzed. Similar to the catalytic results, the magnetic results also were found to be very sensitive to the preparation technique. The results indicate possible electron exchange between copper and cobalt, and cobalt and the support Titania.

Not Available

1991-01-14

160

Purely electric and magnetic dipole resonances in metamaterial dielectric resonators through perturbation theory inspired geometries  

E-print Network

In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometry in a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole ...

Campione, Salvatore; Warne, Larry K; Sinclair, Michael B

2014-01-01

161

Compressive mass analysis on quadrupole ion trap systems.  

PubMed

Conventionally, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers eject ions of different mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) in a sequential fashion by performing a scan of the rf trapping voltage amplitude. Due to the inherent sparsity of most mass spectra, the detector measures no signal for much of the scan time. By exploiting this sparsity property, we propose a new compressive and multiplexed mass analysis approach--multi Resonant Frequency Excitation (mRFE) ejection. This new approach divides the mass spectrum into several mass subranges and detects all the subrange spectra in parallel for increased mass analysis speed. Mathematical estimation of standard mass spectrum is demonstrated while statistical classification on the parallel measurements remains viable because of the sparse nature of the mass spectra. This method can reduce mass analysis time by a factor of 3-6 and increase system duty cycle by 2×. The combination of reduced analysis time and accurate compound classification is demonstrated in a commercial quadrupole ion trap (QIT) system. PMID:24806048

Chen, Evan Xuguang; Gehm, Michael; Danell, Ryan; Wells, Mitch; Glass, Jeffrey T; Brady, David

2014-07-01

162

Compressive Mass Analysis on Quadrupole Ion Trap Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers eject ions of different mass-to-charge ratio ( m/z) in a sequential fashion by performing a scan of the rf trapping voltage amplitude. Due to the inherent sparsity of most mass spectra, the detector measures no signal for much of the scan time. By exploiting this sparsity property, we propose a new compressive and multiplexed mass analysis approach— multi Resonant Frequency Excitation (mRFE) ejection. This new approach divides the mass spectrum into several mass subranges and detects all the subrange spectra in parallel for increased mass analysis speed. Mathematical estimation of standard mass spectrum is demonstrated while statistical classification on the parallel measurements remains viable because of the sparse nature of the mass spectra. This method can reduce mass analysis time by a factor of 3-6 and increase system duty cycle by 2×. The combination of reduced analysis time and accurate compound classification is demonstrated in a commercial quadrupole ion trap (QIT) system.

Chen, Evan Xuguang; Gehm, Michael; Danell, Ryan; Wells, Mitch; Glass, Jeffrey T.; Brady, David

2014-07-01

163

A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p, n) 7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p, n) 7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT.

Kreiner, A. J.; Kwan, J. W.; Burlón, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D. M.; Valda, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H.

2007-08-01

164

Detecting quadrupole interactions in ultracold Fermi gases  

E-print Network

We propose to detect quadrupole interactions of neutral ultra-cold atoms via their induced mean-field shift. We consider a Mott insulator state of spin-polarized atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice. The quadrupole moments of the atoms are aligned by an external magnetic field. As the alignment angle is varied, the mean-field shift shows a characteristic angular dependence, which constitutes the defining signature of the quadrupole interaction. For the $^{3}P_{2}$ states of Yb and Sr atoms, we find a frequency shift of the order of tens of Hertz, which can be realistically detected in experiment with current technology. We compare our results to the mean-field shift of a spin-polarized quasi-2D Fermi gas in continuum.

M. Lahrz; Mikhail Lemeshko; Klaus Sengstock; Christoph Becker; L. Mathey

2014-02-04

165

Microfluidic quadrupole and floating concentration gradient  

PubMed Central

The concept of fluidic multipoles, in analogy to electrostatics, has long been known as a particular class of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation in potential flows, however, experimental observations of fluidic multipoles and of their characteristics have not been reported yet. Here we present a two-dimensional microfluidic quadrupole and a theoretical analysis consistent with the experimental observations. The microfluidic quadrupole was formed by simultaneously injecting and aspirating fluids from two pairs of opposing apertures in a narrow gap formed between a microfluidic probe and a substrate. A stagnation point was formed at the center of the microfluidic quadrupole, and its position could be rapidly adjusted hydrodynamically. Following the injection of a solute through one of the poles, a stationary, tunable, and movable – i.e. “floating” – concentration gradient was formed at the stagnation point. Our results lay the foundation for future combined experimental and theoretical exploration of microfluidic planar multipoles including convective-diffusive phenomena. PMID:21897375

Qasaimeh, Mohammad A.; Gervais, Thomas; Juncker, David

2014-01-01

166

Simple Bridge for Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymmetrical rf bridge for pulsed magnetic resonance experiments is described. The balancing adjustments, which can be made quickly and easily, ensure a proper impedance match to transmitter and receiver. The bridge is particularly well suited for pure nuclear quadrupole resonance experiments.

K. R. Jeffrey; R. L. Armstrong

1967-01-01

167

An ultra-broadband low-frequency magnetic resonance system.  

PubMed

MR probes commonly employ resonant circuits for efficient RF transmission and low-noise reception. These circuits are narrow-band analog devices that are inflexible for broadband and multi-frequency operation at low Larmor frequencies. We have addressed this issue by developing an ultra-broadband MR probe that operates in the 0.1-3MHz frequency range without using conventional resonant circuits for either transmission or reception. This "non-resonant" approach significantly simplifies the probe circuit and allows robust operation without probe tuning while retaining efficient power transmission and low-noise reception. We also demonstrate the utility of the technique through a variety of NMR and NQR experiments in this frequency range. PMID:24632101

Mandal, S; Utsuzawa, S; Cory, D G; Hürlimann, M; Poitzsch, M; Song, Y-Q

2014-05-01

168

Electric quadrupole and hexadecapole moments for ethyne  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an ab initio study of electric quadrupole and hexadecapole moments of ethyne (HC?CH). Large Gaussian basis sets are used to obtain SCF values close to the Hartree-Fock limit. Electron correlation corrections to the SCF values are calculated via SDQ-MP4, fourth-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with single, double and quadruple substitutions from the reference wavefunction. Our best values, obtained with a 4s3p3d2f/3s2p1d basis set, are 4.88 ea20 for the quadrupole and 55.8 ea40 for the hexadecapole moment at the experimental equilibrium geometry.

Maroulis, George

1991-02-01

169

Ion motion in the rectangular wave quadrupole field and digital operation mode of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

A quadrupolar electric field driven by a rectangular wave voltage can be used for mass-selective storage and analysis. The ion motion in such an electric field is derived, and the stability of ions is presented in the a-q diagram that is commonly used for sinusoidal wave quadrupole mass spectrometry in association with the solution of the Mathieu equation. The pseudo-potential well is discussed in an approximation that leads to the relation of secular frequency to operating parameters. A scheme for a digital ion trap mass spectrometer is described, based on this theory. An ion optics simulation was performed to check the theory of resonant ejection, and to prove the feasibility of the mass scan method for a practical ion trap of such geometry. PMID:16308895

Ding, L; Kumashiro, S

2006-01-01

170

vhf Pulsed Magnetic Resonance Duplexers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling schemes for pulsed magnetic resonance spectrometers operating in the vhf region are discussed. Three such schemes are described in detail and their performances compared, using the 81Br nuclear quadrupole resonance signal at ?200 MHz in polycrystalline K2PtBr6. The first scheme employs a hybrid T, coaxial ring circuit with the transmitter, receiver, sample coil, and a dummy load in the

B. Michael Moores; Robin L. Armstrong

1971-01-01

171

Chip-Scale Quadrupole Mass Filters for Portable Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a new class of chip-scale quadrupole mass filter (QMF). The devices are completely batch fabricated using a wafer-scale process that integrates the quadrupole ...

Cheung, Kerry

172

Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H, D, T) and helium (³He, He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m\\/..delta..m < 150, for quantifying impurities from m\\/q =

R. E. Ellefson; W. E. Moddeman; H. F. Dylla

1981-01-01

173

Electromagnetic launch by linear quadrupole field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel electromagnetic launch concept based on a DC linear quadrupole field with no axial component. The proposed design enables contact-free power transfer to the launch vehicle while removing the need of switching power or AC induction. Passive damping windings are proposed to provide radial stability during launch. The 6-DOF dynamics of the launch vehicle, including the

Dengfeng Li; Rainer Meinke; Daniel Kirk; Hector Gutierrez

2008-01-01

174

Density functional theory calculations of nuclear quadrupole coupling constants with calibrated 14N quadrupole moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional calculations of the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus in 13 test molecules, containing 14 nitrogen sites, have been performed using the linear combination of Gaussian-type orbital Kohn-Sham density functional theory (LCGTO-KSDFT) approach. Local and gradient corrected functionals were used for all-electron calculations. All the molecular structures were optimized at their respective levels of theory with extended basis sets. Calibrated 14N nuclear quadrupole moments were obtained through a fitting procedure between calculated electric field gradients and experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the test set of molecules for each basis set and functional considered. With these calibrated 14N nuclear quadrupole moments, the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the following selected systems were determined: fluoromethylisonitrile, pyridine, pyrrole, imadazole, pyrazole, 1,8-bis(dimethyl-amino)naphthalene, cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine, cocaine and heroin.

Sicilia, E.; de Luca, G.; Chiodo, S.; Russo, N.; Calaminici, P.; Koster, A. M.; Jug, K.

175

Occupation probabilities from quadrupole moments in the Sn region  

E-print Network

It is shown that a simple BCS model with a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction provides a consistent description of the measured quadrupole moments of a sequence of odd-mass Sn and Cd isotopes and allows the extraction of the neutron single-particle occupation probabilities.

N. B. de Takacsy

2014-03-10

176

A preliminary quadrupole asymmetry study of a ?=0.12 superconducting single spoke cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been launched in China for nuclear waste transmutation. For the application of high intensity proton beam acceleration, the quadrupole asymmetry effect needs to be carefully evaluated for cavities. Single spoke cavities are the main accelerating structures in the low energy front-end. The single spoke cavity has small transverse electromagnetic field asymmetry, which may lead to transverse RF defocusing asymmetry and beam envelope asymmetry. A superconducting single spoke resonator (PKU-2 Spoke) of ?=0.12 and f=325 MHz with a racetrack-shaped inner conductor has been designed at Peking university. The study of its RF field quadrupole asymmetry and its effect on transverse momentum change has been performed. The quadrupole asymmetry study has also been performed on a ?=0.12 and f=325 MHz ring-shaped single spoke cavity. Our results show that the quadrupole asymmetry is very small for both the racetrack-shaped and the ring-shaped single spoke cavity.

Yang, Zi-Qin; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Liu; Luo, Xing; Zhou, Kui; Quan, Sheng-Wen

2014-10-01

177

Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles for CESR Phase-III Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CESR Phase-III upgrade plan includes very strong permanent magnet quadrupoles in front of the cryostat for the superconducting quadrupoles and physically as close as possible to the interaction point. Together with the superconducting quadrupoles, they provide tighter vertical focusing at the interaction point. The quadrupoles are built with Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) material and operate inside the 15 kG solenoid field. Requirements on the field quality and stability of these quadrupoles are discussed and test results are presented.

Lou, W.; Hartill, D.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Welch, J.

1997-05-01

178

Observation of quadrupole helix chirality and its domain structure in DyFe3(BO3)4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant X-ray diffraction (RXD) uses X-rays in the vicinity of a specific atomic absorption edge and is a powerful technique for studying symmetry breaking by motifs of various multipole moments, such as electric monopoles (charge), magnetic dipoles (spin) and electric quadrupoles (orbital). Using circularly polarized X-rays, this technique has been developed to verify symmetry breaking effects arising from chirality, the asymmetry of an object upon its mirroring. Chirality plays a crucial role in the emergence of functionalities such as optical rotatory power and multiferroicity. Here we apply spatially resolved RXD to reveal the helix chirality of Dy 4f electric quadrupole orientations and its domain structure in DyFe3(BO3)4, which shows a reversible phase transition into an enantiomorphic space-group pair. The present study provides evidence for a helix chiral motif of quadrupole moments developed in crystallographic helix chirality.

Usui, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Taguchi, M.; Chainani, A.; Oura, M.; Shin, S.; Katayama, N.; Sawa, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kimura, T.

2014-06-01

179

Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus  

SciTech Connect

The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance.

Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

1987-01-01

180

Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H,D,T) and helium (³He,⁴He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m\\/Dm<150, for quantifying impurities from m\\/q = 2 to 44, and at

R. E. Ellefson; W. E. Moddeman; H. F. Dylla

1981-01-01

181

Muon cooling in a quadrupole magnet channel  

SciTech Connect

As discussed before,[1] a cooling channel using quadrupole magnets in a FODO transport channel can be used for initial cooling of muons. In the present note we discuss this possibility of a FODO focusing channel for cooling, and we present ICOOL simulations of muon cooling within a FODO channel. We explore a 1.5m cell-length cooling channel that could be used for the initial transverse cooling stage of a muon collider or neutrino factory.

Neuffer, David; /Fermilab; Poklonskiy, A.; /Michigan State U.

2007-10-01

182

15 T And Beyond - Dipoles and Quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

Starting with the invention of the cyclotron by Lawrence, accelerator-based experiments have been the primary source of new discoveries in particle physics. In order to progress toward higher energy and luminosity, higher field magnets are required. R&D programs are underway to take advantage of new developments in superconducting materials, achieve better efficiency and simplify magnet fabrication while preserving accelerator-class field quality. A review of recent progress on high field dipole and quadrupole magnets is presented.

Sabbi, GianLuca

2008-05-19

183

The electric quadrupole moment of O2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature measurements of the Buckingham effect (electric-field-gradient-induced birefringence, EFGIB) for gaseous oxygen are presented. The traceless electric quadrupole moment of the oxygen molecule has been deduced from these data, with the assumption that the temperature-independent hyperpolarizability contribution to the EFGIB is negligibly small. The value obtained is ? = (-1.033 ± 0.027) × 10-40 C m2. This value is compared with the best available ab initio quantum computational values in the literature.

Couling, Vincent W.; Ntombela, Siyabonga S.

2014-10-01

184

Some interesting measurements with quadrupole mass spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some measurements made with the NZ-850 type quadrupole mass spectrometer of the ATOMKI are reported. The analysis of gases\\u000a in operating rooms showed 1 ppm— 105 ppm concentration of narcotics. Purity control of gases regularly helps the radioactive pollution measurements and radio\\u000a carbon dating technique at our Institute. In an other application evidence of new possibilities is given which arise

S. Bohátka; I. Berecz; G. Langer

1980-01-01

185

Quadrupole Magnets for the SSC Collider  

SciTech Connect

A 40 mm bore 211 T/m quadrupole magnet has been designed and tested at LBL. There are 8 coils of 30 strand cable arranged in 2 layers in a cos 2{theta} distribution, supported by 18 mm thick collars, preassembled into 146 mm long packs, and rigidly aligned in a cold-iron yoke. The design, construction details, and test results are given for three 1 m models and the first 5 m model.

Taylor, C.E.; Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, R.; Caspi, S.; Dell'Orco, D.; Fritz, D.; Gilbert, W.; Lietzke, A.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Scanlan, R.; Wandesforde, A.

1991-06-01

186

Deuteron electric quadrupole and octupole polarizabilities  

E-print Network

The direct transition-matrix approach to determination of the electric polarizabilities of quantum bound systems developed in my recent work is applied to study the electric multipole polarizabilities of a two-particle bound complex with a central interaction between the particles. Expressions for the electric quadrupole and octupole polarizabilities of the deuteron are derived and their values in the case of the S-wave separable interaction potential are calculated.

V. F. Kharchenko

2012-09-10

187

Well-proportioned universes suppress CMB quadrupole  

E-print Network

A widespread myth asserts that all small universe models suppress the CMB quadrupole. In actual fact, some models suppress the quadrupole while others elevate it, according to whether their low-order modes are weak or strong relative to their high-order modes. Elementary geometrical reasoning shows that a model's largest dimension determines the rough value ell_min at which the CMB power spectrum ell(ell + 1)C_ell/(2pi) effectively begins; for cosmologically relevant models, ell_min < 4. More surprisingly, elementary geometrical reasoning shows that further reduction of a model's smaller dimensions -- with its largest dimension held fixed -- serves to elevate modes in the neighborhood of ell_min relative to the high-ell portion of the spectrum, rather than suppressing them as one might naively expect. Thus among the models whose largest dimension is comparable to or less than the horizon diameter, the low-order C_ell tend to be relatively weak in well-proportioned spaces (spaces whose dimensions are approximately equal in all directions) but relatively strong in oddly-proportioned spaces (spaces that are significantly longer in some directions and shorter in others). We illustrate this principle in detail for the special cases of rectangular 3-tori and spherical spaces. We conclude that well-proportioned spaces make the best candidates for a topological explanation of the low CMB quadrupole observed by COBE and WMAP.

Jeffrey Weeks; Jean-Pierre Luminet; Alain Riazuelo; Roland Lehoucq

2003-12-11

188

Observation of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in an Ultracold Gas of Rydberg Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe the direct excitation of pairs of Cs atoms from the ground state to molecular states correlating asymptotically to n s n'f asymptotes. The molecular resonances are interpreted as originating from the dipole-quadrupole interaction between the n s n'f pair states and close-by n p n p asymptotes (22 ?n ?32 ). This interpretation is supported by Stark spectroscopy of the pair states and a detailed modeling of the interaction potentials. The dipole-quadrupole interaction mixes electronic states of opposite parity and, thus, requires a coupling between electronic and nuclear motion to conserve the total parity of the system. This non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling is facilitated by the near-degeneracy of even- and odd-L partial waves in the atom-atom scattering which have opposite parity.

Deiglmayr, Johannes; Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Pillet, Pierre; Merkt, Frédéric

2014-11-01

189

Observation of dipole-quadrupole interaction in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms.  

PubMed

We observe the direct excitation of pairs of Cs atoms from the ground state to molecular states correlating asymptotically to nsn^{'}f asymptotes. The molecular resonances are interpreted as originating from the dipole-quadrupole interaction between the nsn^{'}f pair states and close-by npnp asymptotes (22?n?32). This interpretation is supported by Stark spectroscopy of the pair states and a detailed modeling of the interaction potentials. The dipole-quadrupole interaction mixes electronic states of opposite parity and, thus, requires a coupling between electronic and nuclear motion to conserve the total parity of the system. This non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling is facilitated by the near-degeneracy of even- and odd-L partial waves in the atom-atom scattering which have opposite parity. PMID:25415902

Deiglmayr, Johannes; Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Pillet, Pierre; Merkt, Frédéric

2014-11-01

190

Polarization angle affects energy of plasmonic features in Fano resonant regular lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmonic nanoparticles in ordered lattices exhibit spectral features supported by Fano resonant coupling between dipole and/or quadrupole oscillations and constructively interfering diffracted modes. This work showed that the angle at which incident resonant irradiation was polarized relative to the axes of a rectangular 655 × 649 nm2 lattice of 264 nm diameter gold nanospheres predictably modulated the energy of plasmonic spectral features. Measured peak wavelengths varied sinusoidally as polarization angle was rotated 360°. Quadrupole and dipole lattice resonance oscillations were phase shifted by 90°, consistent with theory. Experimental wavelengths were within 12 nanometers (1.8%) of wavelengths simulated for the lattice using a coupled dipole/quadrupole approximation.

DeJarnette, D.; Jang, G. G.; Blake, P.; Roper, D. K.

2014-10-01

191

Photoassociation of a cold-atom-molecule pair: Long-range quadrupole-quadrupole interactions  

SciTech Connect

The general formalism of the multipolar expansion of electrostatic interactions is applied to the calculation of the potential energy between an excited atom (without fine structure) and a ground-state diatomic molecule at large mutual separations. Both partners exhibit a permanent quadrupole moment so that their mutual long-range interaction is dominated by a quadrupole-quadrupole term, which is attractive enough to bind trimers. Numerical results are given for an excited Cs(6{sup 2}P) atom and a ground-state Cs{sub 2} molecule. The prospects for achieving photoassociation of a cold-atom-dimer pair are thus discussed and found promising. The formalism can be generalized to the long-range interaction between molecules to investigate the formation of cold tetramers.

Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Batiment 505, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Kokoouline, V. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Batiment 505, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

2010-10-15

192

Photoassociation of a cold-atom-molecule pair: Long-range quadrupole-quadrupole interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general formalism of the multipolar expansion of electrostatic interactions is applied to the calculation of the potential energy between an excited atom (without fine structure) and a ground-state diatomic molecule at large mutual separations. Both partners exhibit a permanent quadrupole moment so that their mutual long-range interaction is dominated by a quadrupole-quadrupole term, which is attractive enough to bind trimers. Numerical results are given for an excited Cs(62P) atom and a ground-state Cs2 molecule. The prospects for achieving photoassociation of a cold-atom-dimer pair are thus discussed and found promising. The formalism can be generalized to the long-range interaction between molecules to investigate the formation of cold tetramers.

Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O.; Kokoouline, V.

2010-10-01

193

Investigation of Structural Information for Boron - Solids and Aluminates via NMR and Nqr Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been prevailed in investigating local structures for a variety of materials: various oxide glasses, zeolites, superconductors, etc. Since glasses have short range ordered structures instead of long range ordered ones in crystals, NMR is usually more useful in determining the local structures for many glasses than any other detection methods do. Along with NMR, Nuclear

Donghoon Lee

1991-01-01

194

Field-tuned critical fluctuations in YFe2Al10: Evidence from magnetization, 27Al NMR, and NQR investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report magnetization, specific heat, and NMR investigations on YFe2Al10 over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field and zero field (NQR) measurements. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by T(1/T1T) follow a weak power law (˜T-0.4) temperature dependence, which is a signature of the critical fluctuations of Fe moments. The value of the Sommerfeld-Wilson ratio and the linear relation between 1/T1T and ? suggest the existence of ferromagnetic correlations in this system. No magnetic ordering down to 50 mK in Cp(T)/T and the unusual T and H scaling of the bulk and NMR data are associated with a magnetic instability which drives the system to quantum criticality. The magnetic properties of the system are tuned by field wherein ferromagnetic fluctuations are suppressed and a crossover from quantum critical to Fermi-liquid behavior is observed with increasing magnetic field.

Khuntia, P.; Strydom, A. M.; Wu, L. S.; Aronson, M. C.; Steglich, F.; Baenitz, M.

2012-12-01

195

High-Precision Resonant Cavity Beam Position, Emittance and Third-Moment Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear colliders and FEL facilities need fast, nondestructive beam position and profile monitors to facilitate machine tune-up, and for use with feedback control. FAR-TECH, Inc., in collaboration with SLAC, is developing a resonant cavity diagnostic to simultaneously measure the dipole, quadrupole and sextupole moments of the beam distribution. Measurements of dipole and quadrupole moments at multiple locations yield information about

N. Barov; J. S. Kim; A. W. Weidemann; R. H. Miller; C. D. Nantista

2005-01-01

196

Simultaneous Application of ?-detected LMR and NMR Spectroscopy for Measurement of Nuclear Dipole and Quadrupole Moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the successful application of simultaneous ?-detected LMR (Level Mixing Resonance) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) techniques on ^12B implanted in a Mg single crystal. LMR experiments performed on ?-decaying nuclei allow determination of quadrupole frequency to magnetic moment ratio, and the addition of RF perturbation and subsequent determination of the NMR allows for extraction of each of the two individual moments. A major advantage of this technique is that projectile fragment alignment, which is readily produced in a projectile-fragmentation reaction, is transferred to nuclear polarization via the perturbing interaction in the non-cubic crystal. >From resonant change of the ?-decay asymmetry as a function of static magnetic field and applied RF we obtain information on nuclear structure and on initial alignment of the projectile fragments. This combined technique was then applied to neutron-rich ^18N spin-aligned projectile fragments, the results of which will be presented.

Rogers, W. F.; Neyens, G.; Coulier, N.; Teughels, S.; Vyvey, K.; Ternier, S.; Georgiev, G.; Coussement, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.

1997-10-01

197

Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.

Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

198

Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry  

DOEpatents

A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

Chastagner, P.

1993-04-20

199

Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry  

DOEpatents

A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

1993-01-01

200

Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric analysis of geochemical samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric-analysis techniques can be used to study a wide variety of problems involving decomposition processes and identification of released volatile components. A recording vacuum thermoanalyzer has been coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rapid scan capabilities of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are used to identify the gaseous components released. The capability of the thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass spectrometer to provide analytical data for identification of the released volatile components, for determination of their sequence of release and for correlation of thermal-decomposition studies is illustrated by an analysis of the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Johnson, S. M.

1972-01-01

201

Ion energy in quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Application of an analytical solution of the Mathieu equation in conjunction with algebraic presentation of the Mathieu functions for description of the ion energy in a radiofrequency quadrupole field is discussed in this work. The analytical approach is used to express the ion energy averaged over the initial ion velocity distribution function, field phase and ion residence time. Comparisons with the approximate solutions for potential ion energy are presented with demonstration of their limits. Application of the method for different stability regions is discussed. PMID:14698555

Baranov, Vladimir

2004-01-01

202

Coupled plasmon resonances in monolayers of metal nanoparticles and nanoshells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the coupled plasmon resonances in a monolayer consisting of metal or metallodielectric nanoparticles with the dipole and quadrupole single-particle resonances. The theoretical models included spherical gold and silver particles and also gold and silver nanoshells on silica and polystyrene cores forming two dimensional random clusters or square-lattice arrays on a dielectric substrate (glass in water). The parameters

Boris N. Khlebtsov; Vitaliy A. Khanadeyev; Jian Ye; Daniel W. Mackowski; Gustaaf Borghs; Nikolai G. Khlebtsov

2008-01-01

203

Resonance Control Cooling System for the APT/LEDA RFQ  

SciTech Connect

The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) resonance control cooling system (RCCS) for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) is described. Constant flow regulating valves to distribute the required flow to the 424 channels and to permit use of centrifugal pumps is discussed. Control system schema are described to regulate resonance frequency during steady state operation.

Domer, G.A.; Floersch, R.H.

1998-11-04

204

Quadrupole and octupole radiation from sup 16 O near 39 MeV excitation  

SciTech Connect

The angular distributions of cross section and analyzing power for the radiative capture reaction {sup 15}N({ital {rvec p}},{gamma}{sub 0}){sup 16}O have been measured at excitation energies of 35.0 and 39.0 MeV in {sup 16}O. Gamma rays were detected in a large, self-shielded NaI spectrometer at eight angles from 23{degree} to 155{degree}. The complex reaction amplitudes associated with the capture channels leading to dipole, quadrupole, and octupole radiation have been extracted. The data at 39 MeV excitation indicate a quadrupole component {sigma}{sub {ital E}2}/{sigma}{sub E1}=0.124{plus minus}0.015, and an octupole component {sigma}{sub {ital E}3}/{sigma}{sub E1}=0.0051{plus minus}0.0026. The observation of high multipolarity radiation is discussed within the context of microscopic calculations which locate large components of the isovector quadrupole and octupole resonances within this region of excitation in {sup 16}O.

Kovash, M.A.; Andersen-Pugh, B.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Ternes, J.K.; Trice, J.H.; Weil, J.L. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (US)); Blatt, S.L.; Hausman, H.J.; Marchlenski, D.G. (Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210); Bacher, A.D. (Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405); and others

1989-09-01

205

The CMB Quadrupole in a Polarized Light  

E-print Network

The low quadrupole of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), measured by COBE and confirmed by WMAP, has generated much discussion recently. We point out that the well-known correlation between temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB further constrains the low multipole anisotropy data. This correlation originates from the fact that the low-multipole polarization signal is sourced by the CMB quadrupole as seen by free electrons during the relatively recent cosmic history. Consequently, the large-angle temperature anisotropy data make restrictive predictions for the large-angle polarization anisotropy, which depend primarily on the optical depth for electron scattering after cosmological recombination, tau. We show that if current cosmological models for the generation of large angle anisotropy are correct and the COBE/WMAP data are not significantly contaminated by non-CMB signals, then the observed C_te amplitude on the largest scales is discrepant at the 99.8% level with the observed C_tt for the concordance LCDM model with tau=0.10. Using tau=0.17, the preferred WMAP model-independent value, the discrepancy is at the level of 98.5%.

Olivier Doré; Gilbert P. Holder; Abraham Loeb

2003-09-10

206

SSC Quadrupole Magnet Performance at LBL  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) contracted to design, construct, and test four short (1m) models and six full-size (5m) models of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) main-ring 5 meter focusing quadrupole magnet (211 Tesla/meter). The training performance of these magnets is summarized. Magnets were tested in a horizontal boiling helium (1 Atm) cryostat. The magnetic, strain-gage and training responses to two thermal cycles were measured. The quadrupole gradient, and relative multipole purity were determined from Fourier analysis of the rotating coil signals. Magnetic and strain-gage measurements were taken on-the-fly. The voltage-tap data was analyzed to determine quench-origin and propagation characteristics. Quench-training proceeded at 4.3K until a plateau was achieved or sub-cooling (2.5K) was used to accelerate the training process. The early short (1m) magnets were also trained at 1.8K (10kA) to help identify potential weak areas. The MIITs were calculated to compare various magnet protection methods. Except for modest training above the anticipated SSC operating point, the magnets performed very well and proved to be self-protecting. Some design flaws were identified and corrected. The last two 1 m models and all the 5m models have been reinstalled in cryostats at the SSC Laboratory, retested and used to achieve various milestones in their program.

Lietzke, A.F.; Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, r.; Caspi, S.; Cortella, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Gilbert, W.; Green, M.I.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Scalan, R.; Taylor, C.E.; Wandesforde, A.

1992-10-01

207

Excitation of giant dipole and giant quadrupole states in nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations are presented for the excitation by protons of giant dipole (T = 1) and quadrupole (T = 0) states in nuclei. Two simple models are used for the transition densities and potentials in the dipole excitation. The usual deformed optical potential is applied to the quadrupole transitions. The strengths are determined by exhausting the linear energy-weighted sum rules. The

G. R. Satchler

1972-01-01

208

Electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations are presented for electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results are compared to an extensive data set and it is found that electric quadrupole effects provide substantial corrections to cross sections, especially for heavier nuclei.

Norbury, John W.

1989-01-01

209

40Ar\\/ 39Ar geochronology using a quadrupole mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic sector mass spectrometers dominate the field of 40Ar\\/39Ar geochronology. Recent advances in quadrupole mass spectrometer technology, especially improvements in resolution, have increased the performance of these instruments to the extent that they can be used for isotopic determinations. We describe a triple filter quadrupole mass spectrometer (Hiden HAL 3F Series Pulse Ion Counting Triple Filter QMS) linked to an

Björn Schneider; Klaudia Kuiper; Onno Postma; Jan Wijbrans

2009-01-01

210

Temperature dependent deuterium quadrupole coupling constants of short hydrogen bonds  

E-print Network

Temperature dependent deuterium quadrupole coupling constants of short hydrogen bonds Xingang Zhao January 2006 Abstract Very short hydrogen bonds universally show large positive dependences and intermode couplings. q 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Hydrogen bonds; NMR; Deuterium quadrupole 1

Barsegov, Valeri

211

Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems  

SciTech Connect

Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Ling, K.M.

1990-01-01

212

Supersonic Quadrupole Noise Theory for High-Speed Helicopter Rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed helicopter rotor impulsive noise prediction is an important problem of aeroacoustics. The deterministic quadrupoles have been shown to contribute significantly to high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise of rotors, particularly when the phenomenon of delocalization occurs. At high rotor-tip speeds, some of the quadrupole sources lie outside the sonic circle and move at supersonic speed. Brentner has given a formulation suitable for efficient prediction of quadrupole noise inside the sonic circle. In this paper, we give a simple formulation based on the acoustic analogy that is valid for both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise prediction. Like the formulation of Brentner, the model is exact for an observer in the far field and in the rotor plane and is approximate elsewhere. We give the full analytic derivation of this formulation in the paper. We present the method of implementation on a computer for supersonic quadrupoles using marching cubes for constructing the influence surface (Sigma surface) of an observer space- time variable (x; t). We then present several examples of noise prediction for both subsonic and supersonic quadrupoles. It is shown that in the case of transonic flow over rotor blades, the inclusion of the supersonic quadrupoles improves the prediction of the acoustic pressure signature. We show the equivalence of the new formulation to that of Brentner for subsonic quadrupoles. It is shown that the regions of high quadrupole source strength are primarily produced by the shock surface and the flow over the leading edge of the rotor. The primary role of the supersonic quadrupoles is to increase the width of a strong acoustic signal.

Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

1997-01-01

213

Roll measurement of Tevatron dipoles and quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

In 2003 a simple digital level system was developed to allow for rapid roll measurements of all dipoles and quadrupoles in the Tevatron. The system uses a Mitutoyo digital level and a PC running MS WINDOWS XP and LAB VIEW to acquire data on the upstream and downstream roll of each magnet. The system is sufficiently simple that all 1,000 magnets in the Tevatron can be measured in less than 3 days. The data can be quickly processed allowing for correction of rolled magnets by the Fermilab alignment group. Data will be presented showing the state of the Tevatron in 2003 and the changes in rolls as measured in each shutdown since then.

Volk, J.T.; Elementi, L.; Gollwitzer, K.; Jostlein, H.; Nobrega, F.; Shiltsev, V.; Stefanski, R.

2006-09-01

214

An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole  

DOEpatents

An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.

Abbott, S.R.

1987-10-05

215

Isovector giant E2 resonance and overtone of the isovector giant E1 resonance in photonucleon reactions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance and an overtone of the isovector giant dipole resonance on the photodisintegration of medium-mass and heavy nuclei in the energy range of 20-40 MeV is studied on the basis of a combined model of photonucleon reactions. Basic features of these resonances are evaluated within a semimicroscopic approach. Their deformation spitting is described on the basis of the model of polarization vibrations of a two-component nuclear liquid.

Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N., E-mail: orlinvn@yandex.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15

216

Determination of the 14N quadrupole coupling constant of nitroxide spin probes by W-band ELDOR-detected NMR.  

PubMed

Nitroxide spin probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has proven to be a very successful method to probe local polarity and solvent hydrogen bonding properties at the molecular level. The g(xx) and the (14)N hyperfine A(zz) principal values are the EPR parameters of the nitroxide spin probe that are sensitive to these properties and are therefore monitored experimentally. Recently, the (14)N quadrupole interaction of nitroxides has been shown to be also highly sensitive to polarity and H-bonding (A. Savitsky et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 112 (2008) 9079). High-field electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) was used successfully to determine the P(xx) and P(yy) principal components of the (14)N quadrupole tensor. The P(zz) value was calculated from the traceless character of the quadrupole tensor. We introduce here high-field (W-band, 95 GHz, 3.5 T) electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR as a method to obtain the (14)N P(zz) value directly, together with A(zz). This is complemented by W-band hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) measurements carried out along the g(xx) direction to determine the principal P(xx) and P(yy) components. Through measurements of TEMPOL dissolved in solvents of different polarities, we show that A(zz) increases, while |P(zz)| decreases with polarity, as predicted by Savitsky et al. PMID:21459027

Florent, Marc; Kaminker, Ilia; Nagarajan, Vijayasarathi; Goldfarb, Daniella

2011-06-01

217

Determination of the 14N quadrupole coupling constant of nitroxide spin probes by W-band ELDOR-detected NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroxide spin probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has proven to be a very successful method to probe local polarity and solvent hydrogen bonding properties at the molecular level. The g xx and the 14N hyperfine A zz principal values are the EPR parameters of the nitroxide spin probe that are sensitive to these properties and are therefore monitored experimentally. Recently, the 14N quadrupole interaction of nitroxides has been shown to be also highly sensitive to polarity and H-bonding (A. Savitsky et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 112 (2008) 9079). High-field electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) was used successfully to determine the P xx and P yy principal components of the 14N quadrupole tensor. The P zz value was calculated from the traceless character of the quadrupole tensor. We introduce here high-field (W-band, 95 GHz, 3.5 T) electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR as a method to obtain the 14N P zz value directly, together with A zz. This is complemented by W-band hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) measurements carried out along the g xx direction to determine the principal P xx and P yy components. Through measurements of TEMPOL dissolved in solvents of different polarities, we show that A zz increases, while | P zz| decreases with polarity, as predicted by Savitsky et al.

Florent, Marc; Kaminker, Ilia; Nagarajan, Vijayasarathi; Goldfarb, Daniella

2011-06-01

218

Theory of electronic structures and nuclear quadrupole interactions in molecular solids and semiconductor surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated, using the Hartree-Fock Roothaan variational procedure, the electronic structures and associated nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQI) for the molecular solids, RDX (C3H6N6O6),/ /beta- HMX(C4H8N8O8), Cocaine (C17H21NO4), Cocaine Hydrochloride (C17H21NO4HCl) and Heroin (C21H23NO5) and for the (111) surface of silicon with adsorbed radioactive 111In atom and negative cadmium ion containing the excited nucleus 111Cd/* resulting from electron capture by lllIn. Our investigations indicate that for the ring 14N NQI parameters in RDX and ?-HMX there is very good agreement between theory and experiment. For the peripheral 14N nuclei in NO2 groups, while the calculated electronic structures do explain the much weaker quadrupole coupling constants for these nuclei relative to the ring 14N nuclei, there are significant differences between theory and experiment. The influence of intermolecular interactions between adjacent molecules in the solid is invoked as a possible source for these differences. For the controlled substances, Cocaine and Heroin, again very good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. For Cocaine Hydrochloride theory is able to explain the much smaller observed 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance frequency as compared to pure Cocaine. However there are significant differences between theory and experiment for the 14N and 35Cl quadrupole resonance frequencies. The influence of intermolecular interactions is one of the factors suggested to explain the difference. For the silicon (111) surface, the observed 111Cd/* NQI parameters, with the cadmium nucleus assumed to be located at the same site as the 111In nucleus from which it is generated, can be successfully explained by theory with the indium atom located at the two distinct sites available with the DAS model for the 7 x 7 reconstructed (111) surface. Some quantitative differences still remain, one of the main factor suggested for their explanation being a need for a thorough analysis of relaxation effects in the positions of silicon atoms associated with the presence of the indium atom. Applications of the Hartree-Fock Cluster theory to other related systems is suggested to subject the DAS model to additional tests at the microscopic level as in the system studied in the present thesis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Pati, Ranjit

219

Approximating conductive ellipsoid inductive responses using static quadrupole moments  

E-print Network

object orientation, and resulted in polarizability curvesfour orientations of Tables I and II, while polarizabilitypolarizability estimates made with ellipsoid quadrupole polarizabilities match each other better between upward and downward orientations (

Smith, J. Torquil

2008-01-01

220

Effect of the atomic electric quadrupole moment on positron binding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of an electric quadrupole moment Q is studied for positron-atom bound systems. It is demonstrated that for Q >50 a.u. the electric quadrupole potential is sufficiently strong to bind a positron (or an electron) even in the absence of the dipole polarization potential. Such large values of Q are not known for atomic ground states; however, they exist in molecules and excited atoms. In the 2s2p3P2o state of beryllium, the quadrupole contribution makes the difference between a stable bound state and an unstable state, which decays to a Be+ ion and positronium. In the majority of atoms the quadrupole contribution is small and can be neglected.

Harabati, C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

2014-07-01

221

Adjustable rare earth quadrupole drift tube magnets  

SciTech Connect

A prototype permanent-magnet drift tube quadrupole with adjustable field strength has been constructed and tested. The magnet uses iron pole pieces to provide the required field shape along with rare earth permanent-magnet material (samarium cobalt) to energize the magnet. A unique feature of the configuration is the adjustability of the field, accomplished by rotating the outer rings consisting of permanent magnets and iron. In contrast with a previous prototype magnet, this new design uses ball bearings in place of slide bearings to eliminate potential failures. The rotation is now achieved with a bevel gear mechanism. The prototype design also incorporates a new drift tube shell vacuum seal to allow easy disassembly. Tests were made of the magnetic properties and the mechanical performance of this magnet. Field errors are extremely small, and the magnet passed an accelerated ten year lifetime test. It is planned to use this type of magnet to replace 24 of the SuperHILAC prestripper drift tubes.

Feinberg, B.; Tanabe, J.; Halbach, K.; Koehler, G.; Green, M.I.

1987-03-01

222

Filling Factor for an Electrostatic Quadrupole Lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of an accelerator is in part determined by the size of the beam pipe aperture. The effect on total cost is especially large for multiple-beam induction linac designs for IFE drivers, where extra clearance for each beam greatly enlarges the transverse scale of the machine. Limits to the amount of clearance between the beam and the vacuum pipe are set by nonlinear forces (image forces, focusing fringe fields, etc.), which can cause beam heating or beam loss. The filling factor possible (i.e., percent of aperture filled with beam), or ``dynamic aperture,'' is investigated in this work for the intense, space-charge-dominated ion beams of an IFE driver, using the 2-D transverse slice version of the 3-D particle-in-cell simulation code WARP. The focusing field is modeled using a 3-D solution of the Laplace equation for the biased quadrupole focusing elements, as opposed to previous calculations, which used a less-accurate multipole approximation. 80% radial filling of the aperture is found to be possible. Results from the simulations, as well as corroborating data from the High Current Experiment at LBNL, will be presented.

Celata, C. M.; Prost, L.; Grote, D. P.

2005-10-01

223

Autonomously Calibrating a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program autonomously manages the calibration of a quadrupole ion mass spectrometer intended for use in monitoring concentrations and changes in concentrations of organic chemicals in the cabin air of the International Space Station. The instrument parameters calibrated include the voltage on a channel electron multiplier, a discriminator threshold, and an ionizer current. Calibration is achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum obtained while sweeping the parameter ranges in a heuristic procedure, developed by mass spectrometer experts, that involves detection of changes in signal trends that humans can easily recognize but cannot necessarily be straightforwardly codified in an algorithm. The procedure includes calculation of signal-to-noise ratios, signal-increase rates, and background-noise-increase rates; finding signal peaks; and identifying peak patterns. The software provides for several recovery-from-error scenarios and error-handling schemes. The software detects trace amounts of contaminant gases in the mass spectrometer and notifies associated command- and-data-handling software to schedule a cleaning. Furthermore, the software autonomously analyzes the mass spectrum to determine whether the parameters of a radio-frequency ramp waveform are set properly so that the peaks of the mass spectrum are at expected locations.

Lee, Seungwon; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

2009-01-01

224

Electric quadrupole photoneutron reactions in 16O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron energy spectra from the 16O(?,n0)15O reaction were measured as functions of laboratory angle over a range of excitation energies from 30 to 35 MeV. Angular distribution Legendre-polynomial coefficients were extracted up to third order as functions of excitation energy. Nonzero values of the coefficients a1 (+0.25+/-0.02) and a3 (-0.2+/-0.02) were observed over the energy region explored, indicating interference between states of opposite parity. These values can be accounted for in a simple model incorporating electric quadrupole absorption strength decaying via the ground-state photoneutron channel. When combined with the previously-determined amplitude ratio for the E 1 p-->s and p-->d single-particle transitions, the present results suggest that about 4% of the isovector energy-weighted sum rule is found in the (?,n0) channel in the energy range studied. The value of the (?,n0) cross section was found to vary from 1.5+/-0.1 mb at Ex=30 MeV to 0.8+/-0.1 mb at 35 MeV. The average magnitude of the E2 contribution to this cross section was estimated to be 0.05+/-0.02 mb. This is in reasonable agreement with a recent continuum randomphase approximation shell model calculation, but is in disagreement with a previous measurement.

Kuo, P. C.-K.; Jury, J. W.; Sherman, N. K.; Davidson, W. F.

1984-12-01

225

Tunable enhancement of exciton emission from MgZnO by hybridized quadrupole plasmons in Ag nanoparticle aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg0.2Zn0.8O/metal nanoparticle systems have been fabricated and investigated. The photoluminescence results indicate that Al and Au nanoparticles could slightly enhance the near-band-edge (NBE) emission from Mg0.2Zn0.8O. In contrast, a giant and tunable NBE emission enhancement could be induced by Ag nanoparticles based on the coupling interaction between the hybridized quadrupole plasmon in Ag nanoparticle aggregation and the excitons of Mg0.2Zn0.8O. Interestingly, the intensity and position of the narrow quadrupole resonance could be controlled by tuning the interspace gap and size of Ag nanoparticles, which was clearly demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. Our findings may pave the way for further development of high-efficiency UV light-emitting devices.

Chen, Hong-Yu; Liu, Ke-Wei; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Zhen-Zhong; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Wang, Deng-Kui; Liu, Lei; Li, Bing-Hui; Zhao, Dong-Xu; Shan, Chong-Xin; Shen, De-Zhen

2014-03-01

226

Development of electrostatic quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

High-voltage electrostatic quadrupoles are used for focusing ion beams at low energies in the induction linac approach to heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion for the production of electrical power. The transportable beam line charge density depends linearly on the operating voltage of the quadrupoles, so an experimental program was conducted to find the voltage breakdown dependence on the overall size of the quadrupoles which would then allow determination of the best geometry and operating voltage. The quadrupole electrodes are usually stainless steel cylinders with hemispherical end caps, mounted on stainless steel end plates. The end plates are precisely positioned with respect to each other and the vacuum chamber with alumina insulators with shielded triple points. It is advantageous for beam transport to employ an array of multiple beams for which a rather large number of interdigitated electrodes forms an array of quadrupoles. The tradeoffs between very large numbers of small channels and a smaller number of large channels, and the dependence of the choice on the voltage breakdown dependence is discussed. With present understanding, the optimum is about 100 beamlets focused with quadrupoles which have a beam aperture radius of about 2.3 cm and are operated with about 150 kV between electrodes.

Faltens, A.; Seidl, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

227

Resonances and resonance widths  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

Collins, T.

1986-05-01

228

H-mode accelerating structures with permanent-magnet quadrupole beam focusing  

We have developed high-efficiency normal-conducting rf accelerating structures by combining H -mode resonator cavities and a transverse beam focusing by permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ), for beam velocities in the range of a few percent of the speed of light. The shunt impedance of interdigital H -mode (IH-PMQ) structures is 10–20 times higher than that of a conventional drift-tube linac, while the transverse size is 4–5 times smaller. Results of the combined 3D modeling—electromagnetic computations, multiparticle beam-dynamics simulations with high currents, and thermal-stress analysis—for an IH-PMQ accelerator tank are presented. The accelerating-field profile in the tank is tuned to provide the best propagation of a 50-mA deuteron beam using coupled iterations of electromagnetic and beam-dynamics modeling. Measurements of a cold model of the IH-PMQ tank show a good agreement with the calculations. Examples of cross-bar H -mode structures with PMQ focusing for higher beam velocities are also presented. H -PMQ accelerating structures following a short radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator can be used both in the front end of ion linacs or in stand-alone applications.

Kurennoy, S. S.; Rybarcyk, L. J.; O’Hara, J. F.; Olivas, E. R.; Wangler, T. P.

2012-09-01

229

Higher Order Parametric Excitation Modes for Spaceborne Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system.When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

2011-01-01

230

Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R. [Solar Systems Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

2011-12-15

231

Experimental determination of linear optics including quadrupole rotations  

SciTech Connect

The measured response matrix giving the change in orbit at beam position monitors (BPMs) with changes in steering magnet excitation can be used to accurately determine many important parameters in a storage ring. Using the NSLS X-Ray Ring measured response matrix we have determined the gradients in all 56 quadrupole magnets; the calibration of the steering magnets and BPMs; the rotational mis-alignments of the quadrupoles, steering magnets, and BPMs about the electron beam direction; the longitudinal magnetic centers of the orbit steering magnets; and the transverse mis-alignments of the sextupoles. Random orbit measurement error of the BPMs propagated to give 0.04% rms error in determination of individual quadrupole gradients and 0.4 mrad rms error in the determination of quadrupole rotational alignment. Small variations of a few parts in a thousand in the quadrupole gradients within an individual family were resolved. The improved understanding of the X-Ray Ring has enabled us to better control the electron beam size.

Safranek, J.

1995-06-01

232

Coupled plasmon resonances in monolayers of metal nanoparticles and nanoshells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the coupled plasmon resonances in a monolayer consisting of metal or metallodielectric nanoparticles with the dipole and quadrupole single-particle resonances. The theoretical models included spherical gold and silver particles and also gold and silver nanoshells on silica and polystyrene cores forming two dimensional random clusters or square-lattice arrays on a dielectric substrate (glass in water). The parameters of the individual particles were chosen so that a quadrupole plasmon resonance could be observed along with the dipole-scattering band. By using an exact multipole cluster-on-a-substrate solution, we showed that particle-substrate coupling can be neglected in the calculation of the monolayer-extinction spectra, at least for the glass-in-water configuration. When the surface particle density in the monolayer was increased, the dipole resonance became suppressed and the spectrum for the cooperative system was determined only by the quadrupole plasmon. The dependence of this effect on the single-particle parameters and on the cluster structure was examined in detail. In particular, the selective suppression of the long-wavelength extinction band was shown to arise from the cooperative suppression of the dipole-scattering mode, whereas the short-wavelength absorption spectrum for the monolayer was shown to be little different from the single-particle spectrum. For experimental studies, the silica/gold-nanoshell monolayers were fabricated by the deposition of nanoshells on a glass substrate functionalized by silane-thiol cross-linkers. The measured single-particle and monolayer-extinction spectra are in reasonable agreement with simulations based on the nanoshell geometrical parameters (scanning electron microscopy data). Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of the coupled quadrupole resonance to the dielectric environment to show a universal linear relation between the relative shift in the coupled-quadrupole-resonance wavelength and the relative increment in the environment refractive index.

Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khanadeyev, Vitaliy A.; Ye, Jian; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Borghs, Gustaaf; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

2008-01-01

233

The effects of quadrupole splitting of the central 27Al NMR line in polycrystalline kaolinite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape function of the NMR central line ( {-1}/{2} ? {1}/{2} transition) for polycrystalline samples is calculated using a probability method for the general case of nonzero asymmetry parameter (? ? 0). The dipole broadening is accounted for by assumption of existence of local constant-width Gaussian absorption signal for any resonance frequency. The 27Al absorption signal of NMR central line in polycrystalline kaolinite is obtained for the first time. Comparison of observed and synthesized ( ?L = 6 MHz) lineshapes allows one to find values for the quadrupole coupling constant {( QCC)e 2qQ }/{h} = 3.12 MHz, and the asymmetry parameter, ? = 0.95, which agree fairly well with those calculated by point charge methods.

Shulepov, Yu. V.; Litovchenko, A. S.; Melnikov, A. A.; Proshko, V. Ya; Kulik, V. V.

234

Mechanical Design of a Second Generation LHC IR Quadrupole  

SciTech Connect

One of the proposed options to increase the LHC luminosity is the replacement of the existing inner triplets at the Interaction Regions with new low-beta larger aperture quadrupoles operating at the same gradient. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is carrying out preliminary studies of a large-bore Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole. The mechanical design presents a support structure based on the use of keys and bladders without self-supporting collars. This technology has been proven effective in several successful common coil Nb{sub 3}Sn dipoles built at LBNL, and it is for the first time applied to a cos(2{var_theta}) design. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the quadrupole mechanical behavior, demonstrating the possibility of delivering, through this method, well-controlled coil precompression during assembly, cool-down and excitation. The study has been performed with the finite element program ANSYS.

Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff,A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

2003-11-10

235

Stability of an aqueous quadrupole micro-trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently demonstrated functionality of an aqueous quadrupole micro- or nano-trap opens a new avenue for applications of Paul traps, like confinement of a charged biomolecule which requires a water environment for its chemical stability. Besides the strong viscosity forces, the motion of a charged particle in the aqueous trap is subject to dielectrophoretic and electrophoretic forces. In this study, we describe the general conditions for stability of a charged particle in an aqueous quadrupole trap. We find that for typical micro-trap parameters, the effects of both dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis significantly influence the trap stability. In particular, an aqueous quadrupole trap could play the role of a synthetic virtual nanopore for the third generation of DNA sequencing technology.

Park, Jae Hyun; Krsti?, Predrag S.

2012-04-01

236

Title: Quadrupole collective inertia in nuclear fission: cranking approximation  

E-print Network

Collective mass tensor derived from the cranking approximation to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (ATDHFB) approach is compared with that obtained in the Gaussian Overlap Approximation (GOA) to the generator coordinate method. Illustrative calculations are carried out for one-dimensional quadrupole fission pathways in 256Fm. It is shown that the collective mass exhibits strong variations with the quadrupole collective coordinate. These variations are related to the changes in the intrinsic shell structure. The differences between collective inertia obtained in cranking and perturbative cranking approximations to ATDHFB, and within GOA, are discussed.

A. Baran; J. A. Sheikh; J. Dobaczewski; W. Nazarewicz

2010-07-21

237

Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States)

2012-12-21

238

Quadrupole Magnetic Center Definition Using the Hall Probe Measurement Technique  

E-print Network

coherent light source [LCLS] project [1] requires 5 µm straightness of the particle beam trajectory to avoid using an additional magnetic measurement technique and to use the same sensors that will be used of the probe motion in Z-direction of the quadrupole: clear reference line was made at the probe tip

Kemner, Ken

239

Dodecahedral topology fails to explain quadrupole-octupole alignment  

E-print Network

The CMB quadrupole and octupole, as well as being weaker than expected, align suspiciously well with each other. Non-trivial spatial topology can explain the weakness. Might it also explain the alignment? The answer, at least in the case of the Poincare dodecahedral space, is a resounding no.

Jeff Weeks; Jesper Gundermann

2006-11-20

240

Continuous cell separation using novel magnetic quadrupole flow sorter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory prototype of a flow cell sorter based on magnetic quadrupole field was built and evaluated. The magnetic force acting on magnetically labeled cells in such a field has a `centrifugal’ character which provides a basis for the design of a continuous separation process. The sorter was tested on a model cell system of human peripheral lymphocytes labeled with

Maciej Zborowski; Liping Sun; Lee R Moore; P Stephen Williams; Jeffrey J. Chalmers

1999-01-01

241

Radio-frequency quadrupole: General properties and specific applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general properties of radio frequency quadrupole accelerators are reviewed and beam dynamics simulation results are presented for their use in a variety of accelerating systems. The low-beta sections of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Accelerator, a 200 MHz proton linear accelerator, and a xenon accelerator for heavy ion fusion are included.

Stokes, R. H.; Crandall, K. R.; Hamm, R. W.; Humphry, F. J.; Jameson, R. A.; Knapp, E. A.; Potter, J. M.; Rodenz, G. W.; Stovall, J. E.; Swenson, D. A.

1980-07-01

242

LARP Long Quadrupole: A "Long" Step Toward an LHC  

ScienceCinema

The beginning of the development of Nb3Sn magnets for particle accelerators goes back to the 1960?s. But only very recently has this development begun to face the challenges of fabricating Nb3Sn magnets which can meet the requirements of modern particle accelerators. LARP (the LHC Accelerator Research Program) is leading this effort focusing on long models of the Interaction Region quadrupoles for a possible luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. A major milestone in this development is to test, by the end of 2009, 4m-long quadrupole models, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator-type magnets approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are ?Proof-of-Principle? magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is sufficiently mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, under development at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. Several challenges must be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb3Sn coils and magnets. These challenges and the solutions adopted will be presented together with the main features of the LQ magnets. Several R&D lines are participating to this effort and their contributions will be also presented.

Giorgio Ambrosio

2010-01-08

243

Stars as resonant absorbers of gravitational waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole oscillation modes in stars can resonate with incident gravitational waves (GWs), and grow non-linear at the expense of GW energy. Stars near massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) can act as GW-charged batteries, discharging radiatively. Mass-loss from these stars can prompt MBHB accretion at near-Eddington rates. GW opacity is independent of amplitude, so distant resonating stars can eclipse GW sources. Absorption by the Sun of GWs from Galactic white dwarf binaries may be detectable with second-generation space-based GW detectors as a shadow within a complex diffraction pattern.

McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Kocsis, B.; Haiman, Z.

2014-11-01

244

Stars as resonant absorbers of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

Quadrupole oscillation modes in stars can resonate with incident gravitational waves (GWs), and grow non-linear at the expense of GW energy. Stars near massive black hole binaries (MBHB) can act as GW-charged batteries, cooling radiatively. Mass-loss from these stars can prompt MBHB accretion at near-Eddington rates. GW opacity is independent of amplitude, so distant resonating stars can eclipse GW sources. Absorption by the Sun of GWs from Galactic white dwarf binaries may be detectable with second-generation space-based GW detectors as a shadow within a complex diffraction pattern.

B. McKernan; K. E. S. Ford; B. Kocsis; Z. Haiman

2014-05-06

245

Stars as resonant absorbers of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

Quadrupole oscillation modes in stars can resonate with incident gravitational waves (GWs), and grow non-linear at the expense of GW energy. Stars near massive black hole binaries (MBHB) can act as GW-charged batteries, cooling radiatively. Mass-loss from these stars can prompt MBHB accretion at near-Eddington rates. GW opacity is independent of amplitude, so distant resonating stars can eclipse GW sources. Absorption by the Sun of GWs from Galactic white dwarf binaries may be detectable with second-generation space-based GW detectors as a shadow within a complex diffraction pattern.

McKernan, B; Kocsis, B; Haiman, Z

2014-01-01

246

The phase diagrams and doped-hole segregation in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (x {le} 0.15, {delta} {le} 0.12)  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic and structural phase diagrams of the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} system and the La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} are reviewed, with emphasis on recent results obtained from magnetic and structural neutron diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, iodometric titration, magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T), and {sup 129}La nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements.

Johnston, D.C.; Borsa, F.; Canfield, P.C. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

1993-10-31

247

Targeted Proteomic Quantification on Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer*  

PubMed Central

There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein quantification methods in complex samples and address the pressing demand of systems biology or biomarker evaluation studies. PMID:22962056

Gallien, Sebastien; Duriez, Elodie; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Domon, Bruno

2012-01-01

248

Ultrasensitive THz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces  

E-print Network

High quality factor resonances are extremely promising for designing ultra-sensitive refractive index label-free sensors since it allows intense interaction between electromagnetic waves and the analyte material. Metamaterial and plasmonic sensing has recently attracted a lot of attention due to subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields in the resonant structures. However, the excitation of high quality factor resonances in these systems has been a challenge. We excite an order of magnitude higher quality factor resonances in planar terahertz metamaterials that we exploit for ultrasensitive sensing. The low-loss quadrupole and Fano resonances with extremely narrow linewidths enable us to measure the minute spectral shift caused due to the smallest change in the refractive index of the surrounding media. We achieve sensitivity levels of 7.75 x 10^3 nm/ RIU with quadrupole and 5.7 x 10^4 nm/ RIU with the Fano resonances which could be further enhanced by using thinner substrates. These findings would ...

Singh, Ranjan; Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Cong, Longqing; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Zhang, Weili

2014-01-01

249

Borman effect in resonant diffraction of X-rays  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic theory of resonant diffraction (occurring when the energy of incident radiation is close to the energy of the absorption edge of an element in the composition of a given substance) of synchronous X-rays is developed in the two-wave approximation in the coplanar Laue geometry for large grazing angles in perfect crystals. A sharp decrease in the absorption coefficient in the substance with simultaneously satisfied diffraction conditions (Borman effect) is demonstrated, and the theoretical and first experimental results are compared. The calculations reveal the possibility of applying this approach in analyzing the quadrupole-quadrupole contribution to the absorption coefficient.

Oreshko, A. P., E-mail: ap.oreshko@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15

250

^7Li NMR and ^139L NQR in La_2Cu_1.985Li_0.015Cu0_4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Li doped La_2CuO4 the Li substitutes in the Cu site and introduces holes which, unlike the Sr doping, are localized. However, the effect of Li doping on the antiferromagnetic transition is much like that of Sr in that the transition is rapidly depressed at low doping concentrations and disappears at 3-4been measured in a 1.5line shows only a small increase in T2 below the transition over that at 300 K, considerably less than the nearest neighbor dipole contribution. The values of T1 also show no dramatic difference above and below the transition. However, the ^139La NQR data show the expected splitting by an internal field below the ordering temperature. This is consistent with the possibility that the the exchange coupling between nearest neighbor Cu's is modified to the extent that they do not participate in the antiferromagnetic order. Complete temperature dependent data of T1 and T2 will be presented.

Kleinhammes, A.; Kuhns, P. L.; Moulton, W. G.; Sarrao, J. L.; Fisk, Cassidy; Sullivan, Z.

1996-03-01

251

Stability considerations of permanent magnet quadrupoles for CESR phase-III upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cornell electron storage ring (CESR) phase-III upgrade plan includes very strong permanent magnet quadrupoles in front of the cryostat for the superconducting quadrupoles and physically as close as possible to the interaction point. Together with the superconducting quadrupoles, they provide tighter vertical focusing at the interaction point. The quadrupoles are built with neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) material and operate inside the 15 kG solenoid field. Requirements on the field quality and stability of these quadrupoles are discussed and test results are presented.

Lou, W.; Hartill, D.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Welch, J.

1998-06-01

252

Magnetic resonance of 160Tb oriented in a terbium single crystal at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first observation of magnetic resonance of oriented rare-earth nuclei in a rare-earth host. Radioactive 160Tb implanted in a single crystal of ferromagnetic terbium was subjected to magnetic resonance detected by perturbation of the gamma-ray anisotropy. The open Tb 4f shell gives rise to a strong electric quadrupole interaction in addition to the magnetic interaction; the resulting resonance

P. Roman; W. D. Brewer; E. Klein; H. Marshak; K. Freitag; P. Herzog

1986-01-01

253

Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-04-01

254

120-mm supercondcting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.

Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

2010-05-01

255

New Mechanical Concept for Nb3Sn Quadrupole  

E-print Network

A new mechanical design concept for the Nb3Sn quadrupoles has been developed with a goal of an accelerator quality magnet that can be industrially produced in large series. This concept can easily be extended to any length and applied on both 1-in-1 and 2-in-1 configurations. It is based on the pole-loading concept and collared coils using dipole-type collars. First conceptual design study using finite element analysis has been carried out using the present base-line HL-LHC IR quadrupole QXF coil geometry for direct comparison with the bladder-and-key structure. The main features of the new design concept are described and the main results of the structural analysis discussed.

Karppinen, Mikko

2014-01-01

256

Permanent-magnet quadrupoles in an RFQ linacs  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the possibility of increasing the current-carrying capability of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerators by adding permanent-magnet quadrupole (PMQ) focusing to the existing transverse focusing provided by the rf electric field. Increased transverse focusing would also allow shortening RFQ linacs by permitting a larger accelerating gradient, which is normally accomplished by an undesirable increased transverse rf defocusing effect. We found that PMQs were not helpful in increasing the transverse focusing strength in an RFQ. This conclusion was reached after some particle tracing simulations and some analytical calculations. In our parameter regime, the addition of the magnets increases the betatron frequency but does not result in improved focusing because the increased flutter more than offsets the gain from the increased betatron frequency.

Lysenko, W.P.; Wang, T.F.

1985-01-01

257

Simple correlations between electric quadrupole moments of atomic nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of non-yrast electric quadrupole moments (i.e., diagonal E2 matrix elements) of atomic nuclei are becoming widely available from multiple-step Coulomb excitation. It is shown that, where quadrupole-moment data exist, $\\langle 2_1^+ ||E2|| 2_1^+ \\rangle+\\langle 2_2^+ ||E2|| 2_2^+ \\rangle\\approx 0$ is observed across a wide range of masses and deformations. In addition, $\\langle 4_1^+ ||E2|| 4_1^+ \\rangle+\\langle 4_2^+ ||E2|| 4_2^+ \\rangle+\\langle 4_3^+ ||E2|| 4_3^+ \\rangle\\approx 0$ is observed within two standard deviations for three of the four existing measurements. Rotor models appear to be sufficient in describing these trends.

Allmond, James M [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

258

Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole  

SciTech Connect

An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; /STI Optronics, Bellevue; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

2006-03-01

259

Development of quadrupole mass spectrometers using rapid prototyping technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we present a prototype design of a quadrupole mass filter (QMF) with hyperbolic electrodes, fabricated at\\u000a the University of Liverpool using digital light processing (DLP), a low-cost and lightweight 3D rapid prototyping (RP) technique.\\u000a Experimental mass spectra are shown for H2+, D2+, and He+ ions to provide proof of principle that the DLP mass filter is working

Boris Brki?; Neil France; Adam T. Clare; Chris J. Sutcliffe; Paul R. Chalker; Stephen Taylor

2009-01-01

260

Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems  

SciTech Connect

An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones.

Walker, M.; Will, C.M.

1980-12-01

261

Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles  

DOEpatents

An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators.

Brodowski, John (Smithtown, NY)

1982-11-23

262

Analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment in FACET commissioning 2012  

SciTech Connect

In this note, the analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment is presented for the FACET linac section LI05-09 plus LI11-19. The effectiveness of the beam-based alignment technique is preliminarily confirmed by the measurement. Beam-based alignment technique was adopted at SLAC linac since SLC time. Here the beam-based alignment algorithms are further developed and applied in the FACET commissioning during 2012 run.

Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

2012-07-05

263

The Dynamic Aperture of an Electrostatic Quadrupole Lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion accelerator concepts, dynamic aperture is important to the cost of the accelerator, most especially for designs which envision multibeam linacs, where extra clearance for each beam greatly enlarges the transverse scale of the machine. In many designs the low-energy end of such an accelerator uses electrostatic quadrupole focusing. The dynamic aperture of such a lattice has

C. M. Celata; F. M. Bieniosek; P. A. Seidl; A. Friedman; D. P. Grote; L. Prost

2005-01-01

264

Electronic configuration and nuclear quadrupole interaction in higher transition elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock calculations were performed for several transition elements in several configurations, in particular for transition elements of the third period, in order to calculate for the outer d and p orbitals. Results are used to discuss possible mechanisms influencing the nuclear quadrupole interaction of compounds of transition elements. In particular, it is attempted to explain the large

Darci M. S. Esquivel; Diana Guenzburger; J. Danon

1979-01-01

265

Quadrupole mass spectrometer with a distorted analyzing field  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is the mathematical modeling of the ion and field dynamics in a quadrupole mass spectrometer, designed for monitoring the composition of nuclear fuels, with a distorted analyzing field and the determination of its sensitivity on the distortion. The model takes into account ion trajectories in the analyzing field with distortions due to nonrectilinear field-specifying electrodes as well as edge distortion and the transmission coefficient of ions through the spectrometer.

Titov, V.V.

1987-02-01

266

The deuterium quadrupole coupling constants of di- and trihalomethanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have recently been published a number of papers reporting the deuterium quadrupole coupling constants (QCC) of small molecules dissolved in liquid- crystalline media (1-5). The results presented show, in many instances, wide variations in QCC values determined by different groups. These differences can be mainly attributed to the presence of different solvent-solute interactions in different liquid-crystal phases. Other causes

A. C. KUNWAR; H. S. GUTOWSKY; E OLDFIELD

1985-01-01

267

Magnetic field measurements of printed-circuit quadrupoles and dipoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Printed-Circuit (PC) quadrupoles and dipoles have been designed and developed for focusing and bending a space-charge dominated electron beam in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), currently under development. Due to the rather small aspect ratio (length\\/diameter <1) of the magnets, the field quality, especially the nonlinear fringe field, has been a concern for the success of the UMER

W. W. Zhang; S. Bernal; P. Chin; R. Kishek; M. Reiser; M. Venturini; J. G. Wang; V. Yun

1999-01-01

268

Longitudinal capture in the radio-frequency-quadrupole structure  

SciTech Connect

The radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure not only can attain easily transverse focusing in the low-beta region, but also can obtain very high capture efficiency because of its low beta-lambda and low-particle rigidity. An optimization study of the zero space-charge longitudinal capture in an RFQ linac that yields configurations with large capture efficiency is described.

Inagaki, S.

1980-03-01

269

The exact calculation of quadrupole sources for some incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is concerned with the application of the acoustic analogy of Lighthill to the acoustic and aerodynamic problems associated with moving bodies. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation, which is an interpretation of the acoustic analogy for sound generation by moving bodies, manipulates the source terms into surface and volume sources. Quite often in practice the volume sources, or quadrupoles, are neglected for various reasons. Recently, Farassat, Long and others have attempted to use the FW-H equation with the quadrupole source and neglected to solve for the surface pressure on the body. The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of the quadrupole source to the acoustic pressure and body surface pressure for some problems for which the exact solution is known. The inviscid, incompressible, 2-D flow, calculated using the velocity potential, is used to calculate the individual contributions of the various surface and volume source terms in the FW-H equation. The relative importance of each of the sources is then assessed.

Brentner, Kenneth S.

1988-01-01

270

Measurement of coupling resonance driving terms with the AC dipole  

SciTech Connect

Resonance driving terms for linear coupled betatron motion in a synchrotron ring can be determined from corresponding spectral lines of an excited coherent beam motion. An AC dipole is one of instruments to excite such a motion. When a coherent motion is excited with an AC dipole, measured Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron phase advance have apparent modulations, as if there is an additional quadrupole field at the location of the AC dipole. Hence, measurements of these parameters using the AC dipole require a proper interpretation of observed quantities. The situation is similar in measurements of resonance driving terms using the AC dipole. In this note, we derive an expression of coupled betatron motion excited with two AC dipoles in presence of skew quadrupole fields, discuss an impact of this quadrupole like effect of the AC dipole on a measurement of coupling resonance driving terms, and present an analytical method to determine the coupling resonance driving terms from quantities observed using the AC dipole.

Miyamoto, R.

2010-10-01

271

Bose-Einstein Condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap  

E-print Network

We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of $^{87}$Rb atoms using electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a Quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC Trap). More than 5$\\times$$10^{8}$ atoms from a Magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then these atoms are transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil, thereby, changing the distance between quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80 \\%. This approach is different from a conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve the Bose-Einstein condensation having more than $10^{5}$ atoms.

Kumar, Sunil; Verma, Gunjan; Vishwakarma, Chetan; Noaman, Md; Rapol, Umakant

2014-01-01

272

Bose-Einstein Condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap  

E-print Network

We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of $^{87}$Rb atoms using electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a Quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC Trap). More than 5$\\times$$10^{8}$ atoms from a Magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then these atoms are transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil, thereby, changing the distance between quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80 \\%. This approach is different from a conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve the Bose-Einstein condensation having more than $10^{5}$ atoms.

Sunil Kumar; Sumit Sarkar; Gunjan Verma; Chetan Vishwakarma; Md. Noaman; Umakant Rapol

2014-08-20

273

Testing of Nb3Sn quadrupole coils using magnetic mirror structure  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and parameters of a quadrupole mirror structure for testing the mechanical, thermal and quench performance of single shell-type superconducting quadrupole coils at field, current and force levels similar to that of real magnet. The concept was experimentally verified by testing two quadrupole coils, previously used in quadrupole models, in the developed mirror structure in the temperature range from 4.5 to 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, heaters, and strain gauges to monitor their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. A new quadrupole coil made of improved Nb{sub 3}Sn RRP-108/127 strand and cable insulation based on E-glass tape was also tested using this structure. The fabrication and test results of the quadrupole mirror models are reported and discussed.

Zlobin, A.V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

274

TESTING OF NB{sub 3}SN QUADRUPOLE COILS USING MAGNETIC MIRROR STRUCTURE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and parameters of a quadrupole mirror structure for testing the mechanical, thermal and quench performance of single shell-type superconducting quadrupole coils at field, current and force levels similar to that of real magnet. The concept was experimentally verified by testing two quadrupole coils, previously used in quadrupole models, in the developed mirror structure in the temperature range from 4.5 to 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, heaters, and strain gauges to monitor their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. A new quadrupole coil made of improved Nb{sub 3}Sn RRP-108/127 strand and cable insulation based on E-glass tape was also tested using this structure. The fabrication and test results of the quadrupole mirror models are reported and discussed.

Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lamm, M. J.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J. C.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

2010-04-09

275

Supramolecular synthon pattern in solid clioquinol and cloxiquine (APIs of antibacterial, antifungal, antiaging and antituberculosis drugs) studied by ³?Cl NQR, ¹H-¹?O and ¹H-¹?N NQDR and DFT/QTAIM.  

PubMed

The quinolinol derivatives clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol, Quinoform) and cloxiquine (5-chloro-8-quinolinol) were studied experimentally in the solid state via ³?Cl NQR, ¹H-¹?O and ¹H-¹?N NQDR spectroscopies, and theoretically by density functional theory (DFT). The supramolecular synthon pattern of O-H···N hydrogen bonds linking dimers and ?-? stacking interactions were described within the QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) /DFT (density functional theory) formalism. Both proton donor and acceptor sites in O-H···N bonds were characterized using ¹H-¹?O and ¹H-¹?N NQDR spectroscopies and QTAIM. The possibility of the existence of O-H···H-O dihydrogen bonds was excluded. The weak intermolecular interactions in the crystals of clioquinol and cloxiquine were detected and examined. The results obtained in this work suggest that considerable differences in the NQR parameters for the planar and twisted supramolecular synthons permit differentiation between specific polymorphic forms, and indicate that the more planar supramolecular synthons are accompanied by a greater number of weaker hydrogen bonds linking them and stronger ?···? stacking interactions. PMID:21080020

Latosi?ska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosi?ska, Magdalena; Tomczak, Marzena Agnieszka; Seliger, Janez; Zagar, Veselko

2011-07-01

276

An Application of 3-D MEMS Packaging: Out-of-Plane Quadrupole Mass Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of low-cost out-of-plane quadrupole mass filters that use commercially available dowel pins as electrode rods. The quadrupoles implement a 3-D MEMS packaging technology that relies on deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE)-patterned deflection springs for alignment. Quadrupoles with rod diameter ranging from 0.25 to 1.58 mm and aspect ratio of 30 to 60 were

Luis F. Velasquez-Garcia; Kerry Cheung; Akintunde I. Akinwande

2008-01-01

277

Stability of the coherent quadrupole oscillations excited by the beam-beam interaction  

SciTech Connect

We study the coherent quadrupole motion in the presence of beam-beam interaction, using a linear approximation to the beam-beam force. The corresponding beam-beam limit is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of a system of linear equations describing the coherent quadrupole motion. We find that the stability of the quadrupole motions imposes severe limits on the beam current, as is the case for the dipole instability. Preliminary results of this study have appeared elsewhere.

Kamiya, Y.; Chao, A.W.

1983-10-01

278

The Erez-Rosen metric and the role of the quadrupole on light propagation  

E-print Network

The gravitational field of a static body with quadrupole moment is described by an exact solution found by Erez and Rosen. Here we investigate the role of the quadrupole in the motion, deflection and lensing of a light ray in the above metric. The standard lensing observables like image positions and magnification have been explicitly obtained in the weak field and small quadrupole limit. In this limit the spacetime metric appears as the natural generalization to quadrupole corrections of the metric form adopted also in current astrometric models. Hence, the corresponding analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem as well as the consistency with other approaches are also discussed.

Bini, Donato; de Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea; Vecchiato, Alberto

2014-01-01

279

The Erez-Rosen metric and the role of the quadrupole on light propagation  

E-print Network

The gravitational field of a static body with quadrupole moment is described by an exact solution found by Erez and Rosen. Here we investigate the role of the quadrupole in the motion, deflection and lensing of a light ray in the above metric. The standard lensing observables like image positions and magnification have been explicitly obtained in the weak field and small quadrupole limit. In this limit the spacetime metric appears as the natural generalization to quadrupole corrections of the metric form adopted also in current astrometric models. Hence, the corresponding analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem as well as the consistency with other approaches are also discussed.

Donato Bini; Mariateresa Crosta; Fernando de Felice; Andrea Geralico; Alberto Vecchiato

2014-08-22

280

Performance Characteristics of a MEMS Quadrupole Mass Filter With Square Electrodes: Experimental and Simulated Results  

E-print Network

Size reduction in quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) is an ongoing requirement driven by the needs of space exploration, portable, and covert monitoring applications. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology ...

Hogan, Thomas J.

281

Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

2002-08-19

282

Geometry and properties of the plasma in a quadrupole ion pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diameter of the plasma in a quadrupole ionization gauge and quadrupole ion pump has been measured as a function of pressure. The radio-frequency quadrupole systems are tuned in such a way that electrons remain on stable trajectories in the center of the tube. Being emitted at one end, the electrons encounter an inverted field at the other end so that they travel on spiral paths back and forth until they collide with the rest gas molecules, producing ions which are collected as an ion current at a cylinder surrounding the four hyperbolically shaped quadrupole electrodes.

Schwarz, H.

1977-01-01

283

Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

2002-05-24

284

Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

2003-05-01

285

Electrostatic quadrupole accelerator for the heavy ion fusion project  

SciTech Connect

A full scale (2 MeV, 800 mA, K{sup +}), low emittance injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Project has been built at LBL. It consists of a 700 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The actual operation of this new machine has exceeded design parameters. Design of the accelerator, report on experiments performed in connection with the evaluation and characterization of the ESQ and corresponding 3D Particle in Cell simulations will be presented.

Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.; Eylong, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

286

Quench margin measurement in Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet  

SciTech Connect

One of the possible practical applications of the Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets is the LHC luminosity upgrade that involves replacing the present NbTi focusing quadrupoles in two high-luminosity interaction regions (IR). The IR magnets are exposed to strong radiation from the interaction point that requires a detailed investigation of the magnet operating margins under the expected radiation-induced heat depositions. This paper presents the results of simulation and measurement of quench limits and temperature margins for a Nb{sub 3}Sn model magnet using a special midplane strip heater.

Kashikhin, V.V.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2008-08-01

287

Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments  

SciTech Connect

The table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin, and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to late 2004. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 42 (1989) 189].

Stone, N.J. [Oxford Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: n.stone1@physics.oxford.ac.uk

2005-05-01

288

The generalized oscillator strengths for Na: monopole, dipole and quadrupole transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) of Na from the ground state [2p63s]32S excited to [2p6(n + 1)s](n + 1)2S, [2p6np]n2P, [2p6nd]n2D(3 <= n <= ?) and adjacent continuum states are systematically investigated by the R-matrix method within the first Born approximation. The calculated energy levels of Na+ and Na are in good agreement with the experimental values. The energy dependence of the GOS extrema for the monopole, dipole and quadrupole transitions is investigated. The GOS density surfaces of 2S, 2P and 2D channels are calculated and their accuracies are tested rigorously by the available experiments as well as by the comparisons between the calculations on the different bases and the sum rule. With the surfaces tested, the high-energy electron impact excitation cross sections of the infinite Rydberg states near the threshold can be readily obtained by interpolations. In addition, the GOSDs for the resonance transitions 2p63s ? 2p53s2 and 2p63s ? 2p53s3p are investigated.

Han, X. Y.; Li, Y. M.; Yan, J.; Zhu, L. F.

2009-10-01

289

Methods Using the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction to Determine the Structure of Randomly Oriented Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In typical deuterated compounds, a deuteron feels an electric field gradient (EFG) which lies parallel to the bond in which the deuteron participates. In solids, the interaction between the quadrupole moment of the deuteron and the EFG splits the NMR spectrum. However, the size of the interaction depends on the orientation of the EFG with respect to the applied magnetic field, leaving a broad spectrum for unoriented powder samples. Advantage is taken of this orientation dependence to stimulate, with an H 1that is small compared to the linewidth, deuterons in molecules of a particular orientation in a powdered sample containing molecules of all orientations. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with two types of experiment. First, a "slow beat" measurement of the distance ( rDD= 1.673 ± 0.004 Å) between deuterons in deuterated ethylidyne, the structure resulting from the adsorption of ethylene on platinum, is performed. Then, a SEDOR measurement of the bond angle and distance between deuterons in a test compound, D 2O in gypsum, is performed. Also signal enhancement schemes involving the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence and a technique due to Haase and Conradi [J. Haase and M. S. Conradi, Chem. Phys. Lett.209, 287 (1993); J. Haase, M. S. Conradi, and E. Oldfield, J. Magn. Reson. A109, 210 (1994)] to aid the collection of SEDOR data are demonstrated.

Sakaie, Ken; Slichter, C. P.; Sinfelt, J. H.

290

Magnetic resonance cell  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a nuclear magnetic alignment device for use in a nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope and the like. One embodiment includes a container for gas having a layer of rubidium hydride on its inner surface. The container comprising a spherical portion and a tip portion, is rotationally symmetric about an axis of symmetry. Enclosed within the container is a nuclear moment gas having a nuclear electric quadrupole moment, such as xenon-131, and an optically pumpable substance, such as rubidium. A portion of the rubidium is a vapor. The remainder is a condensed pellet which is deposited in the tip of the container such that the pellet is also rotationally symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the container. A layer of rubidium hydride is deposited on the inner surface of the container. The device further includes means for orienting the symmetry axis of the container at an angle to an applied magnetic field such that the relaxation time constant of the aligned nuclear moment gas is substantially at a maximum.

Kwon, T.M.; Volk, C.H.

1984-05-01

291

Ion injection and activation in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this thesis is to provide understanding concerning ion injection and ion activation in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Ion trap mass spectrometry has a variety of applications concerned with the analysis large proteins and biomolecules. However, such experiments have been plagued by limited mass measurement accuracy as ions are not ejected in a predictable manner. Examination of the solution to the [open quotes]forced[close quotes], [open quotes]damped[close quotes] Mathieu equation and an understanding of the behavior of ions under the influence of space charge allow a qualitative prediction of ion behavior and such predictions have a direct outcome on the ability to perform experiments with high mass accuracy. For ions which are sufficiently separated in m/z ratio, mass measurement errors occur as a result of off-resonance energy absorption by the ion which leads to early ejection of the ion, while errors for ions which are in close proximity, [le]1 da/charge separation, result from combination of off-resonance absorption and the presence of space charge conditions which lead to irregular peak separations. However, the analysis of large biomolecules requires the efficient collection of ions injected into the trap and energy deposition processes which were not typically available. The use of a combination of the helium buffer gas with a small amount of a heavier mass target effects both the trapping efficiency and the deposition of much higher internal energies in the selected ion without deleterious effects of ion loss due to scattering. For ions with m/z ratios greater than 8000 da/charge the use of buffer mixtures is shown to increase the trapping efficiency by as much as 200%. In addition, collision-induced dissociation experiments performed on thermometer-type species, such as pyrene, confirm that up to 23 volts of internal energy may be deposited in a single MS/MS experiment and should be applicable for the dissociation of biomolecules.

Morand, K.L.

1992-01-01

292

Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data  

SciTech Connect

The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our prediction is Q_Omega= (0.96 +/- 0.02)*10^(-2) efm2 [GE2(0)=0.680 +/- 0.012].

G. Ramalho, M.T. Pena

2011-03-01

293

Quadrupole Approximation for Para-Positronium in Relativistic Schrödinger Theory  

E-print Network

The non-relativistic energy levels of para-positronium are calculated in the quadrupole approximation of the interaction potential. This approximation technique takes into account the anisotropy of the electrostatic electron-positron interaction in the lowest order. The states due to different values of the quantum number $(l_z)$ of angular momentum are found to be no longer degenerate as is the case in the conventional theory. The physical origin of this elimination of the conventional degeneracy may intuitively be attributed to the state-dependent inertial \\emph{broadening} of the rotating charge clouds; the corresponding \\emph{anisotropic} deformation (in the quadrupole approximation) lowers then the negative electrostatic interaction energy. The result of this influence of anisotropy is that the states with $l_z=0$ adopt smaller binding energy whereas the states with maximal value of $|l_z|$ (for fixed principal quantum number $n$) have the largest binding energy within the angular momentum multiplet $(-|l_{z,\\mathrm{max}}| \\le l_z \\le |l_{z,\\mathrm{max}}|)$. This yields a certain kind of electric fine-structure splitting with the splitted RST levels being placed in a relatively narrow band around the (highly degenerated) conventional levels.

M. Mattes; M. Sorg

2011-09-11

294

High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 5600 magnets, each of which must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable in order that the NLC reach its 85/ overall availability goal. A multidiscipline engineering team was assembled at SLAC to develop a more reliable electromagnet design than historically had been achieved at SLAC. This team carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAC quadrupole magnet system. They overcame a number of longstanding design prejudices, producing 10 major design changes. This paper describes how a prototype magnet was constructed and the extensive testing carried out on it to prove full functionality with an improvement in reliability. The magnet's fabrication cost will be compared to the cost of a magnet with the same requirements made in the historic SLAC way. The NLC will use over 1600 of these 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles with a range of integrated strengths from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of 0 to -20/ and core lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20/ adjustment. A magnetic measurement set-up has been developed that can measure sub-micron shifts of a magnetic center. The prototype satisfied the center shift requirement over the full range of integrated strengths.

Spencer, C. M.

2001-01-01

295

Resonance scraping  

SciTech Connect

Protons lost in a ring leave at a few preferred locations, determined by some non-linear property of the dipoles. This paper suggests taking control of lost protons by beating the magnets at their own game - by means of a designed resonance used as a beam scraper. It is a study of suitable resonances, including estimates of the required multipole element strengths. The appropriate resonances are two-dimensional. A large number of figures is included.

Collins, T.

1986-06-01

296

CXXXIII. Magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of odd-mass nuclei in jj-coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of nuclei are treated in a model which considers all particles outside the core of completed levels on an equal footing. It is shown that in this way better agreement with experimental magnetic moments is obtained than from the simpler Schmidt model. The manner in which electric quadrupole moments arise in odd-neutron nuclei without the

B. H. Flowers

1952-01-01

297

Measuring the Magnetic Center Behavior of an ILC Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype  

SciTech Connect

The main linacs of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) consist of superconducting cavities operated at 2K. The accelerating cavities are contained in a contiguous series of cryogenic modules that also house the main linac quadrupoles, thus the quadrupoles also need to be superconducting. In an early ILC design, these magnets are about 0.6 m long, have cos (2{theta}) coils, and operate at constant field gradients up to 60 T/m. In order to preserve the small beam emittances in the ILC linacs, the e+ and e- beams need to traverse the quadrupoles near their magnetic centers. A quadrupole shunting technique is used to measure the quadrupole alignment with the beams; this process requires the magnetic centers move by no more than about 5 micrometers when their strength is changed. To determine if such tight stability is achievable in a superconducting quadrupole, we at SLAC measured the magnetic center motions in a prototype ILC quadrupole built at CIEMAT in Spain. A rotating coil technique was used with a better than 0.1 micrometer precision in the relative field center position, and less than a 2 micrometer systematic error over 30 minutes. This paper describes the warm-bore cryomodule that houses the quadrupole in its Helium vessel, the magnetic center measurement system, the measured center data and strength and harmonics magnetic data.

Spencer, Cherrill M.; Adolphsen, Chris; Berndt, Martin; Jensen, David R.; Rogers, Ron; Sheppard, John C.; Lorant, Steve St; Weber, Thomas B.; Weisend, John, II; /SLAC; Brueck, Heinrich; /DESY; Toral, Fernando; /Madrid, CIEMAT

2011-02-07

298

Description of surface quadrupole oscillations of heated spherical nuclei in the Brownian-motion approximation  

SciTech Connect

The Brownian motion of a quadrupole quantum oscillator is considered as a model of surface quadrupole oscillations of heated spherical nuclei. The integrals of the motion related to energy and angular momentum conservation are constructed and the wave functions are obtained for states with definite values of these integrals of the motion in the phonon representation.

Svin'in, I.R.

1982-07-01

299

Effects of Extreme Magnetic Quadrupole Fields on Penning Traps and the Consequences for Antihydrogen Trapping  

SciTech Connect

Measurements on electrons confined in a Penning trap show that extreme quadrupole fields destroy particle confinement. Much of the particle loss comes from the hitherto unrecognized ballistic transport of particles directly into the wall. The measurements scale to the parameter regime used by ATHENA and ATRAP to create antihydrogen, and suggest that quadrupoles cannot be used to trap antihydrogen.

Fajans, J.; Bertsche, W.; Burke, K.; Chapman, S.F. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720 (United States); Werf, D.P. van der [Department of Physics, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

2005-10-07

300

Magnetic measurements of the 5 meter QC series quadrupoles at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

From May 1991 to September 1992, magnetic measurements were performed on six 5 meter prototype SSC quadrupoles designed and built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). In addition, one of the quadrupoles was disassembled, reassembled and remeasured. The purpose of this paper is to review the magnetic measurements program and give an summary of some of the results of the magnet testing.

Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, B.; Caspi, S.; Green, M.I.; Lietzke, A.; Schermer, R.; Taylor, C.; Van Dyke, D.

1993-05-01

301

Dielectric resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave passive and active devices containing dielectric resonators and the design procedures used to characterize these components are reviewed. The emphasis has been on low noise, small size, low cost and high temperature stability. Both filter and oscillator applications are described. The applications of dielectric resonators in the millimeter-wave frequency band are also discussed

P. Guillon

1988-01-01

302

Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

303

Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

304

Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

305

Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

306

Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and aligrnent for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

307

Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

308

Physical implications of the use of primitive and traceless electric quadrupole moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of certain electromagnetic effects, such as chiral phenomena in fluids and crystals and gyrotropic birefringence in antiferromagnetic crystals, require the inclusion of electric quadrupole contributions for a full description of the effect. In a number of these theories the electric quadrupole moment is defined to be traceless, as indeed is the general practice for such moments in nuclear physics. It is shown that, when the traceless quadrupole moment is used in the derivation of the wave equation that describes light propagation through an optically active uniaxial medium, this equation and properties derived from it, in particular refractive index, depend in general on the arbitrary origin used to specify the quadrupole moment. This is physically unacceptable for an observable property of a substance. By contrast, this defect does not occur if the definition of the primitive quadrupole moment is adopted, namely qr r . beta

Gunning, M. J.; Raab, R. E.

309

A new insight on the structural changes of linear quadrupole liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular-dynamics simulations for linear quadrupole liquids are presented. The study is carried out for two different molecular lengths at constant density and a number of temperatures and quadrupole moments. All the simulated thermodynamic states correspond to the condensed phases and some of them show typical features of a solid structure. Furthermore, a change on the preferred intermolecular orientation in the liquid phase is observed from a shifted parallel molecular arrangement to a perpendicular orientation as the quadrupole raises. This change depends on the quadrupole moment as well as on the molecular length and is put in relation with the solid structure of different "diatomic" molecules such as nitrogen, ethane, and acetylene. The appearance of a plastic solid phase at low quadrupole moment and density is also justified. A thoroughly discussion about the availability of classical perturbation theories for this kind of systems is presented.

Cortada, María; Calero, Sofia; Lago, Santiago

2005-11-01

310

Quadrupole Collectivity in GERMANIUM-72, Palladium -110, and ERBIUM-168.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole collective properties of three nuclei, ('72)Ge, ('110)Pd and ('168)Er have been studied by Coulomb excitation using heavy-ion beams such as ('16)O, ('40)Ca, ('58)Ni and ('208)Pb. Deexcitation gamma rays in coincidence with both the scattered projectiles and recoiling target nuclei were detected over a wide range of scattering angles, to measure the Coulomb excitation cross-sections. The Coulomb excitation code GOSIA was used to extract the E2 matrix elements in a model-independent way. Almost a complete set of E2 matrix elements for low-lying levels has been measured for the nuclei ('72)Ge, ('110)Pd and ('168)Er. A direct measurement has been performed of the lifetimes of 8 levels in ('110)Pd using the Recoil Distance Method. The excellent agreement with the Coulomb excitation results proves the correctness of the method used to analyze Coulomb excitation experiments. In ('72)Ge, 14 E2 matrix elements have been determined and limits for 7 matrix elements have been found. These include: 4 transition in-band matrix elements, 5 diagonal matrix elements and 12 inter-band matrix elements. After correcting the ground 0('+) state for mixing with an intruder 0('+) state, the E2 matrix elements in the ground and gamma bands can be explained by quadrupole collective motion, with shape parameters (gamma)(DBLTURN)28.5(DEGREES) and (beta)(DBLTURN)0.30. In ('110)Pd the measured lifetimes together with Coulomb excitation results gave new spectroscopic information about low-lying states, which now can be arranged into collective rotational bands based on the ground, 2(,2)('+), 0(,2)('+) and 0(,3)('+) states, and having deformation (gamma)(DBLTURN)18(DEGREES) and (beta) from 0.21 to 0.36. For the nucleus ('168)Er, 54 E2 matrix elements have been determined. These include: 9 transition ground -band matrix elements, 7 diagonal ground-band matrix elements, 14 transition gamma-band matrix elements, 5 diagonal gamma -band matrix elements and 21 inter-band matrix elements between the ground and gamma bands. No significant deviations from the correlations predicted by the rotational model have been found. In the three cases studied, i.e. ('72)Ge, ('110)Pd and ('168)Er, the E2 data exhibit strong correlations, which shows that collective quadrupole motion is the dominant feature of low-lying spectra in all three nuclei.

Kotlinski, Bohdan

311

COMPENSATION OF FAST KICKER ROLLS WITH SKEW QUADRUPOLES  

SciTech Connect

The development of the third generation light sources lead to the implementation of the top-up operation, when injection occurs while users collect data. The beam excursions due to the non-closure of the injection bump can spoil the data and need to be suppressed. In the horizontal plane compensation can be achieved by adjusting timing and kick amplitudes. The rolls of the kicker magnets create non-closure in the vertical plane and usually there is no means for correction. In the paper we describe proposed compensation scheme utilizing two skew quadrupoles placed inside the injection bump. The third generation light sources implement top-up operation firstly introduced at Advanced Photon Source. In this mode the circulating beam current is supported near constant by frequent injection of small charge, while photon beam is delivered for users. The beam perturbations caused by the mismatched injection bump can provide undesired noise in the user data. Usually the injection trigger is distributed to the users end stations so that those affected would be able to blank data acquisition. Nevertheless, as good operational practice such transients should be suppressed as much as possible. In the horizontal plane (which is commonly used for injection) one can adjust individual kicker strength as well as trigger delay while observing motion of the stored beam centroid. In the vertical plane such means are unavailable in the most cases. The possible solutions include dedicated weak vertical kickers and motorized adjustment of the roll angle of the injection kickers. Both abovementioned approaches are expensive and can significantly deteriorate reliability. We suggest two employ two skew quadrupoles (to correct both angle and position) placed inside the injection bump. In this case the beam position itself serves as measure of the kicker strength (assuming that kickers are well matched) and vertical kicks from the skew quadrupoles will be self synchronized with injection bump. In this paper we will consider the case when injection hardware (kickers and septa) are located in the same straight. Such an approach simplifies consideration but it can be generalized.

Pinayev, I.

2011-03-28

312

Quasiclassical description of bremsstrahlung accompanying alpha decay including quadrupole radiation  

E-print Network

We present a quasiclassical theory of alpha decay accompanied by bremsstrahlung with a special emphasis on the case of 210Po, with the aim of finding a unified description that incorporates both the radiation during the tunneling through the Coulomb wall and the finite energy E_gamma of the radiated photon up to E_gamma on the order of Q_alpha/sqrt(eta), where Q_alpha is the alpha-decay Q-value and eta is the Sommerfeld parameter. The corrections with respect to previous quasiclassical investigations are found to be substantial, and excellent agreement with a full quantum mechanical treatment is achieved. Furthermore, we find that a dipole-quadrupole interference significantly changes the alpha-gamma angular correlation. We obtain good agreement between our theoretical predictions and experimental results.

U. D. Jentschura; A. I. Milstein; I. S. Terekhov; H. Boie; H. Scheit; D. Schwalm

2006-06-02

313

Quasiclassical description of bremsstrahlung accompanying {alpha} decay including quadrupole radiation  

SciTech Connect

We present a quasiclassical theory of {alpha} decay accompanied by bremsstrahlung with a special emphasis on the case of {sup 210}Po, with the aim of finding a unified description that incorporates both the radiation during the tunneling through the Coulomb wall and the finite energy E{sub {gamma}} of the radiated photon up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx}Q{sub {alpha}}/{radical}({eta}), where Q{sub {alpha}} is the {alpha}-decay Q-value and {eta} is the Sommerfeld parameter. The corrections with respect to previous quasiclassical investigations are found to be substantial, and excellent agreement with a full quantum mechanical treatment is achieved. Furthermore, we find that a dipole-quadrupole interference significantly changes the {alpha}-{gamma} angular correlation. We obtain good agreement between our theoretical predictions and experimental results.

Jentschura, U. D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Schwalm, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-01-15

314

Quadrupole-octupole coupled states in {sup 112}Cd  

SciTech Connect

The properties of negative-parity states in the 2.5 MeV region in {sup 112}Cd have been investigated with the (n,n{sup {prime}}{gamma}) reaction. For many of these levels, lifetimes have been measured, and B(E1) and B(E2) values for their decays have been determined. Several transitions exhibit enhanced B(E2) values for decay to the 3{sub 1}{sup {minus}} octupole state, indicative of quadrupole-octupole coupled (2{sup +}{circle_times}3{sup {minus}}) states. The B(E1) values observed are typically in the range of 1{endash}5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Weisskopf units (W.u.), irrespective of the final state. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Garrett, P.E.; McGrath, C.A.; Yeh, M.; Yates, S.W. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)] [University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Garrett, P.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-414, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-414, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lehmann, H.; Jolie, J. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

1999-05-01

315

Neutron-dominant quadrupole collective motion in {sup 16}C  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic proton scattering to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state of neutron-rich {sup 16}C is studied in inverse kinematics using a 33-MeV/nucleon beam. The deformation parameter {beta}{sub pp{sup '}}=0.47(5) obtained is consistent with the global systematics of even-even nuclei, based on the homogeneous quantum liquid-drop model. This result contrasts that of a recent lifetime measurement for the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state in {sup 16}C, where an anomalously reduced E2 transition strength is observed. A combination of these two results yields a large M{sub n}/M{sub p} ratio of about 7, indicating a dominant neutron contribution to the quadrupole collectivity.

Ong, H.J.; Sakurai, H.; Iwasaki, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Imai, N.; Aoi, N.; Gomi, T.; Ishihara, M.; Kubo, T.; Michimasa, S.; Minemura, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yamada, K.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Yoneda, K. [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Dombradi, Zs.; Fueloep, Z.S. [ATOMKI, H-4001, Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Saito, A.; Baba, H.; Notani, M. [CNS, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] (and others)

2006-02-15

316

Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.  

PubMed

Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented. PMID:24593614

Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M

2014-02-01

317

Radio-frequency quadrupole: A new linear accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator is discussed. In the RFQ, the use of RF electric fields for radial focusing, combined with special programming of the bunching, allows high current dc beams to be captured and accelerated with only small beam loss and low radial emittance growth. Advantages of the RFQ linac include a low injection energy (20 to 50 keV for protons) and a final energy high enough so the beam can be further accelerated with high efficiency in a Wideroee or Alvarez linac. The beam dynamics parameters of three RFQ systems are described. These are the final design for the prototype test of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test accelerator, the final design for the prototype test of the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations, and an improved low velocity linac for heavy ion fusion.

Stokes, R. H.; Wangler, T. P.; Crandall, K. R.

318

The Dynamic Aperture of an Electrostatic Quadrupole Lattice  

SciTech Connect

In heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion accelerator concepts, dynamic aperture is important to the cost of the accelerator, most especially for designs which envision multibeam linacs, where extra clearance for each beam greatly enlarges the transverse scale of the machine. In many designs the low-energy end of such an accelerator uses electrostatic quadrupole focusing. The dynamic aperture of such a lattice has been investigated here for intense, space-charge-dominated ion beams using the 2-D transverse slice version of the 3-D particle-in-cell simulation code WARP. The representation of the focusing field used is a 3-D solution of the Laplace equation for the biased focusing elements, as opposed to previous calculations, which used a less-accurate multipole approximation. 80-85% radial filling of the aperture is found to be possible. Results from the simulations, as well as corroborating data from the High Current Experiment at LBNL, are presented.

Celata, C.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.; Friedman,A.; Grote, D.P.

2005-05-01

319

Investigation of a quadrupole ultra-high vacuum ion pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new nonmagnetic ion pump resembles the quadrupole ionization gage. The dimensions are larger, and hyperbolically shaped electrodes replace the four rods. Their surfaces follow y sq. = 36 + x sq. (x, y in centimeters). The electrodes, 55 cm long, are positioned lengthwise in a tube. At one end a cathode emits electrons; at the other end a narrowly wound flat spiral of tungsten clad with titanium on cathode potential can be heated for titanium evaporation. Electrons accelerated by a dc potential of the surface electrodes oscillate between the ends on rotational trajectories, if a high frequency potential superimposed on the dc potential is properly adjusted. Pumping speeds (4-100 liter/sec) for different gases at different peak voltages (1000-3000V) at corresponding frequencies (57-100 MHz), and at different pressures 0.00001 to the minus 9 power Torr were observed. The lowest pressure reached was below 10 to the minus 10 power Torr.

Schwarz, H. J.

1974-01-01

320

Quadrupole moments of rotating neutron stars and strange stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results for models of neutron stars and strange stars constructed using the Hartle-Thorne slow-rotation method with a wide range of equations of state, focusing on the values obtained for the angular momentum J and the quadrupole moment Q, when the gravitational mass M and the rotational frequency ? are specified. Building on previous work, which showed surprising uniformity in the behaviour of the moment of inertia for neutron-star models constructed with widely different equations of state, we find similar uniformity for the quadrupole moment. These two quantities, together with the mass, are fundamental for determining the vacuum space-time outside neutron stars. We study particularly the dimensionless combination of parameters QM/J2 (using units for which c = G = 1). This quantity goes to 1 in the case of a Kerr-metric black hole and deviations away from 1 then characterize the difference between neutron-star and black hole space-time. It is found that QM/J2 for both neutron stars and strange stars decreases with increasing mass, for a given equation of state, reaching a value of around 2 (or even less) for maximum-mass models, meaning that their external space-time is then not very far from that of the Kerr metric. If QM/J2 is plotted against R/2M (where R is the radius), it is found that the relationship is nearly unique for neutron-star models, independent of the equation of state, while it is significantly different for strange stars. This gives a new way of possibly distinguishing between them.

Urbanec, M.; Miller, J. C.; Stuchlík, Z.

2013-08-01

321

Acoustic Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently my collection of historical physics teaching apparatus was given a group of 19th-century tuning forks on resonant boxes. Figure 1 shows the smallest fork sitting on the largest one. The large tuning fork oscillates at 128 Hz and has a resonator that is 57.9 cm long. The small fork has a frequency 10 times higher, but its resonator has a length of 11.0 cm instead of the 5.8 cm that simple scaling would suggest. How is this possible?

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2012-11-01

322

Multipole Surface Plasmon Resonance in Electrodeposited Gold Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrodeposition is a convenient, economical and template-free tool to create the gold nanostructures. A two-electrode electrochemical process is used for the deposition process. In this method by controlling the deposition time and electrode potential, nearly spherical and rod-like gold nanostructures were synthesized through the reduction of Chlorauric acid with citric acid as a complexing agent. Spherical gold nanostructures of different size around 2 nm to 30 nm and rod-like nanostructures with an aspect ratio 0.5 were grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate. The growth mechanism of gold nanostructures is explained with the help of oriented attachment process. The contact angle measurement showed the hydrophilic nature of gold nanostructures using water with contact angle of about 56°. The optical properties showed a dipole, quadrupole and an octupole plasmon resonance mode at around 625 nm, 530 nm and 422 nm respectively. The dipole resonance peak extends further to give a broad absorption band in the near infrared region of electromagnetic waves. The refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles in various solvents was investigated by calculating the red shift of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks. The quadrupole plasmon resonance mode showed maximum SPR sensitivity as compared to dipole and octupole plasmon resonance mode. The controlled formation of gold nanoparticles with variation of SPR over wide range of visible region supports the potential applications in biosensors, nanoelectronics and plasmon enhanced light absorption in photovoltaics, etc.

Mandke, Mohanrao V.; Pathan, Habib M.

2014-05-01

323

Electrospray Ionization Multiple Stage Quadrupole Ion-Trap and Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometric Studies on Phosphatidylglycerol from Arabidopsis leaves  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is the major phospholipid of plant chloroplasts. PG from Arabidopsis thaliana has an unusual fatty acyl chain, 3-trans-hexadecenoyl (?316:1) in the sn-2 position of the major 18:3/?316:1-PG species, as well as in 18:2/?316:1-PG and 16:0/?316:1-PG. Upon low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) in a tandem quadrupole or in an ion-trap mass spectrometer, the [M – H]? ions of the PG molecules containing ?316:1 give product-ion spectra that are readily distinguishable from those arising from PGs without the ?316:1 species. The ?316:1-fatty acyl-containing PGs are characterized by MS2 product-ion mass spectra that contain predominant [M – H – 236]? ions arising from loss of the ?316:1-fatty acyl substituent as a ketene. This is attributable to the fact that the ?-hydrogen of the ?316:1-fatty acid substituent involved in the ketene loss is an allylic hydrogen, which is very labile. This leads to preferential neutral loss of 236 and drastic decline in the neutral loss of 254 (i.e., loss as a fatty acid), the unique features that signify the presence of ?316:1-fatty acyl containing PGs. The neutral loss scan of 236, thus provides a sensitive tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric means to identify ?316:1-containing PG species in lipid mixtures. This low-energy tandem mass spectrometric approach also permits the structures of the Arabidopsis PGs that consist of two isomeric structures to be unveiled. PMID:17303435

Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Williams, Todd D.; Welti, Ruth

2009-01-01

324

Magnetic Resonance  

Cancer.gov

Focus Group on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) in Clinical Oncology(April 1999) To explore the technical requirements for MRS and the application of hydrogen and multinuclear spectroscopy for tumor response to therapy.

325

Systematic study of L?3 giant resonances in Sm isotopes via multipole decomposition analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background-free inelastic scattering spectra have been obtained for five Sm isotopes with 386-MeV ? particles at forward angles (including 0° ) to investigate the effect of deformation on the compressional-mode giant resonances. The strength distributions for the L?3 isoscalar giant resonances have been extracted via a multipole decomposition analysis using angular distributions calculated in the framework of the density-dependent single-folding model. We observed a splitting of the giant monopole resonance because of its mixing with the giant quadrupole resonance. For the isoscalar giant dipole resonance, the observed effects of deformation are different for the low- and high-excitation-energy components. Evidence has been obtained for the theoretically predicted mixing between the isoscalar giant dipole resonance and the high energy octupole resonance.

Itoh, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Uchida, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, T.; Murakami, T.; Takeda, H.; Taki, T.; Terashima, S.; Tsukahara, N.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Kharraja, B.; Koss, M.; Nayak, B. K.; Zhu, S.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Yoshida, H. P.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M. N.; Volkerts, M.

2003-12-01

326

Extended Townes-Dailey Analysis of the Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One simple way to understand nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is by invoking the model of Townes and Dailey. This model, involving the field gradients generated by p electrons, has usually been used to estimate the fractional ionic character of diatomic molecules from a single nuclear quadrupole coupling constant. We will extend the model to three dimensions for polyatomic molecules and use it to rationalize the perhaps unexpected nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor for molecules such as monobromogermylene (HGeBr) and compare this simple calculation with ab initio results. C. H. Townes, B. P. Dailey, J. Chem. Phys. 17, 782 (1949)

Novick, Stewart E.

2009-06-01

327

Multi-spectral plasmon induced transparency via in-plane dipole and dual-quadrupole coupling.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrated an approach based on dipole and dual-quadrupole coupling to construct a planar metamaterial supporting multi-spectral plasmon induced transparency. The structure consists of two short silver wires (dipole) and two long silver wires (dual-quadrupole). The in-plane coupling between the dipole and the dual-quadrupole leads to two transmission windows even in the absorbance linewidth of the dipole. This phenomenon is well described and understood by numerical analyses and a classical oscillator model. PMID:24921261

Miyata, Masashi; Hirohata, Jumpei; Nagasaki, Yusuke; Takahara, Junichi

2014-05-19

328

SPIN COUPLING RESONANCE AND SUPPRESSION IN THE AGS.  

SciTech Connect

Spin depolarizing resonances due to coupling may account for as much as a 30 percent loss in polarization in the AGS. The major source of coupling in the AGS is the solenoidal snake. In the past some preliminary work was done to understand this phenomena [1], and a method to overcome these resonances was attempted [2]. However, in the polarized proton run of 2002, the response of these coupled spin.resonances to the strength of the solenoidal snake, skew quadrupoles and vertical and horizontal betatron tune separation was studied to provided a benchmark for a modified DEPOL program [3]. Then using the new DEPOL program, a method to cure the coupled spin resonances in the AGS via spin matching rather than global or local decoupling was explored.

Ranjbar, V H; Ahrens, L; Bai, M; Brown, K; Glenn, W; Huang, H; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T

2002-09-09

329

Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Coupled with a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer  

PubMed Central

In recent years, laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer has been demonstrated to provide a valuable technique for the analysis of a wide variety of nonvolatile, thermally labile compounds, including analytes that could not previously be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Although FT-ICR instruments are very powerful, they are also large and expensive, and hence mainly used as research instruments. In contrast, linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometers are common due to several qualities that make these instruments attractive for both academic and industrial settings, such as high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and experimental versatility. Further, the relatively small size of the instruments, comparatively low cost and the lack of a magnetic field provide some distinct advantages over FT-ICR instruments. Hence, we have coupled the LIAD technique with a commercial LQIT, the Finnigan LTQ mass spectrometer. The LQIT was modified for a LIAD probe by outfitting the removable back plate of the instrument with a 6” ConFlat flange (CFF) port, gate valve and sample lock. Reagent ions were created using the LQIT's atmospheric pressure ionization source and trapped in the mass analyzer for up to 10 s to allow chemical ionization reactions with the neutral molecules desorbed via LIAD. These initial experiments focused on demonstrating the feasibility of performing LIAD in the LQIT. Hence, the results are compared to those obtained using an FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Despite the lower efficiency in the transfer of desorbed neutral molecules into the ion trap, and the smaller maximum number of available laser pulses, the higher intrinsic sensitivity of the LQIT resulted in a net higher sensitivity relative to the FT-ICR. PMID:20000769

Habicht, Steven C.; Amundson, Lucas M.; Duan, Penggao; Vinueza, Nelson R.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

2009-01-01

330

Ion mobility measurement by dc tomography in an rf quadrupole ion trap  

SciTech Connect

A nonintrusive tomographic method sensitive to the spatial distribution of trapped ions in the rf quadrupole ion trap is used to investigate ion cooling in the course of collisions with helium. Cooling commences after coherent excitation, by a resonant ac signal, of a mass-selected population of ions and its progress is followed using a short monopolar dc pulse to probe the position of the ion cloud. The amplitude of the probe dc pulse is selected such that it is sufficient to eject ions at some phases and not others. The abundance of the remaining trapped ion population is recorded by a scan of the rf amplitude and thus provides information on the axial secular motion of the original trapped ions. Ions of identical nominal mass, but different chemical composition (krypton, benzene-d{sub 6}, and 1-hexene, all nominal mass 84 Da), are studied using pressures chosen to give cooling periods on the order of 10 ms. The maximum excursion in the axial direction, when plotted as a function of cooling time, provides information on the cooling process. The relative cooling times for the ions examined agree with calculated or experimentally known, velocity-dependent collision cross sections. Cooling times, using 0.46 mTorr of helium when operating the ion trap at Mathieu parameter q{sub z} = 0.278, were 12 ms for krypton, 9.5 ms for benzene-d{sub 6}, and 7 ms for 1-hexene. Simulations of ion motion made using the ion trap simulation program, ITSIM, with ion/neutral elastic collisions enabled, gave results that closely match and augment the experimental data. Methods for increasing the resolution of the experiment are discussed.

Plass, W.R.; Gill, L.A.; Bui, H.A.; Cooks, R.G.

2000-06-01

331

Development of a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole accelerator facility for BNCT.  

PubMed

In this work we describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for accelerator-based (AB) BNCT at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina in Buenos Aires. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. An electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. The machine being designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 1.2 MV intended to work in air. Such a machine is conceptually shown to be capable of transporting and accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.4 MeV. The general geometric layout, its associated electrostatic fields, and the acceleration tube are simulated using a 3D finite element procedure. The design and construction of the ESQ modules is discussed and their electrostatic fields are investigated. Beam transport calculations through the accelerator are briefly mentioned. Likewise, work related to neutron production targets, strippers, beam shaping assembly and patient treatment room is briefly described. PMID:19376714

Kreiner, A J; Thatar Vento, V; Levinas, P; Bergueiro, J; Di Paolo, H; Burlon, A A; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Minsky, D M; Estrada, L; Hazarabedian, A; Johann, F; Suarez Sandin, J C; Castell, W; Davidson, J; Davidson, M; Giboudot, Y; Repetto, M; Obligado, M; Nery, J P; Huck, H; Igarzabal, M; Fernandez Salares, A

2009-07-01

332

Magnetoelectric effects studied by resonant x-ray diffraction in ferrimagnetic GaFeO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant x-ray Bragg diffraction experiments on space group forbidden reflections of type (0k0) with k odd taken in the vicinity of the FeK edge are used to study magnetoelectric effects in GaFeO3 . The main intensity of the various spectral features is caused by the E1-E1 transition and can be ascribed to the observation of an electric quadrupole moment, giving different intensities within a Friedel pair. Collecting the magnetic field difference intensity by having the magnetization parallel or antiparallel to the c axis in the ferrimagnetic phase is discussed in the framework of magnetoelectric multipole moments, which are both parity and time odd. The azimuthal angle dependence and the sign change in the magnetic signal when going from (0k0) to (0k¯0) reflections can be understood by the interference of the electric quadrupole with that of magnetoelectric quadrupole and octupole moments.

Staub, U.; Bodenthin, Y.; Piamonteze, C.; Collins, S. P.; Koohpayeh, S.; Fort, D.; Lovesey, S. W.

2010-09-01

333

Rotational and magnetic shunt permanent magnet quadrupoles with variable magnetic strength  

SciTech Connect

Next Linear Collider (NLC) and Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) projects suppose to use permanent magnets as bending, focusing and correcting elements. Prototypes of two permanent magnet quadrupoles with variable strength were built and successfully tested in Fermilab. Quadrupoles have 12.7 mm aperture diameter, 100 T/m gradient with an adjustment range of 0 to -20%. Special designs provide high precision magnetic center stability during strength change. SmCo5 permanent magnet bricks were used in these prototypes. Rotational quadrupole consists of four sections. Two central sections are rotated in counter directions to adjust the strength. Magnetic shunt quadrupole design provides variable shunting of the magnetic flux. The numerical simulation, designs, measuring results are described.

Vladimir Kashikhin et al.

2002-03-28

334

Microscopic understanding for the simplicity of the quadrupole moments newly observed in Cd isotopes  

E-print Network

The simplicity in the nuclear quadrupole moments reported recently in $^{107-129}$Cd, i.e., a linear increase of the ${11/2}^-$ quadrupole moments, is investigated microscopically with the covariant density functional theory. Using the newly developed functional PC-PK1, the quadrupole moments as well as their linear increase tendency with the neutron number are excellently reproduced without any {\\it ad hoc} parameters. The core polarization is found to be very important and contributes almost half of the quadrupole moments. The simplicity of the linear increase is revealed to be due to the pairing correlation which smears out the abrupt changes induced by the single-particle shell structure.

P. W. Zhao; S. Q. Zhang; J. Meng

2013-11-13

335

Extended bodies in a Kerr spacetime: exploring the role of a general quadrupole tensor  

E-print Network

The equatorial motion of extended bodies in a Kerr spacetime is investigated in the framework of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model, including the full set of effective components of the quadrupole tensor. The numerical integration of the associated equations shows the specific role of the mass and current quadrupole moment components. While most of the literature on this topic is limited to spin-induced (purely electric) quadrupole tensor, the present analysis highlights the effect of a completely general quadrupole tensor on the dynamics. The contribution of the magnetic-type components is indeed related to a number of interesting features, e.g., enhanced inward/outward spiraling behavior of the orbit and spin-flip-like effects, which may have observational counterparts. Finally, the validity limit of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model is also discussed through explicit examples.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico

2014-08-23

336

Extended bodies in a Kerr spacetime: exploring the role of a general quadrupole tensor  

E-print Network

The equatorial motion of extended bodies in a Kerr spacetime is investigated in the framework of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model, including the full set of effective components of the quadrupole tensor. The numerical integration of the associated equations shows the specific role of the mass and current quadrupole moment components. While most of the literature on this topic is limited to spin-induced (purely electric) quadrupole tensor, the present analysis highlights the effect of a completely general quadrupole tensor on the dynamics. The contribution of the magnetic-type components is indeed related to a number of interesting features, e.g., enhanced inward/outward spiraling behavior of the orbit and spin-flip-like effects, which may have observational counterparts. Finally, the validity limit of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model is also discussed through explicit examples.

Bini, Donato

2014-01-01

337

Measurement of the quadrupole moment of the /sup 112/Sn(6/sup +/) isomer  

SciTech Connect

The quadrupole coupling constant of the /sup 112/Sn(6/sup +/) isomer in the hexagonal Cd host is measured by using the time-differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) method. Values of the quadrupole coupling constants e/sup 2/qQ/h = 66.25 +- 4.00 MHz and 57.56 +- 6.90 MHz are found at 290/sup 0/ and 500/sup 0/, respectively. The quadrupole moment of the 6/sup +/ state in /sup 112/Sn is derived in terms of the electric field gradient for Sn in Cd given by Herrlander. The deduced quadrupole moment Q is 0.29 +- 0.07b. The simple shell model estimate shows that the /sup 112/Sn(6/sup +/) state is possibly a mixed configuration of ( g/sup 6//sub 7/2/)6/sup +/ and ( g/sup 7//sub 7/2/xd/sup 5//sub 5/2/)6/sup +/.

ZHU Shengyun; DONG Mingli; SHEN Weiqi

1985-04-01

338

Design and operation of a laminar-flow electrostatic-quadrupole-focused acceleration column  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the design principles involved in the design of a laminar-flow electrostatic-quadrupole-focused acceleration column. In particular, attention will be paid to making the parameters suitable for incorporation into a DC MEQALAC design.

Maschke, A.W.

1983-06-20

339

Photoionization of Ca 4s in a spherical attractive well potential: dipole, quadrupole and relativistic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the outer 4s subshell of the Ca atom in a spherical attractive potential well (SAW) of variable depth is performed to determine the effect of an external potential on dipole (E1) and quadrupole (E2) photoionization processes. As the depth of the potential well increases, dramatic changes are observed in the 4s cross-section, as well as in the photoelectron angular distribution. The existence of Cooper minima in the 4s dipole channels give rise to very significant effects of quadrupole interactions, even at extremely low energies, in the vicinity of the E1 Cooper minimum. It is shown that the entrapment of Ca in a spherical attractive well (Ca@SAW) further enhances the importance of quadrupole interactions determining the photoionization parameters. The complicated behavior of both dipole and quadrupole Cooper minima, as functions of well depth, is delineated, along with the importance of relativistic effects.

Kumar, Ashish; Varma, Hari R.; Pradhan, Gagan B.; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.

2014-09-01

340

DEVELOPMENT AND TEST OF COLLARING METHODS FOR Nb{sub 3}SN QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is developing Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets for the planned upgrade of interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two distinctly different approaches have been employed, one using quadrupole-symmetric and one using dipole-symmetric collar laminations. This paper describes the design features of both collar types, collaring techniques for brittle Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches. Results of mechanical analysis for quadrupoles based on dipole-type and quadrupole-type collars are presented. Magnet construction issues and test results are reported. Test results include coil and component strain measurements during construction. Plans for the completion and test of the first dipole-symmetric assembly are described.

Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Il. 60510 (United States)

2010-04-09

341

Efficient computation of the quadrupole light deflection in the Gaia relativity model  

E-print Network

Efficient computation of the quadrupole light deflection for both stars/quasars and solar system objects within the framework of the baseline Gaia relativity model (GREM) is discussed. Two refinements have been achieved with the goal to improve the performance of the model: -- The quadrupole deflection formulas for both cases are simplified as much as possible considering the Gaia nominal orbit (only approximate minimal distances between Gaia and the giant planets were used here), physical parameters of the giant planets and the envisaged accuracy of 1 \\muas for individual systematic effects. The recommended formulas are given by Eq. (\\ref{light_185}) for stars/quasars and by Eq. (\\ref{source_180}) for solar system objects. -- Simple expressions for the upper estimate of the quadrupole light deflection have been found allowing, with a few additional arithmetical operations, to judge a priori if the quadrupole light deflection should be computed or not for a given source and for a given requested accuracy. The...

Zschocke, Sven

2009-01-01

342

A Graphical Approach to Radio Frequency Quadrupole Design  

E-print Network

The design of a radio frequency quadrupole, an important section of all ion accelerators, and the calculation of its beam dynamics properties can be achieved using the existing computational tools. These programs, originally designed in 1980s, show effects of aging in their user interfaces and in their output. The authors believe there is room for improvement in both design techniques using a graphical approach and in the amount of analytical calculations before going into CPU burning finite element analysis techniques. Additionally an emphasis on the graphical method of controlling the evolution of the relevant parameters using the drag-to-change paradigm is bound to be beneficial to the designer. A computer code, named DEMIRCI, has been written in C++ to demonstrate these ideas. This tool has been used in the design of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK)'s 1.5 MeV proton beamline at Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). DEMIRCI starts with a simple analytical model, calculates the RFQ b...

Turemen, G; Yasatekin, B

2014-01-01

343

Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization  

SciTech Connect

Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance. A vibrating wire system was constructed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note studies the ability of the system to fulfill the fiducialization requirements.

Levashov, Michael Y.

2010-12-01

344

Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization  

SciTech Connect

Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance. A vibrating wire system was constructed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note studies the ability of the system to fulfill the fiducialization requirements.

Not Available

2010-11-29

345

Permanent Magnet Skew Quadrupoles for the Low Emittance LER Lattice of PEP-II  

SciTech Connect

The vertical emittance of the low energy ring (LER) in the PEP-II B-Factory was reduced by using skew quadrupoles consisting of permanent magnet material. The advantages over electric quadrupoles or rotating existing normal quadrupoles are discussed. To assure a high field quality, a Biot-Savart calculation was used to cancel the natural 12-pole component by using different size poles over a few layers. A magnetic measurement confirmed the high quality of the magnets. After installation and adjusting the original electric 12 skew and 16 normal quadrupoles the emittance contribution from the region close to the interaction point, which was the biggest part in the original design, was considerably reduced. To strengthen the vertical behavior of the LER beam, a low emittance lattice was developed. It lowered the original vertical design emittance from 0.54 nm-rad to 0.034 nm-rad. In order to achieve this, additional skew quadrupoles were required to bring the coupling correction out of the arcs and closer to the detector solenoid in the straight (Fig. 1). It is important, together with low vertical dispersion, that the low vertical emittance is not coupled into the horizontal, which is what we get if the coupling correction continues into the arcs. Further details of the lattice work is described in another paper; here we concentrate on the development of the permanent skew (PSK) quadrupole solution. Besides the permanent magnets there are two other possibilities, using electric magnets or rotating normal quadrupoles. Electric magnets would have required much more additional equipment like magnets stands, power supply, and new vacuum chamber sections. Rotating existing quadrupoles was also not feasible since they are mostly mounted together with a bending magnet on the same support girder.

Decker, F.-J.; Anderson, S.; Kharakh, D.; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC

2011-07-05

346

Performance of Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets under localized thermal load  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of design and analyses performed on 120-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn and NbTi quadrupole magnets with parameters relevant for the LHC IR upgrade. A realistic radiation heat load is evaluated in a wide luminosity range and translated into the magnet quench performance. The simulation results are supported by thermal measurements on a 90-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole coil.

Kashikhin, V.V.; Bossert, r.; Chlachidze, G.; Lamm, M.; Mokhov, N.V.; Novitski, I.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-06-01

347

PERFORMANCE OF NB{sub 3}SN QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS UNDER LOCALIZED THERMAL LOAD  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of design and analyses performed on 120-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn and NbTi quadrupole magnets with parameters relevant for the LHC IR upgrade. A realistic radiation heat load is evaluated in a wide luminosity range and translated into the magnet quench performance. The simulation results are supported by thermal measurements on a 90-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole coil.

Kashikhin, V. V.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Lamm, M.; Mokhov, N. V.; Novitski, I.; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

2010-04-09

348

Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap  

E-print Network

LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2003 Major Subject: Physics LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

2005-02-17

349

Laser Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

Harper, L. L. (inventor)

1983-01-01

350

Resonance conditions  

E-print Network

Non-linear parametric resonances occur frequently in nature. Here we summarize how they can be studied by means of perturbative methods. We show in particular how resonances can affect the motion of a test particle orbiting in the vicinity of a compact object. These mathematical toy-models find application in explaining the structure of the observed kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations: we discuss which aspects of the reality naturally enter in the theory, and which one still remain a puzzle.

P. Rebusco

2005-10-14

351

Building Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of how buildings respond to seismic shaking uses cardboard and stiff paper (such as postcards or computer cards). The effects of building resonance can be found by experimenting with taller and shorter buildings, and varying the frequency of shaking.

Barker, Jeffrey

352

Stochastic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, stochastic resonance has continuously attracted considerable attention. The term is given to a phenomenon that is manifest in nonlinear systems whereby generally feeble input information (such as a weak signal) can be be amplified and optimized by the assistance of noise. The effect requires three basic ingredients: (i) an energetic activation barrier or, more generally,

Luca Gammaitoni; Peter Hänggi; Peter Jung; Fabio Marchesoni

1998-01-01

353

Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation in rubidium dihydrophosphate crystals  

SciTech Connect

Purely resonant Bragg reflections 006, 55bar 0, and 666 in a rubidium dihydrophosphate (RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystal at the K edge of rubidium have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. These reflections remain forbidden when the resonant dipole-dipole (E1E1) contribution to the resonant atomic factor is taken into account; they may be due to the dipole-quadrupole (E1E2) transitions as well as to the anisotropy atomic factor, which is caused by thermal atomic displacements (thermally induced contribution) and/or local jumps of hydrogen atoms. A numerical simulation showed that, at room temperature (experimental conditions), the thermally induced contribution to the 'forbidden' reflections is dominant.

Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Borisov, M. M. [Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Troshkov, E. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dmitrienko, V. E., E-mail: dmirtien@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2010-03-15

354

Fano resonance of an asymmetric dielectric wire pair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate Fano resonance in a metamaterial composed of an asymmetric ferroelectric wire pair. By assembling two parallel ceramic wires of different lengths, sharp Fano-type transmission spectra emerge as a result of interference between the quadrupole and dipole modes. A rapid increase in group delay is observed as a result of a steep variation in transmission phase. The location of the Fano resonance peak depends on the wire separation and degree of asymmetry. Furthermore, Fano resonance can be thermally modulated from 9.8 GHz to 10.5 GHz as the ambient temperature varies from 10 °C to 50 °C, as a consequence of the temperature dependence of the permittivity of the ceramic material.

Zhang, Fuli; Huang, XinChao; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Lei; Wang, Ying; Li, Qiang; He, Xuan; Li, Chang; Chen, Ke

2014-10-01

355

Simulation of Ions Confined by Quadrupole Electric Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations are routinely used to develop physical insight into ionic systems confined by static and time-varying quadrupole electric fields. However, after nearly 30 years of numerical exploration, three questions remain: which numerical techniques produce accurate simulations for the least computational expense? How can thermal equilibrium initial conditions be generated? How should temperature be calculated? Trapped ion simulations generally employ molecular dynamics techniques, where ion trajectories are numerically calculated at discrete points in time. While many numerical methods have been applied to these systems, it is unclear which technique is fastest or what time-step is required. In this work, the computational speed of and time-step for 11 commonly used techniques are assessed through analysis of four numerical error components. The most rapid method and required step-size depend strongly on the system parameters, with any one of the Beeman, Gear6, 5th-order Adams-Bashforth-Moulton, or 4th-order Runge-Kutta algorithms proving most appropriate. The 11 algorithms are then applied to a realistic multi-ion system and verify that the four tests accurately predict the required step size. When equilibrium properties are desired, simulations should commence from initial conditions that conform closely to thermal equilibrium; however little has been published on initial condition generation and assessment for the multi-ion system. A method is presented for generating thermal equilibrium via laser cooling and recoil heating, a ramp-down stage, where the heating and cooling are gradually reduced, and an equilibration phase where the ensemble is evolved under only the trapping forces. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that thermal equilibrium can be assessed using well-known tests of distribution normality. When time-varying fields are present, temperature calculation becomes difficult, as the ion motion contains both thermal and nonthermal components. The literature describes four temperature calculation procedures for multi-ion simulation; however neither their accuracy nor mathematical underpinnings have been addressed. In this work, through detailed derivations, numerical calculations, and simulations, their accuracy is determined for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, by extending an existing temperature calculation technique, a new method is created and is shown to be highly accurate while requiring low computational expense.

Cummings, Michael David

356

Rotating dipole and quadrupole field for a multiple cathode system  

SciTech Connect

A multiple cathode system has been designed to provide the high average current polarized electron bunches for the future electron-ion collider eRHIC [1]. One of the key research topics in this design is the technique to generate a combined dipole and quadrupole rotating field at high frequency (700 kHz). This type of field is necessary for combining bunches from different cathodes to the same axis with minimum emittance growth. Our simulations and the prototype test results to achieve this will be presented. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of EHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. For polarized-electron and polarized proton collisions, it requires a polarized electron source with high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the quantum efficiency, lifetime, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and combine the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because its operations bear similarity to a multi-barrel Gatling gun. The electron spin direction is not affected by electric field but will follow to the direction of the magnetic bending. This requires that, to preserve the spin polarization from cathode, the fixed bending field after the solenoid and the rotating bending field in combiner must be either a pair of electric bendings or a pair of magnetic bendings. We choose the scheme with a pair of magnetic bendings because it is much easier than the scheme with a pair of electric bendings at our 200 keV electron energy level.

Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skarita, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

2011-03-28

357

Alignment of Magnetic Elements in the Quadrupole-Corrector Assemblies for the RHIC Interaction Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three strong focussing quadrupoles of 13cm aperture are located on either side of the six crossing points in RHIC. These quadrupoles, with magnetic lengths of 1.44m, 3.40m and 2.10m, are referred to as the Q1, Q2 and Q3 magnets respectively. In order to compensate for the field errors in these quadrupoles, various styles of lumped correctors are used. The Q2 magnets are attached to one such corrector magnet to form a single assembly. Similarly, one corrector is attached to each end of the Q3 magnets. The magnetic center of each corrector should be aligned within 0.25mm of the magnetic axis of the quadrupole to which it is attached. It was not always possible to achieve this tolerance with the production fixture. The magnetic centers of the various elements in a corrector-quadrupole assembly were determined with a harmonic antenna system. Any assembly with excessive corrector offset was then straightened by employing corrective weld stripes on the outer stainless steel shell. The alignment results obtained with this procedure will be described.

Jain, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.; Ganetis, G.; Thomas, R.; Wanderer, P.

1997-05-01

358

Classical toy models for the monopole shift and the quadrupole shift.  

PubMed

The penetration of s- and p(1/2)-electrons into the atomic nucleus leads to a variety of observable effects. The presence of s-electrons inside the nucleus gives rise to the isotope shift in atomic spectroscopy, and to the isomer shift in Mössbauer spectroscopy. Both well-known phenomena are manifestations of the more general monopole shift. In a recent paper (Koch et al., Phys. Rev. A, 2010, 81, 032507), we discussed the existence of the formally analogous quadrupole shift: a tensor correction to the electric quadrupole interaction due to the penetration of relativistic p(1/2)-electrons into the nucleus. The quadrupole shift is predicted to be observable by high-accuracy molecular spectroscopy on a set of 4 molecules (the quadrupole anomaly). The simple physics behind all these related phenomena is easily obscured by an elaborate mathematical formalism that is required for their derivation: a multipole expansion in combination with perturbation theory, invoking quantum physics and ideally relativity. In the present paper, we take a totally different approach. We consider three classical 'toy models' that can be solved by elementary calculus, and that nevertheless contain all essential physics of the monopole and quadrupole shifts. We hope that this intuitive (yet exact) analysis will increase the understanding about multipole shift phenomena in a broader community. PMID:22782015

Rose, Katrin; Cottenier, Stefaan

2012-08-28

359

Origin-independent calculation of quadrupole intensities in X-ray spectroscopy.  

PubMed

For electronic excitations in the ultraviolet and visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the intensities are usually calculated within the dipole approximation, which assumes that the oscillating electric field is constant over the length scale of the transition. For the short wavelengths used in hard X-ray spectroscopy, the dipole approximation may not be adequate. In particular, for metal K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), it becomes necessary to include higher-order contributions. In quantum-chemical approaches to X-ray spectroscopy, these so-called quadrupole intensities have so far been calculated by including contributions depending on the square of the electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole transition moments. However, the resulting quadrupole intensities depend on the choice of the origin of the coordinate system. Here, we show that for obtaining an origin-independent theory, one has to include all contributions that are of the same order in the wave vector consistently. This leads to two additional contributions depending on products of the electric-dipole and electric-octupole and of the electric-dipole and magnetic-quadrupole transition moments, respectively. We have implemented such an origin-independent calculation of quadrupole intensities in XAS within time-dependent density-functional theory, and demonstrate its usefulness for the calculation of metal and ligand K-edge XAS spectra of transition metal complexes. PMID:23205980

Bernadotte, Stephan; Atkins, Andrew J; Jacob, Christoph R

2012-11-28

360

Measurements of magnetization multipoles in four centimeter quadrupoles for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets has been observed in over twenty years. This report presents measurements of the 12 pole and 20 pole multipoles in a model one-meter long four-centimeter bore SSC type quadrupole built at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The measurements were compared with calculations of the field structure using magnetization theory. Good agreement was observed between the measured multipoles and the calculated multipoles. Under conditions equivalent to injection into the SSC at an energy of 2 TeV, about 1.0 unit of 12 pole was observed and 0.05 units of 20 pole was observed. (One unit of field error is a field error of one part in ten thousand). Magnetization multipole measurements were also done on the first full length (5 meter) SSC quadrupole prototype. Measurements of flux creep decay were made on three one meter quadrupoles and the first five meter long quadrupole. 7 refs., 9 figs.

Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Gilbert, W.S.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.; Sopher, J.; Taylor, C.E.

1991-06-01

361

If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

Kerber, Robert C.

2006-01-01

362

Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and the Development of a Dedicated Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Progress on an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. A 30 mA proton beam of 2.5 MeV are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The first design and construction of an ESQ module is discussed and its electrostatic fields are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Also new beam transport calculations through the accelerator are presented.

Kreiner, A. J.; Di Paolo, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Giboudot, Y.; Levinas, P.; Fraiman, M.; Romeo, V.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.

2007-10-01

363

Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and the Development of a Dedicated Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole  

SciTech Connect

There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Progress on an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. A 30 mA proton beam of 2.5 MeV are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The first design and construction of an ESQ module is discussed and its electrostatic fields are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Also new beam transport calculations through the accelerator are presented.

Kreiner, A. J. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires, 1650 (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650) San Martin (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Valda, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires, 1650 (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650) San Martin (Argentina); Kesque, J. M.; Giboudot, Y.; Levinas, P.; Fraiman, M.; Romeo, V. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires, 1650 (Argentina)

2007-10-26

364

Design and development of a radio frequency quadrupole linac postaccelerator for the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center rare ion beam project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-rod type heavy-ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, constructed, and tested for the rare ion beam (RIB) facility project at VECC. Designed for cw operation, this RFQ is the first postaccelerator in the RIB beam line. It will accelerate A /q?14 heavy ions coming from the ion source to the energy of around 100 keV/u for subsequent acceleration in a number of Interdigital H-Linac. Operating at a resonance frequency of 37.83 MHz, maximum intervane voltage of around 54 kV will be needed to achieve the final energy over a vane length of 3.12 m for a power loss of 35 kW. In the first beam tests, transmission efficiency of about 90% was measured at the QQ focus after the RFQ for O5+ beam. In this article the design of the RFQ including the effect of vane modulation on the rf characteristics and results of beam tests will be presented.

Dechoudhury, S.; Naik, V.; Mondal, M.; Chatterjee, A.; Pandey, H. K.; Mandi, T. K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Karmakar, P.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Chouhan, P. S.; Ali, S.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Chakrabarti, A.

2010-02-01

365

Design and development of a radio frequency quadrupole linac postaccelerator for the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center rare ion beam project.  

PubMed

A four-rod type heavy-ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, constructed, and tested for the rare ion beam (RIB) facility project at VECC. Designed for cw operation, this RFQ is the first postaccelerator in the RIB beam line. It will accelerate A/q < or = 14 heavy ions coming from the ion source to the energy of around 100 keV/u for subsequent acceleration in a number of Interdigital H-Linac. Operating at a resonance frequency of 37.83 MHz, maximum intervane voltage of around 54 kV will be needed to achieve the final energy over a vane length of 3.12 m for a power loss of 35 kW. In the first beam tests, transmission efficiency of about 90% was measured at the QQ focus after the RFQ for O(5+) beam. In this article the design of the RFQ including the effect of vane modulation on the rf characteristics and results of beam tests will be presented. PMID:20192486

Dechoudhury, S; Naik, V; Mondal, M; Chatterjee, A; Pandey, H K; Mandi, T K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Karmakar, P; Bhattacharjee, S; Chouhan, P S; Ali, S; Srivastava, S C L; Chakrabarti, A

2010-02-01

366

Resonance Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about resonance and where it is found in related to astronomy. Learners will construct two differently sized rings out of file folder paper and tape them to a piece of cardboard. Next, they will shake the cardboard from side to side, which shakes the rings, and observe what happens when the frequency of the shaking is gradually increased. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

367

Novel linear quadrupole ion trap/FT mass spectrometer: performance characterization and use in the comparative analysis of histone H3 post-translational modifications.  

PubMed

We describe the design and performance of a prototype high performance hybrid mass spectrometer. This instrument consists of a linear quadrupole ion trap (QLT) coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass analyzer (FTMS). This configuration provides rapid and automated MS and MS/MS analyses, similar to the "data dependent scanning" found on standard 3-D Paul traps, but with substantially improved internal scan dynamic range, mass measurement accuracy, mass resolution, and detection limits. Sequence analysis of peptides at the zeptomole level is described. The recently released, commercial version of this instrument operates in the LC/MS mode (1 s/scan) with a mass resolution of 100 000 and is equipped with automatic gain control to provide mass measurement accuracy of 1-2 ppm without internal standard. Methodology is described that uses this instrument to compare the post-translational modifications present on histone H3 isolated from asynchronously growing cells and cells arrested in mitosis. PMID:15253445

Syka, John E P; Marto, Jarrod A; Bai, Dina L; Horning, Stevan; Senko, Michael W; Schwartz, Jae C; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Garcia, Benjamin; Busby, Scott; Muratore, Tara; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F

2004-01-01

368

E2 and E3 transitions from quadrupole-octupole coupled states in 144Nd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifetime measurements of the 3-1, 5-1, and 1-1 states in 144Nd show that the absolute E2 and E3 transition rates from the 5-1 and 1-1 states are consistent with their structure being formed by the coupling of the lowest quadrupole (2+1) and octupole (3-1) excitations. A level at 2205 keV has been identified as having J?=4- and may be another member of this quadrupole-octupole coupled quintuplet. The energy spacing of the quintuplet can be explained by anharmonicities in the quadrupole-octupole interaction and the influence of the ?2(2f7/2,1i13/2) configuration.

Robinson, S. J.; Jolie, J.; Börner, H. G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Ulbig, S.; Lieb, K. P.

1994-07-01

369

Magnetic field in the end region of the SSC quadrupole magnet  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in methods of computing magnetic fields have made it possible to study the field in the end region of the SS quadrupole magnet in detail. The placement of conductor in the straight section, away from the ends, was designed to produce a practically pure quadrupole field in the two-dimensional sense. The ends of the coils were designed to produce a practically pure quadrupole field in the integral sense using a method that ignores the presence of the iron yoke. Subsequently, the effect of presence of the yoke on the field was analyzed. The paper presents the end configuration together with the computed integrated multipole components, local multipole components, and local field components. A comparison with measurements is included. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

1991-06-01

370

Properties of quadrupole-octupole coupled states in ^116Cd from the (n, n^'?) reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative-parity levels in the 2.4 MeV region, arising from the coupling of the 2^+1 quadrupole and 3^-1 octupole states, have been investigated with the (n, n^'?) reaction. The measured ?-ray excitation functions, ?-? coincidences and angular distributions were utilized to characterize the decays of these states. The level lifetimes have been measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method, and B(E1) and B(E2) values for the associated transitions have been determined. The enhanced B(E2) values for decay to the 3^- octupole state from many of the candidate negative-parity states were observed to be consistent with the expected signature of quadrupole-octupole coupled states. The properties of these states will be compared with the systematics of quadrupole-octupole coupled states in Cd isotopes and IBM calculations.

Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Kadi, M.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.; Yates, S. W.

2009-10-01

371

Decline of the current quadrupole moment during the merger phase of binary black hole coalescence  

E-print Network

Utilizing the tools of tendex and vortex, we study the highly dynamic plunge and merger phases of several $\\pi$-symmetric binary black hole coalescences. In particular, we observe a decline of the strength of the current quadrupole moment as compared to that of the mass quadrupole moment during the merger phase, contrary to a naive estimate according to the dependence of these moments on the separation between the black holes. We further show that this decline of the current quadrupole moment is achieved through the remnants of the two individual spins becoming nearly aligned or anti-aligned with the total angular momentum. We also speculate on the implication of our observations for achieving a consistency between the electric and magnetic parity quasinormal modes.

Fan Zhang

2014-03-03

372

Decline of the current quadrupole moment during the merger phase of binary black hole coalescence  

E-print Network

Utilizing the tools of tendex and vortex, we study the highly dynamic plunge and merger phases of several $\\pi$-symmetric binary black hole coalescences. In particular, we observe a decline of the strength of the current quadrupole moment as compared to that of the mass quadrupole moment during the merger phase, contrary to a naive estimate according to the dependence of these moments on the separation between the black holes. We further show that this decline of the current quadrupole moment is achieved through the remnants of the two individual spins becoming nearly aligned or anti-aligned with the total angular momentum. We also speculate on the implication of our observations for achieving a consistency between the electric and magnetic parity quasinormal modes.

Zhang, Fan

2014-01-01

373

Design and Field Measurements of Printed-Circuit Quadrupoles and Dipoles  

SciTech Connect

Air-core printed-circuit (PC) quadrupoles and dipoles have been developed for the University of Maryland electron ring, currently under construction. The quadrupoles and dipoles are characterized by very small magnetic fields (about 15 G at the aperture edge) and small aspect ratios (length/diameter < 1). We review the theory behind the design of the PC lenses and bending elements, and present general expressions for estimating the values of integrated field and integrated field gradient as functions of design parameters. The new quadrupole magnet represents an improvement over an earlier version which was based on an empirical approach. Further, we summarize the results of multipole content of the magnet fields as measured with a rotating coil apparatus of special construction. The results are compared with calculations with an iron-free magnetics code and are related to different types of errors in the manufacture and assembly of the PC magnets.

Zhang, W.W.; Bernal, S.; Li, H.; Godlove, T.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.G.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; /Maryland U., IPR; Venturini, M.; /SLAC

2011-11-08

374

Nuclear collective motion with a coherent coupling interaction between quadrupole and octupole modes  

E-print Network

A collective Hamiltonian for the rotation-vibration motion of nuclei is considered, in which the axial quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom are coupled through the centrifugal interaction. The potential of the system depends on the two deformation variables $\\beta_2$ and $\\beta_3$. The system is considered to oscillate between positive and negative $\\beta_3$-values, by rounding an infinite potential core in the $(\\beta_2,\\beta_3)$-plane with $\\beta_2>0$. By assuming a coherent contribution of the quadrupole and octupole oscillation modes in the collective motion, the energy spectrum is derived in an explicit analytic form, providing specific parity shift effects. On this basis several possible ways in the evolution of quadrupole-octupole collectivity are outlined. A particular application of the model to the energy levels and electric transition probabilities in alternating parity spectra of the nuclei $^{150}$Nd, $^{152}$Sm, $^{154}$Gd and $^{156}$Dy is presented.

Minkov, N; Drenska, S B; Scheid, W; Bonatsos, D; Lenis, D; Petrellis, D

2006-01-01

375

Nuclear collective motion with a coherent coupling interaction between quadrupole and octupole modes  

E-print Network

A collective Hamiltonian for the rotation-vibration motion of nuclei is considered, in which the axial quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom are coupled through the centrifugal interaction. The potential of the system depends on the two deformation variables $\\beta_2$ and $\\beta_3$. The system is considered to oscillate between positive and negative $\\beta_3$-values, by rounding an infinite potential core in the $(\\beta_2,\\beta_3)$-plane with $\\beta_2>0$. By assuming a coherent contribution of the quadrupole and octupole oscillation modes in the collective motion, the energy spectrum is derived in an explicit analytic form, providing specific parity shift effects. On this basis several possible ways in the evolution of quadrupole-octupole collectivity are outlined. A particular application of the model to the energy levels and electric transition probabilities in alternating parity spectra of the nuclei $^{150}$Nd, $^{152}$Sm, $^{154}$Gd and $^{156}$Dy is presented.

N. Minkov; P. Yotov; S. Drenska; W. Scheid; D. Bonatsos; D. Lenis; D. Petrellis

2006-03-23

376

Development of a GC/Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer, Part I: Design and Characterization.  

PubMed

Identification of unknown compounds is of critical importance in GC/MS applications (metabolomics, environmental toxin identification, sports doping, petroleomics, and biofuel analysis, among many others) and remains a technological challenge. Derivation of elemental composition is the first step to determining the identity of an unknown compound by MS, for which high accuracy mass and isotopomer distribution measurements are critical. Here, we report on the development of a dedicated, applications-grade GC/MS employing an Orbitrap mass analyzer, the GC/Quadrupole-Orbitrap. Built from the basis of the benchtop Orbitrap LC/MS, the GC/Quadrupole-Orbitrap maintains the performance characteristics of the Orbitrap, enables quadrupole-based isolation for sensitive analyte detection, and includes numerous analysis modalities to facilitate structural elucidation. We detail the design and construction of the instrument, discuss its key figures-of-merit, and demonstrate its performance for the characterization of unknown compounds and environmental toxins. PMID:25208235

Peterson, Amelia C; Hauschild, Jan-Peter; Quarmby, Scott T; Krumwiede, Dirk; Lange, Oliver; Lemke, Rachelle A S; Grosse-Coosmann, Florian; Horning, Stevan; Donohue, Timothy J; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Griep-Raming, Jens

2014-10-21

377

Multistage Fragmentation of Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry System and Pseudo-MS3 of Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Characterize Certain (E)-3-(Dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS3 of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion trap needs multistage fragmentation, whereas similar fragment ions may be acquired from one stage product ion scan using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The new strategy was proven to enhance the qualitative performance of tandem mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of different chemical entities. In the current study we are endeavoring to prove our hypothesis of the efficiency of the new pseudo-MS3 technique via its comparison with the MS3 mode of ion trap mass spectrometry system. Ten pharmacologically and synthetically important (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (enaminones 4a–j) were chosen as model compounds for this study. This strategy permitted rigorous identification of all fragment ions using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with sufficient specificity. It can be used to elucidate structures of different unknown components. The data presented in this paper provide clear evidence that our new pseudo-MS3 may simulate the MS3 of ion trap spectrometry system. PMID:24701185

Abdelhameed, Ali S.; Kadi, Adnan A.; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Angawi, Rihab F.; Attwa, Mohamed W.; Al-Rashood, Khalid A.

2014-01-01

378

Phase-Space Exploration in Nuclear Giant Resonance Decay  

E-print Network

The rate of phase-space exploration in the decay of isovector and isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in $^{40}$Ca is analyzed. The study is based on the time dependence of the survival probability and of the spectrum of generalized entropies evaluated in the space of 1p-1h and 2p-2h states. If the 2p-2h background shows the characteristics typical for chaotic systems, the isovector excitation evolves almost statistically while the isoscalar excitation remains largely localized, even though it penetrates the whole available phase space.

S. Drozdz; S. Nishizaki; J. Speth; J. Wambach

1994-07-08

379

Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C. [and others

1996-05-01

380

Giant-dipole Resonance and the Deformation of Hot, Rotating Nuclei  

E-print Network

The development of nuclear shapes under the extreme conditions of high spin and/or temperature is examined. Scaling properties are used to demonstrate universal properties of both thermal expectation values of nuclear shapes as well as the minima of the free energy, which can be used to understand the Jacobi transition. A universal correlation between the width of the giant dipole resonance and quadrupole deformation is found, providing a novel probe to measure the nuclear deformation in hot nuclei.

Dimitri Kusnezov; W. Erich Ormand

2003-01-23

381

Giant-dipole Resonance and the Deformation of Hot, Rotating Nuclei  

E-print Network

The development of nuclear shapes under the extreme conditions of high spin and/or temperature is examined. Scaling properties are used to demonstrate universal properties of both thermal expectation values of nuclear shapes as well as the minima of the free energy, which can be used to understand the Jacobi transition. A universal correlation between the width of the giant dipole resonance and quadrupole deformation is found, providing a novel probe to measure the nuclear deformation in hot nuclei.

Kusnezov, D; Kusnezov, Dimitri

2003-01-01

382

Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality factor resonances are extremely promising for designing ultra-sensitive refractive index label-free sensors, since it allows intense interaction between electromagnetic waves and the analyte material. Metamaterial and plasmonic sensing have recently attracted a lot of attention due to subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields in the resonant structures. However, the excitation of high quality factor resonances in these systems has been a challenge. We excite an order of magnitude higher quality factor resonances in planar terahertz metamaterials that we exploit for ultrasensitive sensing. The low-loss quadrupole and Fano resonances with extremely narrow linewidths enable us to measure the minute spectral shift caused due to the smallest change in the refractive index of the surrounding media. We achieve sensitivity levels of 7.75 × 103 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) with quadrupole and 5.7 × 104 nm/RIU with the Fano resonances which could be further enhanced by using thinner substrates. These findings would facilitate the design of ultrasensitive real time chemical and biomolecular sensors in the fingerprint region of the terahertz regime.

Singh, Ranjan; Cao, Wei; Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Cong, Longqing; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Zhang, Weili

2014-10-01

383

Theory for nanoparticle retention time in the helical channel of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a separation and characterization technique for magnetic nanoparticles such as those used for cell labeling and for targeted drug therapy. A helical separation channel is used to efficiently exploit the quadrupole magnetic field. The fluid and sample components therefore have angular and longitudinal components to their motion in the thin annular space occupied by the helical channel. The retention ratio is defined as the ratio of the times for non-retained and a retained material to pass through the channel. Equations are derived for the respective angular and longitudinal components to retention ratio.

Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

2009-05-01

384

An effect of nuclear electric quadrupole moments in thermonuclear fusion plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration of the nuclear electric quadrupole terms in the expression for the fusion Coulomb barrier suggests that this electrostatic barrier may be substantially modified from that calculated under the usual plasma assumption that the nuclei are electric monopoles. This effect is a result of the nonspherical potential shape and the spatial quantization of the nuclear spins of the fully stripped ions in the presence of a magnetic field. For monopole-quadrupole fuel cycles like p-B-11, the fusion cross-section may be substantially increased at low energies if the protons are injected at a small angle relative to the confining magnetic field.

De, B. R.; Srnka, L. J.

1978-01-01

385

Quadrupole Moments of N and Delta in the 1/N_c Expansion  

E-print Network

We calculate expressions for the quadrupole moments of nonstrange baryons in which the number of QCD color charges is N_c. Using only the assumption of single-photon exchange, we obtain 4 relations among the 6 moments, and show how all of them may be obtained from Q_{\\Delta^+ p} up to O(1/N_c^2) corrections. We compare to the N_c=3 case, and obtain relations between the neutron charge radius and quadrupole moments. We also discuss prospects for the measurement of these moments.

Alfons J. Buchmann; Janice A. Hester; Richard F. Lebed

2002-05-10

386

Electric Quadrupole Shift Cancellation in Single-Ion Optical Frequency Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric quadrupole shift is presently the most significant source of uncertainty on the systematic shifts for several single-ion optical frequency standards. We present a simple method for canceling this shift based on measurements of the Zeeman spectrum of the clock transition. This method is easy to implement and yields very high cancellation levels. A fractional uncertainty of 5×10-18 for the canceled quadrupole shift is estimated for a measurement of the absolute frequency of the 5s 2S1/2 4d 2D5/2 clock transition of 88Sr+.

Dubé, P.; Madej, A. A.; Bernard, J. E.; Marmet, L.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Cundy, S.

2005-07-01

387

3-mm anisotropy measurement and the quadrupole component in the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

The large-scale anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation has been measured at 3-mm wavelength with a liquid-helium--cooled balloon-borne radiometer sensitive enough to detect the dipole in one gondola rotation (1 min). Statistical errors on the dipole and quadrupole components are below 0.1 mK with less than 0.1 mK galactic contribution. The authors find a dipole consistent with previous measurements but disagree with recent quadrupole reports. The measurement is also useful in the search for spectral distortions.

Lubin, P.M.; Epstein, G.L.; Smoot, G.F.

1983-02-21

388

3 mm Anisotropy Measurement: On the Quadrupole Component in theCosmic Background Radiation  

SciTech Connect

We have mapped the large-scale anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation at 3 mm wavelength using a liquid-helium-cooled balloon-borne radiometer sensitive enough to detect the dipole in one gondola rotation (1 minute). Statistical errors on the dipole and quadrupole components are below 0.1 mK with less than 0.1 m K galactic contribution. We find a dipole consistent with previous measurements but disagree with recent quadrupole reports. The measurement is also useful in searching for spectral distortions.

Lubin, Philip M.; Epstein, Gerald L.; Smoot, George F.

1982-11-01

389

Electron-beam envelopes and matching for a combined wiggler and alternating-gradient quadrupole channel  

SciTech Connect

This work studies the electron-beam envelopes and matching for a combined wiggler and alternating-gradient quadrupole field for a free-electron laser (FEL) that will be operated in the VUV or XUV wavelength region. The quadrupole field is assumed to vary continuously along the symmetry axis. The linearized equations of electron motion are solved analytically by using the two-scale perturbation method for a plane polarized wiggler. The electron-beam envelopes and the envelope equations, as well as the matching conditions in phase space, are obtained from the electron trajectories. A comparison with the numerical solution is presented.

Wang, T.F.; Cooper, R.K.

1985-01-01

390

Quadrupole moments of some doubly-even molibden nuclei and the onset of collectivity  

SciTech Connect

A good description of the quadrupole moments is obtained by investigating {sup 94,96,98,100,102,104,106,108}Mo isotopes in terms of the interacting boson model. After the positiveparity states and electromagnetic-transition rates B(E2) of even-mass Mo nuclei were calculated it was seen that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and some previous experimental data. At the end of the quadrupole moment calculations it was proved that the results agree well with the previous experimental data.

Turkan, N., E-mail: nurettin_turkan@yahoo.com [Bozok University Faculty of Arts and Science (Turkey); Ibis, I. [Bozok University Institute of Science (Turkey); Maras, I. [Celal Bayar University Faculty of Arts and Science (Turkey)

2012-07-15

391

Quadrupole splitting and isomer shifts in Te oxides investigated using nuclear forward scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear forward scattering by 125Te is a viable alternative to conventional 125Te Mössbauer spectroscopy avoiding all source related issues. Using reference compounds with known hyperfine parameters and Te oxides exhibiting stereochemically active lone pairs, we show that nuclear forward scattering by 125Te can be reliably used to extract quadrupole splitting energy and relative isomer shift. The rough correlation between Te-Ocoordination and quadrupole splitting energy as put forward by Takeda and Greenwood (J. Chem. Soc. Dalton, 2207, 1975), is corroborated by the presented results.

Klobes, Benedikt; Barrier, Nicolas; Vertruyen, Benedicte; Martin, Christine; Hermann, Raphaël P.

2014-04-01

392

Bound states of a charged particle in the field of an electric quadrupole in two dimensions  

E-print Network

The Schr\\"odinger equation for a charged particle in the field of a nonrelativistic electric quadrupole in two dimensions is known to be separable in spherical coordinates. We investigate the occurrence of bound states of negative energy and find that the particle can be bound by a quadrupole of any magnitude. This result is remarkably different from the one for a charged particle in the field of a nonrelativistic electric dipole in three dimensions where a minimum value of the dipole strength is necessary for capture. Present results differ from those obtained earlier by other author.

Francisco M. Fernández

2013-12-02

393

Observation of nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure in the infrared spectrum of hydrogen iodide using a tunable-diode laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure has been observed in the 1-0 vibration-rotation band of hydrogen iodide with a tunable-diode laser. The measured splittings agree well with microwave measurements of the HI molecule. Evidence for a slight change in the iodine nuclear quadrupole coupling constant from the ground to first excited vibrational state in hydrogen iodide was found.

Strow, L. L.

1980-01-01

394

Does quadrupole stability imply LLSVP fixity? ARISING FROM C. P. Conrad, B. Steinberger & T. H. Torsvik Nature 498, 479482 (2013)  

E-print Network

Does quadrupole stability imply LLSVP fixity? ARISING FROM C. P. Conrad, B. Steinberger & T. H convergence. In a recent Letter, Conrad et al.1 performed a multipole expansion of the Earth's plate motions, the conclusion by Conrad et al.1 that the presence of stationary quadrupole divergence implies fixity

Cai, Long

395

Ab initio study of the 57 Fe quadrupole splitting in the heme models of ?- and ?-subunits in tetrameric deoxyhemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ab initio X? discrete variation method was used for calculation of quadrupole splitting for the rough heme models in ?- and\\u000a ?-subunits of tetrameric deoxyhemoglobin accounting small stereochemical variations. The differences of theoretical values\\u000a of quadrupole splitting for these heme models were obtained.

E. I. Yuryeva; M. I. Oshtrakh

2005-01-01

396

Ab initio study of the 57 Fe quadrupole splitting in the heme models of ?- and ?-subunits in tetrameric deoxyhemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ab initio X? discrete variation method was used for calculation of quadrupole splitting for the rough heme models in ?- and\\u000a ?-subunits of tetrameric deoxyhemoglobin accounting small stereochemical variations. The differences of theoretical values\\u000a of quadrupole splitting for these heme models were obtained.

E. I. Yuryeva; M. I. Oshtrakh

397

Stochastic Resonance  

E-print Network

Stochastic resonance (SR) - a counter-intuitive phenomenon in which the signal due to a weak periodic force in a nonlinear system can be {\\it enhanced} by the addition of external noise - is reviewed. A theoretical approach based on linear response theory (LRT) is described. It is pointed out that, although the LRT theory of SR is by definition restricted to the small signal limit, it possesses substantial advantages in terms of simplicity, generality and predictive power. The application of LRT to overdamped motion in a bistable potential, the most commonly studied form of SR, is outlined. Two new forms of SR, predicted on the basis of LRT and subsequently observed in analogue electronic experiments, are described.

M. I. Dykman; D. G. Luchinsky; R. Mannella; P. V. E. McClintock; S. M. Soskin; N. D. Stein; N. G. Stocks

1993-07-17

398

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural carbonates  

E-print Network

­7,9,10 The two stable isotopes of lithium (6 Li and 7 Li) have a large mass difference ($16%), resulting and analysis. Our interest in lithium isotope analyses stems from the crea- tion of d7 Li and Li/Ca recordMeasurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural

Weston, Ken

399

DESIGN OF A THIN QUADRUPOLE TO BE USED IN THE AGS SYNCHROTRON  

SciTech Connect

The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) employs two partial helical snakes[l] to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during acceleration. In order to compensate for the focusing effect of the partial helical snakes on the beam optics in the AGS during acceleration of the beam, we introduced eight quadrupoles in straight sections of the AGS at the proximity of the partial snakes. At injection energies, the strength of each quad is set at a high value, and is ramped down to zero as the effect of the snakes diminishes by the square of beam's rigidity. Four of the eight compensation quadrupoles had to be placed in very short straight sections -30 cm in length, therefore the quadruples had be thin with an overall length of less than 30 cm. In this paper we will discus: (a) the mechanical and magnetic specifications of the ''thin'' quadrupole. (b) the method to minimize the strength of the dodecapole harmonic, (c) the method to optimize the thickness of the laminations that the magnet iron is made, (d) mechanical tolerances of the magnet, (e) comparison of the measured and calculated magnetic multipoles of the quadrupole.

TSOUPAS,N.; AHRENS, L.; ALFORQUE, R.; BAI, M.; BROWN, K.; COURANT, E.; ET AL.

2007-06-25

400

Ion Trap/Ion Mobility/Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Peptide Mixture Analysis  

E-print Network

Ion Trap/Ion Mobility/Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Peptide Mixture Analysis for the analysis of peptide mixtures. In this approach, a mixture of peptides is electrosprayed into the gas phase. The mixture of ions that is created is accumulated in an ion trap and periodi- cally injected into a drift

Clemmer, David E.

401

The importance of quadrupole sources in prediction of transonic tip speed propeller noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis is presented for the harmonic noise of high speed, open rotors. Far field acoustic radiation equations based on the Ffowcs Williams\\/Hawkings theory are derived for a static rotor with thin blades and zero lift. Near the plane of rotation, the dominant sources are the volume displacement and the varrhou2 quadrupole, where u is the disturbance velocity component

D. B. Hanson; M. R. Fink

1979-01-01

402

The importance of quadrupole sources in prediction of transonic tip speed propeller noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis is presented for the harmonic noise of high speed, open rotors. Far field acoustic radiation equations based on the Ffowcs-Williams\\/Hawkings theory are derived for a static rotor with thin blades and zero lift. Near the plane of rotation, the dominant sources are the volume displacement and the rho U(2) quadrupole, where u is the disturbance velocity component

D. B. Hanson; M. R. Fink

1978-01-01

403

Electron Cloud Generation and Trapping in a Quadrupole Magnet at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect

Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR) have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the 'prompt' electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the 'swept' electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100 {micro}s. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole.

Macek, Robert J.; Browman, Andrew A.; Ledford, John E.; /TechSource, Santa Fe /Los Alamos; Borden, Michael J.; O'Hara, James F.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Spickermann, Thomas; Zaugg, Thomas J.; /Los Alamos; Pivi, Mauro T.F.; /SLAC

2008-03-17

404

Progenitor cell isolation with a high-capacity quadrupole magnetic flow sorter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and efficient sorting is important for progenitor cell isolation. Therefore, we have built and evaluated a high-speed, continuous flow, quadrupole magnetic sorter. The cross-over behavior of non-magnetic particles, combined with separation theory is used to optimize performance. CD34+ progenitor cells are separated to purities from 64–95% and a throughput of 107cells\\/s.

Lee R Moore; Alexander R Rodriguez; P. Stephen Williams; Kara McCloskey; Brian J Bolwell; Masayuki Nakamura; Jeffrey J Chalmers; Maciej Zborowski

2001-01-01

405

A new high-gradient correction quadrupole for the Fermilab luminosity upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Special superconducting correction quadrupoles are needed for the luminosity upgrade of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. These correctors are part of the low-beta system for the interaction regions at B/phi/ and D/phi/. The requirements are high gradient and low current. A quadrupole has been designed that meets the operating gradient of 0.63 T/cm at 1086 A. The one-layer quadrupole is wound with a cable consisting of five individually insulated rectangular strands. The five strands are overwrapped with Kapton and epoxy impregnated glass tape. The winding, curing and collaring of the magnet is accomplished in the same manner as Tevatron-like magnets using Rutherford style cable. Once the magnet is complete the five strands are connected in series. A prototype quadrupole has been assembled and tested. The magnet reached a plateau current of 1560 A corresponding to a gradient of 0.91 T/cm without training. The measured field harmonics are substantially better than required. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Mantsch, P.; Carson, J.; Riddiford, A.; Lamm, M.J.

1989-03-01

406

Relations Involving Static Quadrupole Moments of $2^+$ states and B(E2)'s  

E-print Network

We define the ``quadrupole ratio'' $r_Q = \\dfrac{Q_0(S)}{Q_0(B)}$ where $Q_0(S)$ is the intrinsic quadrupole moment obtained from the static quadrupole moment of the $2_1^+$ state of an even-even nucleus and $Q_0(B)$ the intrinsic quadrupole moment obtained from $B(E2)_{0 \\to 2}$. In both cases we assume a simple rotational formula connecting the rotating frame to the laboratory frame. The quantity $r_Q$ would be one if the rotational model were perfect and the energy ratio $E(4)/E(2)$ would be 10/3. In the simple vibrational model, $r_Q$ would be zero and $E(4)/E(2)$ would be two. There are some regions where the rotational limit is almost met and fewer where the vibrational limit is also almost met. For most cases, however, it is between these two limits, i.e. $0 < r_Q < 1$. There are a few cases where $r_Q$ is bigger than one, especially for light nuclei.

Sean Yeager; Larry Zamick

2008-07-29

407

Study of gas evolution during oil shale pyrolysis by TQMS (triple quadrupole mass spectrometer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time gas evolution during pyrolysis of two Green River Formation (Colorado) oil shales, one eastern US Devonian shale, and two Chinese shales was monitored using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). We calculated kinetic parameters for hydrocarbon generation. For water, carbon oxides, and sulfur gases, we compared evolution profiles and identified the organicinorganic precursors of each species. We also monitored

M. S. Oh; T. T. Coburn; R. W. Crawford; A. K. Burnham

1988-01-01

408

Conceptual Design of a Superconducting Quadrupole with Elliptical Acceptance and Tunable Higher Order Multipoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For charged particle beams that are wider in the dispersive plane compared to the transverse plane it is cost efficient to utilize magnets that accept beams with elliptic cross section. In this paper we presents the conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet with elliptic cross section and with tunable higher order multipoles. The design consists of 18 superconducting race-track coils

Shashikant Manikonda; Jerry Nolen; Martin Berz; Kyoko Makino

2009-01-01

409

Development and Coil Fabrication for the LARP 3.7-m Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has started the fabrication of 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb{sub 3}Sn technology is mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, developed at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. The plans for the LQ R&D and a design update are presented and discussed in this paper. The challenges of fabricating long accelerator-quality Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are presented together with the solutions adopted for the LQ coils (based on the TQ experience). During the fabrication and inspection of practice coils some problems were found and corrected. The fabrication at BNL and FNAL of the set of coils for the first Long Quadrupole is in progress.

Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Jochen, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kovach, P.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore,, J.; Nobreaga, F.; Novitsky, I.; Peggs, S.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A. V.

2008-08-17

410

Projected and slice emittance measurements using multi-quadrupole scan and streak readout at PITZ  

E-print Network

Projected and slice emittance measurements using multi-quadrupole scan and streak readout at PITZ R electron beam. One of the main characteristics of the beam is its normalized emittance. Development of injectors is targeted towards producing beams with low normalized emittance, thus high resolution emittance

411

Anomalous 14N quadrupole coupling constant of methyl isocyanide in liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14N quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) for methyl isocyanide obtained from 1H and 14N N.M.R. measurements in liquid crystal solutions is reported as a function of temperature for two liquid crystal solvents. A marked linear temperature dependence is observed in both solvents. The measured QCC varies by 20 per cent over a 50°C range.

Barbara, Thomas M.

412

Helium and neon implantation and memory observed in a quadrupole mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High accuracy static quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) measurement of helium and neon may be impaired by implantation and long lasting thermal desorption effects of the previously trapped atoms. A QMS produces only moderately accelerated ions of 100–200 eV. The ions decelerate at stainless steel surfaces somewhere in the QMS and a part of them will be trapped in surface near

Ingo Rau; Alfred Putzka

1999-01-01

413

Fano resonance induced by mode coupling in all-dielectric nanorod array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an efficient way to realize Fano-type resonances at optical frequencies based on a low-loss dielectric nanorod array. An ultrahigh Q factor (larger than 10000) is numerically demonstrated, which is attributed to the mode interference between the broadband Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance and the narrowband guided mode stemming from coupled quadrupoles. A wide gap region for field enhancement is formed between adjacent rods, making such a structure an ideal platform for related applications such as biological sensing and nonlinear devices.

Pu, Mingbo; Song, Maowen; Yu, Honglin; Hu, Chenggang; Wang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyu; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Zuojun; Luo, Xiangang

2014-03-01

414

Effects of longitudinal quadrupoles on the phase behavior of a Gay-Berne fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of longitudinal quadrupole moments on the formation of liquid crystalline phases are studied by means of constant NPT Monte Carlo simulation methods. The popular Gay-Berne model mesogen is used as the reference fluid, which displays the phase sequences isotropic-smectic A-smectic B and isotropic-smectic B at high (T*=2.0) and low (T*=1.5) temperatures, respectively. With increasing quadrupole magnitude the smectic phases are observed to be stabilized with respect to the isotropic liquid, while the smectic B is destabilized with respect to the smectic A. At the lower temperature, a sufficiently large quadrupole magnitude results in the injection of the smectic A phase into the phase sequence and the replacement of the smectic B phase by the tilted smectic J phase. The nematic phase is also injected into the phase sequence at both temperatures considered, and ultimately for sufficiently large quadrupole magnitudes no coherent layered structures were observed. The stabilization of the smectic A phase supports the commonly held belief that, while the inclusion of polar groups is not a prerequisite for the formation of the smectic A phase, quadrupolar interactions help to increase the temperature and pressure range for which the smectic A phase is observed. The quality of the layered structure is worsened with increasing quadrupole magnitude. This behavior, along with the injection of the nematic phase into the phase sequence, indicate that the general tendency of the quadrupolar interactions is to destabilize the layered structure. A pressure dependence upon the smectic layer spacing is observed. This behavior is in much closer agreement with experimental findings than has been observed previously for nonpolar Gay-Berne and hard spherocylinder models.

Withers, Ian M.

2003-11-01

415

Stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are taught by conventional wisdom that the transmission and detection of signals is hindered by noise. However, during the last two decades, the paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR) proved this assertion wrong: indeed, addition of the appropriate amount of noise can boost a signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its simplicity and robustness, SR has been implemented by mother nature on almost every scale, thus attracting interdisciplinary interest from physicists, geologists, engineers, biologists and medical doctors, who nowadays use it as an instrument for their specific purposes. At the present time, there exist a lot of diversified models of SR. Taking into account the progress achieved in both theoretical understanding and practical application of this phenomenon, we put the focus of the present review not on discussing in depth technical details of different models and approaches but rather on presenting a general and clear physical picture of SR on a pedagogical level. Particular emphasis will be given to the implementation of SR in generic quantum systems—an issue that has received limited attention in earlier review papers on the topic. The major part of our presentation relies on the two-state model of SR (or on simple variants thereof), which is general enough to exhibit the main features of SR and, in fact, covers many (if not most) of the examples of SR published so far. In order to highlight the diversity of the two-state model, we shall discuss several examples from such different fields as condensed matter, nonlinear and quantum optics and biophysics. Finally, we also discuss some situations that go beyond the generic SR scenario but are still characterized by a constructive role of noise.

Wellens, Thomas; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav; Buchleitner, Andreas

2004-01-01

416

Computer simulations using a longitudinal quadrupolar Gay Berne model: effect of the quadrupole magnitude on the formation of the smectic phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems of Gay-Berne particles with longitudinal linear quadrupoles are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of the magnitude of the quadrupole on the smectic phase is investigated. It is found that the quadrupole destabilises the formation of the smectic phase which disappears altogether with high-magnitude quadrupoles. As the magnitude of the quadrupole is reduced a variety of smectic phases are formed, including smectic A, smectic C and smectic B, with the eventual formation of a crystal. The maximum magnitude of the tilt observed is 17.2°, comparable with experimentally observed magnitudes.

Neal, M. P.; Parker, A. J.

1998-09-01

417

Study of the extra-ionic electron distributions in semi-metallic structures by nuclear quadrupole resonance techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A straightforward self-consistent method was developed to estimate solid state electrostatic potentials, fields and field gradients in ionic solids. The method is a direct practical application of basic electrostatics to solid state and also helps in the understanding of the principles of crystal structure. The necessary mathematical equations, derived from first principles, were presented and the systematic computational procedure developed to arrive at the solid state electrostatic field gradients values was given.

Murty, A. N.

1976-01-01

418

Study of nonlinear resonance effect in Paul trap.  

PubMed

In this article, we investigated the nonlinear resonance effect in the Paul trap with a superimposed hexapole field, which was assumed as a perturbation to the quadrupole field. On the basis of the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, ion motional equation, known as nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME) was expressed as the addition of approximation equations in terms of perturbation order. We discussed the frequency characteristics of ion axial-radial (z-r) coupled motion in the nonlinear field, derived the expressions of ion trajectories and nonlinear resonance conditions, and found that the mechanism of nonlinear resonance is similar to the normal resonance. The frequency spectrum of ion motion in nonlinear field includes not only the natural frequency series but also nonlinear introduced frequency series, which provide the driving force for the nonlinear resonance. The nonlinear field and the nonlinear effects are inevitable in practical ion trap experiments. Our method provides better understanding of these nonlinear effects and would be helpful for the instrumentation for ion trap mass spectrometers. PMID:23504643

Zhou, Xiaoyu; Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ning; Nie, Zongxiu

2013-05-01

419

Study of Nonlinear Resonance Effect in Paul Trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we investigated the nonlinear resonance effect in the Paul trap with a superimposed hexapole field, which was assumed as a perturbation to the quadrupole field. On the basis of the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, ion motional equation, known as nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME) was expressed as the addition of approximation equations in terms of perturbation order. We discussed the frequency characteristics of ion axial-radial ( z- r) coupled motion in the nonlinear field, derived the expressions of ion trajectories and nonlinear resonance conditions, and found that the mechanism of nonlinear resonance is similar to the normal resonance. The frequency spectrum of ion motion in nonlinear field includes not only the natural frequency series but also nonlinear introduced frequency series, which provide the driving force for the nonlinear resonance. The nonlinear field and the nonlinear effects are inevitable in practical ion trap experiments. Our method provides better understanding of these nonlinear effects and would be helpful for the instrumentation for ion trap mass spectrometers.

Zhou, Xiaoyu; Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ning; Nie, Zongxiu

2013-05-01

420

Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Delta Resonance Region  

SciTech Connect

The electroproduction of baryon resonances at high Q2 is examined. Analysis focuses on the Delta(1232) resonance via exclusive pseudoscalar meson production of À0 particles. Differential cross sections are extracted for exclusive À0 electroproduction. In the central invariant mass (W) region the cross sections are used to extract resonant multipole amplitudes. In particular, the ratio of the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole amplitudes (E2/M1) will be discussed for the Delta(1232) resonance. The transition to pQCD is discussed in terms of E2/M1 and other multipoles. The helicity amplitude A3/2 can be used as a baryon helicity conservation meter in this context and will be discussed. The fast shrinking of the resonant contribution in the Delta region is observed at this high momentum transfer. Apart from the observables related to pQCD scaling, the transition form factor G#23;M is extracted along with the scalar to magnetic dipole ratio C2/M1.

Anthony Villano

2007-11-01

421

Trapping of Electron Cloud LLC/Cesrta Quadrupole and Sextupole Magnets  

SciTech Connect

The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D [1]. One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in CESRTA and ILC quadrupole and sextupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with a long lifetime in a quadrupole and sextupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism. We study the effects of magnet strength, bunch current, ante-chamber effect, bunch spacing effect and secondary emission yield (SEY) in great detail. The development of an electron cloud in magnets is the main concern where a weak solenoid field is not effective. Quadrupole and sextupole magnets have mirror field configurations which may trap electrons by the mirror field trapping mechanism [2]. Fig.1 shows the orbit of a trapped electron in a quadrupole magnet. The electron makes gyration motion (called transverse motion) and also moves along the field line (called longitudinal motion). At the mirror point (middle of the field line), there is a maximum longitudinal energy and minimum transverse energy. When the electron moves away from the mirror point, its longitudinal energy reduces and the transverse energy increases as the magnetic field increases. If the magnetic field is strong enough, the longitudinal energy becomes zero at one point and then the electron is turned back by the strong field. Note that the electrons are trapped in the region near the middle of the field lines. Although all quadrupole and sextupole magnets can trap electrons in principle, the trapping mechanism is also greatly sensitive to the detail dynamics of the electrons [3]. Both the positron beam and the spacing charge force of electron cloud itself play important roles. This paper reports the simulation of electron cloud in CESRTA/ILC quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Table 1 shows the main parameters used in the simulation.

Wang, L; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

2011-08-18

422

Deuterium quadrupole coupling in N-acetylglycine and librational dynamics in solid poly(gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate).  

PubMed

To study the dynamics of peptide groups in solid proteins, we have accurately determined the principal components and molecular orientation of the electric field gradient tensor for the exchangeable deuterons in monoclinic N-acetylglycine by single-crystal deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance. These results are compared with the principal components of the amide deuterons in solid poly(gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate) measured in powder samples over a wide temperature range (140-400 K). The comparison indicates that in the solid polypeptide the N-D bonds undergo a small-amplitude torsional reorientation (libration) perpendicular to the peptide plane. To estimate dynamic rates, longitudinal relaxation times (T1 values) are reported for N-acetylglycine and poly(gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate). T1 values for the carboxyl and amide deuterons in N-acetylglycine are approximately 100 s, whereas for the amide deuterons in the polypeptide T1 approximately 1 s, also indicating that the N-D bonds are not stationary in the polypeptide. We determine from the reduced quadrupole coupling tensor the mean-square amplitude for the libration and show that it increases linearly with temperature. A simple qualitative theory for the relaxation times is presented on the basis of the assumption that the N-D reorientation is described either as a diffusion process in a square well or as a damped Langevin oscillator with a harmonic restoring force. The conclusion is that the short relaxation times of the polypeptide amide deuterons result from substantial frictional effects on reorientation that increase with temperature. PMID:1708284

Usha, M G; Peticolas, W L; Wittebort, R J

1991-04-23

423

Structural characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides on monoclonal antibody cetuximab by the combination of orthogonal matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization hybrid quadrupole–quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and sequential enzymatic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cetuximab is a novel therapeutic monoclonal antibody with two N-glycosylation sites: a conserved site in the CH2 domain and a second site within the framework 3 of the variable portion of the heavy chain. The detailed structures of these oligosaccharides were successfully characterized using orthogonal matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization hybrid quadrupole–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (oMALDI Qq–TOF MS) and tandem mass spectrometry

Jun Qian; Tun Liu; Li Yang; Ann Daus; Richard Crowley; Qinwei Zhou

2007-01-01

424

Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions  

SciTech Connect

We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117200, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2011-05-15

425

Triaxial rotor model description of quadrupole interference in collective nuclei: The P{sub 3} term  

SciTech Connect

The triaxial rotor model with independent inertia and electric quadrupole tensors is applied to the P{sub 3} term, P{sub 3}=<0{sub 1}||T(E2)||2{sub 1}><2{sub 1}||T(E2)||2{sub 2}><2{sub 2}||T(E2)||0{sub 1}>, which is a standard measure of quadrupole interference in collective nuclei. It is shown that the model naturally explains nuclei with anomalous signs for their P{sub 3} terms. Measurements of Q(2{sub 1}) in multiple-step Coulomb excitation can be significantly dependent on the sign of this term. The example of {sup 194}Pt is considered.

Allmond, J. M. [Department of Physics, University of Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States); School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Wood, J. L.; Kulp, W. D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2009-08-15

426

CONSTRAINING THE QUADRUPOLE MOMENT OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES WITH THE CONTINUUM FITTING METHOD  

SciTech Connect

Black holes in general relativity are known as Kerr black holes and are characterized solely by two parameters, the mass M and the spin J. All the higher multipole moments of the gravitational field are functions of these two parameters. For instance, the quadrupole moment is Q = -J {sup 2}/M, which implies that a measurement of M, J, and Q for black hole candidates would allow one to test whether these objects are really black holes as described by general relativity. While future gravitational-wave experiments will be able to test the Kerr nature of these objects with very high accuracy, in this paper we show that it is possible to put constraints on the quadrupole moment of stellar-mass black hole candidates by using presently available X-ray data of the thermal spectrum of their accretion disk.

Bambi, Cosimo [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Barausse, Enrico, E-mail: cosimo.bambi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: barausse@umd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2011-04-20

427

Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.

Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

2008-08-01

428

Effects of quadrupole fringe fields in final focus systems for linear colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole fringe fields in the final focus system can be a source of aberrations in the interaction point transverse beam sizes. This paper investigates the fringe field impact on the transverse beam size in the ATF2, ILC, and CLIC lattices in the linear and non-linear regimes. The linear effects are studied by replacing the hard-edge quadrupolar field by the more realistic gradient fall-off. To address the nonlinear effects, the fringe fields are represented as high order kicks added to both sides of the hard-edge magnets. It will be shown that the linear fringe fields effects can be easily cured by tuning the quadrupole strengths. On the other hand, mitigation of the nonlinear fringe fields effects is more difficult and requires use of octupole magnets or, alternatively, increasing the value of interaction point horizontal beta function ?x*.

Patecki, Marcin; Tomás, Rogelio

2014-10-01

429

Fourier transform spectrometer remote sensing of O2 A-band electric quadrupole transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed electric quadrupole transitions in the O2 A-band, b1?g+?X3?g-(0,0), in high solar zenith angle atmospheric spectra recorded with the high-resolution solar-viewing Fourier transform spectrometer at Park Falls, WI. We identified 12 ?N=±3 transitions for the first time, including the first detection of NO-branch transitions and extended the TS-branch observations of Brault [J Mol Spectrosc 1980;80:384-8] up to N?=23. Additionally, we observed six electric quadrupole transitions of the ?N=-1 PO-branch. These observations demonstrate the excellent sensitivity and long-term stability of the new generation of solar-viewing Fourier transform spectrometers.

Miller, Charles E.; Wunch, Debra

2012-07-01

430

Simulation studies of space-charge-dominated beam transport in large aperture ratio quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

For many cases of interest in the design of heavy-ion fusion accelerators, the maximum transportable current in a magnetic quadrupole lattice scales as ({alpha}/L){sup 2} where {alpha} is the useful dynamic aperture and L is the half-lattice period. There are many cost benefits to maximizing the usable aperture which must be balanced against unwanted effects such as possible emittance growth and particle loss from anharmonic fringe fields. We have used two independent simulation codes to model space-charge dominated beam transport both in an azimuthally-pure quadrupole FODO lattice design and in a more conventional design. Our results indicate that careful matching will be necessary to minimize emittance growth and that ({alpha}/L) ratios of 0.2 or larger are possible for particular parameters.

Fawley, W.M.; Laslett, L.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Haber, I. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-05-01

431

Motion of pole-dipole and quadrupole particles in nonminimally coupled theories of gravity  

SciTech Connect

We study theories of gravity with nonminimal coupling between polarized media with pole-dipole and quadrupole moments and an arbitrary function of the space-time curvature scalar R and the squares of the Ricci and Riemann curvature tensors. We obtain the general form of the equation of motion and show that an induced quadrupole moment emerges as a result of the curvature tensor dependence of the function coupled to the matter. We derive the explicit forms of the equations of motion in the particular cases of coupling to a function of the curvature scalar alone, coupling to an arbitrary function of the square of the Riemann curvature tensor, and coupling to an arbitrary function of the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. We show that in these cases the extra force resulting from the nonminimal coupling can be expressed in terms of the induced moments.

Mohseni, Morteza [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

432

Shape Phase Transition from Octupole Deformation to Octupole Vibrations: The Analytic Quadrupole Octupole Axially Symmetric Model  

SciTech Connect

An analytic collective model in which the relative presence of the quadrupole and octupole deformations is determined by a parameter ({phi}0), while axial symmetry is obeyed, is developed. The model [to be called the Analytic Quadrupole Octupole Axially symmetric model (AQOA)] involves an infinite well potential, provides predictions for energy and B(EL) ratios which depend only on {phi}0, draws the border between the regions of octupole deformation and octupole vibrations in an essentially parameter-independent way, and in the actinide region describes well 226Th and 226Ra, for which experimental energy data are shown to suggest that they lie close to this border. The similarity of the AQOA results with {phi}0 = 45 deg. for ground state band spectra and B(E2) transition rates to the predictions of the X(5) model is pointed out.

Bonatsos, Dennis; Lenis, D.; Petrellis, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', GR-15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Minkov, N.; Yotov, P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigrad Road, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2006-04-26

433

Communication: Nuclear quadrupole moment-induced Cotton-Mouton effect in noble gas atoms  

SciTech Connect

New, high-sensitivity and high-resolution spectroscopic and imaging methods may be developed by exploiting nuclear magneto-optic effects. A first-principles electronic structure formulation of nuclear electric quadrupole moment-induced Cotton-Mouton effect (NQCME) is presented for closed-shell atoms. In NQCME, aligned quadrupole moments alter the index of refraction of the medium along with and perpendicular to the direction of nuclear alignment. The roles of basis-set convergence, electron correlation, and relativistic effects are investigated for three quadrupolar noble gas isotopes: {sup 21}Ne, {sup 83}Kr, and {sup 131}Xe. The magnitude of the resulting ellipticities is predicted to be 10{sup ?4}–10{sup ?6} rad/(M cm) for fully spin-polarized nuclei. These should be detectable in the Voigt setup. Particularly interesting is the case of {sup 131}Xe, in which a high degree of spin polarization can be achieved via spin-exchange optical hyperpolarization.

Fu, Li-juan; Vaara, Juha, E-mail: juha.vaara@iki.fi [NMR Research Group, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)] [NMR Research Group, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Rizzo, Antonio [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IPCF-CNR), Area della Ricerca, via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)] [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IPCF-CNR), Area della Ricerca, via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

2013-11-14

434

Effects of line shifts and the ion quadrupole contribution of spectral line asymmetries.  

SciTech Connect

Line asymmetries and the corresponding shift of spectral lines due to the electron penetration of the radiator orbitals and the ion quadrupole contribution become more significant with increasing principal quantum number and increasing electron density. The mean field static shift due to electron penetration of the orbitals gives rise to an overall shift of the line to lower energy and a significant asymmetry near line center, but does not generate much redhlue far wing asymmetry. The ion quadrupole contribution results in a small blue shift of the spectral line and a small change in asymmetry near line center, but it gives rise to a significant redhlue wing asymmetry in the far wings of the line. Experimental data fiom recent spherical implosion experiments on OMEGA shows evidence of the mean field static shift and may also show the effects of level interactions between the Ar Lyman -{gamma}, -{delta}, -{var_epsilon} lines and also the Ar He -{gamma}, -{delta} lines.

Gunderson, M. A. (Mark A.); Delamater, N. D. (Norman D.); Kilcrease, D. P. (David P.); Haynes, D. A. (Donald A.)

2002-01-01

435

Design Studies of Nb3Sn High-Gradient Quadrupole Models for LARP  

SciTech Connect

Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor is required in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. We report here on the conceptual design studies of a series of 1 m long 'High-gradient Quadrupoles' (HQ) that will explore the magnet performance limits in terms of peak fields, forces and stresses. The HQ design is expected to provide coil peak fields of more than 15 T, corresponding to gradients above 300 T/m in a 90 mm bore. Conductor requirements, magnetic, mechanical and quench protection issues for candidate HQ designs will be presented and discussed.

Andreev, Nikolai; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Kashikhin, Vadim; Lietzke, Al; Novitski, Igor; Zlobin, Alexander; McInturff, Alfred; Sabbi, GianLuca

2007-06-01

436

Magnetic measurement of quadrupole and sextupole magnets for the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring (SHR)  

SciTech Connect

Final results of magnetic measurements of 128 quadrupoles and 32 sextupoles are presented. There are many places in the SHR complex where these magnets will be operated from a common power supply. For the quadrupole magnets there are 4 octets, 4 triplets and 18 doublets; these magnets have been matched to {plus_minus}0.1% in excitation response for the operating range corresponding to 0.3--1.0 GeV. For the sextupoles there are four octets where the (pairwise) matching has generally been made to the {plus_minus}0.3% level. Parameterization of the data as well as fits are described and examples of the magnet groupings are shown.

Tieger, D.R.; Zumbro, J.D.; Sapp, W.W. [Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA (US)

1993-07-01

437

Magnetic measurement of quadrupole and sextupole magnets for the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring (SHR)  

SciTech Connect

Final results of magnetic measurements of 128 quadrupoles and 32 sextupoles are presented. There are many places in the SHR complex where these magnets will be operated from a common power supply. For the quadrupole magnets there are 4 octets, 4 triplets and 18 doublets; these magnets have been matched to [plus minus]0.1% in excitation response for the operating range corresponding to 0.3--1.0 GeV. For the sextupoles there are four octets where the (pairwise) matching has generally been made to the [plus minus]0.3% level. Parameterization of the data as well as fits are described and examples of the magnet groupings are shown.

Tieger, D.R.; Zumbro, J.D.; Sapp, W.W. (Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

438

Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles Using Rotating Magnet Material Rods for the Next Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0-20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micrometer during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce estimated costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. All magnets have iron poles and use either Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron to provide the magnetic fields. Two prototypes use rotating rods containing permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient. Gradient changes of 20% and center shifts of less than 20 microns have been measured. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnet prototype.

James T Volk et al.

2001-09-24

439

NMR studies of quadrupole couplings in dimethyl sulfone and carbon disulfide  

SciTech Connect

NMR spectra of dimethyl sulfone (DMS) and carbon disulfide were measured in liquid crystalline solvents. The order parameters were derived from the proton spectra (DMS) or /sup 13/C chemical shifts (CS/sub 2/). From the observed quadrupolar splittings, the components of the quadrupole coupling tensors of /sup 33/S and /sup 17/O were derived. Information on the quadrupole coupling constants (QCC) of /sup 33/S and /sup 17/O in DMS was also obtained by T/sub 1/ relaxation time measurements in a chloroform solution. The data were supplemented by ab initio calculations of the components of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensors in these molecules. The QCC of /sup 33/S and /sup 17/ in DMS are of the order of 1.8 and 8.5 MHz, respectively, while the value for /sup 33/S in CS/sub 2/ is about 13.8 MHz.

Loewenstein, A.; Igner, D.

1988-04-21

440

Core polarization for the electric quadrupole moment of neutron-rich aluminum isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The core polarization effects for the electric quadrupole moments of the neutron-rich {sup 31}Al, {sup 33}Al, and {sup 35}Al isotopes in the vicinity of the island of inversion are investigated by means of the microscopic particle-vibration coupling model in which the Skyrme Hartee-Fock-Bogoliubov and quasiparticle random-phase approximations are used to calculate the single-quasiparticle wave functions and the excitation modes. It is found that the polarization charge for the proton 1d{sub 5/2} hole state in {sup 33}Al is quite sensitive to coupling to the neutrons in the pf-shell associated with the pairing correlations and that the polarization charge in {sup 35}Al becomes larger due to the stronger collectivity of the low-lying quadrupole vibrational mode in the neighboring {sup 36}Si nucleus.

Yoshida, Kenichi [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2009-05-15

441

The Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction of 204mPb in Lead Oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear quadrupole interaction of 204mPb in lead oxides has been measured by ? ? time differential perturbed angular correlation. Ab-initio calculations of the electric field gradients and X-ray diffraction allowed the assignment of the detected nuclear quadrupole interactions to the different Pb sites in the PbO phases litharge and massicote as well as in Pb3O4. The TDPAC probe 204mPb was produced with a 204Bi/204mPb-generator at the home laboratory at the University of Leipzig. The use of a high performance liquid chromatography system increased significantly the yield, the specific activity of 204mPb, and reduced the acidic concentration of the eluate.

Friedemann, S.; Heinrich, F.; Haas, H.; Tröger, W.

2004-12-01

442

Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the neutron-deficient bismuth isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete hyperfine structures of the A = 202, 203 and 204 bismuth isotopes have been observed in the 306.7 nm line using an extremely sensitive gas cell technique of laser spectroscopy. The magnetic moments, quadrupole moments and relative changes in the mean square charge radii have been extracted and have been used to study the bulk and valence nuclear behaviour around 208Pb. The trends of the quadrupole moments of the proton-particle, neutron-hole ground and isomeric systems are observed to be very nearly identical throughout the Z ? 82, N ? 126 region. Furthermore the correspondence between the behaviour of Qs and the behaviour of the ground state charge radii demonstrates that the global systematics of this region are closer than those of any other.

Campbell, P.; Behr, J. A.; Billowes, J.; Gwinner, G.; Sprouse, G. D.; Xu, F.

1996-02-01

443

Recoil velocity of pulsar/magnetar induced by magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recoil velocity is examined as a back reaction to the magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiations from a pulsar/magnetar born with rapid rotation. The model is extended from notable Harrison-Tademaru one by including arbitrary field-strength of the magnetic quadrupole moment. The process is slow one operating on a spindown timescale. Resultant velocity depends on not the magnitude, but rather the ratio of the two moments and their geometrical configuration. The model does not necessarily lead to high spatial velocity for a magnetar with a strong magnetic field. This fact is consistent with the recent observational upper bound. The maximum velocity predicted with this model is slightly smaller than that of observed fast-moving pulsars.

Kojima, Yasufumi

2013-03-01

444

Identification and Quadrupole-Moment Measurement of a Superdeformed Band in {sup 84}Zr  

SciTech Connect

High-spin states in {sup 84}Zr were studied using the early implementation phase of the Gammasphere array and the ``Microball`` charged-particle detector system. A cascade of nine {gamma} rays with a dynamic moment of inertia which is characteristic of superdeformed rotational bands in the {ital A}=80 region has been identified and assigned to {sup 84}Zr. The measured transition quadrupole moment of the band corresponds to a prolate quadrupole deformation of {beta}{sub 2}=0.53 and confirms the superdeformed nature of this band. This is the first direct experimental confirmation of the existence of the predicted superdeformed shell gap at {ital N}{congruent}44 particle number.

Jin, H.; Baktash, C.; Brinkman, M.J.; Gross, C.J.; Sarantites, D.G.; Lee, I.Y.; Cederwall, B.; Cristancho, F.; Doering, J.; Durham, F.E.; Hua, P.; Johns, G.D.; Korolija, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Landulfo, E.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rathbun, W.; Saladin, J.X.; Stracener, D.W.; Tabor, S.L.; Werner, T.R. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); [UNISOR, Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00-681, Warsaw (Poland)

1995-08-21

445

Search for quadrupole strength in the electroexcitation of the delta+(1232).  

PubMed

High-precision 1H(e,e'p)pi(0) measurements at Q2 = 0.126 (GeV/c)2 are reported, which allow the determination of quadrupole amplitudes in the gamma*N-->Delta transition; they simultaneously test the reliability of electroproduction models. The derived quadrupole-to-dipole ( I = 3/2) amplitude ratios, R(SM) = (-6.5+/-0.2(stat+sys)+/-2.5(mod))% and R(EM) = (-2.1+/-0.2(stat+sys)+/-2.0(mod))%, are dominated by model error. Previous R(SM) and R(EM) results should be reconsidered after the model uncertainties associated with the method of their extraction are taken into account. PMID:11290083

Mertz, C; Vellidis, C E; Alarcon, R; Barkhuff, D H; Bernstein, A M; Bertozzi, W; Burkert, V; Chen, J; Comfort, J R; Dodson, G; Dolfini, S; Dow, K; Farkhondeh, M; Finn, J M; Gilad, S; Gothe, R W; Jiang, X; Joo, K; Kaloskamis, N I; Karabarbounis, A; Kelly, J J; Kowalski, S; Kunz, C; Lourie, R W; McIntyre, J I; Milbrath, B D; Miskimen, R; Mitchell, J H; Papanicolas, C N; Perdrisat, C F; Sarty, A J; Shaw, J; Soong, S B; Tieger, D; Tschalaer, C; Turchinetz, W; Ulmer, P E; Van Verst, S; Warren, G A; Weinstein, L B; Williamson, S; Woo, R J; Young, A

2001-04-01

446

Magnetic measurements on the ring dipoles and quadrupoles for the Los Alamos proton storage ring  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses magnetic measurements and shimming performed on the ring dipoles and quadrupoles for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). For the dipoles, point-by-point field maps were obtained using a search coil that could be scanned over a three-dimensional grid. By appropriate machining of removable end blocks, all magnet lengths were adjusted to within 0.01% of a nominal value and all integrated multipoles were set within tolerance. Integrated fields of 20 PSR quadrupoles were measured using a rotating ''Morgan Coil'' and a digital spectrum analyzer. The magnets were shimmed to specifications by adjusting steel bolts threaded through the field clamps. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Schermer, R.I.; Blind, B.; Jason, A.J.; Sawyer, G.A.

1985-01-01

447

Molecular Reorientation in Liquids. Deuteron Quadrupole Relaxation in Liquid Deuterium Oxide and Perdeuterobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature-dependence measurements have been made on the deuteron spin—lattice relaxation times for liquid deuterium oxide and perdeuterobenzene. The quadrupole spin—lattice relaxation is expressed in terms of motional models previously developed for magnetic dipole—dipole relaxation. The deuterium oxide data are discussed in terms of microwave, dielectric relaxation, and hydrogen-bonding phenomena. The T1 values follow rather closely a proportionality to absolute temperature

D. E. Woessner

1964-01-01

448

Relative sensitivities of Bayard-Alpert gauges and a quadrupole mass spectrometer for hydrogen isotope molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To apply mass spectrometers and ionization gauges to thermonuclear fusion devices such as pressure gauges, we measured the relative sensitivities (normalized to Hâ) of Bayard--Alpert (B--A) gauges (UGD-1S and UGS-1A, ANELVA Co.) and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (MSQ-150A, ULVAC Co.) for hydrogen isotopes. In the case of the B--A gauges, the relative sensitivities were determined as R\\/sup HD\\/\\/sub B\\/ =

Kuniaki Watanabe; Hitoshi Miyake; Masao Matsuyama

1987-01-01

449

Determination of iodine and molybdenum in milk by quadrupole ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable method for the determination of iodine and molybdenum in milk samples, using alkaline digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, followed by quadrupole ICP-MS analysis, has been developed and tested using certified reference materials. The use of He+O2 (1.0mlmin?1 and 0.6mlmin?1) in the collision-reaction cell of the mass spectrometer to remove 129Xe+ – initially to enable the determination

Helen J. Reid; Abdul A. Bashammakh; Phillip S. Goodall; Mark R. Landon; Ciaran O’Connor; Barry L. Sharp

2008-01-01

450

Quantum theory of magnetic quadrupole lenses for spin-1\\/2 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

General guidelines for constructing a quantum theory of charged-particle beam\\u000aoptics starting ab initio from the basic equations of quantum mechanics,\\u000aappropriate to the situation under study. In the context of spin-1\\/2 particles,\\u000athese guidelines are used starting with the Dirac equation. The spinor theory\\u000ajust constructed is used to obtain the transfer maps for normal and skew\\u000amagnetic quadrupoles

Sameen Ahmed Khan; Galileo Galilei

1998-01-01

451

Adaptation of a 3-D Quadrupole Ion Trap for Dipolar DC Collisional Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Means to allow for the application of a dipolar DC pulse to the end-cap electrodes of a three-dimensional (3-D) quadrupole\\u000a ion trap for as short as a millisecond to as long as hundreds of milliseconds are described. The implementation of dipolar\\u000a DC does not compromise the ability to apply AC waveforms to the end-cap electrodes at other times in the

Boone M. Prentice; Robert E. Santini; Scott A. McLuckey

452

Registration of currents of positive and negative ions in quadrupole mass spectrometer with one measuring channel  

SciTech Connect

A modernized system for registration of the ion currents of MS7302 and MS7303 quadrupole mass spectrometers is described. Charge conversion in interaction of negative ions with a metal surface is used to measure their current, which allows the currents of both positive and negative ions to be measured with a single measuring channel and permits electrical switching from one registration mode to anther without loss of vacuum or stopping of the instrument.

Gall', R.N.; Gor'kovoi, V.V.; Elokhin, V.A.; Kuz'min, A.F.; Protopopov, S.V.

1987-04-01

453

A new method of alpha ray measurement using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method of alpha (?)-ray measurement that detects helium atoms with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). A demonstration is undertaken with a plastic-covered 241Am ?-emitting source to detect ?-rays stopped in the capsule. We successfully detect helium atoms that diffuse out of the capsule by accumulating them for 1–20h in a closed chamber. The detected amount is