These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Quaking Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational, magnetic, and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a starquake). In preliminary work in 1998 we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes, and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution of matter excites damped precession, which could ultimately lead to an increase in the spin-down torque. Starquakes associated with glitches could explain the permanent offsets in period derivative observed to follow glitches in at least three pulsars.

Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

2000-11-01

2

Gamma Ray Bursts, Neutron Star Quakes, and the Casimir Effect  

E-print Network

We propose that the dynamic Casimir effect is a mechanism that converts the energy of neutron starquakes into $\\gamma$--rays. This mechanism efficiently produces photons from electromagnetic Casimir energy released by the rapid motion of a dielectric medium into a vacuum. Estimates based on the cutoff energy of the gamma ray bursts and the volume involved in a starquake indicate that the total gamma ray energy emission is consonant with observational requirements.

C. Carlson; T. Goldman; J. Perez-Mercader

1994-11-25

3

Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

Cottam, J.

2007-01-01

4

Neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter and gravitational physics. Observations of neutron stars from sources such as radio pulsars, low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray bursts and thermally-emitting neutron stars are setting bounds to neutron star masses, radii, rotation rates, temperatures and ages. Mass measurements constrain the equation of state at the highest densities and set firm bounds to the highest possible density of cold matter. Radii constrain the equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density and yield information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are in remarkable agreement with observational bounds.

Lattimer, James M.

2014-05-01

5

Sixquarks in neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron star parameters are calculated with regard to the existence of recently discovered sixquarks-narrow dibaryon resonances. It is shown that as compared to the previous calculations, the maximum masses and radii of neutron stars are notably reduced, compact objects of very low masses appear to be stable. It is shown that at the certain stage of the star collapse an instability occurs which leads to the second type Supernova flare. It is also shown that in a certain pressure interval two phases exist: neutron and neutron-sixquark ones, and the first type Supernova flares can be interpreted as a phase transition in the external layers of the neutron stars.

Kuzmin, Yu. V.

6

Neutron Star Collision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Systems of orbiting neutron stars are born when the cores of two old stars collapse in supernova explosions. Neutron stars have the mass of our Sun but are the size of a city, so dense that boundaries between atoms disappear. Einsteins theory of general relativity predicts that the orbit shrinks from ripples of space-time called gravitational waves. After about 1 billion simulation years, the two neutron stars closely circle each other at 60,000 revolutions per minute. The stars finally merge in a few milliseconds, sending out a burst of gravitational waves.

Bock, Dave; Shalf, John; Swesty, Doug; Calder, Alan; Wang, Ed

1999-01-21

7

Hyperons in neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

Generalized beta equilibrium involving nucleons, hyperons, and isobars is examined for neutron star matter. The hyperons produce a considerable softening of the equation of state. It is shown that the observed masses of neutron stars can be used to settle a recent controversy concerning the nuclear compressibility. Compressibilities less than 200 MeV are incompatible with observed masses. 7 refs., 9 figs.

Glendenning, N.K.

1986-04-01

8

Neutron stars as cosmic neutron matter laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments which have radically changed our understanding of the dynamics of neutron star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars are summarized, and the extent to which neutron stars are cosmic neutron matter laboratories is discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Pines, D.

1986-01-01

9

Hypernuclear Physics for Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

The role of hypernuclear physics for the physics of neutron stars is delineated. Hypernuclear potentials in dense matter control the hyperon composition of dense neutron star matter. The three-body interactions of nucleons and hyperons determine the stiffness of the neutron star equation of state and thereby the maximum neutron star mass. Two-body hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions give rise to hyperon pairing which exponentially suppresses cooling of neutron stars via the direct hyperon URCA processes. Non-mesonic weak reactions with hyperons in dense neutron star matter govern the gravitational wave emissions due to the r-mode instability of rotating neutron stars.

Jurgen Schaffner-Bielich

2008-01-24

10

Neutron Star Compared to Manhattan  

NASA Video Gallery

A pulsar is a neutron star, the crushed core of a star that has exploded. Neutron stars crush half a million times more mass than Earth into a sphere no larger than Manhattan, as animated in this s...

11

Cooling of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

Pethick, C. J.

1992-01-01

12

Neutron stars - thermal emitters  

E-print Network

Confronting theoretical models with observations of thermal radiation emitted by neutron stars is one of the most important ways to understand the properties of both, superdense matter in the interiors of the neutron stars and dense magnetized plasmas in their outer layers. Here we review the theory of thermal emission from the surface layers of strongly magnetized neutron stars, and the main properties of the observational data. In particular, we focus on the nearby sources for which a clear thermal component has been detected, without being contaminated by other emission processes (magnetosphere, accretion, nebulae). We also discuss the applications of the modern theoretical models of the formation of spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars to the observed thermally emitting objects.

Potekhin, A Y; Pons, J A

2014-01-01

13

Matter accreting neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

Meszaros, P.

1981-01-01

14

The Neutron Star Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron stars provide a rich and unique cosmic laboratory for studying fundamental questions in physics and astrophysics, including the effects of superstrong magnetic fields, nuclear deflagration and detonation in dense matter, neutron superfluidity and proton superconductivity, the properties of the nuclear force at high densities, the expected transition to quark matter, and gravitational physics in the strong-field regime. X- and

Frederick K. Lamb

1998-01-01

15

Microlensing Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We investigate the chances that neutron stars act as the lense in a gravitational microlensing event towards the galactic bulge or a spiral arm. The observation of neutron stars by means of gravitational microlensing would allow the estimation of neutron star masses independently of the property of being a pulsar in a binary system. We estimate the contribution of neutron stars to the optical depth and the lensing rate based on two different models of the pulsar distribution in the galaxy. Since only a small fraction of all neutron stars are pulsars, it is unlikely to find a pulsar that acts as a microlense by chance. A position comparison of known radio pulsars with observed microlensing candidates towards the galactic bulge and spiral arms shows no candidate pair, which is consistent with the theoretical expectation. To improve the probability of microlensing a pulsar, we suggest to search for gravitational microlensing events of known nearby high proper motion pulsars. The pulsar PSR J1932+1059 is a good candidate for an astrometric detection of gravitational lensing.

Dominik J. Schwarz; Dirk Seidel

2002-04-03

16

Neutrinos from neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calculation of the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars is presented. The calculation is used to determine the number of point sources detectable at the sensitivity threshold of a proposed deep underwater muon and neutrino detector array. The detector array would have a point source detection threshold of about 100 eV/sq cm-sec. Analysis of neutrino luminosities and the number of detectable sources suggests that the deep underwater detector may make a few discoveries. In particular, a suspected neutron star in the Cyg X-3 source seems a promising target for the deep underwater array.

Helfand, D. J.

1979-01-01

17

The neutron star zoo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

Harding, Alice K.

2013-12-01

18

The Neutron Star Zoo  

E-print Network

Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

Harding, Alice K

2013-01-01

19

Seattle Quake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Seattle, Washington. Seattle sits on the type of ground that would amplify the effects of an earthquake. Watch how scientists are preparing for the inevitable next quake.

2010-01-01

20

Got Quakes?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains instructions for building a seismometer to record movements of the Earth's crust using a cereal box, string, a paper cup, strips of paper, and weights, such as marbles or washers. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

21

Starquakes in Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crab and other pulsars suffer sudden and permanent increases in their spin-down rates in association with glitches, suggesting that the external torque on these objects grows in steps. Here, we describe how torque changes may arise from starquakes, occurring as the star spins down and its rigid crust becomes less oblate. We study the evolution of strain in the crust, the initiation of starquakes, the effects on the magnetic field geometry, and possible observable consequences for neutron star spin down. We find that the stellar crust begins breaking at the rotational equator, forming a fault inclined at an angle to the equator and directed toward the magnetic poles. The resulting asymmetric matter redistribution produces a misalignment of the angular momentum and spin axes. Subsequently, damped precession to a new rotational state increases the angle between rotation and magnetic axes. The change in this angle could increase the external torque, producing a permanent increase in the spin-down rate.

Franco, L. M.; Link, B.; Epstein, R. I.

2000-05-01

22

Physics of Neutron Star Crusts  

E-print Network

The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

N. Chamel; P. Haensel

2008-12-20

23

Theory of neutron star magnetospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of neutron star magnetospheres is presented with reference to the most important observational data on neutron stars available to date. In particular, attention is given to the nature of pulsars and pulsar properties and statistics; phenomenological models; the aligned rotator and oblique rotator models; the disk models; alternative models; and radio emission models. The discussion also covers winds

F. C. Michel

1991-01-01

24

Rotating relativistic neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g., gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000/s less than OmegaK less than 9000/s. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of OmegaK must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder (Lambda) approximations, models of the equation of states are derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

Weber, F.; Glendenning, N. K.

1991-07-01

25

QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

Miller, M. Coleman

2005-01-01

26

Complexity and neutron stars structure  

E-print Network

We apply the statistical measure of complexity introduced by Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini and Calbet to neutron stars structure. Neutron stars is a classical example where the gravitational field and quantum behavior are combined and produce a macroscopic dense object. Actually, we continue the recent application of Sanudo and Pacheco to white dwarfs structure. We concentrate our study on the connection between complexity and neutron star properties, like maximum mass and the corresponding radius, applying a specific set of realistic equation of states. Moreover, the effect of the strength of the gravitational field on the neutron star structure and consequently on the complexity measure is also investigated. It is seen that neutron stars, consistent with astronomical observations so far, are ordered systems (low complexity), which cannot grow in complexity as their mass increases. This is a result of the interplay of gravity, the short-range nuclear force and the very short-range weak interaction.

K. Ch. Chatzisavvas; V. P. Psonis; C. P. Panos; Ch. C. Moustakidis

2009-05-27

27

Binary Neutron Star Mergers  

E-print Network

We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-)hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and micro...

Faber, Joshua A

2012-01-01

28

Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star  

E-print Network

Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star #12;Birth of a Neutron Star In the core, nuclei are smashed into protons & neutrons; the protons combine with electrons to make neutrons & neutrinos. The birth temperature of a neutron star is ~5Ã?1011 K, but neutrino emission cools it to `only

Barnes, Joshua Edward

29

Children's Literature on Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

Struck, James

30

Neutron star news and puzzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

Prakash, Madappa

2014-08-01

31

The Zoo of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

In these lecture notes I briefly discuss the present day situation and new discoveries in astrophysics of neutron stars focusing on isolated objects. The latter include soft gamma repeaters, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, the Magnificent seven, and rotating radio transients. In the last part of the paper I describe available tests of cooling curves of neutron stars and discuss different additional constraints which can help to confront theoretical calculations of cooling with observational data.

S. B. Popov

2006-10-19

32

Binary Neutron Star Mergers  

E-print Network

We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-)hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

Joshua A. Faber; Frederic A. Rasio

2012-04-17

33

Neutron star moments of inertia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.

Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.

1994-01-01

34

WIMP Annihilation and Cooling of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We study the effect of WIMP annihilation on the temperature of a neutron star. We shall argue that the released energy due to WIMP annihilation inside the neutron stars, might affect the temperature of stars older than 10 million years, flattening out the temperature at $\\sim 10^4$ K for a typical neutron star.

Chris Kouvaris

2007-08-17

35

The nuclear physics of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

Piekarewicz, J.

2014-05-01

36

The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

J. Piekarewicz

2013-11-27

37

Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO  

E-print Network

Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

2005-10-13

38

Old and new neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Ruderman, M.

1984-09-01

39

Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

J. Piekarewicz

2009-01-28

40

Neutron Star Asteroseismology. Axial Crust Oscillations in the Cowling Approximation  

E-print Network

Recent observations of quasi-periodic oscillations in the aftermath of giant flares in soft gamma-ray repeaters suggest a close coupling between the seismic motion of the crust after a major quake and the modes of oscillations in a magnetar. In this paper we consider the purely elastic modes of oscillation in the crust of a neutron star in the relativistic Cowling approximation (disregarding any magnetic field). We determine the axial crust modes for a large set of stellar models, using a state-of-the-art crust equation of state and a wide range of core masses and radii. We also devise useful approximate formulae for the mode-frequencies. We show that the relative crust thickness is well described by a function of the compactness of the star and a parameter describing the compressibility of the crust only. Considering the observational data for SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20, we demonstrate how our results can be used to constrain the mass and radius of an oscillating neutron star.

Lars Samuelsson; Nils Andersson

2006-09-10

41

Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities). The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong interaction effects can be included within the Green’s function formalism. Softening of the pion mode with an baryon density increase is explicitly incorporated. We show examples of inconsistencies in calculations without inclusion of medium effects. Then we demonstrate calculations of different reaction rates in non-superfluid nuclear matter with taking into account medium effects. Many new reaction channels are open up in the medium and should be analyzed. Part IV: We discuss the neutrino production reactions in superfluid nuclear systems. The reaction rates of processes associated with the pair breaking and formation are calculated. Special attention is focused on the gauge invariance and the exact fulfillment of the Ward identities for the vector current. Finally we present comparison of calculations of neutron star cooling performed within nuclear medium cooling scenario with the available data.

Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

2010-10-01

42

Holographic Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the "Chandrasekhar limit" beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.

Jan de Boer; Kyriakos Papadodimas; Erik Verlinde

2009-07-16

43

Quark matter in neutron stars  

E-print Network

According to quantum chromodynamics, matter at ultra-high density and low temperature is a quark liquid, with a condensate of Cooper pairs of quarks near the Fermi surface ("color superconductivity"). This paper reviews the physics of color superconductivity, and discusses some of the proposed signatures by which we might detect quark matter in neutron stars.

Mark G. Alford

2009-07-01

44

Slowly braked, rotating neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A slowly braked, rotating neutron star is believed to be a star which rapidly rotates, has no nebula, is nonpulsing, and has a long initial braking time of ten thousand to a million years because of a low magnetic field. Such an object might be observable as an extended weak source of infrared or radio wave radiation due to the scattering of low-frequency strong-wave photons by accelerated electrons. If these objects exist abundantly in the Galaxy, they would act as sources of relatively low-energy cosmic rays. Pulsars (rapidly braked neutron stars) are shown to have difficulties in providing an adequate amount of cosmic-ray matter, making these new sources seem necessary. The possibility that the acceleration mechanism around a slowly braked star may be not a direct acceleration by the strong wave but an acceleration due to plasma turbulence excited by the strong wave is briefly explored. It is shown that white dwarfs may also be slowly braked stars with braking times longer than 3.15 million years.

Sato, H.

1975-01-01

45

Atmospheres and radiating surfaces of neutron stars  

E-print Network

The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a breakthrough in the studies of thermal radiation of neutron stars. Observations with modern space telescopes have provided a wealth of valuable information. Being correctly interpreted, this information can elucidate physics of superdense matter in the interiors of these stars. The theory of formation of thermal spectra of neutron stars is based on the physics of plasmas and radiative processes in stellar photospheres. It provides the framework for interpretation of observational data and for extracting neutron-star parameters from these data. This paper presents a review of the current state of the theory of surface layers of neutron stars and radiative processes in these layers, with the main focus on the neutron stars that possess strong magnetic fields. In addition to the conventional deep (semi-infinite) atmospheres, radiative condensed surfaces of neutron stars and "thin" (finite) atmospheres are also considered.

Potekhin, A Y

2014-01-01

46

The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

J. Piekarewicz

2008-02-27

47

Merging neutron stars: asymmetric systems  

E-print Network

Results of 3D, Newtonian hydrodynamic calculations of the last stages of the inspiral and the final coalescence of neutron star binary systems are described. The focus is on sligthly asymmetric systems with the asymmetry stemming either from different spins or different masses of the binary components. Implications for nucleosynthesis and gamma ray bursts are discussed. Test calculations for the used viscosity scheme are provided in the appendix.

S. Rosswog; M. B. Davies; F. -K. Thielemann; T. Piran

2000-05-29

48

Neutron Stars in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science literacy extension students read and analyze two different articles about XMM-Newton discoveries involving neutron stars and their magnetic fields. This is Activity 4 of the Supernova Guide developed by the XMM-Newton and GLAST E/PO programs. The guide features extensive background information, assessment rubrics, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and detailed information about physical science and mathematics content standards. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

49

Birth accelerations of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest that neutron stars experienced at birth three related physical changes, which may originate in magneto-rotational instabilities: (i) an increase in period from the initial value P 0 to the current value Ps , implying a change of rotational energy ? E rot; (ii) an exponential decay of its magnetic field from the initial value B 0 to the current surface value Bs , implying a change of radiative energy ? E rad; and (iii) an increase of space velocity from the initial value v 0 to the current value v, implying a change of kinetic energy ? E kin. These changes are assumed to be connected by ? E rad + ? E kin = ? E rot. This means that the radiation loss and increase of kinetic energy are both at the expense of a rotational energy loss. It is shown that this energy conversion occurs during times of order of 10-4 s if the neutron stars are born with magnetic fields in the range of 1015-1016 G and initial periods in range 1-20 ms. It is shown that the birth accelerations of neutron stars are of the order of 108g.

Heras, Ricardo

2013-03-01

50

The HST contribution to neutron star astronomy  

E-print Network

While isolated neutron stars (INSs) are among the brightest gamma-ray sources, they are among the faintest ones in the optical, and their study is a challenging task which require the most powerful telescopes. HST has lead neutron star optical astronomy yielding nearly all the identifications achieved since the early 1990s. Here, the major HST contributions in the optical studies of INSs and their relevance for neutron stars' astronomy are reviewed.

R. P. Mignani

2007-10-29

51

Post-Newtonian diagnosis of quasiequilibrium configurations of neutron star-neutron star and neutron star-black hole binaries  

SciTech Connect

We use a post-Newtonian diagnostic tool to examine numerically generated quasiequilibrium initial data sets for nonspinning double neutron star and neutron star-black hole binary systems. The post-Newtonian equations include the effects of tidal interactions, parametrized by the compactness of the neutron stars and by suitable values of 'apsidal' constants, which measure the degree of distortion of stars subjected to tidal forces. We find that the post-Newtonian diagnostic agrees well with the double neutron star initial data, typically to better than half a percent except where tidal distortions are becoming extreme. We show that the differences could be interpreted as representing small residual eccentricity in the initial orbits. In comparing the diagnostic with preliminary numerical data on neutron star-black hole binaries, we find less agreement.

Berti, Emanuele; Iyer, Sai; Will, Clifford M. [McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

2008-01-15

52

Burst Oscillations: Watching Neutron Stars Spin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now almost 15 years since the first detection of rotationally modulated emission from X-ray bursting neutron stars, "burst oscillations," This phenomenon enables us to see neutron stars spin, as the X-ray burst flux asymmetrically lights up the surface. It has enabled a new way to probe the neutron star spin frequency distribution, as well as to elucidate the multidimensional nature of nuclear burning on neutron stars. I will review our current observational understanding of the phenomenon, with an eye toward highlighting some of the interesting remaining puzzles, of which there is no shortage.

Strohmayer, Tod

2010-01-01

53

Dynamics of Rotating, Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Using a fully general relativistic implementation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics with no assumed symmetries in three spatial dimensions, the dynamics of magnetized, rigidly rotating neutron stars are studied. Beginning with fully consistent initial data constructed with Magstar, part of the Lorene project, we study the dynamics and stability of rotating, magnetized polytropic stars as models of neutron stars. Evolutions suggest that some of these rotating, magnetized stars may be minimally unstable occurring at the threshold of black hole formation.

Steven L. Liebling

2010-02-10

54

Super-Massive Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We present here the results of Arecibo timing of PSR B1516+02B, a 7.95-ms pulsar in a binary system with a ~0.17 solar mass companion and an orbital period of 6.85 days located in the globular cluster M5. The eccentricity of the orbit (e = 0.14) has allowed a measurement of the rate of advance of periastron: (0.0136 +/- 0.0007) degrees per year. It is very likely that the periastron advance is due to the effects of general relativity; the total mass of the binary system is (2.14 +/-0.16) solar masses. The small measured mass function implies, in a statistical sense, that a very large fraction of this total mass is contained in the pulsar: (1.94+0.17 -0.19) solar masses (1-sigma); there is a 5% probability that the mass of this object is below 1.59 solar masses. With the possible exception of PSR J1748-2021B, this is the largest neutron star mass measured to date. When combined with similar measurements made previously for Terzan 5 I and J, we can exclude, in a statistical sense, the ``soft'' equations of state for dense neutron matter, implying that matter at the center of a neutron star is highly incompressible. There is also some evidence for a bimodal distribution of MSP masses, the reasons for that are not clear.

Paulo C. C. Freire

2007-11-30

55

Detectability of f-mode Unstable Neutron Stars by the Schenberg Spherical Antenna  

E-print Network

The Brazilian spherical antenna (Schenberg) is planned to detect high frequency gravitational waves (GWs) ranging from 3.0 kHz to 3.4 kHz. There is a host of astrophysical sources capable of being detected by the Brazilian antenna, namely: core collapse in supernova events; (proto)neutron stars undergoing hydrodynamical instability; f-mode unstable neutron stars, caused by quakes and oscillations; excitation of the first quadrupole normal mode of 4-9 solar mass black holes; coalescence of neutron stars and/or black holes; exotic sources such as bosonic or strange matter stars rotating at 1.6 kHz; and inspiralling of mini black hole binaries. We here address our study in particular to the neutron stars, which could well become f-mode unstable producing therefore GWs. We estimate, for this particular source of GWs, the event rates that in principle can be detected by Schenberg and by the Dutch Mini-Grail antenna.

J. C. N. de Araujo; O. D. Miranda; O. D. Aguiar

2005-03-03

56

The Thermal Evolution of Ultramagnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Using recently calculated analytic and numerical models for the thermal structure of ultramagnetized neutron stars, we estimate the effects that ultrastrong magnetic fields $B \\ge 10^{14}$ G have on the thermal evolution of a neutron star. Understanding this evolution is necessary to interpret models that invoke ``magnetars'' to account for soft $\\gamma$-ray emission from some repeating sources.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1997-10-21

57

Accretion Models for Young Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Interaction with possible fallback material, along with the magnetic fields and rotation rates at birth should determine the fates and categories of young neutron stars. This paper addresses some issues related to pure or hybrid accretion models for explaining the properties of young neutron stars.

M. Ali Alpar

2003-06-09

58

Nonstandard thermal evolution of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A neutron star may cool much faster than through the 'standard' scenario. Here we calculate thermal evolution of neutron stars through various 'nonstandard' fast cooling scenarios, and the results are compared with the currently up-dated observational data. We discuss the possibility of distinguishing between the standard and various, different nonstandard scenarios, through the current and future X-ray satellite observations.

Umeda, Hideyuki; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

1994-01-01

59

Make a Quake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When quakes strike urban areas, the toll in life and property can be great. Luckily, scientists have been working to uncover safer methods of construction and new structural techniques that "mitigate" the effects of earthquakes. In this simple simulation, you choose the ground on which to erect your building and which quake-proofing technological prevention to employ. You can then subject your building to three levels of intensity and see how it stands up.

2010-01-01

60

Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars  

E-print Network

Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to $1000$ km/s. We discuss possible mechanisms contributing to these kicks in a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Anomalies of the underlying microscopic theory result in chiral transport terms in the hydrodynamic description, and we identify these as explanation for the drastic acceleration. In the presence of vorticity or a magnetic field, the chiral transport effects cause neutrino emission along the respective axes. In typical scenarios, the transport effect due to the magnetic field turns out to be strong enough to explain the kicks. Mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies enter in a distinct way, and we also discuss their implications.

Kaminski, Matthias; Bleicher, Marcus; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

2014-01-01

61

Holographic indeterminacy and neutron stars  

E-print Network

The holographic indeterminacy resulting from the quantization of spacetime leads to an inherent uncertainty (lpL)1/2 in the relative positions of two events, separated by a distance L, in a direction transverse to a null ray connecting the events, where lP is the Planck length. The new indeterminacy principle leads to a critical condition in which the holographic uncertainty in the relative transverse positions of two diametrically opposed particles on the surface a body becomes greater than the average distance between particles in the body. The Chandrasekhar mass and the characteristic nuclear density emerge as the minimum mass and density of a baryonic body that could meet the critical criteria. Neutron stars are therefore identified as a class of bodies in which holographic indeterminacy may have physical consequences.

Scott Funkhouser

2008-09-20

62

Isolated neutron stars discovered by ROSAT  

E-print Network

ROSAT has discovered a new group of isolated neutron stars characterized by soft black-body like spectra (kT ~ 50-120 eV), apparent absence of radio emission and no association with supernovae remnants. So far only six such sources are known. A small fraction of these stars exhibit X-ray pulsations with relatively long periods of the order of 10 sec. Two very different mechanisms may be envisaged to explain their properties. The neutron stars may be old and re-heated by accretion from the ISM in which case their population properties could provide information on past stellar formation and secular magnetic field decay. Alternatively, this group may at least partly be made of relatively young cooling neutron stars possibly descendant from magnetars. We review the last observational results and show how they can shed light on the evolutionary path of these new objects within the whole class of isolated neutron stars.

C. Motch

2000-08-30

63

The breaking strain of neutron star crust  

SciTech Connect

Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.

Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horowitz, C J [INDIANA UNIV

2009-01-01

64

The many lives of magnetized neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field strength at birth is arguably one of the most important properties to determine the evolutionary path of a neutron star. Objects with very high fields, collectively known as magnetars, are characterized by high X-ray quiescent luminosities, occurrence of outbursts, and, for some of them, sporadic giant flares. While the magnetic field strength is believed to drive their collective behaviour, however, the diversity of their properties, and, especially, the observation of magnetar-like bursts from ``low-field'' pulsars, has been a theoretical puzzle. In this review, we discuss results of long-term simulations following the coupled evolution of the X-ray luminosity and the timing properties for a large, homogeneous sample of X-ray emitting isolated neutron stars, accounting for a range of initial magnetic field strengths, envelope compositions, and neutron star masses. In addition, by following the evolution of magnetic stresses within the neutron star crust, we can also relate the observed magnetar phenomenology to the physical properties of neutron stars, and in particular to their age and magnetic field strength and topology. The dichotomy of ``high-B'' field pulsars versus magnetars is naturally explained, and occasional outbursts from old, low B-field neutron stars are predicted. We conclude by speculating on the fate of old magnetars, and by presenting observational diagnostics of the neutron star crustal field topology.

Perna , R.; Pons, J. A.; Viganò, D.; Rea, N.

2014-09-01

65

Gravitational waves from low mass neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

Low mass neutron stars may be uniquely strong sources of gravitational waves. The neutron star crust can support large deformations for low mass stars. This is because of the star's weaker gravity. We find maximum ellipticities {epsilon} (fractional difference in moments of inertia) that are 1000 times larger, and maximum quadrupole moments Q{sub 22} over 100 times larger, for low mass stars than for 1.4M{sub {center_dot}}neutron stars. Indeed, we calculate that the crust can support an {epsilon} as large as 0.005 for a minimum mass neutron star. A 0.12M{sub {center_dot}}star, that is maximally strained and rotating at 100 Hz, will produce a characteristic gravitational wave strain of h{sub 0}=2.1x10{sup -24} at a distance of 1 kpc. The gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO should be sensitive to such objects through out the Milky Way Galaxy. A low mass neutron star could be uniquely identified from a large observed spin down rate and its discovery would have important implications for general relativity, supernova mechanisms, and possibly nucleosynthesis.

Horowitz, C. J. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

2010-05-15

66

Electron-neutron scattering and transport properties of neutron stars  

E-print Network

We show that electrons can couple to the neutron excitations in neutron stars and find that this can limit their contribution to the transport properties of dense matter, especially the shear viscosity. The coupling between electrons and neutrons is induced by protons in the core, and by ions in the crust. We calculate the effective electron-neutron interaction for the kinematics of relevance to the scattering of degenerate electrons at high density. We use this interaction to calculate the electron thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and shear viscosity in the neutron star inner crust, and in the core where we consider both normal and superfluid phases of neutron-rich matter. In some cases, particularly when protons are superconducting and neutrons are in their normal phase, we find that electron-neutron scattering can be more important than the other scattering mechanisms considered previously.

Bertoni, Bridget; Rrapaj, Ermal

2014-01-01

67

Electron-neutron scattering and transport properties of neutron stars  

E-print Network

We show that electrons can couple to the neutron excitations in neutron stars and find that this can limit their contribution to the transport properties of dense matter, especially the shear viscosity. The coupling between electrons and neutrons is induced by protons in the core, and by ions in the crust. We calculate the effective electron-neutron interaction for the kinematics of relevance to the scattering of degenerate electrons at high density. We use this interaction to calculate the electron thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and shear viscosity in the neutron star inner crust, and in the core where we consider both normal and superfluid phases of neutron-rich matter. In some cases, particularly when protons are superconducting and neutrons are in their normal phase, we find that electron-neutron scattering can be more important than the other scattering mechanisms considered previously.

Bridget Bertoni; Sanjay Reddy; Ermal Rrapaj

2014-09-27

68

Neutron Star Crustal Interface Waves  

E-print Network

The eigenfrequencies of nonradial oscillations are a powerful probe of a star's interior structure. This is especially true when there exist discontinuities such as at the neutron star (NS) ocean/crust boundary, as first noted by McDermott, Van Horn & Hansen. The interface mode associated with this boundary has subsequently been neglected in studies of stellar nonradial oscillations. We revisit this mode, investigating its properties both analytically and numerically for a simple NS envelope model. We find that it acts like a shallow surface ocean wave, but with a large radial displacement at the ocean/crust boundary due to flexing of the crust with shear modulus $\\mu\\ll P$, the pressure. This displacement lowers the mode's frequency by a factor of $\\sim(\\mu/P)^{1/2}\\sim0.1$ in comparison to a shallow surface wave frequency on a hard surface. The interface mode may be excited on accreting or bursting NSs and future work on nonradial oscillations should consider this mode. Our work also implies an additional mode on massive and/or cold white dwarfs with crystalline cores, which may have a frequency between the f-mode and g-modes, an otherwise empty part of the frequency domain.

Anthony L. Piro; Lars Bildsten

2004-10-07

69

Experimental approach to neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is of fundamental importance in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics In the laboratory, there are different means to study the nuclearmatter equation of state and its density dependence in particular: nuclear masses, neutron skins, pygmy resonance, and nuclear structure at the drip line give access to nuclear matter properties at densities lower than and at saturation density ?0. Heavy ion reactions at energies above 0.1 AGeV are the only means to study nuclear matter at densities larger than normal nuclear matter density ?0. In the beamenergy range of 0.1 to 2A GeV nuclear matter is compressed upto three times ?0. Access to nuclear matter properties is achieved by simulating nuclear collisions by means of microscopic transport codes, or statistical or hydrodynamicalmodels. Characteristics of heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and experimental observables which allow to constrain nuclear matter properties by comparing experimental results with those of transport codes are presented. Special emphasis will be given to the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is the most relevant connection between neutron stars and heavy ion collisions.

Leifels, Yvonne

2014-05-01

70

Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes neutron stars and thermonuclear x ray bursts. The contents include: 1) Neutron Stars: why do we care?; 2) Thermonuclear Bursts: why do we care?; 3) Neutron Stars: Mass, Radius and Spin: a. Continuum Spectroscopy of Bursts b. Spectral Lines from Bursts c. Timing Properties of Bursts; 4) Neutron Star Atmosphere: Thermonuclear Flame Spreading; and 5) Future Prospects and Conclusions.

Bhattacharyya, Supid

2007-01-01

71

Positron-annihilation radiation from neutron stars.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Matter accreted on the surfaces of neutron stars consists of energetic particles of a few tens to one or two hundred MeV per nucleon, depending on the neutron-star mass. In addition to heat, such particles produce nuclear reactions with the surface material. It is proposed that the recently observed 473 plus or minus 30 keV spectral feature from the galactic center is gravitationally redshifted positron-annihilation radiation produced at the surfaces of neutron stars. The principal observational tests of the model would be the detection of nuclear gamma-ray lines from the galactic center.

Ramaty, R.; Borner, G.; Cohen, J. M.

1973-01-01

72

Color Ferromagnetic Quark Matter in Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We show that color ferromagnetic phase of quark matter is energetically more favored than color superconducting phases in neutron stars. Namely, increasing baryon density in neutron stars transforms nuclear matter into the quark matter of the color ferromagnetic phase. Further increase of the density makes the quark matter take the color superconducting phases. We find that a critical mass of the neutron star with such an internal structure is about $1.6M_{\\odot}$. We stress that analysis of gluon dynamics is crucial for exploring dense quark matter.

Aiichi Iwazaki; Osamu Morimatsu; Tetsuo Nishikawa; Munehisa Ohtani

2005-07-13

73

Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

1991-01-01

74

Quadrupole moments of rotating neutron stars and strange stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results for models of neutron stars and strange stars constructed using the Hartle-Thorne slow-rotation method with a wide range of equations of state, focusing on the values obtained for the angular momentum J and the quadrupole moment Q, when the gravitational mass M and the rotational frequency ? are specified. Building on previous work, which showed surprising uniformity in the behaviour of the moment of inertia for neutron-star models constructed with widely different equations of state, we find similar uniformity for the quadrupole moment. These two quantities, together with the mass, are fundamental for determining the vacuum space-time outside neutron stars. We study particularly the dimensionless combination of parameters QM/J2 (using units for which c = G = 1). This quantity goes to 1 in the case of a Kerr-metric black hole and deviations away from 1 then characterize the difference between neutron-star and black hole space-time. It is found that QM/J2 for both neutron stars and strange stars decreases with increasing mass, for a given equation of state, reaching a value of around 2 (or even less) for maximum-mass models, meaning that their external space-time is then not very far from that of the Kerr metric. If QM/J2 is plotted against R/2M (where R is the radius), it is found that the relationship is nearly unique for neutron-star models, independent of the equation of state, while it is significantly different for strange stars. This gives a new way of possibly distinguishing between them.

Urbanec, M.; Miller, J. C.; Stuchlík, Z.

2013-08-01

75

The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

Gendreau, Keith C.

2008-01-01

76

Phases of Dense Matter in Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

After a brief history of neutron stars and supernovae recent developments are discussed. Based on modern nucleon-nucleon potentials more reliable equations of state for dense nuclear matter have been constructed. Furthermore, phase transitions such as pion, kaon and hyperon condensation, superfluidity and quark matter can occur in cores of neutron stars. Specifically, the nuclear to quark matter phase transition and its mixed phases with intriguing structures is treated. Rotating neutron stars with and without phase transitions are discussed and compared to observed masses, radii and glitches. The observations of possible heavy $\\sim 2M_\\odot$ neutron stars in X-ray binaries and QPO's require relatively stiff equation of states and restricts strong phase transitions to occur at very high nuclear densities only.

H. Heiselberg

1999-10-12

77

Neutron stars: A taste of pasta?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing quantitative calculations of the magnetic field decay of neutron stars and their corresponding spin evolution with observations suggests a high degree of disorder in the inner crust, which might provide evidence for nuclear 'pasta'.

Newton, William G.

2013-07-01

78

On the Collapse of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

This paper reviews the Oppenheimer, Volkoff and Snyder's arguments about the formation of black holes from the collapse of Neutron Stars. It is found that such a collapse is inconsistent with microscopic causality and Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

Jose N. Pecina-Cruz

2006-08-10

79

Neutron stars in Einstein-aether theory  

SciTech Connect

As current and future experiments probe strong gravitational regimes around neutron stars and black holes, it is desirable to have theoretically sound alternatives to general relativity against which to test observations. Here we study the consequences of one such generalization, Einstein-aether theory, for the properties of nonrotating neutron stars. This theory has a parameter range that satisfies all current weak-field tests. We find that within this range it leads to lower maximum neutron star masses, as well as larger surface redshifts at a particular mass, for a given nuclear equation of state. For nonrotating black holes and neutron stars, the innermost stable circular orbit is only slightly modified in this theory.

Eling, Christopher; Jacobson, Ted [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

2007-08-15

80

Which Stars Form Black Holes and Neutron Stars?  

E-print Network

I describe the current state of our knowledge of the mapping between the initial masses of stars and the compact objects -- particularly neutron stars and black holes -- that they produce. Most of that knowledge is theoretical in nature, and relies on uncertain assumptions about mass loss through winds, binary mass transfer, and the amount of mass ejected during a supernovae. Observational constraints on the initial masses of stars that produce neutron stars and black holes is scarce. They fall into three general categories: (1) models of the stars that produced the supernova remnants associated with known compact objects, (2) scenarios through with high mass X-ray binaries were produced, and (3) associations between compact objects and coeval clusters of stars for which the minimum masses of stars that have undergone supernovae are known. I focus on the last category as the most promising in the near term. I describe three highly-magnetized neutron stars that have been associated with progenitors that had initial masses of $>$30\\msun, and evaluate the prospects of finding further associations between star clusters and compact objects.

Michael P. Muno

2006-11-18

81

Chandra Observations of Isolated Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a review of the first six years of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of isolated neutron stars. The outstanding spatial and spectral resolution of this great observatory have allowed for observations of unprecedented clarity and accuracy. Many of these observations have provided new insights into neutron star physics. We present a (biased) overview of six years of these observations, highlighting new discoveries made possible by the Observatory's unique capabilities.

Weisskopf, Martin

2006-01-01

82

Superfluidity of $?$ hyperons in neutron stars  

E-print Network

We study the $^1S_0$ superfluidity of $\\Lambda$ hyperons in neutron star matter and neutron stars. We use the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to calculate the properties of neutron star matter. In the RMF approach, the meson-hyperon couplings are constrained by reasonable hyperon potentials that include the updated information from recent developments in hypernuclear physics. To examine the $^1S_0$ pairing gap of $\\Lambda$ hyperons, we employ several $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interactions based on the Nijmegen models and used in double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei studies. It is found that the maximal pairing gap obtained is a few tenths of a MeV. The magnitude and the density region of the pairing gap are dependent on the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction and the treatment of neutron star matter. We calculate neutron star properties and find that whether the $^1S_0 $ superfluidity of $\\Lambda$ hyperons exists in the core of neutron stars mainly depends on the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction used.

Y. N. Wang; H. Shen

2010-02-01

83

Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has been found on the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. "The compact star at the center of this famous supernova remnant has been an enigma since its discovery," said Wynn Ho of the University of Southampton and lead author of a paper that appears in the latest issue of Nature. "Now we finally understand that it can be produced by a hot neutron star with a carbon atmosphere." By analyzing Chandra's X-ray spectrum - akin to a fingerprint of energy - and applying it to theoretical models, Ho and his colleague Craig Heinke, from the University of Alberta, determined that the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, has an ultra-thin coating of carbon. This is the first time the composition of an atmosphere of an isolated neutron star has been confirmed. The Chandra "First Light" image of Cas A in 1999 revealed a previously undetected point-like source of X-rays at the center. This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. This would explain the lack of X-ray pulsations because -- like a lightbulb that shines consistently in all directions -- this neutron star would be unlikely to display any changes in its intensity as it rotates. Scientists previously have used a neutron star model with a hydrogen atmosphere giving a much smaller emission area, corresponding to a hot spot on a typical neutron star, which should produce X-ray pulsations as it rotates. Interpreting the hydrogen atmosphere model without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of stronger magnetic fields as

2009-11-01

84

Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

Greenstein, George

1985-01-01

85

From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.

T. K. Jha

2009-02-02

86

Nonlinear radial oscillations of neutron stars  

E-print Network

The effects of nonlinear oscillations in compact stars are attracting considerable current interest. In order to study such phenomena in the framework of fully nonlinear general relativity, highly accurate numerical studies are required. We present a numerical scheme specifically tailored for studies, based on formulating the time evolution in terms of deviations from a stationary equilibrium configuration. Using this technique, we investigate nonlinear effects associated with radial oscillations of neutron stars for a wide range of amplitudes. In particular, we discuss mode coupling due to nonlinear interactions, the occurrence of resonance phenomena, shock formation near the stellar surface as well as the capacity of nonlinearities to stabilize perturbatively unstable neutron star models.

Michael Gabler; Ulrich Sperhake; Nils Andersson

2009-06-17

87

Detecting supersymmetric Q-balls with neutron stars  

E-print Network

Supersymmetric Q-balls trapped in neutron stars or white dwarfs may cause the stars to explode. Trapping of Q-balls in neutron stars is shown to be less likely, but trapping in neutron star progenitors more likely than hitherto assumed, making neutron stars very sensitive Q-ball "detectors". White dwarfs only trap potentially dangerous Q-balls in a narrow parameter range.

Jes Madsen

1998-06-22

88

The Neutron Star Mass Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M ? and 1.55 M ?, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M ?) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ~2.1 M ? for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M ? limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

2013-11-01

89

Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.

Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

2011-05-01

90

The Mystery of the Lonely Neutron Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VLT Reveals Bowshock Nebula around RX J1856.5-3754 Deep inside the Milky Way, an old and lonely neutron star plows its way through interstellar space. Known as RX J1856.5-3754 , it measures only ~ 20 km across. Although it is unusually hot for its age, about 700,000 °C, earlier observations did not reveal any activity at all, contrary to all other neutron stars known so far. In order to better understand this extreme type of object, a detailed study of RX J1856.5-3754 was undertaken by Marten van Kerkwijk (Institute of Astronomy of the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands) and Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA). To the astronomers' delight and surprise, images and spectra obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) now show a small nearby cone-shaped ("bowshock") nebula. It shines in the light from hydrogen atoms and is obviously a product of some kind of interaction with this strange star. Neutron stars - remnants of supernova explosions Neutron stars are among the most extreme objects in the Universe. They are formed when a massive star dies in a "supernova explosion" . During this dramatic event, the core of the star suddenly collapses under its own weight and the outer parts are violently ejected into surrounding space. One of the best known examples is the Crab Nebula in the constellation Taurus (The Bull). It is the gaseous remnant of a star that exploded in the year 1054 and also left behind a pulsar , i.e., a rotating neutron star [1]. A supernova explosion is a very complex event that is still not well understood. Nor is the structure of a neutron star known in any detail. It depends on the extreme properties of matter that has been compressed to incredibly high densities, far beyond the reach of physics experiments on Earth [2]. The ultimate fate of a neutron star is also unclear. From the observed rates of supernova explosions in other galaxies, it appears that several hundred million neutron stars must have formed in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. However, most of these are now invisible, having since long cooled down and become completely inactive while fading out of sight. An unsual neutron star - RX J1856.5-3754 Some years ago, the X-ray source RX J1856.5-3754 was found by the German ROSAT X-ray satellite observatory. Later observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (cf. STScI-PR97-32 ) detected extremely faint optical emission from this source and conclusively proved that it is an isolated neutron star [3]. There is no sign of the associated supernova remnant and it must therefore be at least 100,000 years "old". Most interestingly, and unlike younger isolated neutron stars or neutron stars in binary stellar systems, RX J1856.5-3754 does not show any sign of activity whatsoever, such as variability or pulsations. As a unique member of its class, RX J1856.5-3754 quickly became the centre of great interest among astronomers. It apparently presented the first, very welcome opportunity to perform detailed studies of the structure of a neutron star, without the disturbing influence of ill-understood activity. One particular question arose immediately. The emission of X-rays indicates a very high temperature of RX J1856.5-3754 . However, from the moment of their violent birth, neutron stars are thought to lose energy and to cool down continuously. But then, how can an old neutron star like this one be so hot? One possible explanation is that some interstellar material, gas and/or dust grains, is being captured by its strong gravitational field. Such particles would fall freely towards the surface of the neutron star and arrive there with about half the speed of light. Since the kinetic energy of these particles is proportionate to the second power of the velocity, even small amounts of matter would deposit much energy upon impact, thereby heating the neutron star. The spectrum of RX J1856.5-3754 The new VLT study by van Kerkwijk and Kulkarni of RX J1856.5-3754 was first aimed at taking optical spectra, in order to study its s

2000-09-01

91

The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

2014-01-01

92

Probing the neutron star interior with glitches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of constraining the structural properties of neutron stars and the equation of state of dense matter, we study sudden spin-ups, glitches, occurring in the Vela pulsar and in six other pulsars. We present evidence that glitches represent a self-regulating instability for which the star prepares over a waiting time. The angular momentum requirements of glitches in Vela indicate that at least 1.4% of the star's moment of inertia drives these events. If glitches originate in the liquid of the inner crust, Vela's `radiation radius' $R_\\infty$ must exceed ~12 km for a mass of 1.4 solar masses. The isolated neutron star RX J18563-3754 is a promising candidate for a definitive radius measurement, and offers to further our understanding of dense matter and the origin of glitches.

Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.; Lattimer, James M.

93

Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

Harding, Alice K.

1991-01-01

94

Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts  

E-print Network

In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

D. Kobyakov; C. J. Pethick

2013-09-07

95

Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts  

E-print Network

In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

Kobyakov, D

2013-01-01

96

Towards a Metallurgy of Neutron Star Crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that, at densities above that for neutron drip (˜4×1011 g cm-3 or roughly one-thousandth of nuclear matter density), the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3. As a consequence, the properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated, and we mention possible consequences for observable neutron star properties.

Kobyakov, D.; Pethick, C. J.

2014-03-01

97

Chandra Observations of Neutron Stars: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a brief review of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of neutron stars. The outstanding spatial and spectral resolution of this great observatory have allowed for observations of unprecedented clarity and accuracy. Many of these observations have provided new insights into neutron star physics. We present an admittedly biased and overly brief overview of these observations, highlighting some new discoveries made possible by the Observatory's unique capabilities. We also include our analysis of recent multiwavelength observations of the putative pulsar and its pulsar-wind nebula in the IC 443 SNR.

Weisskopf, Martin C.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; Zavlin, V. E.; Clarke, Tracy

2006-01-01

98

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

99

Constraining Neutron Star Matter with Quantum Chromodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

2014-07-01

100

Neutron star long term cooling - Joule heating in magnetized neutron stars  

E-print Network

We present two-dimensional simulations for the cooling of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields (B > 1e13 Gauss). We study how the cooling curves are influenced by magnetic field decay. We show that the Joule heating effects are very large and in some cases control the thermal evolution. We characterize the temperature anisotropy induced by the magnetic field and predict the surface temperature distribution for the early and late stages of the evolution of isolated neutron stars, comparing our results with available observational data of isolated neutron stars.

Deborah N. Aguilera; José A. Pons; Juan A. Miralles

2008-03-04

101

Quasiparticle Interactions in Neutron Matter for Applications in Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microscopic model for the quasiparticle interaction in neutron matter is presented. Both-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) correlations are included. The pp correlations are treated in semi-empirical way, while ph correlations are incorporated by solving coupled two-body equations for particle-hole interaction and the scattering amplitude of the Fermi sphere. The resulting integral equations self-consistently sum the ph reducible diagrams. Antisymmetry is kept at all stages and hence the forward-scattering sum rules for the scattering amplitude are obeyed. Results for Landau parameters and transport coefficients in a density regime representing the crust of a neutron star are presented. We also estimate the (1)S(sub 0) gap parameter for neutron superfluidity and comment briefly on neutron-star implications.

Wambach, J; Ainsworth, T. L.; Pines, D.

1993-01-01

102

Quasiparticle Interactions in Neutron Matter for Applications in Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microscopic model for the quaisiparticle interaction in neutron matter is presented. Both particle-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) correlation are are included. The pp correlations are treated in semi-empirical way, while ph correlations are incorporated by solving coupled two-body equations for the particle hole interaction and the scattering amplitude on the Fermi sphere. The resulting integral equations self-consistently sum the ph reducible diagrams. Antisymmetry is kept at all stages and hence the forward-scattering sum rules are obeyed. Results for Landau parameters and transport coefficients in a density regime representing the crust of a neutron star are presented. We also estimate the S-1 gap parameter for neutron superfluidity and comment briefly on neutron-star implications.

Wambach, J.; Anisworth, T. L.; Pines, D.

1993-01-01

103

Neutron stars and quark stars: Two coexisting families of compact stars?  

E-print Network

The mass-radius relation of compact stars is discussed with relation to the presence of quark matter in the core. The existence of a new family of compact stars with quark matter besides white dwarfs and ordinary neutron stars is outlined.

J. Schaffner-Bielich

2006-12-29

104

Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics  

E-print Network

Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract The hot neutron star (NS) is investigated for the ...rst time in the generalized thermo-statistics. The study of neutron star (NS) is an important subject in nuclear physics and astro- physics. The equation

105

Proto-neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics  

E-print Network

Proto-neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract The proto-neutron star (PNS) is investigated for the ...rst time in the generalized thermo. A proto-neutron star (PNS) [1,2] is born during 0.1-1s after the core bounce of successful supernova

106

Compatibility of Exotic States with Neutron Star Observation  

E-print Network

We consider the effect of hard core repulsion in the baryon-baryon interaction at short distance to the properties of a neutron star. We obtain that, even with hyperons in the interior of a neutron star, the neutron star mass can be as large as $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$.

Chang Ho Hyun

2007-04-04

107

Neutron stars: A cosmic hadron physics laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.

Pines, David

1989-01-01

108

Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

Kantor, Elena M.; Gusakov, Mikhail E.

2011-05-01

109

High energy radiation from neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include young rapidly spinning pulsars; static gaps in outer magnetospheres; dynamic gaps in pulsar outer magnetospheres; pulse structure of energetic radiation sustained by outer gap pair production; outer gap radiation, Crab pulsar; outer gap radiation, the Vela pulsar; radioemission; and high energy radiation during the accretion spin-up of older neutron stars. 26 refs., 10 figs. (GHT)

Ruderman, M.

1985-04-01

110

Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars  

E-print Network

We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity, are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1--3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

E. M. Kantor; M. E. Gusakov

2011-05-20

111

Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

Kantor, Elena M. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); St.-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, 195251 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gusakov, Mikhail E. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

112

RCW 103 -- Revisiting a cooling neutron star  

E-print Network

Recent observations of the compact source embedded within the supernova remnant RCW 103 rekindle interest in the origin of this object's emission. We contrast several models in which neutron-star cooling powers RCW 103. Specifically, either the presence of an accreted envelope or a sufficiently intense magnetic field can account for the X-ray emission from this object.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1998-05-07

113

Emission processes in quiescent neutron star transients  

E-print Network

We review the observational properties of transient systems made by a neutron star primary and a late dwarf companion (known also as Soft X-ray Transients) during their quiescent state. We focus on the several emission mechanisms proposed and try to compare them with observations. Finally, we review new tools to improve our comprehension of the physics of the emission processes.

Sergio Campana

2003-11-10

114

Flux Expulsion - Field Evolution in Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Models for the evolution of magnetic fields of neutron stars are constructed, assuming the field is embedded in the proton superconducting core of the star. The rate of expulsion of the magnetic flux out of the core, or equivalently the velocity of outward motion of flux-carrying proton-vortices is determined from a solution of the Magnus equation of motion for these vortices. A force due to the pinning interaction between the proton-vortices and the neutron-superfluid vortices is also taken into account in addition to the other more conventional forces acting on the proton-vortices. Alternative models for the field evolution are considered based on the different possibilities discussed for the effective values of the various forces. The coupled spin and magnetic evolution of single pulsars as well as those processed in low-mass binary systems are computed, for each of the models. The predicted lifetimes of active pulsars, field strengths of the very old neutron stars, and distribution of the magnetic fields versus orbital periods in low-mass binary pulsars are used to test the adopted field decay models. Contrary to the earlier claims, the buoyancy is argued to be the dominant driving cause of the flux expulsion, for the single as well as the binary neutron stars. However, the pinning is also found to play a crucial role which is necessary to account for the observed low field binary and millisecond pulsars.

M. Jahan-Miri

1999-10-27

115

Quasiuniversal Properties of Neutron Star Mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary neutron star mergers are studied using nonlinear 3+1 numerical relativity simulations and the analytical effective-one-body model. The effective-one-body model predicts quasiuniversal relations between the mass-rescaled gravitational wave frequency and the binding energy at the moment of merger and certain dimensionless binary tidal coupling constants depending on the stars' Love numbers, compactnesses, and the binary mass ratio. These relations are quasiuniversal in the sense that, for a given value of the tidal coupling constant, they depend significantly neither on the equation of state nor on the mass ratio, though they do depend on stars spins. The spin dependence is approximately linear for small spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. The quasiuniversality is a property of the conservative dynamics; nontrivial relations emerge as the binary interaction becomes tidally dominated. This analytical prediction is qualitatively consistent with new, multiorbit numerical relativity results for the relevant case of equal-mass irrotational binaries. Universal relations are, thus, expected to characterize neutron star mergers dynamics. In the context of gravitational wave astronomy, these universal relations may be used to constrain the neutron star equation of state using waveforms that model the merger accurately.

Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Balmelli, Simone; Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano

2014-05-01

116

Thermonuclear Burning on Rapidly Accreting Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Neutron stars in mass-transferring binaries are accreting the hydrogen and helium rich matter from the surfaces of their companions. This article simply explains the physics associated with how that material eventually fuses to form heavier nuclei and the observations of the time dependent phenomena (such as Type I X-ray bursts) associated with the thermally unstable thermonuclear reactions. We explain how the outcome depends on the composition of the accreting matter, the accretion rate and the mass, radius and thermal state of the neutron star. We also introduce many new analytic relations that are convenient for comparisons to both observations and computational results. After explaining nuclear burning for spherically symmetric accretion onto neutron stars, we discuss the possibility of asymmetric burning. In particular, we discuss some of the mysteries from EXOSAT observations of Type I X-Ray bursts and how the solution to these puzzles may lie in considering the lateral propagation of nuclear burning fronts around the star. Fully understanding this problem requires knowledge of parameters previously neglected such as the distribution of fresh fuel on the star, the magnetic field strength, and the stellar rotation. Recent RXTE observations of bursters may finally tell us some of these parameters.

Lars Bildsten

1997-09-10

117

Neutron Star Superfluidity, Dynamics and Precession  

E-print Network

Basic rotational and magnetic properties of neutron superfluids and proton superconductors in neutron stars are reviewed. The modes of precession of the neutron superfluid are discussed in detail. We emphasize that at finite temperature, pinning of superfluid vortices does not offer any constraint on the precession. Any pinning energies can be surmounted by thermal activation and there exists a dynamical steady state in which the superfluid follows the precession of the crust at a small lag angle between the crust and superfluid rotation velocity vectors. At this small lag the system is far from the critical conditions for unpinning, even if the observed precession of the crust may entail a large angle between the figure axis and the crust's rotation velocity vector. We conclude that if long period modulations of pulse arrival times and pulse shapes observed in a pulsar like the PSR B1828-11 are due to the precession of the neutron star, this does not have any binding implications about the existence of pinning by flux lines or the existence of Type II superconductivity in the neutron star.

M. Ali Alpar

2005-05-04

118

A Statistical Study on Neutron Star Masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the measurement of neutron star masses in different population of binaries. Based on the collection of the orbital parameters of 40 systems (46 sources), we apply the boot-strap method together with the Monte Carlo method to reconstruct the likelihood curves for each source separately. The cumulative analysis of the simulation result shows that the neutron star masses in X-ray systems and radio systems obey different distributions, and no evidence for the bimodal distribution could be found. Employing the Bayesian statistical techniques, we find that the most likely distributions for the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), double neutron star (DNS) systems, and neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binary systems are (1.340±0.230) M_{?}, (1.505±0.125) M_{?}, (1.335±0.055) M_{?}, and (1.495±0.225) M_{?}, respectively. The statistical distribution has no significant deviation from the standard neutron star formation mechanism. It is noticed that the statistical results of the center masses of LMXBs and NS-WD systems are significantly higher than the other groups by about 0.16 M_{?}, which could be regarded as the evidence of accretion episodes. And if we regard the HMXBs and LMXBs as the progenitors of DNS and NS-WD systems, then we can draw the conclusion that the accretion effect must be very week during the evolution trajectory from HMXBs to DNS systems, and this could be the reason why the masses of DNS systems have such a narrow distribution.

Cheng, Z.; Zhang, C. M.; Zhao, Y. H.; Wang, D. H.; Pan, Y. Y.; Lei, Y. J.

2013-11-01

119

General Relativistic Decompression of Binary Neutron Stars During Dynamic Inspiral  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamic stability of inspiraling neutron stars by performing multiple-orbit numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star inspiral process. By introducing eccentricities in the orbits of the neutron stars, significant changes in orbital separation are obtained within orbital timescales. We find that as the binary system evolves from apastron to periastron (as the binary separation decreases), the central rest mass density of each star decreases, thus stabilizing the stars against individual prompt collapse. As the binary system evolves from periastron to apastron, the central rest mass density increases; the neutron stars re-compress as the binary separation increases.

Mark Miller

2005-10-05

120

The late stages of evolution of helium star-neutron star binaries and the formation of double neutron star systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to understanding the formation of double neutron-stars (DNS), we\\u000ainvestigate the late stages of evolution of helium stars with masses of 2.8 -\\u000a6.4 Msun in binary systems with a 1.4 Msun neutron-star companion. We found\\u000athat mass transfer from 2.8 - 3.3 Msun helium stars and from 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in\\u000avery close orbits (P_orb

J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols

2003-01-01

121

Confirming a substellar companion candidate around a neutron star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a search for substellar companions around young neutron stars, we found an indication for a very faint near-infrared source at the position of the isolated neutron star RXJ0806.4-4123. The suspected near-IR source cannot be the neutron star itself because the latter is much too faint to be detected. Recent Herschel 160 microm observations of the field point to an additional dusty belt around the neutron star. The outer location of the dusty belt could be explained by the presence of a substellar companion around the neutron star. We propose deeper near-infrared observations with FLAMINGOS-2 to confirm that the near-infrared source is real. The observation could provide the first direct detection of a substellar companion around a neutron star. However, even a non-detection would be interesting to constrain evolution models of the dusty belt around the neutron star.

Posselt, Bettina; Luhman, Kevin

2014-08-01

122

Neutron degeneracy and plasma physics effects on radiative neutron captures in neutron star crust  

E-print Network

We consider the astrophysical reaction rates for radiative neutron capture reactions ($n,\\gamma$) in the crust of a neutron star. The presence of degenerate neutrons at high densities (mainly in the inner crust) can drastically affect the reaction rates. Standard rates assuming a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for neutrons can underestimate the rates by several orders of magnitude. We derive simple analytical expressions for reaction rates at a variety of conditions with account for neutron degeneracy. We also discuss the plasma effects on the outgoing radiative transition channel in neutron radiative capture reactions and show that these effects can also increase the reaction rates by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, using detailed balance, we analyze the effects of neutron degeneracy and plasma physics on reverse ($\\gamma,n$) photodisintegration. We discuss the dependence of the reaction rates on temperature and neutron chemical potential and outline the efficiency of these reactions in the neutron star crust.

P. S. Shternin; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

2012-07-25

123

Population synthesis of young neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the fortune of young neutron stars (NS) in the whole volume of the Milky Way with new code for population synthesis. We start our modeling from the birth of massive OB stars and follow their motion in the Galaxy up to the Supernova explosion. Next we integrate the equations of motion of NS in the averaged gravitational potential of the Galaxy. We estimate the mean kick velocities from a comparison the model Z and R-distributions of radio emitting NS with that for galactic NS accordingly ATNF pulsar catalog. We follow the history of the rotational velocity and the surface magnetic field of NS taking into account the significant magnetic field decay during the first million year of a neutron star's life. The derived value for the mean time of ohmic decay is 2.3?105 years. We model the subsample of galactic radio pulsars which can be detected with available radio telescopes, using a radio beaming model with inhomogeneous distribution of the radio emission in the cone. The distributions functions of the pulsar periods P, period derivatives ? and surface magnetic fields B appear to be in a close agreement with those obtained from an ensemble of neutron stars in the ATNF catalogue.

Igoshev, Andrei P.; Kholtygin, Alexander F.

2013-03-01

124

Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the density evolution for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The density is plotted on a log scale. Values range from 10^9 gm-cm^3 at the outer boundary to 1.4 x 10^12 gm-cm^3 at the inner boundary.

Oneil, Pamela; Fryxell, Bruce; Burrows, Adam

1994-02-12

125

Neutron star recoils from anisotropic supernovae.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refering to recent hydrodynamical computations (Herant et al. 1992; Janka & Mueller 1993a) it is argued that neutron star kicks up to a few hundred km/s might be caused by a turbulent overturn of the matter between proto-neutron star and supernova shock during the early phase of the supernova explosion. These recoil speeds ("kick velocities") may be of the right size to explain the measured proper motions of most pulsars and do not require the presence of magnetic fields in the star. It is also possible that anisotropic neutrino emission associated with convective processes in the surface layers of the nascent neutron star (Burrows & Fryxell 1992; Janka & Mueller 1993b; Mueller 1993) provides an acceleration mechanism (Woosley 1987), although our estimates indicate that the maximum attainable velocities are around 200km/s. Yet, it turns out to be very unlikely that the considered stochastic asymmetries of supernova explosions are able to produce large enough recoils to account for pulsar velocities in excess of about 500km/s, which can be found in the samples of Harrison et al. (1993) and Taylor et al. (1993). It is concluded that other acceleration mechanisms have to be devised to explain the fast motion of PSR 2224+65 (transverse speed >=800km/s Cordes et al. 1993) and the high-velocities deduced from associations between supernova remnants and nearby young pulsars (e.g., Frail & Kulkarni 1991; Stewart et al. 1993; Caraveo 1993).

Janka, H.-T.; Mueller, E.

1994-10-01

126

Envelope calculations for a low temperature neutron star  

E-print Network

includes electron degeneracy. The calculations are performed for three model neutron stars and a range of surface temperatures from gx10 OK to Sx10 CK. Estimates of the total stored thermal energy and characteristic cooling times due to photon... for the Model I star at three effective temperatures 37 Vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page Envelope characteristics of three model neutron stars 29 Total thermal energy and characteristic photon cooling times for three model neutron stars 40 CHAPTER I...

McCoy, Robert Paul

2012-06-07

127

Hiding a neutron star inside a wormhole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider neutron-star-plus-wormhole configurations supported by a massless ghost scalar field. The neutron fluid is modeled by an anisotropic equation of state. When the central energy density of the fluid is of comparable magnitude to the one of the scalar field, configurations with an equator at the center and a double throat arise. These double-throat wormholes can be either partially or completely filled by the neutron fluid. In the latter case, the passage of light—radiated by the neutron matter—through these wormholes is studied. A stability analysis indicates that all considered configurations are unstable with respect to linear perturbations, independent of whether the fluid is isotropic or anisotropic.

Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

2014-04-01

128

'Tertiary' nuclear burning - Neutron star deflagration?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an 'octet' particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such 'tertiary' nuclear burning (here 'primary' is H-He and 'secondary' is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or 'dark' matter.

Michel, F. Curtis

1988-01-01

129

AFTERGLOW OF A BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGER  

SciTech Connect

The merger of two neutron stars often results in a rapidly and differentially rotating hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). We show by numerical-relativity simulation that the magnetic-field profile around such HMNS is dynamically varied during its subsequent evolution, and as a result, electromagnetic radiation with a large luminosity {approx}0.1B {sup 2} R {sup 3}{Omega} is emitted with baryons (B, R, and {Omega} are poloidal magnetic-field strength at stellar surface, stellar radius, and angular velocity of an HMNS). The predicted luminosity of electromagnetic radiation, which is primarily emitted along the magnetic-dipole direction, is {approx}10{sup 47}(B/10{sup 13} G){sup 2}(R/10 km){sup 3}({Omega}/10{sup 4} rad s{sup -1}) erg s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the luminosity of quasars.

Shibata, Masaru; Suwa, Yudai; Kiuchi, Kenta [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito [KEK Theory Center and the Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2011-06-20

130

The Fascinating World of Neutron Stars  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure and dynamics of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss the many fascinating phases that one encounters in the journey from the low-density crust to the high-density core.

Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

2009-07-06

131

Quark Matter in Neutron Star Mergers  

E-print Network

Binary neutron star mergers are expected to be one of the most promising source of gravitational waves (GW) for the network of laser interferometric and bar detectors becoming operational in the next few years. The merger wave signal is expected to be sensitive to the interior structure of the neutron star (NS). The structure of high density phases of matter is under current experimental investigation in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate the dependence of the merger process and its GW signal on the presence of quarks in these phases by performing numerical simulations, where the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the conformally flat approximation for the 3-geometry in general relativistic gravity are implemented.

R. Oechslin; G. Poghosyan; K. Uryu

2002-10-30

132

The Angular Momentum of Accreting Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

I review the rotation measurements of accreting neutron stars. Many of the highly magnetic accreting X-ray pulsars have been continuously observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) since April 1991. These observations show that the accretion torque exerted on many disk-fed accreting X-ray pulsars changes sign on a monthly to yearly timescale. This results in alternating periods of spin-up and spin-down with nearly the same torques, leading to little net angular momentum gained by accretion. I also summarize recent discoveries with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) of periodicities during Type I X-ray bursts. These seem to indicate that many of the rapidly accreting and weakly magnetic neutron stars in our galaxy are rotating at frequencies greater than 250 Hertz. Most remarkable is that they all rotate within a rather narrow range of frequencies.

Lars Bildsten

1998-01-07

133

FAST FOSSIL ROTATION OF NEUTRON STAR CORES  

SciTech Connect

It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

Melatos, A., E-mail: amelatos@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

2012-12-10

134

Electromagnetic multipole fields of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formalism is developed for treating general multipole electromagnetic fields of neutron stars. The electric multipoles induced in a neutron star by its rotation with an arbitrary magnetic multipole at its center are presented. It is shown how to express a family of off-centered multipoles having the same l weight as an infinite array of centered multipoles of increasing l weight referred to the rotational axis. General expressions are given for the linear momentum present in the superposition of arbitrary multipole fields, and the results are combined to compute the radiation rate of linear momentum by an off-centered dipole to zeroth order in the parameter Omega x R/c. The general Deutsch (1955) solution is then rederived in a clear consistent manner, and some minor additions and corrections are provided.

Roberts, W. J.

1979-01-01

135

Neutron stars and strange stars in the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model  

E-print Network

We investigate the equations of state for pure neutron matter and strange hadronic matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium, including $\\Lambda$, $\\Sigma$ and $\\Xi$ hyperons. The masses and radii of pure neutron stars and strange hadronic stars are obtained. For a pure neutron star, the maximum mass is about $1.8 M_{\\mathrm{sun}}$, while for a strange hadronic star, the maximum mass is around $1.45 M_{\\mathrm{sun}}$. The typical radii of pure neutron stars and strange hadronic stars are about 11.0-12.3 km and 10.7-11.7 km, respectively.

P. Wang; S. Lawley; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams

2005-06-06

136

Unifying neutron stars getting to GUNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variety of the observational appearance of young isolated neutron stars must find an explanation in the framework of some unifying approach. Nowadays it is believed that such scenario must include magnetic field decay, the possibility of magnetic field emergence on a time scale of ? 104-105 yr, significant contribution of non-dipolar fields, and appropriate initial parameter distributions. We present our results on the initial spin period distribution, and suggest that inconsistencies between distributions derived by different methods for samples with different average ages can uncover field decay or/and emerging field. We describe a new method to probe the magnetic field decay in normal pulsars. The method is a modified pulsar current approach, where we study pulsar flow along the line of increasing characteristic age for constant field. Our calculations, performed with this method, can be fitted with an exponential decay for ages in the range of 8× 104-3.5 × 105 yr with a time scale of ˜ 5 × 105 yr. We discuss several issues related to the unifying scenario. At first, we note that the dichotomy, among local thermally emitting neutron stars, between normal pulsars and the Magnificent Seven remains unexplained. Then we discuss the role of high-mass X-ray binaries in the unification of neutron star evolution. We note, that such systems allow to check evolutionary effects on a time scale longer than what can be probed with normal pulsars alone. We conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of discovering old neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium.

Igoshev, A. P.; Popov, S. B.; Turolla, R.

2014-03-01

137

Particle acceleration in axisymmetric, magnetized neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential drop in the polar cap region of a rotating, magnetized neutron star is found assuming that the magnetic field is dipolar, with the field aligned (or anti-aligned) with the rotation axis. The curvature of the field lines is of critical importance. Charge flow is assumed to be along magnetic field lines. The electric field has a maximum at radius 1.5 R and the magnitude and functional form of the current is determined.

Baker, K. B.; Sturrock, P. A.

1977-01-01

138

Physics of systems containing neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following is a summary of work done during the period of Mar. to Oct. 1989. Three major topics were extensively looked into during this time: the reported 2,000 Hz optical signal from the direction of SNR1987A, the possibility that neutron stellar surface magnetic fields do not decay except when the star is accreting, and the 6 Hz QPOs of LMXBs.

Shaham, Jacob

1989-01-01

139

Surface Temperature of Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We show that the expected inhomogeneous temperature distribution induced at the surface of a neutron star by the anisotropy of heat transport in the magnetized envelope allows us to understand quite well the observed pulse profiles of the four nearby pulsars for which surface thermal emission has been detected. However, due to gravitational lensing, dipolar magnetic fields are not adequate and the observed high pulsed fractions force us to include a quadrupolar component.

Dany Page; A. Sarmiento

1996-01-31

140

Physics of Strongly Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

There has recently been growing evidence for the existence of neutron stars possessing magnetic fields with strengths that exceed the quantum critical field strength of $4.4 \\times 10^{13}$ G, at which the cyclotron energy equals the electron rest mass. Such evidence has been provided by new discoveries of radio pulsars having very high spin-down rates and by observations of bursting gamma-ray sources termed magnetars. This article will discuss the exotic physics of this high-field regime, where a new array of processes becomes possible and even dominant, and where familiar processes acquire unusual properties. We review the physical processes that are important in neutron star interiors and magnetospheres, including the behavior of free particles, atoms, molecules, plasma and condensed matter in strong magnetic fields, photon propagation in magnetized plasmas, free-particle radiative processes, the physics of neutron star interiors, and field evolution and decay mechanisms. Application of such processes in astrophysical source models, including rotation-powered pulsars, soft gamma-ray repeaters, anomalous X-ray pulsars and accreting X-ray pulsars will also be discussed. Throughout this review, we will highlight the observational signatures of high magnetic field processes, as well as the theoretical issues that remain to be understood.

Alice K. Harding; Dong Lai

2006-06-28

141

Magnetars: neutron stars with huge magnetic storms  

E-print Network

Among the many different classes of stellar objects, neutron stars provide a unique environment where we can test (at the same time) our understanding of matter with extreme density, temperature, and magnetic field. In particular, the properties of matter under the influence of magnetic fields and the role of electromagnetism in physical processes are key areas of research in physics. However, despite decades of research, our limited knowledge on the physics of strong magnetic fields is clear: we only need to note that the strongest steady magnetic field achieved in terrestrial labs is some millions of Gauss, only thousands of times stronger than a common refrigerator magnet. In this general context, I will review here the state of the art of our research on the most magnetic objects in the Universe, a small sample of neutron stars called magnetars. The study of the large high-energy emission, and the flares from these strongly magnetized (~10^{15} Gauss) neutron stars is providing crucial information about t...

Rea, Nanda

2012-01-01

142

Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars  

E-print Network

We analyze damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal oscillation modes first suggested in [Gusakov & Kantor PRD 83, 081304(R) (2011)]. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that: (i) use of the ordinary one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of normal f-modes; (ii) for radial and p-modes such an approximation is poor; (iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid changes associated with resonance coupling of neighboring oscillation modes. The latter effect can substantially accelerate viscous damping of normal modes in certain stages of neutron-star thermal evolution.

M. E. Gusakov; E. M. Kantor; A. I. Chugunov; L. Gualtieri

2012-11-11

143

Symmetry energy, neutron skin, and neutron star radius from chiral effective field theory interactions  

E-print Network

We discuss neutron matter calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions and their predictions for the symmetry energy, the neutron skin of 208 Pb, and for the radius of neutron stars.

K. Hebeler; A. Schwenk

2014-01-22

144

Isolated neutron stars in the galaxy: from magnetars to antimagnetars  

SciTech Connect

Using the model with decaying magnetic fields it is possible to describe with one smooth (log-Gaussian) initial magnetic field distribution three types of isolated neutron stars: radiopulsar, magnetars, and cooling close-by compact objects. The same model is used here to make predictions for old accreting isolated neutron stars. It is shown that using the updated field distribution we predict a significant fraction of isolated neutron stars at the stage of accretion despite long subsonic propeller stage.

Boldin, P. A., E-mail: boldin.pavel@gmail.com [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Popov, S. B., E-mail: polar@sai.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-07-15

145

Neutron star matter equation of state and gravitational wave emission  

E-print Network

The EOS of strongly interacting matter at densities ten to fifteen orders of magnitude larger than the typical density of terrestrial macroscopic objects determines a number of neutron star properties, including the pattern of gravitational waves emitted following the excitation of nonradial oscillation modes. This paper reviews some of the approaches employed to model neutron star matter, as well as the prospects for obtaining new insights from the experimental study of gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars.

Omar Benhar

2005-07-21

146

Relativistic tidal properties of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the various linear responses of neutron stars to external relativistic tidal fields. We focus on three different tidal responses, associated to three different tidal coefficients: (i) a gravito-electric-type coefficient G??=[length]2?+1 measuring the ?th-order mass multipolar moment GMa1…a? induced in a star by an external ?th-order gravito-electric tidal field Ga1…a?; (ii) a gravito-magnetic-type coefficient G??=[length]2?+1 measuring the ?th spin multipole moment GSa1…a? induced in a star by an external ?th-order gravito-magnetic tidal field Ha1…a?; and (iii) a dimensionless “shape” Love number h? measuring the distortion of the shape of the surface of a star by an external ?th-order gravito-electric tidal field. All the dimensionless tidal coefficients G??/R2?+1, G??/R2?+1, and h? (where R is the radius of the star) are found to have a strong sensitivity to the value of the star’s “compactness” c?GM/(c02R) (where we indicate by c0 the speed of light). In particular, G??/R2?+1˜k? is found to strongly decrease, as c increases, down to a zero value as c is formally extended to the “black hole (BH) limit” cBH=1/2. The shape Love number h? is also found to significantly decrease as c increases, though it does not vanish in the formal limit c?cBH, but is rather found to agree with the recently determined shape Love numbers of black holes. The formal vanishing of ?? and ?? as c?cBH is a consequence of the no-hair properties of black holes. This vanishing suggests, but in no way proves, that the effective action describing the gravitational interactions of black holes may not need to be augmented by nonminimal worldline couplings.

Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

2009-10-01

147

On the properties of matter in neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A qualitative description of the interior of a neutron star is presented, giving attention also to the validity of the 'isotropic fluid' approximation. The atmosphere and surface of a neutron star are considered together with aspects concerning nuclear and solid state physics in the crust, the liquid interior, the hyperon core, neutron star models, and pulsar observations. Accretion processes are also investigated, taking into account such topics as the Eddington limit, accretion rates, the death of pulsars, changes of the surface composition of neutron stars by accretion, questions of X-ray emission, and aspects of gamma radiation emission.

Boerner, G.

1973-01-01

148

Burst Oscillations: A New Spin on Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have shown that the X-ray flux during thermonuclear X-ray bursts fr-om accreting neutron stars is often strongly pulsed at frequencies as high as 620 Hz. We now know that these oscillations are produced by spin modulation of the thermonuclear flux from the neutron star surface. In addition to revealing the spin frequency, they provide new ways to probe the properties and physics of accreting neutron stars. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these oscillations and discuss what they are telling us about neutron stars.

Strohmayer, Tod

2007-01-01

149

Dim Isolated Neutron Stars, Cooling and Energy Dissipation  

E-print Network

The cooling and reheating histories of dim isolated neutron stars(DINs) are discussed. Energy dissipation due to dipole spindown with ordinary and magnetar fields, and due to torques from a fallback disk are considered as alternative sources of reheating which would set the temperature of the neutron star after the initial cooling era. Cooling or thermal ages are related to the numbers and formation rates of the DINs and therefore to their relations with other isolated neutron star populations. Interaction with a fallback disk, higher multipole fields and activity of the neutron star are briefly discussed.

M. Ali Alpar

2006-09-07

150

Gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars  

E-print Network

Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a 'minimal' neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of $B\\approx 10^{12}$ G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the ac...

Haskell, Brynmor; D`Angelo, Caroline; Degenaar, Nathalie; Glampedakis, Kostas; Ho, Wynn C G; Lasky, Paul D; Melatos, Andrew; Oppenoorth, Manuel; Patruno, Alessandro; Priymak, Maxim

2014-01-01

151

Truncated post-Newtonian neutron star model  

E-print Network

As a preliminary step towards simulating binary neutron star coalescing problem, we test a post-Newtonian approach by constructing a single neutron star model. We expand the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation of hydrostatic equilibrium by the power of $c^{-2}$, where $c$ is the speed of light, and truncate at the various order. We solve the system using the polytropic equation of state with index $\\Gamma=5/3, 2$ and 3, and show how this approximation converges together with mass-radius relations. Next, we solve the Hamiltonian constraint equation with these density profiles as trial functions, and examine the differences in the final metric. We conclude the second `post-Newtonian' approximation is close enough to describe general relativistic single star. The result of this report will be useful for further binary studies. (Note to readers) This paper was accepted for publication in Physical Review D. [access code dsj637]. However, since I was strongly suggested that the contents of this paper should be included as a section in our group's future paper, I gave up the publication.

Hisa-aki Shinkai

1998-07-03

152

Mutual Friction in Superfluid Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We discuss vortex-mediated mutual friction in the two-fluid model for superfluid neutron star cores. Our discussion is based on the general formalism developed by Carter and collaborators, which makes due distinction between transport velocity and momentum for each fluid. This is essential for an implementation of the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the flow of one fluid imparts momentum in the other and vice versa. The mutual friction follows by balancing the Magnus force that acts on the quantised neutron vortices with a resistive force due to the scattering of electrons off of the magnetic field with which each vortex core is endowed. We derive the form of the macroscopic mutual friction force which is relevant for a model based on smooth-averaging over a collection of vortices. We discuss the coefficients that enter the expression for this force, and the timescale on which the two interpenetrating fluids in a neutron star core are coupled. This discussion confirms that our new formulation accords well with previous work in this area.

N. Andersson; T. Sidery; G. L. Comer

2005-10-03

153

Dark matter transport properties and rapidly rotating neutron stars  

E-print Network

Neutron stars are attractive places to look for dark matter because their high densities allow repeated interactions. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may scatter efficiently in the core or in the crust of a neutron star. In this paper we focus on WIMP contributions to transport properties, such as shear viscosity or thermal conductivity, because these can be greatly enhanced by long mean free paths. We speculate that WIMPs increase the shear viscosity of neutron star matter and help stabilize r-mode oscillations. These are collective oscillations where the restoring force is the Coriolis force. At present r-modes are thought to be unstable in many observed rapidly rotating stars. If WIMPs stabilize the r-modes, this would allow neutron stars to spin rapidly. This likely requires WIMP-nucleon cross sections near present experimental limits and an appropriate density of WIMPs in neutron stars.

C. J. Horowitz

2012-05-16

154

Spectral Models of Neutron Star Magnetospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We revisit the association of unidentified Galactic plane EGRET sources with tracers of recent massive star formation and death. Up-to-date catalogs of OB associations, SNR's, young pulsars, H2 regions and young open clusters were used in finding counterparts for a recent list of EGRET sources. It has been argued for some time that EGRET source positions are correlated with SNR's and OB associations as a class; we extend such analyses by finding additional counterparts and assessing the probability of individual source identifications. Among the several scenarios relating EGRET sources to massive stars, we focus on young neutron stars as the origin of the gamma-ray emission. The characteristics of the candidate identifications are compared to the known gamma-ray pulsar sample and to detailed Galactic population syntheses using our outer gap pulsar model of gamma-ray emission. Both the spatial distribution and luminosity function of the candidates are in good agreement with the model predictions; we infer that young pulsars can account for the bulk of the excess low latitude EGRET sources. We show that with this identification, the gamma-ray point sources provide an important new window into the history of recent massive star death in the solar neighborhood.

Romani, Roger W.

1997-01-01

155

TeV mu Neutrinos from Young Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Neutron stars are efficient accelerators for bringing charges up to relativistic energies. We show that if positive ions are accelerated to ~1 PeV near the surface of a young neutron star (t_age star's radiation field will produce beamed mu neutrinos with energies of ~50 TeV that could produce the brightest neutrino sources at these energies yet proposed. These neutrinos would be coincident with the radio beam, so that if the star is detected as a radio pulsar, the neutrino beam will sweep the Earth; the star would be a ``neutrino pulsar''. Looking for muon neutrino emission from young neutron stars will provide a valuable probe of the energetics of the neutron star magnetosphere.

B. Link; Fiorella Burgio

2004-12-20

156

Theory of Radiation Transfer in Neutron Star Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility for direct investigation of thermal emission from isolated neutron stars opened about a quarter of century ago with the launch of the first X-ray observatories Einstein and EXOSAT stimulated developing models of the neutron star surface radiation which began at the end of 80's. Confronting observational data with theoretical models of thermal emission allows one to infer the surface temperatures, magnetic fields, chemical composition, and neutron star masses and radii. This information, supplemented with the model equations of state and neutron star cooling models, provides an opportunity to understand the fundamental properties of the superdense matter in the stars' interiors. Almost all available models are based on the assumption that thermal radiation emitted by a neutron star is formed in the superficial star's layers--atmosphere. The neutron star atmospheres are very different from those of usual stars due to the immense gravity and huge magnetic fields. In this presentation we review the current status of the neutron star atmosphere modeling, present most important results, discuss problems and possible future developments.

Zavlin, Vyacheslav

2006-01-01

157

Holographic cold nuclear matter and neutron star  

E-print Network

We have previously found a new phase of cold nuclear matter based on a holographic gauge theory, where baryons are introduced as instanton gas in the probe D8/$\\overline{\\rm D8}$ branes. In our model, we could obtain the equation of state (EOS) of our nuclear matter by introducing fermi momentum. Then, here we apply this model to the neutron star and study its mass and radius by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations in terms of the EOS given here. We give some comments for our holographic model from a viewpoint of the other field theoretical approaches.

Kazuo Ghoroku; Kouki Kubo; Motoi Tachibana; Fumihiko Toyoda

2013-11-07

158

Supernovae, neutron stars and biomolecular chirality.  

PubMed

Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of the origin of biomolecular chirality are reviewed briefly. Biotic and abiotic theories are evaluated critically with the conclusion that asymmetric photochemical processes with circulary polarized light (CPL), particularly asymmetric photolyses, constitute the most viable mechanisms. Solar CPL sources appear too weak and random to be effective. We suggest an alternative CPL source, namely, the synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernova explosions. This could asymmetrically process racemic compounds in the organic mantles of the dust grains in interstellar clouds, and the resulting chiral molecules could be transferred to Earth by cold accretion as the solar system periodically traverses these interstellar clouds. PMID:3580540

Bonner, W A; Rubenstein, E

1987-01-01

159

Quark matter droplets in neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

1993-01-01

160

Neutron star cooling and pion condensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonstandard cooling of a neutron star with the central pion core is explored. By adopting the latest results from the pion condensation theory, neutrino emissivity is calulated for both pure charged pions and a mixture of charged and neutral pions, and the equations of state are constructed for the pion condensate. The effect of superfluidity on cooling is investigated, adopting methods more realistic than in previous studies. Our theoretical models are compared with the currently updated observational data, and possible implications are explored.

Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

1994-01-01

161

Hydromagnetic Instabilities in Relativistic Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model the nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamics of poloidal magnetic fields in neutron stars in general relativity assuming a polytropic equation of state. We identify familiar hydromagnetic modes, in particular the "sausage/varicose" mode and "kink" instability inherent to poloidal magnetic fields. The evolution is dominated by the kink instability, which causes a cataclysmic reconfiguration of the magnetic field. The system subsequently evolves to new, non-axisymmetric, quasi-equilibrium end states. The existence of this branch of stable quasi-equilibria may have consequences for magnetar physics, including flare generation mechanisms and interpretations of quasi-periodic oscillations.

Lasky, Paul D.; Zink, Burkhard; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Glampedakis, Kostas

2011-07-01

162

Sound velocity bound and neutron stars  

E-print Network

It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by $\\sqrt{3}$. Simple arguments support this bound in non-relativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

Paulo F. Bedaque; Andrew W. Steiner

2014-08-21

163

On the properties of matter in neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of recent developments in the description of neutron star matter is presented, and its relevance to pulsar observations is discussed. Some aspects of the accretion of matter on neutron stars are reviewed, and some of the relevant properties of binary X-ray sources are presented. This review is aimed at the astrophysicist. For a detailed review of the nuclear

Gerhard Börner

1973-01-01

164

Mass estimation of blackhole companied with a neutron star.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational effect of a binary system composed of a close neutron star and a blackhole are discussed. The orbit circularization caused by gravitation radiation has been explained and a time scale of the orbit circularization is also estimated. The authors have discussed a way of discovering blackholes by means of pulse variations of their neutron stars versus spin precession.

Wang, Xueming; Xie, Guangzhong; Zhang, Youhong

165

Magnetic fields in neutron stars: A theoretical perspective  

E-print Network

We present our view of the main physical ingredients determining the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. This includes the basic properties of neutron star matter, possible scenarios for the origin of the magnetic field, constraints and mechanisms for its evolution, and a discussion of our recent work on the Hall drift.

Andreas Reisenegger; Joaquin Prieto; Rafael Benguria; Dong Lai; Pablo Araya

2005-03-02

166

Post-Newtonian SPH Simulations of Binary Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Post-Newtonian SPH Simulations of Binary Neutron Stars Joshua A. Faber and Frederic A. Rasio-Newtonian SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code, we study the final coalescence and merging of neutron star based codes [3-9], and particle-based SPH methods [10-14], have studied many aspects of coalescing

Rasio, Frederic A.

167

Physics of systems containing neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant dealt with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of the research dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems were also addressed. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's), Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). Also dealt with was one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of the research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions which turned out to be of importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's. Work was concentrated on the following four problems: The Windy Pulsar B197+20 and its Evolution; Wind 'Echoes' in Tight Binaries; Post Nova X-ray Emission in CV's; and Dynamics of Pinned Superfluids in Neutron Stars.

Ruderman, Malvin

1996-01-01

168

Binary Neutron Stars in Quasi-equilibrium  

E-print Network

Quasi-equilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars are constructed for a variety of equations of state in general relativity. Einstein's constraint equations in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation are solved together with the relativistic equations of hydrostationary equilibrium under the assumption of irrotational flow. We focus on unequal-mass sequences as well as equal-mass sequences, and compare those results. We investigate the behavior of the binding energy and total angular momentum along a quasi-equilibrium sequence, the endpoint of sequences, and the orbital angular velocity as a function of time, changing the mass ratio, the total mass of the binary system, and the equation of state of a neutron star. It is found that the orbital angular velocity at the mass-shedding limit can be determined by an empirical formula derived from an analytic estimation. We also provide tables for 160 sequences which will be useful as a guideline of numerical simulations for the inspiral and merger performed in the near future.

Keisuke Taniguchi; Masaru Shibata

2010-05-06

169

Matter effects on binary neutron star waveforms  

E-print Network

Using an extended set of equations of state and a multiple-group multiple-code collaborative effort to generate waveforms, we improve numerical-relativity-based data-analysis estimates of the measurability of matter effects in neutron-star binaries. We vary two parameters of a parameterized piecewise-polytropic equation of state (EOS) to analyze the measurability of EOS properties, via a parameter {\\Lambda} that characterizes the quadrupole deformability of an isolated neutron star. We find that, to within the accuracy of the simulations, the departure of the waveform from point-particle (or spinless double black-hole binary) inspiral increases monotonically with {\\Lambda}, and changes in the EOS that did not change {\\Lambda} are not measurable. We estimate with two methods the minimal and expected measurability of {\\Lambda} in second- and third- generation gravitational-wave detectors. The first estimate, using numerical waveforms alone, shows two EOS which vary in radius by 1.3km are distinguishable in mergers at 100Mpc. The second estimate relies on the construction of hybrid waveforms by matching to post-Newtonian inspiral, and estimates that the same EOS are distinguishable in mergers at 300Mpc. We calculate systematic errors arising from numerical uncertainties and hybrid construction, and we estimate the frequency at which such effects would interfere with template-based searches.

Jocelyn S. Read; Luca Baiotti; Jolien D. E. Creighton; John L. Friedman; Bruno Giacomazzo; Koutarou Kyutoku; Charalampos Markakis; Luciano Rezzolla; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi

2013-06-18

170

'Propeller' action by rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between a fast-rotating, magnetized neutron star, and matter that it captures gravitationally from an external source, is examined with the help of a 2-dimensional MHD code. The plasma-magnetospheric boundary is shown to be subject to strong Kelvin-Helmholtz and gravity-driven interchange instabilities, which result in efficient mixing as well as the rapid 'shredding' of the component of the magnetic field along the shear flow. In a quasi-steady 'propeller', a comparatively dense envelope builds up around and compresses the magnetosphere (with matter being sucked in preferentially near the direction of the rotation axis and being expelled perpendicular to it). As it attempts to enforce corotation, the magnetospheric field is twisted by the boundary-layer vortex motions into loops, which float outward, transferring angular momentum through the atmosphere. The magnitude of the spindown torque exerted on the neutron star through this dynamo-like process is sufficient to account for the long periods of many of the observed binary X-ray pulsars.

Wang, Y.-M.; Robertson, J. A.

1985-10-01

171

URCA Processes in Dense Matter and Neutron Star Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urca-processes were introduced into astrophysics by Gamow and Schoenberg in 1941. Neutrino cooling resulting from urca-processes plays an important role at the latest stages of evolution of massive stars. Recent work on neutrino emissivity of dense matter shows that neutrino cooling via urca-processes could determine the thermal evolution of young neutron stars and depends dramatically on the composition of the neutron star core. In particular, if a neutron star contains a central core in which the “direct urca-process” is operative, the cooling timescale shortens by many orders of magnitude.

Haensel, Pawe?

1995-11-01

172

NARROW ATOMIC FEATURES FROM RAPIDLY SPINNING NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

Neutron stars spinning at moderate rates ({approx}300-600 Hz) become oblate in shape and acquire a nonzero quadrupole moment. In this paper, we calculate the profiles of atomic features from such neutron stars using a ray-tracing algorithm in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. We show that line profiles acquire cores that are much narrower than the widths expected from pure Doppler effects for a large range of observer inclinations. As a result, the effects of both the oblateness and the quadrupole moments of neutron stars need to be taken into account when aiming to measure neutron-star radii from rotationally broadened lines. Moreover, the presence of these narrow cores substantially increases the likelihood of detecting atomic lines from rapidly spinning neutron stars.

Bauboeck, Michi; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal, E-mail: mbaubock@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: fozel@email.arizona.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-04-01

173

Gravitational and Electromagnetic Emission from Binary Neutron Star Mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspiral of a neutron star - neutron star binary is a leading candidate for strong emission of gravitational waves. The interaction between the stellar magnetospheres may also give rise to electromagnetic emissions accompanying the gravity waves as the neutron stars inspiral and merge. We present results from a set of resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of mergers computed with full general relativity. We vary the initial magnetic field of the neutron stars including cases where the fields are initially aligned, anit-aligned and where one star’s field dominates over its companion. This presentation is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. NNX13AH01G through the astrophysics theory program.

Motl, Patrick M.; Palenzuela, C.; Lehner, L.; Ponce, M.; Liebling, S. L.; Anderson, M.; Neilsen, D.

2013-06-01

174

Magnetic Screening in Accreting Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We investigate whether the magnetic field of an accreting neutron star may be diamagnetically screened by the accreted matter. We assume the freshly accumulated material is unmagnetized, and calculate the rate at which the intrinsic stellar magnetic flux is transported into it by Ohmic diffusion. We calculate the one-dimensional steady-state magnetic field profiles, and show that the magnetic field strength decreases as one moves up through the outer crust and ocean by roughly (Mdot/0.02 Mdot_Edd) orders of magnitude, where Mdot is the accretion rate and Mdot_Edd the Eddington accretion rate. We show that buoyancy instabilities set a limit to the strength of any buried field of roughly 10^10-10^11 G. Our results show that magnetic screening is ineffective for Mdot<0.01 Mdot_Edd, so that, no matter how the accreted material joins onto the star, the underlying stellar field should always be evident. In this respect, we point out the only known persistently-pulsing accreting X-ray millisecond pulsar, SAX J1808.4-3658, has an accretion rate of 10^-3 Mdot_Edd, far below the regime where magnetic screening can play a role. Most steadily accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries in our Galaxy accrete at rates where screening would be effective if the simplified magnetic and accretion geometry we adopt were correct. If screened, then the underlying field will emerge after accretion halts, on a timescale of only 100--1000 years, set by the Ohmic diffusion time across the outer crust. It thus seems unlikely that screening alone can explain the low magnetic fields of the millisecond radio pulsars.

Andrew Cumming; Ellen G. Zweibel; Lars Bildsten

2001-02-09

175

QuakeSim Project Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QuakeSim is an online computational framework focused on using remotely sensed geodetic imaging data to model and understand earthquakes. With the rise in online social networking over the last decade, many tools and concepts have been developed that are useful to research groups. In particular, QuakeSim is interested in the ability for researchers to post, share, and annotate files generated by modeling tools in order to facilitate collaboration. To accomplish this, features were added to the preexisting QuakeSim site that include single sign-on, automated saving of output from modeling tools, and a personal user space to manage sharing permissions on these saved files. These features implement OpenID and Lightweight Data Access Protocol (LDAP) technologies to manage files across several different servers, including a web server running Drupal and other servers hosting the computational tools themselves.

Kong, D.; Donnellan, A.; Pierce, M. E.

2012-12-01

176

Triaxial Neutron Stars - a Possible Source of Gravitational Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triaxial neutron stars may be important sources of gravitational radiation\\u000afor the forthcoming generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors\\u000asuch as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600. We investigate the viscosity triggered bar\\u000amode secular instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars by means of a\\u000aperturbation analysis of numerically constructed ``exact'' general relativistic\\u000aaxisymmetric star models. In the theoretical approach, only the

J. Frieben; Eric Gourgoulhon

1996-01-01

177

NEWS & VIEWS nEutRon StaRS  

E-print Network

NEWS & VIEWS nEutRon StaRS a magnetar by another name Fernando Camilo is at the Columbia-mail: fernando@astro.columbia.edu O n a dark night you can see a thousand stars above, each like the Sun shining by means of nuclear fusion. Every one hundred years, one of the most massive of 1011 such stars in our

Loss, Daniel

178

Energy Density Functional for Nuclei and Neutron Stars  

SciTech Connect

Background: Recent observational data on neutron star masses and radii provide stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron rich matter [ Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 62 485 (2012)]. Purpose: We aim to develop a nuclear energy density functional that can be simultaneously applied to finite nuclei and neutron stars. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with Skyrme energy density functionals and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables for finite nuclei and neutron stars. In a first step two energy functionals a high density energy functional giving reasonable neutron properties, and a low density functional fitted to nuclear properties are matched. In a second step, we optimize a new functional using exactly the same protocol as in earlier studies pertaining to nuclei but now including neutron star data. This allows direct comparisons of performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. Results: The new functional TOV-min yields results for nuclear bulk properties (energy, rms radius, diffraction radius, and surface thickness) that are of the same quality as those obtained with the established Skyrme functionals, including SV-min. When comparing SV-min and TOV-min, isoscalar nuclear matter indicators vary slightly while isovector properties are changed considerably. We discuss neutron skins, dipole polarizability, separation energies of the heaviest elements, and proton and neutron drip lines. We confirm a correlation between the neutron skin of 208Pb and the neutron star radius. Conclusions: We demonstrate that standard energy density functionals optimized to nuclear data do not carry information on the expected maximum neutron star mass, and that predictions can only be made within an extremely broad uncertainty band. For atomic nuclei, the new functional TOV-min performs at least as well as the standard nuclear functionals, but it also reproduces expected neutron star data within assumed error bands. This functional is expected to yield more reliable predictions in the region of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

Erler, J. [UTK/ORNL/German Cancer Research Center-Heidelberg; Horowitz, C. J. [UTK/ORNL/Indiana University; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw; Rafalski, M. [UTK/ORNL; Reinhard, P.-G. [Universitat Erlangen, Germany

2013-01-01

179

I-Love-Q: unexpected universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars.  

PubMed

Neutron stars and quark stars are not only characterized by their mass and radius but also by how fast they spin, through their moment of inertia, and how much they can be deformed, through their Love number and quadrupole moment. These depend sensitively on the star's internal structure and thus on unknown nuclear physics. We find universal relations between the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment that are independent of the neutron and quark star's internal structure. These can be used to learn about neutron star deformability through observations of the moment of inertia, break degeneracies in gravitational wave detection to measure spin in binary inspirals, distinguish neutron stars from quark stars, and test general relativity in a nuclear structure-independent fashion. PMID:23888033

Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

2013-07-26

180

Journey to the Center of a Neutron Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A neutron star is not a place most would want to visit. This dense remnant of a collapsed star has a magnetic field billions of times stronger than Earth's, enough to shuffle your body's molecules long before you even land. The featureless surface is no fun either. Crushing gravity ensures that the star is a near perfect sphere, compressing all matter so that a sand-grain-sized scoop of neutron star material would weigh as much as a battleship on Earth. At least black holes offer the promise of funky singularity, time warps, and the Odyssean temptation to venture beyond a point of no return. What s a journey to a neutron star good for, one might ask? Well, for starters, it offers the possibility of confirming a theorized state of matter called quark-gluon plasma, which likely existed for a moment after the Big Bang and now might only exist in the superdense interiors of neutron stars. Beneath the neutron star crust, a kilometer-thick plate of crystalline matter, lies the great unknown. The popular theory is that the neutron star interior is made up of a neutron superfluid - a fluid without friction. With the help of two NASA satellites - the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory - scientists are journeying to the center of a neutron star. Matter might be so compressed there that it breaks down into quarks, the building blocks of protons and neutrons, and gluons, the carrier of the strong nuclear force. To dig inside a neutron star, no simple drill bit will do. Scientists gain insight into the interior through events called glitches, a sudden change in the neutron star s precise spin rate. 'Glitches are one of the few ways we have to study the neutron star interior,' says Frank Marshall of NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center, who has used the Rossi Explorer to follow the escapades of the glitchiest of all neutron stars, dubbed the Big Glitcher and known scientifically as PSR J0537-6910.

Wanjek, Christopher

2003-01-01

181

The NASA Neutron Star Grand Challenge: The coalescences of Neutron Star Binary System  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA funded a Grand Challenge Project (9\\/1996-1999) for the development of a multi-purpose numerical treatment for relativistic astrophysics and gravitational wave astronomy. The coalescence of binary neutron stars is chosen as the model problem for the code development. The institutes involved in it are the Argonne Lab, Livermore lab, Max-Planck Institute at Potsdam, StonyBrook, U of Illinois and Washington U.

Wai-Mo Suen

1998-01-01

182

Solar flare leaves sun quaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

1998-05-01

183

Black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity: effects of neutron star spin  

E-print Network

We present new sequences of general relativistic, quasiequilibrium black hole-neutron star binaries. We solve for the gravitational field in the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition of Einstein's field equations, coupled to the equations of relativistic hydrostatic equilibrium for a perfect fluid. We account for the black hole by solving these equations in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole whose mass is much larger than that of the neutron star. The background metric is treated in Kerr-Schild as well as isotropic coordinates. For the neutron star, we assume a polytropic equation of state with adiabatic index Gamma=2, and solve for both irrotational and corotational configurations. By comparing the results of irrotational and synchronized configurations with the same background metric, we conclude that the effect of the rotation on the location of tidal break-up is only on the order of a few percent. The different choices in the background also lead to differences of order a few percent, which may be an indication of the level to which these configurations approximate quasiequilibrium.

Keisuke Taniguchi; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Joshua A. Faber; Stuart L. Shapiro

2005-05-20

184

ECCENTRIC BLACK-HOLE-NEUTRON-STAR MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

Within the next few years gravitational waves (GWs) from merging black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs) may be directly detected, making a thorough theoretical understanding of these systems a high priority. As an additional motivation, these systems may represent a subset of short-duration gamma-ray burst progenitors. BH-NS mergers are expected to result from primordial, quasi-circular inspiral as well as dynamically formed capture binaries. The latter channel allows mergers with high eccentricity, resulting in a richer variety of outcomes. We perform general relativistic simulations of BH-NS interactions with a range of impact parameters, and find significant variation in the properties of these events that have potentially observable consequences, namely, the GW signature, remnant accretion disk mass, and amount of unbound material.

Stephens, Branson C. [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans, E-mail: stephenb@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2011-08-10

185

Neutron star's initial spin period distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse different possibilities to explain the wide initial spin period distribution of radio pulsars presented by Noutsos et al. With a population synthesis modelling, we demonstrate that magnetic field decay can be used to interpret the difference between the recent results by Noutsos et al and those by Popov and Turolla, where a much younger population of neutron stars associated with supernova remnants with known ages has been studied. In particular, an exponential field decay with ?mag = 5 Myr can produce a `tail' in the reconstructed initial spin period distribution up to P0 > 1 s starting with a standard Gaussian with = 0.3 s and ?P = 0.15 s. Another option to explain the difference between initial spin period distributions from Noutsos et al. and Popov and Turolla - the emerging magnetic field - is also briefly discussed.

Igoshev, A. P.; Popov, S. B.

2013-06-01

186

Hall Effect in Neutron Star Crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crust of Neutron Stars can be approximated by a highly conducting solid crystal lattice. The evolution of the magnetic field in the crust is mediated through Hall effect, namely the electric current is carried by the free electrons of the lattice and the magnetic field lines are advected by the electron fluid. Here, we present the results of a time-dependent evolution code which shows the effect Hall drift has in the large-scale evolution of the magnetic field. In particular we link analytical predictions with simulation results. We find that there are two basic evolutionary paths, depending on the initial conditions compared to Hall equilibrium. We also show the effect axial symmetry combined with density gradient have on suppressing turbulent cascade.

Gourgouliatos, K. N.; Cumming, A.

2014-08-01

187

Magnetic fields of neutron stars in X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

A substantial fraction of the known neutron stars resides in X-ray binaries -- systems in which one compact object accretes matter from a companion star. Neutron stars in X-ray binaries have magnetic fields among the highest found in the Universe, spanning at least the range from $\\sim10^8$ to several 10$^{13}$ G. The magnetospheres around these neutron stars have a strong influence on the accretion process, which powers most of their emission. The magnetic field intensity and geometry, are among the main factors responsible for the large variety of spectral and timing properties observed in the X-ray energy range, making these objects unique laboratories to study the matter behavior and the radiation processes in magnetic fields unaccessible on Earth. In this paper we review the main observational aspects related to the presence of magnetic fields in neutron star X-ray binaries and some methods that are used to estimate their strength.

Revnivtsev, Mikhail

2014-01-01

188

Almost Analytic Models of Ultramagnetized Neutron Star Envelopes  

E-print Network

Recent ROSAT measurements show that the x-ray emission from isolated neutron stars is modulated at the stellar rotation period. To interpret these measurements, one needs precise calculations of the heat transfer through the thin insulating envelopes of neutron stars. We present nearly analytic models of the thermal structure of the envelopes of ultramagnetized neutron stars. Specifically, we examine the limit in which only the ground Landau level is filled. We use the models to estimate the amplitude of modulation expected from non-uniformities in the surface temperatures of strongly magnetized neutron stars. In addition, we estimate cooling rates for stars with fields $B \\sim 10^{15}-10^{16}$ G which are relevant to models that invoke ``magnetars'' to account for soft $\\gamma$-ray emission from some repeating sources.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1998-05-13

189

Neutron star dynamos and the origins of pulsar magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutron star convection is a transient phenomenon and has an extremely high magnetic Reynolds number. In this sense, a neutron star dynamo is the quintessential fast dynamo. The convective motions are only mildly turbulent on scales larger than the approximately 100 cm neutrino mean free path, but the turbulence is well developed on smaller scales. Several fundamental issues in the theory of fast dynamos are raised in the study of a neutron star dynamo, in particular the possibility of dynamo action in mirror-symmetric turbulence. It is argued that in any high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo, most of the magnetic energy becomes concentrated in thin flux ropes when the field pressure exceeds the turbulent pressure at the smallest scale of turbulence. In addition, the possibilities for dynamo action during the various (pre-collapse) stages of convective motion that occur in the evolution of a massive star are examined, and the properties of white dwarf and neutron star progenitors are contrasted.

Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

1993-01-01

190

Compositional Freeze-Out of Neutron Star Crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the crustal properties of neutron stars without fallback accretion. We have calculated the chemical evolution of the neutron star crust in three different cases (a modified Urca process without the thermal influence of a crust, a thick crust, and a direct Urca process with a thin crust) in order to determine the detailed composition of the envelope and atmosphere as the nuclear reactions freeze out. Using a nuclear reaction network up to technetium, we calculate the distribution of nuclei at various depths of the neutron star. The nuclear reactions quench when the cooling timescale is shorter than the inverse of the reaction rate. Trace light elements among the calculated isotopes may have enough time to float to the surface before the layer crystallizes and form the atmosphere or envelope of the neutron star. The composition of the neutron star envelope determines the total photon flux from the surface, and the composition of the atmosphere determines the emergent spectrum. Our calculations using each of the three cooling models indicate that without accretion of fallback the neutron star atmospheres are dependent on the assumed cooling process of the neutron star. Each of the cooling methods have different elements composing the atmosphere: for the modified Urca process the atmosphere is 28Si, the thick crust has an atmosphere of 50Cr, and the thin crust has an atmosphere of 40Ca. In all three cases the atmospheres are composed of elements which are lighter then iron.

Hoffman, Kelsey L.; Heyl, J. S.

2010-01-01

191

Compositional freeze-out of neutron star crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the crustal properties of neutron stars without fallback accretion. We have calculated the chemical evolution of the neutron star crust in three different cases (a modified Urca process without the thermal influence of a crust, a thick crust and a direct Urca process with a thin crust) in order to determine the detailed composition of the envelope and atmosphere as the nuclear reactions freeze out. Using a nuclear reaction network up to technetium, we calculate the distribution of nuclei at various depths of the neutron star. The nuclear reactions quench when the cooling time-scale is shorter than the inverse of the reaction rate. Trace light elements among the calculated isotopes may have enough time to float to the surface before the layer crystallizes and form the atmosphere or envelope of the neutron star. The composition of the neutron star envelope determines the total photon flux from the surface, and the composition of the atmosphere determines the emergent spectrum. Our calculations using each of the three cooling models indicate that without accretion of fallback the neutron star atmospheres are dependent on the assumed cooling process of the neutron star. Each of the cooling methods has different elements composing the atmosphere: for the modified Urca process, the atmosphere is 28Si, the thick crust has an atmosphere of 50Cr and the thin crust has an atmosphere of 40Ca. In all the three cases, the atmospheres are composed of elements which are lighter than iron.

Hoffman, Kelsey; Heyl, Jeremy

2009-12-01

192

Evolution of Young Neutron Star Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend our initial study of diffusive nuclear burning (DNB) for neutron stars (NSs) with hydrogen (H) atmospheres and an underlying layer of proton-capturing nuclei. Our initial study showed that DNB can alter the photospheric abundance of hydrogen on surprisingly short timescales (102-104 yr). Significant composition evolution impacts the radiated thermal spectrum from the NS as well as its overall cooling rate. In this paper, we consider the case when the rate-limiting step for the H consumption is diffusion to the burning layer rather than the local nuclear timescale. This is relevant for NSs with surface temperatures in excess of 106 K, such as young (<105 yr) radio pulsars and accreting NSs in quiescence. When downward diffusion is the limiting rate in DNB, the rate of H consumption is suppressed by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to a DNB estimate that assumes diffusive equilibrium. In order to apply our ongoing study to young neutron stars, we also include the important effects of strong magnetic fields (B~1012 G). In this initial study of magnetic modifications to DNB, we find that the H-burning time is lengthened by 2-3 orders of magnitude for a 1012 G field. However, even for NSs with dipole field strengths of 1012 G, we find that all of the H can be burned before the pulsar reaches an age of ~105 yr, thus potentially revealing the underlying proton-capturing elements. Finally, we conclude by providing an overview of what can be learned about fallback and pulsar winds from measuring the surface composition of a young NS.

Chang, Philip; Bildsten, Lars

2004-04-01

193

Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers: Disk Mass Predictions  

E-print Network

Determining the final result of black hole-neutron star mergers, and in particular the amount of matter remaining outside the black hole at late times and its properties, has been one of the main motivations behind the numerical simulation of these systems. Black hole-neutron star binaries are amongst the most likely progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts --- as long as massive (probably a few percents of a solar mass), hot accretion disks are formed around the black hole. Whether this actually happens strongly depends on the physical characteristics of the system, and in particular on the mass ratio, the spin of the black hole, and the radius of the neutron star. We present here a simple two-parameter model, fitted to existing numerical results, for the determination of the mass remaining outside the black hole a few milliseconds after a black hole-neutron star merger (i.e. the combined mass of the accretion disk, the tidal tail, and the potential ejecta). This model predicts the remnant mass within a few percents of the mass of the neutron star, at least for remnant masses up to 20% of the neutron star mass. Results across the range of parameters deemed to be the most likely astrophysically are presented here. We find that, for 10 solar mass black holes, massive disks are only possible for large neutron stars (R>12km), or quasi-extremal black hole spins (a/M>0.9). We also use our model to discuss how the equation of state of the neutron star affects the final remnant, and the strong influence that this can have on the rate of short gamma-ray bursts produced by black hole-neutron star mergers.

Francois Foucart

2012-07-26

194

Black-hole-neutron-star mergers: Disk mass predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the final result of black-hole-neutron-star mergers, and, in particular, the amount of matter remaining outside the black hole at late times and its properties, has been one of the main motivations behind the numerical simulation of these systems. Black-hole-neutron-star binaries are among the most likely progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts—as long as massive (probably a few percents of a solar mass), hot accretion disks are formed around the black hole. Whether this actually happens strongly depends on the physical characteristics of the system, and, in particular, on the mass ratio, the spin of the black hole, and the radius of the neutron star. We present here a simple two-parameter model, fitted to existing numerical results, for the determination of the mass remaining outside the black hole a few milliseconds after a black-hole-neutron-star merger (i.e., the combined mass of the accretion disk, the tidal tail, and the potential ejecta). This model predicts the remnant mass within a few percents of the mass of the neutron star, at least for remnant masses up to 20% of the neutron star mass. Results across the range of parameters deemed to be the most likely astrophysically are presented here. We find that, for 10M? black holes, massive disks are only possible for large neutron stars (RNS?12km), or quasiextremal black hole spins (aBH/MBH?0.9). We also use our model to discuss how the equation of state of the neutron star affects the final remnant, and the strong influence that this can have on the rate of short gamma-ray bursts produced by black-hole-neutron-star mergers.

Foucart, Francois

2012-12-01

195

The neutron star born in the Antlia supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among all known young nearby neutron stars, we search for the neutron star that was born in the same supernova event that formed the Antlia supernova remnant (SNR). We also look for a runaway star that could have been the former companion to the neutron star (if it exists) and then got ejected due to the same supernova. We find the pulsar PSR J0630-2834 to be the best candidate for a common origin with the Antlia SNR. In that scenario, the SNR is ?1.2 Myr old and is presently located at a distance of ?138 pc. We consider the runaway star HIP 47155 a former companion candidate to PSR J0630-2834. The encounter time and place is consistent with both stars being ejected from the Antlia SNR. We measured the radial velocity of HIP 47155 as 32.42 ± 0.70 km s-1.

Tetzlaff, N.; Torres, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M.

2013-10-01

196

A Second Neutron Star in M4?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a ~20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA).

Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W.; Thompson, Ian B.

2012-05-01

197

Understanding Neutron Stars using Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star = EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts = modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

Bhattacharyya, S.

2007-01-01

198

Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

Bhattacharyya, Sudip

2007-01-01

199

MUFFINS: Metallurgy Uncovers Forced Fractures Inside Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of nuclear reactions within the neutron star crust, even neutron stars that have not accreted matter can have impurities in their crust. These impurities would have an effect on the mechanical properties of the crust, possibly creating a more brittle structure. In order to investigate the properties of an impure crust we are performing molecular dynamic simulations using the Large scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). The simulations are run at fixed energy and volume with the isotopes interacting via a repulsive Yukawa potential. Here we present effects of impurities with respect the the breaking strain in a non-accreting neutron star crust.

Hoffman, Kelsey L.; Heyl, J. S.

2011-01-01

200

Joule heating governing the cooling of magnetized neutron stars  

E-print Network

We present two-dimensional simulations for the cooling of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields (B > 1e13 Gauss). We study how the cooling curves are influenced by magnetic field decay. We show that the Joule heating effects are very large and in some cases control the thermal evolution. We characterize the temperature anisotropy induced by the magnetic field and predict the surface temperature distribution for the early and late stages of the evolution of isolated neutron stars, comparing our results with available observational data of isolated neutron stars.

Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

2008-01-01

201

On the maximum mass of hyperonic neutron stars  

E-print Network

Chiral Lagrangian and quark-meson coupling models of hyperon matter are used to estimate the maximum mass of neutron stars. Our relativistic calculations include, for the first time, both Hartree and Fock contributions in a consistent manner. Being related to the underlying quark structure of baryons, these models are considered to be good candidates for describing the dense core of neutron stars. Taking account of the known experimental constraints at saturation density, the equations of state deduced from these relativistic approaches cannot sustain a neutron star with a mass larger than 1.6-1.66 $M_\\odot$.

Elisabeth Massot; Jérôme Margueron; G. Chanfray

2012-01-13

202

Kaon condensation in neutron star using relativistic mean field models  

E-print Network

We use the modified quark-meson coupling and the quantum hadrodynamics models to study the properties of neutron star. Coupling constants of both models are adjusted to reproduce the same saturation properties. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron star matter is studied in detail over a wide range of kaon optical potential values. Once the kaon condensation takes place, the population of kaons increases very rapidly, and kaons become the dominant component, possibly making the neutron star matter a kaonic matter if the kaon optical potential is large.

S. W. Hong; C. H. Hyun; C. Y. Ryu

2007-02-08

203

Slowly rotating neutron stars and hadronic stars in chiral SU(3) quark mean field model  

E-print Network

The equations of state for neutron matter, strange and non-strange hadronic matter in a chiral SU(3) quark mean field model are applied in the study of slowly rotating neutron stars and hadronic stars. The radius, mass, moment of inertia, and other physical quantities are carefully examined. The effect of nucleon crust for the strange hadronic star is exhibited. Our results show the rotation can increase the maximum mass of compact stars significantly. For big enough mass of pulsar which can not be explained as strange hadronic star, the theoretical approaches to increase the maximum mass are addressed.

Shaoyu Yin; Jiadong Zang; Ru-Keng Su

2009-08-03

204

Conversion of neutron stars to strange stars as an origin of gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

This paper argues that conversion of neutron stars to strange stars as an origin of cosmological stars in the binaries with low-mass companions. Our model may provide an explanation why the binary millisecond pulsars seem to have same low magnetic fields.

K. S. Cheng; Z. G. Dai

1995-10-14

205

Quasiequilibrium black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity  

E-print Network

We construct quasiequilibrium sequences of black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity. We solve Einstein's constraint equations in the conformal thin-sandwich formalism, subject to black hole boundary conditions imposed on the surface of an excised sphere, together with the relativistic equations of hydrostatic equilibrium. In contrast to our previous calculations we adopt a flat spatial background geometry and do not assume extreme mass ratios. We adopt a Gamma=2 polytropic equation of state and focus on irrotational neutron star configurations as well as approximately nonspinning black holes. We present numerical results for ratios of the black hole's irreducible mass to the neutron star's ADM mass in isolation of M_{irr}^{BH}/M_{ADM,0}^{NS} = 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10. We consider neutron stars of baryon rest mass M_B^{NS}/M_B^{max} = 83% and 56%, where M_B^{max} is the maximum allowed rest mass of a spherical star in isolation for our equation of state. For these sequences, we locate the onset of tidal disruption and, in cases with sufficiently large mass ratios and neutron star compactions, the innermost stable circular orbit. We compare with previous results for black hole-neutron star binaries and find excellent agreement with third-order post-Newtonian results, especially for large binary separations. We also use our results to estimate the energy spectrum of the outgoing gravitational radiation emitted during the inspiral phase for these binaries.

Keisuke Taniguchi; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Joshua A. Faber; Stuart L. Shapiro

2007-01-19

206

Gamow's Calculation of the Neutron Star's Critical Mass Revised  

E-print Network

It has at times been indicated that Landau introduced neutron stars in his classic paper of 1932. This is clearly impossible because the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick was submitted more than one month after Landau's work. Therefore, and according to his calculations, what Landau really did was to study white dwarfs, and the critical mass he obtained clearly matched the value derived by Stoner and later by Chandrasekhar. The birth of the concept of a neutron star is still today unclear. Clearly, in 1934, the work of Baade and Zwicky pointed to neutron stars as originating from supernovae. Oppenheimer in 1939 is also well known to have introduced general relativity (GR) in the study of neutron stars. The aim of this note is to point out that the crucial idea for treating the neutron star has been advanced in Newtonian theory by Gamow. However, this pioneering work was plagued by mistakes. The critical mass he should have obtained was $6.9\\,M_\\odot$, not the one he declared, namely, $1.5\\ M_\\odot$. Probably, he was taken to this result by the work of Landau on white dwarfs. We revise Gamow's calculation of the critical mass regarding calculational and conceptual aspects and discuss whether it is justified to consider it the first neutron-star critical mass. We compare Gamow's approach to other early and modern approaches to the problem.

Hendrik Ludwig; Remo Ruffini

2014-02-15

207

Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in a neutron star crust  

E-print Network

Based on the formalism by Kaminker et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 343 (1999) 1009) we derive an analytic approximation for neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung emissivity due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in the neutron star crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through generalized Coulomb logarithm which we fit by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which the neutrino bremsstrahlung in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields. The results can be applied for modelling of many phenomena in neutron stars, such as thermal relaxation in young isolated neutron stars and in accreting neutron stars with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients.

Ofengeim, D D; Yakovlev, D G

2014-01-01

208

Constraining Neutron Star Properties with Chandra Observations of Millisecond Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron star observables influenced by r-mode physics, such as their spin and thermal evolution, can provide a unique window on their exotic interiors. We propose ACIS-S observations of four non-accreting millisecond pulsars (PSRs J1640+2224, J2019_2425, J1709+2313 and J1923+2515) with low inferred magnetic fields in order to constrain their neutron star surface temperatures, obtain limits on the amplitude of unstable r-modes in them, and make comparisons with similar limits obtained for a sample of accreting LMXB neutron stars. Perhaps surprisingly, none of our proposed targets is yet detected in the X-ray band. Our observations will provide the first X-ray detections of these objects, and will enable further exploration of the r-mode instability in neutron stars.

Strohmayer, Tod

2014-09-01

209

Solid state physics and cooling of neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

First we show the possible effect of the ‘magnetic’ condensation on cooling of neutron stars. Its observational significance (especially for younger pulsars such as the Crab pulsar) is emphasized. Other effects of solid state physics on cooling are also discussed.

Sachiko Tsuruta

1975-01-01

210

Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars  

E-print Network

Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, implying an extremely high radio luminosity. We propose that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses to a black hole due to magnetic braking. The neutron star is initially above the critical mass for non-rotating models and is supported by rapid rotation. As magnetic braking constantly reduces the spin, the neutron star will suddenly collapse to a black hole several thousand to million years after its birth. We discuss several formation scenarios for supramassive neutron stars and estimate the possible observational signatures making use of the results of recent numerical general-relativistic calculations. While the collapse will hide the stellar surface behind an event horizon, the magnetic-field lines will snap violently. This can turn an almost ordinary pulsar into a ...

Falcke, Heino

2013-01-01

211

Multidimensional thermal structure of magnetized neutron star envelopes  

E-print Network

Recently launched x-ray telescopes have discovered several candidate isolated neutron stars. The thermal radiation from these objects may potentially constrain our understanding of nuclear physics in a realm inaccessible to terrestrial experiments. To translate the observed fluxes from neutron stars into constraints, one needs precise calculations of the heat transfer through the thin insulating envelopes of neutron stars. We describe models of the thermal structure of the envelopes of neutron stars with magnetic fields up to 10^{14} G. Unlike earlier work, we infer the properties of envelope models in two dimensions and precisely account for the quantization of the electron phase space. Both dipole and uniformly magnetized envelopes are considered.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1998-08-12

212

Isovector potential of $?$ in nuclei and neutron star matter  

E-print Network

We determine the coupling constants of $\\Sigma$ hyperon with mesons in relativistic mean field (RMF) models using $\\Sigma^-$ atomic shift data and examine the effects of $\\Sigma$ on the neutron star maximum mass. We find that we need to reduce the vector-isovector meson coupling with $\\Sigma$ ($g_{\\rho\\Sigma}$) from the value constrained by the SU(3)v symmetry in order to explain the $\\Sigma^-$ atomic shifts for light symmetric and heavy asymmetric nuclei simultaneously. With the atomic shift fit value of $g_{\\rho\\Sigma}$, $\\Sigma^-$ can emerge in neutron star matter overcoming the repulsive isoscalar potential for $\\Sigma$ hyperons. Admixture of $\\Sigma^-$ in neutron stars is found to reduce the neutron star maximum mass slightly.

K. Tsubakihara; A. Ohnishi; T. Harada

2014-02-05

213

Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in a neutron star crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the formalism by Kaminker et al. (Astron. Astrophys., 343 (1999) 1009) we derive an analytic approximation for neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung emissivity due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in a neutron star crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through the generalized Coulomb logarithm which we fit by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which the neutrino bremsstrahlung in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields. The results can be applied for modelling of many phenomena in neutron stars, such as thermal relaxation in young isolated neutron stars and in accreting neutron stars with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients.

Ofengeim, D. D.; Kaminker, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. G.

2014-11-01

214

Neutrino emissivity, strong magnetic fields and cooling of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct Urca process is an extremely efficient mechanism for cooling a proto neutron star after its formation. It is believed to be the process responsible for the cooling of proto-neutron stars after the first 100 years of life. One of the most interesting kind of neutron stars are the pulsars, which are highly magnetized neutron stars with fields up to 1014 G at the surface. In this work we investigate the influence of strong magnetic fields on the cooling of pulsars due to the neutrino emissivity coming from the direct Urca process. The matter is described using a relativistic mean-field model at zero temperature. We calculate numerically the emissivity of neutrinos for different magnetic fields as a function of the baryon density and compare the results for the case without a magnetic field.

Coelho, E. L.; Chiapparini, M.; Bracco, M. E.; Negreiros, R. P.

2014-09-01

215

Transition density and pressure in hot neutron stars  

E-print Network

Using the momentum-dependent effective interaction (MDI) for nucleons, we have studied the transition density and pressure at the boundary between the inner crust and the liquid core of hot neutron stars. We find that their values are larger...

Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An.

2010-01-01

216

The inside-out view on neutron-star magnetospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct hydromagnetic neutron star equilibria which allow for a non-zero electric current distribution in the exterior. The novelty of our models is that the neutron star's interior field is in equilibrium with its magnetosphere, thus bridging the gap between previous work in this area, which either solves for the interior assuming a vacuum exterior or solves for the magnetosphere without modelling the star itself. We consider only non-rotating stars in this work, so our solutions are most immediately applicable to slowly rotating systems such as magnetars. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that magnetospheres qualitatively resembling those expected for both magnetars and pulsars are possible within our framework. The `inside-out' approach taken in this paper should be more generally applicable to rotating neutron stars, where the interior and exterior regions are again not independent but evolve together.

Glampedakis, K.; Lander, S. K.; Andersson, N.

2014-01-01

217

Hotspot Emission from a Freely Precessing Neutron Star  

E-print Network

Recent observations of 1E~161348-5055, the neutron-star candidate at the center of the supernova remnant RCW 103, show that a component of its emission varies sinusoidally with a period of approximately six hours. We argue that this period is what one would expect for a freely precessing neutron star with a spin period of about one second. We produce light curves for a freely precessing neutron star with a hotspot. By a suitable choice of parameters, we obtain light curves which are constant with rotational phase when the flux from the star reaches a maximum. At other phases of the precession, the flux varies as the star rotates but the total flux decreases by a factor of several. These models can explain the behavior observed from 1E~161348-5055 and predict that the spin period should be detectable at minimum flux from sufficiently sensitive measurements.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

2000-03-31

218

Spectroscopy of a Neutron Star Transient in Outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent observation of Serpens X-1 with NuSTAR has clearly revealed a relativistic Fe K line (confirming prior XMM-Newton results), as well as the Compton reflection hump. We propose to build on this by making two 40 ks XMM-Newton + NuSTAR observations of a transient neutron star LMXB in outburst. Leveraging their complementary strengths, this program will aim to constrain the stellar radius, search for disk winds like those seen in black holes (and a small but growing number of neutron stars), and to understand the evolution of neutron star accretion flows over a broader range of accretion rates than can be observed in persistent "Z'' and "atoll'' sources.

Miller, Jon

2013-10-01

219

Neutron Star Formation and Evolution - Singles, Binaries and Triples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will review recent progress, and highlight unsolved puzzles, related to the formation and evolution of neutron stars. Examples include birth events of neutron stars (electron capture vs iron core-collapse SNe and AIC), torque decay of isolated pulsars, recycling of millisecond pulsars and the nature of their companions. Finally, I will discuss the triple pulsar and the new emerging class of millisecond pulsars in highly eccentric orbits.

Tauris, Thomas

220

MHD Stability of Polar Caps of Accreting Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the stability of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor type modes driven by the overpressure of magnetically confined accreted matter on the surface of a neutron star. We employ the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy principle to analyze the stability of short-wavelength (ballooning) modes subject to line-tying in the neutron star crust. Research supported by ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

Litwin, C.; Brown, E. F.; Rosner, R.

2000-12-01

221

MHD Stability of Polar Caps of Accreting Neutron Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the stability of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor type modes driven by the overpressure of magnetically confined accreted matter on the surface of a neutron star. We employ the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy principle to analyze the stability of short-wavelength (ballooning) modes subject to line-tying in the neutron star crust. Research supported by ASCI\\/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University

C. Litwin; E. F. Brown; R. Rosner

2000-01-01

222

ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.24 M{sub Sun }. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M{sub Sun }, but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M{sub Sun }. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.2 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed {approx}2 M{sub Sun} suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.

Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138,USA (United States)

2012-09-20

223

Thermal evolution of old neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the first observational study of the thermal evolution of old neutron stars (NSs) through far-UV observations of three nearby pulsars in the age range from 17 Myr to 6 Gyr. The cooling history of younger NSs is being mapped out in the X-rays, providing important information on the properties of the super-dense matter in the NS interiors. However, only one old NS, millisecond PSR J0437-4715, has so far revealed its thermal emission, which has been detected with HST in the far-UV. The observed high temperature of about 1.5*10^5 K unavoidably requires a heating mechanism to operate in the old NS interiors. Two possible heating mechanisms have been identified, but their relative importance and parameters, which depend on poorly understood properties of the NS matter, are currently unclear. The proposed program will discriminate between the competing heating models and help constrain the properties of matter under extreme physical conditions, such as neutron and proton superfluidity and frictional forces between the superfluid vortices and the crustal solid.Observations of the far-UV surface emission of old NSs, undetectable from the ground, is the only way to establish their long-term thermal evolution (cooling curves) and so probe the cooling/heating mechanisms and the properties of matter at super-high densities. Therefore, the UV capabilities of the HST offer a unique opportunity to carry out such a study, which will be a long-lasting legacy of HST.

Pavlov, George

2014-10-01

224

Phase Transitions in Nucleonic Matter and Neutron-Star Cooling  

E-print Network

A new scenario for neutron-star cooling is proposed, based on the correspondence between pion condensation, occurring in neutron matter due to critical spin-isospin fluctuations, and the metal-insulator phase transition in a two-dimensional electron gas. Beyond the threshold density for pion condensation, where neutron-star matter loses its spatial homogeneity, the neutron single-particle spectrum acquires an insulating gap that quenches neutron contributions to neutrino-production reactions and to the star's specific heat. In the liquid phase at densities below the transition point, spin-isospin fluctuations are found to play dual roles. On the one hand, they lead to a multi-sheeted neutron Fermi surface that extends to low momenta, thereby activating the normally forbidden direct-Urca cooling mechanism; on the other, they amplify the nodeless $P$-wave neutron superfluid gap while suppressing $S$-wave pairing. In this picture, lighter stars without a pion-condensed core experience slow cooling, while enhanced cooling occurs in heavier stars through direct-Urca emission from a narrow shell of the interior.

V. A. Khodel; J. W. Clark; M. Takano; M. V. Zverev

2004-02-22

225

Thermal Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars: Pairing, Pairing, and Pairing  

SciTech Connect

The thermal evolution of young isolated neutron stars is driven by neutrino emission from matter at the highest densities reached in their inner core. As such, these objects are direct probes of the structure of matter at supranuclear density. However, pairing of the neutrino emitting baryons, or quarks, can significantly alter their emission efficiency and the predicted thermal evolution is very sensitive to assumptions about gap size(s). After a brief description of these physical processes, I compare with present observational data models of cooling neutron stars driven by slow or fast neutrino emission. Depending on the assumed size of the neutron {sup 3}P{sub 2}-{sup 3}F{sub 2} gap, a minimal model of neutron stars can accommodate all present data, with the exception of the cold pulsar J0007.0+7303 in the supernova remnant CTA 1. However, in case this gap is vanishingly small or very large, the estimated surface temperatures of more than a half of the observed young cooling neutron stars would imply the intervention of some form of enhanced neutrino emission. Unfortunately, the present uncertainty on the size of the neutron {sup 3}P{sub 2}-{sup 3}F{sub 2} gap precludes us to draw any definitive conclusion about the state of dense matter from the sole study of isolated neutron stars.

Page, Dany [Departamento de Astrofisica Teorica, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2009-05-07

226

Flywheels - Rapidly spinning, magnetized neutron stars in spherical accretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of a rapidly spinning, magnetized neutron star embedded in plasma accreting spherically at a supercritical rate is investigated. Friction between the magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma is a source of power. In addition, when the magnetic field is asymmetric with respect to the rotation axis of the star, the rotating magnetosphere acts as a propeller, transfering kinetic energy

S. Mineshige; M. J. Rees; A. C. Fabian

1991-01-01

227

Simulations of Axisymmetric Magnetospheres of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the results of time-dependent simulations of dipolar axisymmetric magnetospheres of neutron stars carried out both within the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and within the framework of resistive force-free electrodynamics. The results of force-free simulations reveal the inability of our numerical method to accommodate the equatorial current sheets of pulsar magnetospheres and raise a question mark over the robustness of this approach. On the other hand, the MHD approach allows to make a significant progress. We start with a nonrotating magnetically dominated dipolar magnetospheres and follow its evolution as the stellar rotation is switched on. We find that the time-dependent solution gradually approaches the steady state that is very close to the stationary solution of the Pulsar Equation found by Contopoulos et al.(1999). This result suggests that other stationary solutions that have the y-point located well inside the light cylinder are unstable. The role of the particle inertia and pressure on the structure and dynamics of MHD magnetospheres is studied in details, as well as the potential implications of the dissipative processes in the equatorial current sheet. We argue that pulsars may have differentially rotating magnetospheres which develop noticeable structural oscillations and that this may help to explain the nature of the sub-pulse phenomena.

S. S. Komissarov

2005-10-11

228

Surface conditions in accreting neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the boundary layer where the accretion disk interacts with an accreting neutron star surface is studied using a one-zone approximation to observe the effects of the accretion on the thermal structure of the surface layers and on the progress of shell burning. The kinematic viscosity is parameterized by means of the critical Reynolds number, R/sub cr/. It is found that for higher accretion rate M/M/sub Edd/>>1/R/sub cr/ (M/sub Edd/ being the critical accretion rate corresponding to the Eddington luminosity), an optically thick boundary layer is formed, where radiation pressure is dominant. As long as it remains optically thick, the observable properties of the boundary layer are rather insensitive to the assumption of viscosity and are determined solely by the accretion rate. The internal structure, however, depends strongly on assumed magnitude of the viscosity as well as on the accretion rate; the pressure and temperature increase rapidly with R/sub cr/ and also with M. For large R/sub cr/, therefore, the boundary layer lies well inside the stellar photosphere, where the dissipation of kinetic energy plays a critical role in heating the envelope and in leading to the ignition of shell flashes. Results are discussed on the possible modifications of the X-ray burst model from that constructed under spherical symmetry and on their relevance to X-ray observations of low-mass binary systems.

Fujimoto, M.Y.; Hoshi, R.

1985-06-01

229

Gravitational Wave Damping of Neutron Star Wobble  

E-print Network

We calculate the effect of gravitational wave (gw) back-reaction on realistic neutron stars (NS's) undergoing torque-free precession. By `realistic' we mean that the NS is treated as a mostly-fluid body with an elastic crust, as opposed to a rigid body. We find that gw's damp NS wobble on a timescale tau_{theta} approx 2 x 10^5 yr [10^{-7}/(DId/I_0)]^2 (kHz/ nu_s)^4, where nu_s is the spin frequency and DId is the piece of the NS's inertia tensor that "follows" the crust's principal axis (as opposed to its spin axis). We give two different derivations of this result: one based solely on energy and angular momentum balance, and another obtained by adding the Burke-Thorne radiation reaction force to the Newtonian equations of motion. This problem was treated long ago by Bertotti and Anile (1973), but their claimed result is wrong. When we convert from their notation to ours, we find that their tau_{theta} is too short by a factor of order 10^5 for typical cases of interest, and even has the wrong sign for DId negative. We show where their calculation went astray.

Curt Cutler; David Ian Jones

2000-08-09

230

Physics of systems containing neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

Shaham, Jacob

1995-01-01

231

Diffusive Nuclear Burning in Neutron Star Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the rate of hydrogen burning for neutron stars (NSs) with hydrogen atmospheres and an underlying reservoir of nuclei capable of proton capture. This burning occurs in the exponentially suppressed diffusive tail of H that extends to the hotter depths of the envelope where protons are rapidly captured. This process, which we call diffusive nuclear burning (DNB), can change the H abundance at the NS photosphere on timescales as short as 102-104 yr. In the absence of diffusion, the hydrogen at the photosphere (where T~106 K and ?~0.1 g cm-3) would last for far longer than a Hubble time. Our work impacts the understanding of the evolution of surface abundances of isolated NSs, which is important to their thermal spectrum and their effective temperature-core temperature relation. In this paper we calculate the rate of H burning when the overall consumption rate is controlled by the nuclear timescales, rather than diffusion timescales. The immediate application is for H burning on millisecond radio pulsars and in quiescence for the accreting NS Cen X-4. We will apply this work to young radio pulsars and magnetars once we have incorporated the effects of strong B>1012 G magnetic fields.

Chang, Philip; Bildsten, Lars

2003-03-01

232

Gravity Damping in Neutron Star Magnetospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was shown previously by Khabibrakhmanov and Mullan that a mechanism whereby Alfv'en waves dissipate energy in gravitationally structured media via Joule heating may account for solar coronal heating and wind driving. In particular, ``gravity damping'' was shown to preferentially heat heavy ions and produce temperature anisotropies (T> T||), features that have long been known to exist in the solar wind and low corona. We present the results of preliminary asymptotic and numerical studies that extend this phenomenon to general relativistic regimes. In particular, the dynamics of ubiquitous, virtually undamped gravitational waves that radiate from neutron stars are examined using a multi-fluid description of the outer magnetosphere medium in the Newtonian limit of General Relativity as well as in the 3+1 split formalism. It is thought that gravitational waves are driven by oscillations within the superfluid interior and, therefore, may provide a very important source of energy for magnetospheric acceleration processes. Future results will ultimately be compared to realistic spectra from LIGO and VIRGO.

Bekhor, Steven

2008-04-01

233

Resonant shattering of neutron star crusts.  

PubMed

The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ?10{46}-10{47}??erg of energy seconds before the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black-hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of SGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. PMID:22304251

Tsang, David; Read, Jocelyn S; Hinderer, Tanja; Piro, Anthony L; Bondarescu, Ruxandra

2012-01-01

234

Nuclear Matter and Neutron stars in a Parity Doublet Model  

E-print Network

We investigate the properties of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and neutron stars in a chiral model approach adopting the SU(2) parity doublet formulation. This ansatz explicitly incorporates chiral symmetry restoration with the limit of degenerate masses of the nucleons and their parity partners. Instead of searching for an optimized parameter set we explore the general parameter dependence of nuclear matter and star properties in the model. We are able to get a good description of ground state nuclear matter as well as large values of mass for neutron stars in agreement with observation.

V. Dexheimer; S. Schramm; D. Zschiesche

2007-10-23

235

Hydromagnetic Equilibria and their Evolution in Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strongest known magnetic fields are found in neutron stars. I briefly discuss how they are inferred from observations, as well as the evidence for their time-evolution. I go on to show how these extremely strong fields are actually weak in terms of their effects on the stellar structure. This is also the case for magnetic stars on the upper main sequence and magnetic white dwarfs, which have similar total magnetic fluxes, perhaps pointing to an evolutionary connection. I suggest that a stable hydromagnetic equilibrium (containing a poloidal and a toroidal field component) could be established soon after the birth of the neutron star, aided by the strong compositional stratification of neutron star matter, and this state is slowly eroded by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic processes such as beta decays and ambipolar diffusion in the core of the star and Hall drift and breaking of the solid in its crust. Over sufficiently long time scales, the fluid in the neutron star core will behave as if it were barotropic, because, depending on temperature and magnetic field strength, beta decays will keep adjusting the composition to the chemical equilibrium state, or ambipolar diffusion will decouple the charged component from the neutrons. Therefore, the still open question regarding stable hydromagnetic equilibria in barotropic fluids will become relevant for the evolution, at least for magnetar fields, which are likely too strong to be stabilized by the solid crust.

Reisenegger, Andreas

2014-08-01

236

High energy gamma rays from old accreting neutron stars  

E-print Network

We consider a magnetized neutron star with accretion from a companion star or a gas cloud around it, as a possible source of gamma rays with energy between $100$ $MeV$ and $10^{14}-10^{16}~eV$. The flow of the accreting plasma is terminated by a shock at the Alfv\\'en surface. Such a shock is the site for the acceleration of particles up to energies of $\\sim 10^{15}-10^{17}~eV$; gamma photons are produced in the inelastic $pp$ collisions between shock-accelerated particles and accreting matter. The model is applied to old neutron stars both isolated or in binary systems. The gamma ray flux above $100~MeV$ is not easily detectable, but we propose that gamma rays with very high energy could be used by Cherenkov experiments as a possible signature of isolated old neutron stars in dense clouds in our galaxy.

P. Blasi

1996-06-28

237

Limits on self-interacting dark matter from neutron stars.  

PubMed

We impose new severe constraints on the self-interactions of fermionic asymmetric dark matter based on observations of nearby old neutron stars. Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) self-interactions mediated by Yukawa-type interactions can lower significantly the number of WIMPs necessary for gravitational collapse of the WIMP population accumulated in a neutron star. Even nearby neutron stars located at regions of low dark matter density can accrete a sufficient number of WIMPs that can potentially collapse, form a mini black hole, and destroy the host star. Based on this, we derive constraints on the WIMP self-interactions which in some cases are by several orders of magnitude stricter than the ones from the bullet cluster. PMID:23003023

Kouvaris, Chris

2012-05-11

238

Deformation and crustal rigidity of rotating neutron stars  

E-print Network

We calculate parameters A and B of the Baym-Pines model of the hydro-elastic equilibrium of rotating neutron stars. Parameter A determines the energy increase of a non-rotating star due to a quadrupolar deformation of its shape. Parameter B determines residual quadrupolar deformation due to the crustal shear strain, in a neutron star that spun-down to a non-rotating state. The calculations of A are based on precise numerical 2-D calculations for rotating neutron stars with realistic equations of state (EOSs) of dense matter. An approximate, but quite precise, formula for B is used, which allows us to separate the contribution of the crust from the dependence on the stellar mass M and radius R. The elastic shear strain distribution within the crust is modeled following Cutler et al. (2003). A(M) and B(M) are calculated for 0.2Msun fusions at rho>10^12 g/cm^3.

J. L. Zdunik; M. Bejger; P. Haensel

2008-05-13

239

Nuclear constraints on the momenta of inertia of neutron stars  

E-print Network

Properties and structure of neutron stars are determined by the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich stellar matter. While the collective flow and particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have constrained tightly the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter up to about five times the normal nuclear matter density, the more recent experimental data on isospin-diffusion and isoscaling in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies have constrained considerably the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. Although there are still many uncertainties and challenges to pin down completely the EOS of neutron-rich nuclear matter, the heavy-ion reaction experiments in terrestrial laboratories have limited the EOS of neutron-rich nuclear matter in a range much narrower than that spanned by various EOSs currently used in astrophysical studies in the literature. These nuclear physics constraints could thus provide more reliable information about properties of neutron stars. Within well established formalisms using the nuclear constrained EOSs we study the momenta of inertia of neutron stars. We put the special emphasis on the component A of the extremely relativistic double neutron star system PSR J0737-3039. Its moment of inertia is found to be between 1.30 and 1.63 $(\\times10^{45}g$ $cm^2)$. Moreover, the transition density at the crust-core boundary is shown to be in the narrow range of $\\rho_t=[0.091-0.093](fm^{-3})$.

Aaron Worley; Plamen G. Krastev; Bao-An Li

2008-01-10

240

Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The pulses do not repeat and are not associated with a known pulsar or gamma-ray burst. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, hence implying an extremely high radio luminosity, far larger than the power of single pulses from a pulsar. Aims: We suggest that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses to a black hole due to magnetic braking. The neutron star is initially above the critical mass for non-rotating models and is supported by rapid rotation. As magnetic braking constantly reduces the spin, the neutron star will suddenly collapse to a black hole several thousand to million years after its birth. Methods: We discuss several formation scenarios for supramassive neutron stars and estimate the possible observational signatures making use of the results of recent numerical general-relativistic calculations. Results: While the collapse will hide the stellar surface behind an event horizon, the magnetic-field lines will snap violently. This can turn an almost ordinary pulsar into a bright radio "blitzar": accelerated electrons from the travelling magnetic shock dissipate a significant fraction of the magnetosphere and produce a massive radio burst that is observable out to z > 0.7. Only a few per cent of the neutron stars need to be supramassive in order to explain the observed rate. Conclusions: We suggest the intriguing possibility that fast radio bursts might trace the solitary and almost silent formation of stellar mass black holes at high redshifts. These bursts could be an electromagnetic complement to gravitational-wave emission and reveal a new formation and evolutionary channel for black holes and neutron stars that are not seen as gamma-ray bursts. If supramassive neutron stars are formed at birth and not by accretion, radio observations of these bursts could trace the core-collapse supernova rate throughout the universe.

Falcke, Heino; Rezzolla, Luciano

2014-02-01

241

Neutron Stars with Hyperons subject to Strong Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

Neutron stars are one of the most exotic objects in the universe and a unique laboratory to study the nuclear matter above the nuclear saturation density. In this work, we study the equation of state of the nuclear matter within a relativistic model subjected to a strong magnetic field. We then apply this EoS to study and describe some of the physical characteristics of neutron star, especially the mass-radius relation and chemical compositions. To study the influence of a the magnetic field and the hyperons in the stellar interior, we consider altogether four solutions: two different values of magnetic field to obtain a weak and a strong influence, and two configurations: a family of neutron stars formed only by protons, electrons and neutrons and a family formed by protons, electrons, neutrons, muons and hyperons. The limit and the validity of the results found are discussed with some care. In all cases the particles that constitute the neutron star are in $\\beta$ equilibrium and zero total net charge. Our work indicates that the effect of a strong magnetic field has to be taken into account in the description of magnetars, mainly if we believe that there are hyperons in their interior, in which case, the influence of the magnetic field can increase the mass by more than 10%. We have also seen that although a magnetar can reach 2.48$M_{\\odot}$, a natural explanation of why we do not know pulsars with masses above 2.0$M_{\\odot}$ arises. We also discuss how the magnetic field affects the strangeness fraction in some standard neutron star masses and, to conclude our paper, we revisit the direct URCA process related to the cooling of the neutron stars and show how it is affected by the hyperons and the magnetic field.

L. L. Lopes; D. P. Menezes

2012-02-22

242

Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

1994-01-01

243

Neutron-capture Nucleosynthesis in the First Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher

2014-04-01

244

MAGNETIC INHIBITION OF ACCRETION AND OBSERVABILITY OF ISOLATED OLD NEUTRON STARS  

E-print Network

MAGNETIC INHIBITION OF ACCRETION AND OBSERVABILITY OF ISOLATED OLD NEUTRON STARS O. D. Toropina Isolated old neutron stars moving through the interstellar medium capture matter gravitationally. If the star is unmagnetized, the captured matter accretes to the surface of the star. However, the stars

245

Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code is used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes of 1.0-solar-mass neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. The simulations produce outbursts lasting from approximately 750 seconds to approximately one week. The peak effective temperatures and luminosities are 2.6 x 10 to the 7th K and 8 x 10 to the 4th solar luminosities for the 10 km study and 5.3 x 10 to the 6th K and 600 solar luminosities for the 20 km study. It is found that hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting approximately 0.0001 second. The study assumes that the bursters and transient X-ray sources occur as a result of mass transfer from a secondary onto a neutron star in a fashion analogous to the nova phenomena. The peak temperatures and luminosities are found to be inversely proportional to the radius of the neutron stars and the calculations here, together with those in the literature, indicate that the actual radii of most neutron stars must be closer to 10 km than 20 km.

Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

1982-01-01

246

SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?  

SciTech Connect

We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2012-05-20

247

Mergers of binary neutron stars with realistic spin  

E-print Network

Simulations of binary neutron stars have seen great advances in terms of physical detail and numerical quality. However, the spin of the neutron stars, one of the simplest global parameters of binaries, remains mostly unstudied. We present the first, fully nonlinear general relativistic dynamical evolutions of the last three orbits for constraint satisfying initial data of spinning neutron star binaries, with astrophysically realistic spins aligned and anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum. The initial data is computed with the constant rotational velocity approach. The dynamics of the systems is analyzed in terms of gauge-invariant binding energy vs. orbital angular momentum curves. By comparing to a binary black hole configuration we can estimate the different tidal and spin contributions to the binding energy for the first time. First results on the gravitational wave forms are presented. The phase evolution during the orbital motion is significantly affected by spin-orbit interactions, leading to delayed or early mergers. Furthermore, a frequency shift in the main emission mode of the hyper massive neutron star is observed. Our results suggest that a detailed modeling of merger waveforms requires the inclusion of spin, even for the moderate magnitudes observed in binary neutron star systems.

Sebastiano Bernuzzi; Tim Dietrich; Wolfgang Tichy; Bernd Bruegmann

2013-11-18

248

Mergers of binary neutron stars with realistic spin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of binary neutron stars have seen great advances in terms of physical detail and numerical quality. However, the spin of the neutron stars, one of the simplest global parameters of binaries, remains mostly unstudied. We present the first fully nonlinear general relativistic dynamical evolutions of the last three orbits for constraint-satisfying initial data of spinning neutron star binaries, with astrophysically realistic spins aligned and antialigned to the orbital angular momentum. The initial data are computed with the constant rotational velocity approach. The dynamics of the systems is analyzed in terms of gauge-invariant binding energy vs orbital angular momentum curves. By comparing to a binary black hole configuration, we can estimate the different tidal and spin contributions to the binding energy for the first time. First results on the gravitational waveforms are presented. The phase evolution during the orbital motion is significantly affected by spin-orbit interactions, leading to delayed or early mergers. Furthermore, a frequency shift in the main emission mode of the hypermassive neutron star is observed. Our results suggest that a detailed modeling of merger waveforms requires the inclusion of spin, even for the moderate magnitudes observed in binary neutron star systems.

Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Tichy, Wolfgang; Brügmann, Bernd

2014-05-01

249

Discovery of a Neutron Star Oscillation Mode During a Superburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars are among the most compact objects in the universe and provide a unique laboratory for the study of cold ultra-dense matter. While asteroseismology can provide a powerful probe of the interiors of stars, for example, helioseismology has provided unprecedented insights about the interior of the Sun, comparable capabilities for neutron star seismology have not yet been achieved. Here, we report the discovery of a coherent X-ray modulation from the neutron star 4U 1636-536 during the 2001 February 22 thermonuclear superburst seen with NASA's Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) that is very likely produced by a global oscillation mode. The observed frequency is 835.6440 ± 0.0002 Hz (1.43546 times the stellar spin frequency of 582.14323 Hz) and the modulation is well described by a sinusoid (A + Bsin (phi - phi0)) with a fractional half-amplitude of B/A = 0.19 ± 0.04% (4-15 keV). The observed frequency is consistent with the expected inertial frame frequency of a rotationally modified surface g-mode, an interfacial mode in the ocean-crust interface, or perhaps an r-mode. Observing an inertial frame frequency—as opposed to a co-rotating frame frequency—appears consistent with the superburst's thermal emission arising from the entire surface of the neutron star, and the mode may become visible by perturbing the local surface temperature. We briefly discuss the implications of the mode detection for the neutron star's projected velocity and mass. Our results provide further strong evidence that global oscillation modes can produce observable modulations in the X-ray flux from neutron stars.

Strohmayer, Tod; Mahmoodifar, Simin

2014-10-01

250

Nucleation of Quark Matter in Neutron Star Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the general conditions of quark droplet formation in high-density neutron matter. The growth of the quark bubble (assumed to contain a sufficiently large number of particles) can be described by means of a Fokker-Planck equation. The dynamics of the nucleation essentially depends on the physical properties of the medium in which it takes place. The conditions for quark bubble formation are analyzed within the framework of both dissipative and nondissipative (with zero bulk and shear viscosity coefficients) approaches. The conversion time of the neutron star to a quark star is obtained as a function of the equation of state of the neutron matter and of the microscopic parameters of the quark nuclei. As an application of the formalism obtained, we analyze the first-order phase transition from neutron matter to quark matter in rapidly rotating neutron star cores, triggered by the gravitational energy released during the spinning down of the neutron star. The endothermic conversion process, via gravitational energy absorption, could take place in a very short time interval, of the order of a few tens of seconds, in a class of dense compact objects with very high magnetic fields, called magnetars.

Harko, T.; Cheng, K. S.; Tang, P. S.

2004-06-01

251

"Doublet", Neutron and Neutron stars --- An essay on Landau and Neutron stars  

E-print Network

The concept of extremely dense matter at supra-nuclear density was first speculated by L. Landau in the beginning of 1930s when neutron was just discovered. A historical review on these issues not only explains the interaction between micro and cosmic physics, but also has profound implications for scientific innovation. It is surely meaningful in realistic physics education to look back to this history. (The review was published in Chinese.)

Xu, Renxin

2011-01-01

252

"Doublet", Neutron and Neutron stars --- An essay on Landau and Neutron stars  

E-print Network

The concept of extremely dense matter at supra-nuclear density was first speculated by L. Landau in the beginning of 1930s when neutron was just discovered. A historical review on these issues not only explains the interaction between micro and cosmic physics, but also has profound implications for scientific innovation. It is surely meaningful in realistic physics education to look back to this history. (The review was published in Chinese.)

Renxin Xu

2011-03-02

253

X-ray aurora in neutron star magnetospheres  

E-print Network

In this study we propose a new generic model for QPOs based on oscillation modes of neutron star magnetospheres. We argue that the interaction of the accretion disk with the magnetosphere can excite resonant shear Alfven waves in a region of enhanced density gradients. We demonstrate that depending on the distance of this enhanced density region from the star and the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the field line resonance can range from several Hz (weaker field, farther from star), to approximately kHz frequencies (stronger field, ~ 2-10 star radii from the star). We show that such oscillations are able to significantly modulate inflow of matter from the high density region toward the star surface, and possibly produce the observed X-ray spectrum. In addition, we show that the observed 2:3 frequency ratio of QPOs is a natural result of our model.

Vahid Rezania; John C. Samson; Peter Dobias

2004-03-19

254

Neutron star matter in an effective model  

E-print Network

We study the equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of the compact star with hyperons and calculate the star structure in an effective model in the mean field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyse the resulting EOS with hyperons in beta equilibrium and its underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of the compact star lies in the range $1.21-1.96 ~M_{\\odot}$ for the different EOS obtained, in the model.

T. K. Jha; P. K. Raina; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra

2006-08-04

255

Searching for Debris Disks Around Isolated Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will review the current status of searches for debris disks around isolated neutron stars. Such disks could have formed from supernova fallback and their existence have been proposed to explain a few observed properties of neutron stars. Mid-infrared counterparts to two magnetars, 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586, have been detected, and the broad-band spectrum of the first source, which is relatively well determined, can be described by emission from an X-ray heated dust disk. Deep infrared searches, including Spitzer observations, for similar emission around a few neutron stars of different types have been conducted, while with no detections thus far. Using recently released WISE all-sky survey data, we are working on searches for mid-infrared counterparts to all known pulsars. The results will also be presented.

Wang, Zhongxiang

2013-01-01

256

Direct Detection of Gravity Waves from Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

In light of the discovery of the first-ever double pulsar system, PSR J0737-3039, we re-examine an earlier proposal to directly detect gravity waves from neutron stars, which was predicated on a hypothetical system almost identical to the later discovered double pulsar. We re-derive the effect in more detail, and confirm the initial estimate--sometimes doubted in the literature--that it includes a 1/b dependence, where b is the impact parameter of a pulsar with respect to its foreground, gravity-wave emitting, neutron star companion. A coherent modulation in pulsar time-of-arrival measurements of 10 nano-sec/sec is possible. A one-year intermittent experiment on an instrument comparable to the SKA could thus detect the exceedingly faint gravity waves from individual neutron stars.

Redouane Al Fakir; William G. Unruh

2008-05-24

257

Narrow Lines from a Slowly Rotating Neutron Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and identification of photospheric absorption lines from a neutron star would allow measurement of its gravitational redshift and hence the neutron star compactness. In principle, the line shape allows unique determination of mass and radius separately. X-ray bursters are, in most respects, the ideal targets for this search, but most rotate so rapidly that any lines are too broadened to detect. However, the recently discovered X-ray burster Terzan 5 X-2 spins at only 11 Hz, 20 times slower than the next slowest rotator. We propose a TOO observation with HETGS to search for narrow lines of ionized Fe when this X-ray transient next becomes active. This is the best chance ever to detect a narrow atomic line in a neutron star.

Chakrabarty, Deepto

2014-09-01

258

Cooling of Neutron Stars with Strong Toroidal Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

We present models of temperature distribution in the crust of a neutron star in the presence of a strong toroidal component superposed to the poloidal component of the magnetic field. The presence of such a toroidal field hinders heat flow toward the surface in a large part of the crust. As a result, the neutron star surface presents two warm regions surrounded by extended cold regions and has a thermal luminosity much lower than in the case the magnetic field is purely poloidal. We apply these models to calculate the thermal evolution of such neutron stars and show that the lowered photon luminosity naturally extends their life-time as detectable thermal X-ray sources.

Dany Page; Ulrich Geppert; Manfred Kueker

2007-01-16

259

Gravitational Waves from Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary neutron stars are among the most important sources of gravitational waves which are expected to be detected by the current or next generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo, and they are also thought to be at the origin of very important astrophysical phenomena, such as short gamma-ray bursts. In order to describe the dynamics of these events one needs to solve the full set of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations through the use of parallel numerical codes. I will report on some recent results obtained with the use of the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky in simulating binary neutron stars which inspiral and merge forming an hypermassive neutron star which eventually collapses to form a black hole surrounded by a torus. I will in particular describe how the magnetic fields can affect the dynamics and consequently the gravitational waves emitted by these systems and discuss about their detectability by current and future gravitational-wave detectors. )

Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca

2010-02-01

260

General Relativistic Simulations of Binary Neutron Star Mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary neutron star mergers are one of the possible candidates for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and they are also powerful sources of gravitational waves. We have used our fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code Whisky to investigate the merger of binary neutron star systems and we have in particular studied the properties of the tori that can be formed by these systems, their possible connection with the engine of short GRBs and the gravitational wave signals that detectors such as advanced LIGO will be able to detect. We have also shown how the mass of the torus varies as a function of the total mass of the neutron stars composing the binary and of their mass ratio and we have found that tori sufficiently massive to power short GRBs can indeed be formed.

Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca; Link, David; Font, José A.

2011-08-01

261

Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic counterpart to binary neutron star mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a possibility of ultrarelativistic electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers at nearly all the viewing angles. Our proposed mechanism relies on the merger-shock propagation accelerating a smaller mass in the outer parts of the neutron star crust to a larger Lorentz factor ? with smaller energy ˜1047?-1 erg. This mechanism is difficult to resolve by current 3D numerical simulations. The outflows emit synchrotron flares for seconds to days by shocking the ambient medium. Ultrarelativistic flares shine at an early time and in high-energy bands, potentially detectable by current X-ray to radio instruments, such as Swift XRT and Pan-STARRS, and even in low ambient density ˜10-2 cm-3 by EVLA. The flares probe the merger position and time, and the merger types as black hole-neutron star outflows would be non-/mildly relativistic.

Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Shibata, Masaru

2014-01-01

262

Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality  

E-print Network

Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the...

de Carvalho, S M; Rueda, Jorge A; Ruffini, Remo

2014-01-01

263

Powering Anomalous X-ray Pulsars by Neutron Star Cooling  

E-print Network

Using recently calculated analytic models for the thermal structure of ultramagnetized neutron stars, we estimate the thermal fluxes from young ($t\\sim 1000$ yr) ultramagnetized ($B \\sim 10^{15}$ G) cooling neutron stars. We find that the pulsed X-ray emission from objects such as 1E 1841-045 and 1E 2259+586 as well as many soft-gamma repeaters can be explained by photon cooling if the neutron star possesses a thin insulating envelope of matter of low atomic weight at densities $\\rho < 10^{7}-10^{8}$ g/cm$^3$. The total mass of this insulating layer is $M \\sim 10^{-11}-10^{-8} M_\\odot$.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1997-08-20

264

Spectroscopy of a Neutron Star Transient in Outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron star X-ray transients span a broad range of stellar magnetic fields and spin periods, and their outbursts can span five orders of magnitude in mass accretion rate. They are excellent settings in which to study basic disk physics through X-ray disk winds, and the evolution of disks and accretion flows with mass accretion rate. New observations can also confirm the nature of relativistic disk lines, and exploit such lines to constrain the stellar radius, the equation of state, and even the stellar magnetic field strength. Persistent neutron star binaries represent a rich discovery space. We request 2 40 ksec observations to study a new or known neutron star transient in outburst.

Miller, Jon

2012-10-01

265

Joule heating and the thermal evolution of old neutron stars  

E-print Network

We consider Joule heating caused by dissipation of the magnetic field in the neutron star crust. This mechanism may be efficient in maintaining a relatively high surface temperature in very old neutron stars. Calculations of the thermal evolution show that, at the late evolutionary stage ($t \\geq 10$ Myr), the luminosity of the neutron star is approximately equal to the energy released due to the field dissipation and is practically independent of the atmosphere models. At this stage, the surface temperature can be of the order of $3 \\times 10^{4} - 10^{5}$K. Joule heating can maintain this high temperature during extremely long time ($\\geq 100$ Myr), comparable with the decay time of the magnetic field.

Juan A. Miralles; Vadim Urpin; Denis Konenkov

1998-03-06

266

Effects of hyperons in binary neutron star mergers.  

PubMed

Numerical simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in full general relativity incorporating both nucleonic and hyperonic finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) and neutrino cooling. It is found that even for the hyperonic EOS, a hypermassive neutron star is first formed after the merger for the typical total mass ?2.7M(?), and subsequently collapses to a black hole (BH). It is shown that hyperons play a substantial role in the postmerger dynamics, torus formation around the BH, and emission of gravitational waves (GWs). In particular, the existence of hyperons is imprinted in GWs. Therefore, GW observations will provide a potential opportunity to explore the composition of neutron star matter. PMID:22181867

Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

2011-11-18

267

Lightning Stars: Anomalous Photoproduction in Neutron Stars via Parametric Resonance Mechanism  

E-print Network

In this work we propose a new mechanism for photoproduction inside a neutron star based on Parametric Resonance phenomenon as firstly applied to Inflationary Cosmology. Our assumptions are based on the pion condensation model by Harrington and Shepard. We show that a huge number of photons are created which, on turns, reheats the matter in the star's core. Thus, we argue that Parametric Resonance can be effective during a brief period out of an neutron star lifetime leading to an anomalous uprising variation of its brightness departing from the black body radiation at regularly spaced frequencies. In adition, a time periodic signal is obtained in moderate (not exponential) regimes. We argue also that our PR mechanism offers a simple and feasible explanation for some recent observations of giant flares from neutron stars.

S. D. Campos; A. Maia Jr

2005-06-29

268

Detectability of Mode Resonances in Coalescing Neutron Star Binaries  

E-print Network

Inspirals of neutron star-neutron star binaries are a promising source of gravitational waves for gravitational wave detectors like LIGO. During the inspiral, the tidal gravitational field of one of the stars can resonantly excite internal modes of the other star, resulting in a phase shift in the gravitational wave signal. We compute using a Fisher-matrix analysis how large the phase shift must be in order to be detectable. For a $1.4 M_\\odot, 1.4 M_\\odot$ binary the result is $\\sim 8.1, 2.9$ and 1.8 radians, for resonant frequencies of $16, 32$ and 64 Hz. The measurement accuracies of the other binary parameters are degraded by inclusion of the mode resonance effect.

Prakash Balachandran; Eanna E. Flanagan

2007-01-15

269

Triaxial neutron stars a possible source of gravitational radiation  

E-print Network

Triaxial neutron stars may be important sources of gravitational radiation for the forthcoming generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600. We investigate the viscosity triggered bar mode secular instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars by means of a perturbation analysis of numerically constructed ``exact'' general relativistic axisymmetric star models. In the theoretical approach, only the dominant parts of the nonaxisymmetric terms of the 3D-Einstein equations are taken into account. A comparison of our results with previous studies of Newtonian polytropic stars confirms James' classical result gamma_crit=2.238 for the critical polytropic index. Beyond the Newtonian regime, gamma_crit reveals a slight increase toward highly relativistic configurations. Six out of twelve employed realistic dense matter equations of state admit the spontaneous symmetry breaking for masses above 1.6 M_sol.

Bonazzola, S; Gourgoulhon, E

1996-01-01

270

Triaxial neutron stars -- a possible source of gravitational radiation  

E-print Network

Triaxial neutron stars may be important sources of gravitational radiation for the forthcoming generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600. We investigate the viscosity triggered bar mode secular instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars by means of a perturbation analysis of numerically constructed ``exact'' general relativistic axisymmetric star models. In the theoretical approach, only the dominant parts of the nonaxisymmetric terms of the 3D-Einstein equations are taken into account. A comparison of our results with previous studies of Newtonian polytropic stars confirms James' classical result gamma_crit=2.238 for the critical polytropic index. Beyond the Newtonian regime, gamma_crit reveals a slight increase toward highly relativistic configurations. Six out of twelve employed realistic dense matter equations of state admit the spontaneous symmetry breaking for masses above 1.6 M_sol.

S. Bonazzola; J. Frieben; E. Gourgoulhon

1996-07-24

271

PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING NEUTRON-STAR MASSES AND RADII WITH X-RAY PULSE PROFILE MODELING  

E-print Network

Modeling the amplitudes and shapes of the X-ray pulsations observed from hot, rotating neutron stars provides a direct method for measuring neutron-star properties. This technique constitutes an important part of the science ...

Psaltis, Dimitrios

272

Magnetohydrodynamics of superfluid and superconducting neutron star cores  

E-print Network

Mature neutron stars are cold enough to contain a number of superfluid and superconducting components. These systems are distinguished by the presence of additional dynamical degrees of freedom associated with superfluidity. In order to consider models with mixtures of condensates we need to develop a multifluid description that accounts for the presence of rotational neutron vortices and magnetic proton fluxtubes. We also need to model the forces that impede the motion of vortices and fluxtubes, and understand how these forces act on the condensates. This paper concerns the development of such a model for the outer core of a neutron star, where superfluid neutrons co-exist with a type II proton superconductor and an electron gas. We discuss the hydrodynamics of this system, focusing on the role of the entrainment effect, the magnetic field, the vortex/fluxtube tension and the dissipative mutual friction forces. Out final results can be directly applied to a number of interesting astrophysical scenarios, e.g....

Glampedakis, K; Samuelsson, L

2010-01-01

273

Standard and Enhanced Cooling of Neutron Stars with Superfluid Cores  

E-print Network

Calculations are performed of the cooling of neutron stars with standard and enhanced neutrino energy losses in the presence of neutron and proton superfluidities in the stellar cores. The effects of superfluidity on the heat capacity and the neutrino luminosity produced by the direct and modified Urca processes and by the neutrino bremsstrahlung emission in nucleon-nucleon collisions are taken into account. The constraints are analyzed on the critical temperatures $\\tn$ and $\\tp$ of the transition of neutrons and protons to the superfluid state, which can be obtained from a comparison of observational data on thermal radiation from neutron stars with theoretical cooling curves for the standard and enhanced neutrino energy losses. Possible ranges of $\\tn$ and $\\tp$ for the pulsar Geminga are discussed.

K. P. Levenfish; D. G. Yakovlev

1996-08-07

274

Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes of 1.0 Msub solar neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. Simulations produce outbursts which last from about 750 seconds to about one week. Peak effective temeratures and luninosities were 26 million K and 80 thousand Lsub solar for the 10 km study and 5.3 millison and 600 Lsub solar for the 20 km study. Hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting about one ten thousandth seconds.

Starrfield, S. G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

1981-01-01

275

Neutron stars within pseudo-complex general relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of neutron stars within the theory of pseudo-complex general relativity are studied. The pc-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are numerically integrated in order to understand the structure of these objects. The interior ?-term energy density {{\\varepsilon }_{\\Lambda i}} has been linearly coupled to the respective baryonic quantity ?m. Two models for the exterior region have been analyzed attending the continuity of the energy density at the boundary. Energy conditions have been studied for both regions. Solutions have been presented for different values of the coupling parameter. It is shown that accumulation of the ?-term component allows the theoretical existence of larger and more massive neutron stars.

Rodríguez, Isaac; Hess, Peter O.; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Walter

2014-10-01

276

Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Simulations at Georgia Tech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed compact object binaries consisting of a black hole and a neutron star are expected to be not only one of the primary sources of gravitational radiation to be observed by interferometric detectors but also the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts. We report on the status of our effort at Georgia Tech to model these mixed binary systems using the moving puncture method. The results are obtained with an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics Whisky code. We present preliminary results of gravitational waveforms and the disruption of the neutron star for simple polytropic equations of state.

Haas, Roland

2009-05-01

277

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND THE MAXIMUM SPIN FREQUENCY OF NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we re-examine the idea that gravitational waves are required as a braking mechanism to explain the observed maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. We show that for millisecond X-ray pulsars, the existence of spin equilibrium as set by the disk/magnetosphere interaction is sufficient to explain the observations. We show as well that no clear correlation exists between the neutron star magnetic field B and the X-ray outburst luminosity L{sub X} when considering an enlarged sample size of millisecond X-ray pulsars.

Patruno, Alessandro; Haskell, Brynmor; D'Angelo, Caroline [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-02-10

278

X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We present first results of modeling convective photospheres of neutron stars. We show that in photospheres composed of the light elements convection arises only at relatively low effective temperatures ({le}3 - 5 x 10{sup 4} K), whereas in the case of iron composition it arises at T{sub eff}{le} 3 x 10{sup 5}K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. Thus, it should be taken into account for the proper interpretation of EUV/soft-X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

Zavlin, V.E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Pavlov, G.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States)]|[Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Petersburg, RU (United States); Shibanov, Yu.A. [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-01-17

279

Decoupling of superfluid and normal modes in pulsating neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We show that equations governing pulsations of superfluid neutron stars can be split into two sets of weakly coupled equations, one describing the superfluid modes and another one, the normal modes. The coupling parameter s is small, |s|{approx}0.01-0.05, for realistic equations of state. Already an approximation s=0 is sufficient to calculate the pulsation spectrum within the accuracy of a few percent. Our results indicate, in particular, that emission of gravitational waves from superfluid pulsation modes is suppressed in comparison to that from normal modes. The proposed approach allows to drastically simplify modeling of pulsations of superfluid neutron stars.

Gusakov, Mikhail E. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kantor, Elena M. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-04-15

280

Hyperon and nuclear symmetry energy in the neutron star  

E-print Network

In this work, masses and radii of neutron stars are considered to investigate the effect of nuclear symmetry energy to the astrophysical observables. A relativistic mean field model with density-dependent meson-baryon coupling constants is employed in describing the equation of state of dense nuclear matter, and the density dependencies of the symmetry energies are quoted from the recent phenomenological formulae obtained from the heavy ion data at subnuclear saturation densities. Since hyperons can take part in the $\\beta$-equilibrium of the dense matter inside neutron stars, we include hyperons in our estimation and their roles are discussed in combination with that of the nuclear symmetry energy.

Chung-Yeol Ryu; Chang Ho Hyun; Chang-Hwan Lee

2011-08-30

281

Tables of model atmospheres of bursting neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents tables of plane-parallel neutron star model atmospheres in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, with effective temperatures of 8 x 10 exp 6, 1.257 x 10 exp 7, 2 x 10 exp 7, and 3 x 10 exp 7 K, and surface gravities of 15.0 and less (cgs units). The equations of model atmospheres on which the tables are based fully account for nonisotropies of the radiation field and effects of noncoherent Compton scattering of thermal X-rays by free electrons. Both the effective temperatures and gravities listed above are measured on the neutron star surface.

Madej, Jerzy

1991-01-01

282

The Many Faces - and Phases - of Neutron Stars  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure and dynamics of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss the many fascinating phases that one encounters as one travels from the low-density crust to the high-density core.

Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

2007-10-26

283

Hyperons and nuclear symmetry energy in neutron star matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, masses and radii of neutron stars are considered to investigate the effect of nuclear symmetry energy on astrophysical observables. A relativistic mean-field model with density-dependent meson-baryon coupling constants is employed in describing the equation of state of dense nuclear matter, and the density dependencies of the symmetry energies are quoted from the recent phenomenological formulas obtained from heavy-ion data at subnuclear saturation densities. Since hyperons can take part in the ?-equilibrium of the dense matter inside neutron stars, we include hyperons in our estimation and their roles are discussed in combination with that of the nuclear symmetry energy.

Ryu, Chung-Yeol; Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Chang-Hwan

2011-09-01

284

Nuclear Superfluidity in Exotic Nuclei and Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Nuclear superfludity in exotic nuclei close to the drip lines and in the inner crust matter of neutron stars have common features which can be treated with the same theoretical tools. In the first part of my lecture I discuss how two such tools, namely the HFB approach and the linear response theory can be used to describe the pairing correlations in weakly bound nuclei, in which the unbound part of the energy spectrum becomes important. Then, using the same models, I shall discuss how the nuclear superfluidity can affect the thermal properties of the inner crust of neutron stars.

Nicolae Sandulescu

2006-12-11

285

Role of isospin physics in supernova matter and neutron stars  

E-print Network

We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of hot protoneutron stars shortly after their birth following supernova explosion and the composition and structure of hyperon-rich (proto)neutron stars within a relativistic mean-field model where the nuclear symmetry energy has been constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. Light clusters are abundantly formed with increasing temperature well inside the neutrino-sphere for an uniform supernova matter. Liquid-gas phase transition is found to suppress the cluster yield within the coexistence phase as well as decrease considerably the neutron-proton asymmetry over a wide density range. We find symmetry energy has a modest effect on the boundaries and the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, and the composition depends more sensitively on the number of trapped neutrinos and temperature of the protoneutron star. The influence of hyperons in the dense interior of stars makes the overall equation of state soft. However, neutrino trapping distinctly delays the appearance of hyperons due to abundance of electrons. We also find that a softer symmetry energy further makes the onset of hyperon less favorable. The resulting structures of the (proto)neutron stars with hyperons and with liquid-gas phase transition are discussed.

Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

2010-10-28

286

Quantum Vacuum Friction in highly magnetized neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter we calculate the energy loss of a highly magnetized neutron star due to Quantum Vacuum Friction (QVF). Taking into account one-loop corrections in the effective Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian of the light-light interaction, we derive an analytic expression for QVF allowing us to take into account a magnetic field at the surface of the star as high as 1011

Arnaud Dupays; Carlo Rizzo; Dimitar Bakalov; G. F. Bignami

2008-01-01

287

Gravitational Waves from Phase Transition of Accreting Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We propose that when neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete sufficient mass and become millisecond pulsars, the interiors of these stars may undergo phase transitions, which excite stellar radial oscillations. We show that the radial oscillations will be mainly damped by gravitational-wave radiation instead of internal viscosity. The gravitational waves can be detected by the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory at a rate of about three events per year.

K. S. Cheng; Z. G. Dai

1997-04-16

288

A Hot Water Bottle for Aging Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity C_V and the heat loss by neutrino emission L_\

Mark Alford; Pooja Jotwani; Chris Kouvaris; Joydip Kundu; Krishna Rajagopal

2004-11-19

289

X-ray observations of neutron stars and black holes in nearby  

E-print Network

they run out of fuel White dwarf (8 M ) Supernova (8 M ) Neutron star (M~1.4-3.0 M ) Black-hole (M >3.0 MX-ray observations of neutron stars and black holes in nearby galaxies Andreas Zezas Harvard ) #12;Black-holes and Neutron stars · Neutron stars (~1.4M ) : Pulsars (magnetized NS) Non-magnetized NS

Wolfe, Patrick J.

290

Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2  

E-print Network

Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2 , Wei Liu1 and En-Guang Zhao2 1 a new phase structure of neutron star matter including nucleons and delta isobars is presented. Particle fractions populated and pion condensations in neutron star matter are investgated in this model

Xu, Ren-Xin

291

Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without a magnetic field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by Bremsstrahlung or any other process. It is suggested that instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

Colgate, S. A.; Petschek, A. G.; Sarracino, R.

1983-01-01

292

Perturbative approach to the structure of rapidly rotating neutron stars  

E-print Network

We construct models of rotating stars using the perturbative approach introduced by J. Hartle in 1967, and a set of equations of state proposed to model hadronic interactions in the inner core of neutron stars. We integrate the equations of stellar structure to third order in the angular velocity and show, comparing our results to those obtained with fully non linear codes, to what extent third order corrections are needed to accurately reproduce the moment of inertia of a star which rotates at rates comparable to that of the fastest isolated pulsars.

Omar Benhar; Valeria Ferrari; Leonardo Gualtieri; Stefania Marassi

2005-04-15

293

Dark matter, neutron stars and strange quark matter  

E-print Network

We show that self-annihilating neutralino WIMP dark matter accreted onto neutron stars may provide a mechanism to seed compact objects with long-lived lumps of strange quark matter, or strangelets, for WIMP masses above a few GeV. This effect may trigger a conversion of most of the star into a strange star. We use an energy estimate for the long-lived strangelet based on the Fermi gas model combined with the MIT bag model to set a new limit on the possible values of the WIMP mass that can be especially relevant for subdominant species of massive neutralinos.

M. Angeles Perez-Garcia; Joseph Silk; Jirina R. Stone

2010-07-08

294

Effective No-Hair Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars: Relativistic Results  

E-print Network

Astrophysical charge-free black holes are known to satisfy no-hair relations through which all multipole moments can be specified in terms of just their mass and spin angular momentum. We here investigate the possible existence of no-hair-like relations among multipole moments for neutron stars and quark stars that are independent of their equation of state. We calculate the multipole moments of these stars up to hexadecapole order by constructing uniformly-rotating and unmagnetized stellar solutions to the Einstein equations. For slowly-rotating stars, we construct stellar solutions to quartic order in spin in a slow-rotation expansion, while for rapidly-rotating stars, we solve the Einstein equations numerically with the LORENE and RNS codes. We find that the multipole moments extracted from these numerical solutions are consistent with each other. We confirm that the current-dipole is related to the mass-quadrupole in an approximately equation of state independent fashion, which does not break for rapidly rotating neutron stars or quark stars. We further find that the current-octupole and the mass-hexadecapole moments are related to the mass-quadrupole in an approximately equation of state independent way to $\\sim 10%$, worsening in the hexadecapole case. All of our findings are in good agreement with previous work that considered stellar solutions to leading-order in a weak-field expansion. The quartic in spin, slowly-rotating solutions found here allow us to estimate the systematic errors in the measurement of the neutron star's mass and radius with future X-ray observations, such as NICER and LOFT. We find that the effect of these quartic-in-spin terms on the quadrupole and hexadecapole moments and stellar eccentricity may dominate the error budget for very rapidly-rotating neutron stars. The new universal relations found here should help to reduce such systematic errors.

Kent Yagi; Koutarou Kyutoku; George Pappas; Nicolas Yunes; Theocharis A. Apostolatos

2014-03-25

295

Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-density relation was calculated for pure neutron matter in the density range relevant for neutron stars, using four different hard-core potentials. Calculations are also presented of the properties of the superfluid state of the neutron component, along with the superconducting state of the proton component and the effects of polarization in neutron star matter.

Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C. H.

1974-01-01

296

The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities

Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

2000-01-01

297

Effects of mirror dark matter on neutron stars  

E-print Network

If dark matter is made of mirror baryons, they are present in all gravitationally bound structures. Here we investigate some effects of mirror dark matter on neutron stars and discuss possible observational consequences. The general-relativistic hydrostatic equations are generalized to spherical objects with multiple fluids that interact by gravity. We use the minimal parity-symmetric extension of the standard model, which implies that the microphysics is the same in the two sectors. We find that the mass-radius relation is significantly modified in the presence of a few percent mirror baryons. This effect mimics that of other exotica, e.g., quark matter. In contrast to the common view that the neutron-star equilibrium sequence is unique, we show that it depends on the relative number of mirror baryons to ordinary baryons. It is therefore history dependent. The critical mass for core collapse, i.e., the process by which neutron stars are created, is modified in the presence of mirror baryons. We calculate the modified Chandrasekhar mass and fit it with a polynomial. A few percent mirror baryons is sufficient to lower the critical mass for core collapse by ~0.1 M_sun. This could allow for the formation of extraordinary compact neutron stars with low mass.

Fredrik Sandin; Paolo Ciarcelluti

2008-09-17

298

The Soft Gamma Repeaters : A New Class of Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soft gamma repeaters are a peculliar group of transient sources, distinguished from the more common `classical' gamma ray bursters by their multiple repititions, and by their relatively soft spectral energy distributions. One SGR in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a satellite system of our Galaxy) emitted the brightest gamma-ray burst ever detected, on March 5, 1979. At its peak, this burst outshone a more typical X-ray flash (powered by thermonuclear burning) by almost ten million. A preponderance of evidence suggests that Soft Gamma Repeaters are young neutron stars possessing magnetic fields 10-100 times the QED strength. The associated stresses are sufficient to fracture the outer rigid crust of the neutron star, and to induce a steady X-ray glow from its surface. In distinction with ordinary radio pulsars, the magnetic field itself -- rather than the rotation -- is the dominant source of free energy. Recent observations have confirmed a prediction of this model, that the SGR sources are slowly rotating (by the standards of young neutron stars) and that their spin periods are increasing rapidly. I will outline how quantum electrodynamic effects modify the emergent X-ray spectrum, how measurements of the spin evolution of an SGR can be used to probe its superfluid interior, and how measurements of post-burst afterglow from the heated neutron star provide a direct diagnostic of the magnetic field.

Thompson, Christopher

1998-11-01

299

Statistics of Neutron Stars at the Stage of Supersonic Propeller  

E-print Network

We analyze the statistical distribution of neutron stars at the stage of a supersonic propeller. An important point of our analysis is allowance for the evolution of the angle of inclination of the magnetic axis to the spin axis of the neutron star for the boundary of the transition to the supersonic propeller stage for two models: the model with hindered particle escape from the stellar surface and the model with free particle escape. As a result, we have shown that a consistent allowance for the evolution of the inclination angle in the region of extinct radio pulsars for the two models leads to an increase in the total number of neutron stars at the supersonic propeller stage. This increase stems from he fact that when allowing for the evolution of the inclination angle $\\chi$ for neutron stars in the region of extinct radio pulsars and, hence, for the boundary of the transition to the propeller stage, this transition is possible at shorter spin periods (P~5-10 s) than assumed in the standard model.

V. S. Beskin; S. A. Eliseeva

2005-08-22

300

Stringent neutron-star limits on large extra dimensions  

E-print Network

Supernovae (SNe) are copious sources for Kaluza-Klein gravitons which are generic for theories with large extra dimensions. These massive particles are produced with average velocities ~0.5 c so that many of them are gravitationally retained by the SN core. Every neutron star thus has a halo of KK gravitons which decay into nu bar-nu, e^+e^- and gamma gamma on time scales \\~10^9 years. The EGRET gamma-flux limits (E_gamma ~ 100 MeV) for nearby neutron stars constrain the fundamental scale for n=2 extra dimensions to M >500 TeV, and M>30 TeV for n=3. The upcoming GLAST satellite is a factor ~30 more sensitive and thus may detect KK decays, for example at the nearby neutron star RX J185635--3754. The requirement that neutron stars are not excessively heated by KK decays implies M>1700 TeV for n=2, and M>60 TeV for n=3.

Steen Hannestad; Georg G. Raffelt

2001-10-04

301

Testing General Metric Theories of Gravity with Bursting Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

I show that several observable properties of bursting neutron stars in metric theories of gravity can be calculated using only conservation laws, Killing symmetries, and the Einstein equivalence principle, without requiring the validity of the general relativistic field equations. I calculate, in particular, the gravitational redshift of a surface atomic line, the touchdown luminosity of a radius-expansion burst, which is believed to be equal to the Eddington critical luminosity, and the apparent surface area of a neutron star as measured during the cooling tails of bursts. I show that, for a general metric theory of gravity, the apparent surface area of a neutron star depends on the coordinate radius of the stellar surface and on its gravitational redshift in the exact same way as in general relativity. On the other hand, the Eddington critical luminosity depends also on an additional parameter that measures the degree to which the general relativistic field equations are satisfied. These results can be used in conjunction with current and future high-energy observations of bursting neutron stars to test general relativity in the strong-field regime.

Dimitrios Psaltis

2007-04-18

302

White dwarfs, black holes and neutron stars in close binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis some aspects of the formation and evolution of binaries containing white dwarfs, black holes and neutron stars are investigated. In the first part the formation of observed single undermassive white dwarfs and double helium white dwarfs is studied. I conclude that the formation of single undermassive white dwarfs can be explained by the evolution of `binaries' consisting

G. A. Nelemans

2001-01-01

303

Very massive neutron stars in Ni's theory of gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that in Ni's theory of gravity, which is identical to general relativity in the post-Newtonian limit, neutron stars of arbitrarily large mass are possible. This result is independent, within reasonable bounds, of the equation of state of matter at supernuclear densities.

Mikkelsen, D. R.

1977-01-01

304

Neutron stars in a Skyrme model with hyperons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available Skyrme parametrizations with hyperons are examined from the point of view of their suitability for applications to neutron stars. It is shown that the hyperons can attenuate or even remove the problem of ferromagnetic instability common to (nearly) all Skyrme parametrizations of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. At high density the results are very sensitive to the choice of the ??

L. Mornas; Avda Calvo Sotelo

2005-01-01

305

Gamma-Ray Bursts from Neutron Star Mergers  

E-print Network

Binary neutron stars merger (NS$^2$M) at cosmological distances is probably the only $\\gamma$-ray bursts model based on an independently observed phenomenon which is known to be taking place at a comparable rate. We describe this model, its predictions and some open questions.

T. Piran

1994-01-17

306

Mechanical Properties of Non-Accreting Neutron Star Crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of a neutron star crust, such as breaking strain and shear modulus, have implications for the detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star as well as bursts from Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs). These properties are calculated here for three different crustal compositions for a non-accreting neutron star that results from three different cooling histories, as well as for a pure iron crust. A simple shear is simulated using molecular dynamics to the crustal compositions by deforming the simulation box. The breaking strain and shear modulus are found to be similar in the four cases, with a breaking strain of ˜0.1 and a shear modulus of ˜1030 dyne cm-2 at a density of ? = 1014g cm-3 for simulations with an initially perfect BCC lattice. With these crustal properties and the observed properties of PSR J2124-3358 the predicted strain amplitude of gravitational waves for a maximally deformed crust is found to be greater than the observational upper limits from LIGO. This suggests that the neutron star crust in this case may not be maximally deformed or it may not have a perfect BCC lattice structure. The implications of the calculated crustal properties of bursts from SGRs are also explored. The mechanical properties found for a perfect BCC lattice structure find that crustal events alone can not be ruled out for triggering the energy in SGR bursts.

Hoffman, Kelsey L.; Heyl, J. S.

2013-01-01

307

Mechanical properties of non-accreting neutron star crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of a neutron star crust, such as breaking strain and shear modulus, have implications for the detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star as well as bursts from soft Gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These properties are calculated here for three different crustal compositions for a non-accreting neutron star that results from three different cooling histories, as well as for a pure iron crust. A simple shear is simulated using molecular dynamics to the crustal compositions by deforming the simulation box. The breaking strain and shear modulus are found to be similar in the four cases, with a breaking strain of ˜0.1 and a shear modulus of ˜1030 dyne cm-2 at a density of ? = 1014 g cm-3 for simulations with an initially perfect body-centred cubic (BCC) lattice. With these crustal properties and the observed properties of PSR J2124-3358, the predicted strain amplitude of gravitational waves for a maximally deformed crust is found to be greater than the observational upper limits from LIGO. This suggests that the neutron star crust in this case may not be maximally deformed or it may not have a perfect BCC lattice structure. The implications of the calculated crustal properties of bursts from SGRs are also explored. The mechanical properties found for a perfect BCC lattice structure find that crustal events alone cannot be ruled out for triggering the energy in SGR bursts.

Hoffman, Kelsey; Heyl, Jeremy

2012-11-01

308

Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of spacetime produced by the white dwarf's gravitation. This effect, called the Shapiro Delay, allowed the scientists to precisely measure the masses of both stars. "We got very lucky with this system. The rapidly-rotating pulsar gives us a signal to follow throughout the orbit, and the orbit is almost perfectly edge-on. In addition, the white dwarf is particularly massive for a star of that type. This unique combination made the Shapiro Delay much stronger and thus easier to measure," said Scott Ransom, also of NRAO. The astronomers used a newly-built digital instrument called the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), attached to the GBT, to follow the binary stars through one complete orbit earlier this year. Using GUPPI improved the astronomers' ability to time signals from the pulsar severalfold. The researchers expected the neutron star to have roughly one and a half times the mass of the Sun. Instead, their observations revealed it to be twice as massive as the Sun. That much mass, they say, changes their understanding of a neutron star's composition. Some theoretical models postulated that, in addition to neutrons, such stars also would contain certain other exotic subatomic particles called hyperons or condensates of kaons. "Our results rule out those ideas," Ransom said. Demorest and Ransom, along with Tim Pennucci of the University of Virginia, Mallory Roberts of Eureka Scientific, and Jason Hessels of the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy and the University of Amsterdam, reported their results in the October 28 issue of the scientific journal Nature. Their result has further implications, outlined in a companion paper, scheduled for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This measurement tells us that if any quarks are present in a neutron star core, they cannot be 'free,' but rather must be strongly interacting with each other as they do in normal atomic nuclei," said Feryal Ozel of the University of Arizona, lead author of the second paper. Th

2010-10-01

309

Slowly rotating neutron and strange stars in R2 gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we investigate self-consistently slowly rotating neutron and strange stars in R-squared gravity with Lagrangian f(R) = R + aR2, where a is a parameter. For this purpose we first derive the equations describing the structure of the slowly rotating compact stars in f(R)-gravity and then simultaneously solve numerically the exterior and the interior problem. The structure of the slowly rotating neutron stars is studied for two different hadronic equations of state and a strange matter equation of state. The moment of inertia and its dependence on the stellar mass and the R-squared gravity parameter a is also examined in details. The numerical results show that the neutron star moment of inertia can be up to 30% larger compared to the corresponding general relativistic models. This is much higher than the change in the maximum mass induced by R-squared gravity and is beyond the EOS uncertainty. In this way the future observations of the moment of inertia of compact stars could allow us to distinguish between general relativity and f(R) gravity, and more generally to test the strong field regime of gravity.

Staykov, Kalin V.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

2014-10-01

310

Recent Breakthroughs in Detecting Neutron Star Binaries in Globular Clusters  

E-print Network

Binary stars have long been considered to play a crucial role in globular cluster evolution, and offer the advantages of studying systems at the same, well-determined distances. However, early search attempts were consistently thwarted by crowding (particularly in the optical) and initial detections were limited to small numbers of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and a handful of other systems. This resolution hurdle has been dramatically overcome by the superb spatial resolution and sensitivity of HST and Chandra (supported by advances in radio observations), enabling the detection in individual clusters of more than 10, and in some cases more than 100, binaries. This review will focus on detections of neutron star binaries, including recent optical identifications, the exciting discoveries of multiple LMXBs in quiescence (with the potential to constrain neutron star equations of state) and the detections of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in X-ray and optical images.

Peter D. Edmonds

2002-10-23

311

Joule Heating in Neutron Stars under Strong Gravitation  

E-print Network

Considering Joule heating caused by the dissipation of the magnetic field in the neutron star crust to be an efficient mechanism in maintaining a relatively high surface temperature in very old neutron stars, the role of general relativity is investigated. It is found that, although the effect of space-time curvature produced by the intense gravitational field of the star slows down the decay rate of the magnetic field, modification of the initial magnetic field configuration and the initial field strength by the space-time curvature results in increasing the rate of Joule heating. Hence the space-time curvature supports Joule heating in maintaining a relatively high surface temperature which is consistent with the bservational detection.

Sujan Sengupta

2000-06-23

312

Simulating binary neutron stars: Dynamics and gravitational waves  

SciTech Connect

We model two mergers of orbiting binary neutron stars, the first forming a black hole and the second a differentially rotating neutron star. We extract gravitational waveforms in the wave zone. Comparisons to a post-Newtonian analysis allow us to compute the orbital kinematics, including trajectories and orbital eccentricities. We verify our code by evolving single stars and extracting radial perturbative modes, which compare very well to results from perturbation theory. The Einstein equations are solved in a first-order reduction of the generalized harmonic formulation, and the fluid equations are solved using a modified convex essentially non-oscillatory method. All calculations are done in three spatial dimensions without symmetry assumptions. We use the had computational infrastructure for distributed adaptive mesh refinement.

Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Motl, Patrick M.; Palenzuela, Carlos; Tohline, Joel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Hirschmann, Eric W.; Neilsen, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States); Liebling, Steven L. [Department of Physics, Long Island University-C.W. Post Campus, Brookville, New York 11548 (United States)

2008-01-15

313

Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars  

E-print Network

Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The pulses do not repeat and are not associated with a known pulsar or gamma-ray burst. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, hence implying an extremely high radio luminosity, far larger than the power of single pulses from a pulsar. We suggest that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses to a black hole due to magnetic braking. The neutron star is initially above the critical mass for non-rotating models and is supported by rapid rotation. As magnetic braking constantly reduces the spin, the neutron star will suddenly collapse to a black hole several thousand to million years after its birth. We discuss several formation scenarios for supramassive neutron stars and estimate the possible observational signatures {making use of the results of recent numerical general-relativistic calculations. While the collapse will hide the stellar surface behind an event horizon, the magnetic-field lines will snap violently. This can turn an almost ordinary pulsar into a bright radio "blitzar": Accelerated electrons from the travelling magnetic shock dissipate a significant fraction of the magnetosphere and produce a massive radio burst that is observable out to z>0.7. Only a few percent of the neutron stars needs to be supramassive in order to explain the observed rate. We suggest that fast radio bursts might trace the solitary formation of stellar mass black holes at high redshifts. These bursts could be an electromagnetic complement to gravitational-wave emission and reveal a new formation and evolutionary channel for black holes that are not seen as gamma-ray bursts. Radio observations of these bursts could trace the core-collapse supernova rate throughout the universe.

Heino Falcke; Luciano Rezzolla

2013-07-04

314

Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the density at the base of the crust, ?crust. In particular, we find that the traditional increase of the relaxation time with the crust thickness holds only for configurations whose density of the base of the crust is greater than ?5 ×1013 g cm -3. The reason for this is that neutron star crusts with very thin or absent inner crust have some neutrino emission processes blocked, which keeps the crust hotter for longer times. Therefore, accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase of neutron stars might give crucial information on the core-crust transition which may aid us in probing the inner composition and structure of these objects.

de Carvalho, S. M.; Negreiros, R.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

2014-11-01

315

Non extensive thermodynamics and neutron star properties  

E-print Network

In the present work we apply non extensive statistics to obtain equations of state suitable to describe stellar matter and verify its effects on microscopic and macroscopic quantities. Two snapshots of the star evolution are considered and the direct Urca process is investigated with two different parameter sets. $q$-values are chosen as 1.05 and 1.14. The equations of state are only slightly modified, but the effects are enough to produce stars with slightly higher maximum masses. The onsets of the constituents are more strongly affected and the internal stellar temperature decreases with the increase of the $q$-value, with consequences on the strangeness and cooling rates of the stars.

Menezes, Débora P; Megías, Eugenio; Castro, Luis B

2014-01-01

316

Effects of the symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts near the neutron drip density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of the symmetry energy on the neutron drip density and properties of nuclei in neutron star crusts. The nonuniform matter around the neutron drip point is calculated by using the Thomas-Fermi approximation with the relativistic mean-field model. The neutron drip density and the composition of the crust are found to be correlated with the symmetry energy and its slope. We compare the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation with other treatments of surface and Coulomb energies and find that these finite-size effects play an essential role in determining the equilibrium state at low density.

Bao, S. S.; Hu, J. N.; Zhang, Z. W.; Shen, H.

2014-10-01

317

Fusion of neutron rich oxygen isotopes in the crust of accreting neutron stars  

E-print Network

Fusion reactions in the crust of an accreting neutron star are an important source of heat, and the depth at which these reactions occur is important for determining the temperature profile of the star. Fusion reactions depend strongly on the nuclear charge $Z$. Nuclei with $Z\\le 6$ can fuse at low densities in a liquid ocean. However, nuclei with Z=8 or 10 may not burn until higher densities where the crust is solid and electron capture has made the nuclei neutron rich. We calculate the $S$ factor for fusion reactions of neutron rich nuclei including $^{24}$O + $^{24}$O and $^{28}$Ne + $^{28}$Ne. We use a simple barrier penetration model. The $S$ factor could be further enhanced by dynamical effects involving the neutron rich skin. This possible enhancement in $S$ should be studied in the laboratory with neutron rich radioactive beams. We model the structure of the crust with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the crust of accreting neutron stars may contain micro-crystals or regions of phase separation. Nevertheless, the screening factors that we determine for the enhancement of the rate of thermonuclear reactions are insensitive to these features. Finally, we calculate the rate of thermonuclear $^{24}$O + $^{24}$O fusion and find that $^{24}$O should burn at densities near $10^{11}$ g/cm$^3$. The energy released from this and similar reactions may be important for the temperature profile of the star.

C. J. Horowitz; H. Dussan; D. K. Berry

2007-10-30

318

Stochastic Background from Coalescences of Neutron Star-Neutron Star Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, numerical simulations were used to investigate the gravitational stochastic background produced by coalescences of double neutron star systems occurring up to z~5. The cosmic coalescence rate was derived from Monte Carlo methods using the probability distributions for massive binaries to form and for a coalescence to occur in a given redshift. A truly continuous background is produced by events located only beyond the critical redshift z*=0.23. Events occurring in the redshift interval 0.027

Regimbau, T.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

2006-05-01

319

The shear modulus of the neutron star crust and nonradial oscillations of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shear moduli are calculated for bcc crystalline and rapidly quenched Coulomb solids produced by the Monte Carlo simulation method. The shear moduli are calculated up to the transition temperature and include the effects of thermal fluctuations. An effective shear modulus appropriate to an approximate 'isotropic' body is introduced. It is found that the values of the 'average shear modulus' for the quenched solids remain about the same as those for the corresponding bcc crystals, although the individual shear moduli of the former, disordered solids deviate considerably from the cubic symmetry of the latter. These results are applied to analyses of neutron star oscillations. It is found that the periods of the two interfacial modes are increased by about 10 percent compared to previous results, and that s-mode periods are increased by about 30 percent. The periods of the f and p modes are hardly affected at all. The surface g-mode periods are not greatly affected, while the t-mode periods are increased by 20-25 percent.

Strohmayer, T.; Van Horn, H. M.; Ogata, S.; Iyetomi, H.; Ichimaru, S.

1991-01-01

320

Neutron star evolution with internal heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal evolution predicted by current models of the superfluid-crust interaction is noted to differ substantially from the thermal evolution predicted by models without internal heating as well as previous models of heating. Heating rates approaching the maximum predicted by current models enhance the photon luminosity of the star in the neutrino cooling era, and dramatically alter the thermal evolution

Noriaki Shibazaki; Frederick K. Lamb

1989-01-01

321

Properties of localized protons in neutron star matter for realistic nuclear models  

E-print Network

We study the localization of protons in the core of neutron stars for ten realistic nuclear models that share a common behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy which saturates and eventually decreases at high densities. This results in the low proton fraction of beta-stable neutron star matter. Protons form a small admixture in the neutron star core, which is localized at sufficiently high densities. For every model we calculate the density $n_{loc}$ above which the localization effect is present. Our results indicate that localization occurs at densities above $0.5-1.0 fm^{-3}$. The phase with localized protons occupies a spherical shell or a core region inside neutron stars which contains significant fraction of all nucleons. Proton localization is of great importance for astrophysical properties of neutron stars as it strongly affects transport coefficients of neutron star matter and can produce spontaneous magnetization in neutron stars.

A. Szmaglinski; W. Wojcik; M. Kutschera

2006-02-13

322

Isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and properties of axisymmetric neutron stars  

E-print Network

Pure hadronic compact stars, above a limiting value ($\\approx$1.6 M$_\\odot$) of their gravitational masses, to which predictions of most of other equations of state (EoSs) are restricted, can be reached from the equation of state (EoS) obtained using DDM3Y effective interaction. This effective interaction is found to be quite successful in providing unified description of elastic and inelastic scattering, various radioactivities and nuclear matter properties. We present a systematic study of the properties of pure hadronic compact stars. The $\\beta$-equilibrated neutron star matter using this EoS with a thin crust is able to describe highly-massive compact stars, such as PSR B1516+02B with a mass M=1.94$^{+0.17}_{-0.19}$ M$_\\odot$ and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=2.1$\\pm$0.2 M$_\\odot$ to a 1$\\sigma$ confidence level.

Partha Roy Chowdhury; Abhijit Bhattacharyya; D. N. Basu

2010-02-09

323

Isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and properties of axisymmetric neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure hadronic compact stars that are above a limiting value (?1.6M?) of their gravitational masses, to which predictions of most of other equations of state are restricted, can be reached from the equation of state (EOS) obtained using the density-dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective interaction. This effective interaction is found to be quite successful in providing a unified description of elastic and inelastic scattering, various radioactivities, and nuclear matter properties. We present a systematic study of the properties of pure hadronic compact stars. The ?-equilibrated neutron star matter using this EOS with a thin crust is able to describe highly massive compact stars, such as PSR B1516+02B with a mass M=1.94-0.19+0.17M? and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=2.1±0.2M? to a 1? confidence level.

Chowdhury, Partha Roy; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Basu, D. N.

2010-06-01

324

Extensive population synthesis of isolated neutron stars with field decay  

E-print Network

We perform population synthesis studies of different types of neutron stars taking into account the magnetic field decay. For the first time, we confront our results with observations using {\\it simultaneously} the Log N -- Log S distribution for nearby isolated neutron stars, the Log N -- Log L distribution for magnetars, and the distribution of radio pulsars in the $P$ -- $\\dot P$ diagram. We find that our theoretical model is consistent with all sets of data if the initial magnetic field distribution function follows a log-normal law with $ \\sim 13.25$ and $\\sigma_{\\log B_0}\\sim 0.6$. The typical scenario includes about 10% of neutron stars born as magnetars, significant magnetic field decay during the first million years of a NS life. Evolutionary links between different subclasses may exist, although robust conclusions are not yet possible. We apply the obtained field distribution and the model of decay to study long-term evolution of neuton stars till the stage of accretion from the interstellar medium....

Popov, S B; Miralles, J A; Pons, J A; Posselt, B

2010-01-01

325

Unstable Nonradial Oscillations on Helium Burning Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Material accreted onto a neutron star can stably burn in steady state only when the accretion rate is high (typically super-Eddington) or if a large flux from the neutron star crust permeates the outer atmosphere. For such situations we have analyzed the stability of nonradial oscillations, finding one unstable mode for pure helium accretion. This is a shallow surface wave which resides in the helium atmosphere above the heavier ashes of the ocean. It is excited by the increase in the nuclear reaction rate during the oscillations, and it grows on the timescale of a second. For a slowly rotating star, this mode has a frequency of approximately 20-30 Hz (for l=1), and we calculate the full spectrum that a rapidly rotating (>>30 Hz) neutron star would support. The short period X-ray binary 4U 1820--30 is accreting helium rich material and is the system most likely to show this unstable mode,especially when it is not exhibiting X-ray bursts. Our discovery of an unstable mode in a thermally stable atmosphere shows that nonradial perturbations have a different stability criterion than the spherically symmetric thermal perturbations that generate type I X-ray bursts.

Anthony L. Piro; Lars Bildsten

2003-11-17

326

Neutron Stars and Black Holes as MACHO{bold s}  

SciTech Connect

We consider the contribution of neutron stars and black holes to the dynamical mass of galactic halos. In particular, we show that if these compact objects were produced by an early generation of stars with initial metallicity {approx_lt}10{sup {minus}4} {ital Z}{sub {circle_dot}}, they can contribute at most 30{percent}{endash}40{percent} of the Galactic halo mass without creating supersolar levels of enrichment. We show that the case for halo neutron stars and black holes cannot be rejected on metal overproduction arguments alone because of the critical factor of the choice of progenitor metallicity in determining the yields. We show that this scenario satisfies observational constraints, similar to but no more severe than those faced by halo white dwarfs. We also discuss the recent results on halo microlensing, the presence of enriched hot gas in clusters and groups of galaxies, and other observations. If there are halo neutron stars and black holes, they will be detected in the future as longer timescale events by microlensing experiments. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Venkatesan, A.; Olinto, A.V.; Truran, J.W. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

1999-05-01

327

Investigating Superconductivity in Neutron Star Interiors with Glitch Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-density interior of a neutron star is expected to contain superconducting protons and superfluid neutrons. Theoretical estimates suggest that the protons will form a type II superconductor in which the stellar magnetic field is carried by flux tubes. The strong interaction between the flux tubes and the neutron rotational vortices could lead to strong "pinning," i.e., vortex motion could be impeded. This has important implications especially for pulsar glitch models as it would lead to a large part of the vorticity of the star being decoupled from the "normal" component to which the electromagnetic emission is locked. In this Letter, we explore the consequences of strong pinning in the core on the "snowplow" model for pulsar glitches, making use of realistic equations of state and relativistic background models for the neutron star. We find that, in general, a large fraction of the pinned vorticity in the core is not compatible with observations of giant glitches in the Vela pulsar. Thus, the conclusion is that either most of the core is in a type I superconducting state or the interaction between vortices and flux tubes is weaker than previously assumed.

Haskell, B.; Pizzochero, P. M.; Seveso, S.

2013-02-01

328

Effective no-hair relations for neutron stars and quark stars: Relativistic results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrophysical charge-free black holes are known to satisfy no-hair relations through which all multipole moments can be specified in terms of just their mass and spin angular momentum. We here investigate the possible existence of no-hair-like relations among multipole moments for neutron stars and quark stars that are independent of their equation of state. We calculate the multipole moments of these stars up to hexadecapole order by constructing uniformly rotating and unmagnetized stellar solutions to the Einstein equations. For slowly rotating stars, we construct stellar solutions to quartic order in spin in a slow-rotation expansion, while for rapidly rotating stars, we solve the Einstein equations numerically with the LORENE and RNS codes. We find that the multipole moments extracted from these numerical solutions are consistent with each other and agree with the quartic-order slow-rotation approximation for spin frequencies below roughly 500 Hz. We also confirm that the current dipole is related to the mass quadrupole in an approximately equation-of-state-independent fashion, which does not break for rapidly rotating neutron stars or quark stars. We further find that the current-octupole and the mass-hexadecapole moments are related to the mass quadrupole in an approximately equation-of-state-independent way to roughly O(10%), worsening in the hexadecapole case. All of our findings are in good agreement with previous work that considered stellar solutions to leading order in a weak-field, Newtonian expansion. In fact, the hexadecapole-quadrupole relation agrees with the Newtonian one quite well even in moderately relativistic regimes. The quartic in spin, slowly rotating solutions found here allows us to estimate the systematic errors in the measurement of the neutron star's mass and radius with future x-ray observations, such as Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) and Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT). We find that the effect of these quartic-in-spin terms on the quadrupole and hexadecapole moments and stellar eccentricity may dominate the error budget for very rapidly rotating neutron stars. The new universal relations found here should help to reduce such systematic errors.

Yagi, Kent; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolás; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.

2014-06-01

329

Kaon condensation in proto-neutron star matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the equation of state of kaon-condensed matter including the effects of temperature and trapped neutrinos. Several different field-theoretical models for the nucleon-nucleon and kaon-nucleon interactions are considered. It is found that the order of the phase transition to a kaon-condensed phase, and whether or not Gibbs' rules for phase equilibrium can be satisfied in the case of a first order transition, depend sensitively on the choice of the kaon-nucleon interaction. To avoid the anomalous high-density behavior of previous models for the kaon-nucleon interaction, a new functional form is developed. For all interactions considered, a first order phase transition is possible only for magnitudes of the kaon-nucleus optical potential >~100 MeV. The main effect of finite temperature, for any value of the lepton fraction, is to mute the effects of a first order transition, so that the thermodynamics becomes similar to that of a second order transition. Above a critical temperature, found to be at least 30-60 MeV depending upon the interaction, the first order transition disappears. The phase boundaries in baryon density versus lepton number and baryon density versus temperature planes are delineated, which is useful in understanding the outcomes of proto-neutron star simulations. We find that the thermal effects on the maximum gravitational mass of neutron stars are as important as the effects of trapped neutrinos, in contrast to previously studied cases in which the matter contained only nucleons or in which hyperons and/or quark matter were considered. Kaon-condensed equations of state permit the existence of metastable neutron stars, because the maximum mass of an initially hot, lepton-rich proto-neutron star is greater than that of a cold, deleptonized neutron star. The large thermal effects imply that a metastable proto-neutron star's collapse to a black hole could occur much later than in previously studied cases that allow metastable configurations.

Pons, José A.; Reddy, Sanjay; Ellis, Paul J.; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.

2000-09-01

330

Stellar encounters involving neutron stars in globular cluster cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Encounters between a 1.4 solar mass neutron star and a 0.8 solar mass red giant (RG) and between a 1.4 solar mass neutron star (NS) and an 0.8 solar mass main-sequence (MS) star have been successfully simulated. In the case of encounters involving an RG, bound systems are produced when the separation at periastron passage R(MIN) is less than about 2.5 R(RG). At least 70 percent of these bound systems are composed of the RG core and NS forming a binary engulfed in a common envelope of what remains of the former RG envelope. Once the envelope is ejected, a tight white dwarf-NS binary remains. For MS stars, encounters with NSs will produce bound systems when R(MIN) is less than about 3.5 R(MS). Some 50 percent of these systems will be single objects with the NS engulfed in a thick disk of gas almost as massive as the original MS star. The ultimate fate of such systems is unclear.

Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

1992-01-01

331

Axisymmetric Toroidal Modes of General Relativistic Magnetized Neutron Star Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate axisymmetric toroidal modes of magnetized neutron stars with a solid crust in the general relativistic Cowling approximation. We assume that the interior of the star is threaded by a poloidal magnetic field, which is continuous at the surface with an outside dipole field. We examine the cases of the field strength B S ~ 1016 G at the surface. Since separation of variables is not possible for the oscillations of magnetized stars, we employ finite series expansions for the perturbations using spherical harmonic functions. We find discrete normal toroidal modes of odd parity, but no toroidal modes of even parity are found. The frequencies of the toroidal modes form distinct mode sequences and the frequency in a given mode sequence gradually decreases as the number of radial nodes of the eigenfunction increases. From the frequency spectra computed for neutron stars of different masses, we find that the frequency is almost exactly proportional to B S and is well represented by a linear function of R/M for a given B S, where M and R are the mass and radius of the star. The toroidal mode frequencies for B S ~ 1015 G are in the frequency range of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in the soft-gamma-ray repeaters, but we find that the toroidal normal modes cannot explain all the detected QPO frequencies.

Asai, Hidetaka; Lee, Umin

2014-07-01

332

Radiation of Neutron Stars Produced by Superfluid Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find a new mechanism of neutron star radiation wherein radiation is produced by the stellar interior. The main finding is that the neutron star interior is transparent for collisionless electron sound, the same way as it is transparent for neutrinos. In the presence of the magnetic field the electron sound is coupled with electromagnetic radiation; such collective excitation is known as a fast magnetosonic wave. At high densities such waves reduce to the zero sound in electron liquid, while near the stellar surface they are similar to electromagnetic waves in a medium. We find that zero sound is generated by superfluid vortices in the stellar core. Thermally excited helical vortex waves produce fast magnetosonic waves in the stellar crust that propagate toward the surface and transform into outgoing electromagnetic radiation. The magnetosonic waves are partially absorbed in a thin layer below the surface. The absorption is highly anisotropic; it is smaller for waves that in the absorbing layer propagate closer to the magnetic field direction. As a result, the vortex radiation is pulsed with the period of star rotation. The vortex radiation has the spectral index ?~-0.45 and can explain nonthermal radiation of middle-aged pulsars observed in the infrared, optical, and hard X-ray bands. The radiation is produced in the star interior, rather than in the magnetosphere, which allows direct determination of the core temperature. Comparing the theory with available spectra observations, we find that the core temperature of the Vela pulsar is T~8×108 K, while the core temperature of PSR B0656+14 and Geminga exceeds 2×108 K. This is the first measurement of the temperature of a neutron star core. The temperature estimate rules out equations of state incorporating Bose condensations of pions or kaons and quark matter in these objects. The estimate also allows us to determine the critical temperature of triplet neutron superfluidity in the Vela core, Tc=(7.5+/-1.5)×109 K, which agrees well with the value of critical temperature in a core of a canonical neutron star calculated based on recent data for behavior of strong interactions at high energies. We also find that in the middle-aged neutron stars the vortex radiation, rather than thermal conductivity, is the main mechanism of heat transfer from the stellar core to the surface. The core radiation opens a possibility to study composition of neutron star crust by detection of absorption lines corresponding to the low-energy excitations of crust nuclei. Bottom layers of the crust may contain exotic nuclei with the mass number up to 600, and the core radiation creates a perspective to study their properties. In principle, zero sound can also be emitted by other mechanisms, rather than vortices. In this case the spectrum of stellar radiation would contain features corresponding to such processes. As a result, zero sound opens a perspective of direct spectroscopic study of superdense matter in the neutron star interior.

Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.

2003-06-01

333

Competition of neutrino and gravitational radiation in neutron star formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility that neutrino radiation rather than gravitational radiation may be the dominant way by which nonradial pulsations are damped out in a collapsing star. The effects of neutrino radiation on the nonradial oscillations of such objects are examined and damping times corresponding to a particular neutrino production mechanism are evaluated. The obtained results imply that neutrino radiation, by more rapid damping of the nonradial oscillations of a newly formed neutron star in a supernova explosion, would hinder gravitational radiation, thus reducing the possibility of its detection.

Kazanas, D.; Schramm, D. N.

1976-01-01

334

Merger of a Neutron Star with a Newtonian Black Hole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newtonian smooth particle hydro simulations are presented of the merger of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star with a black hole of equal mass. The initial state of the system is modeled with a stiff polytrope orbiting a point mass. Dynamical instability sets in when the orbital separation is equal to about three stellar radii. The ensuing mass transfer occurs on the dynamical timescale. No accretion torus is formed. At the end of the computation a corona of large extent shrouds an apparently stable binary system of a 0.25 solar mass star orbiting a 2.3 solar mass black hole.

Lee, William H.; Kluzniak, Wlodzimierz

1995-01-01

335

Ferromagnetic neutron stars: axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall  

E-print Network

We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ~ 10^19 [G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Tetsuo Hatsuda

2012-09-21

336

Ferromagnetic neutron stars: Axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ˜1019[G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

2013-10-01

337

Probing properties of neutron stars with terrestrial nuclear reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide the unique opportunity in terrestrial laboratories to constrain the nuclear symmetry energy Esym in a broad density range. A conservative constraint, 32(?/?0)0.7 < Esym(?) < 32(?/?0)1.1, around the nuclear matter saturation density ?0 has recently been obtained from analyzing the isospin diffusion data within a transport model for intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions. This subsequently puts a stringent constraint on properties of neutron stars, especially their radii and cooling mechanisms.

Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Steiner, Andrew W.; Yong, Gao-Chan

2006-11-01

338

Formation and Evolution of Neutron Star Binaries: Masses of Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron star (NS) is one of the most interesting astrophysical compact objects for hardronic physics. It is believed that the central density of NS can reach several times the normal nuclear matter density (?0). Hence, the inner part of NS is the ultimate testing place for the physics of dense matter. Recently, the mass of NS in a NS-white dwarf (WD) binary PSR J1614-2230 has been estimated to be 1.97 ± 0.04M? [1]. Since this estimate is based on the observed Shapiro delay, it can give the lower limit of the maximum NS mass and rules out many soft equations of state. On the other hand, all the well-measured NS masses in NS-NS binaries are smaller than 1.5M?. In this work, by introducing the supercritical accretion during the binary evolution, we propose a possibility of forming higher mass NS in NS-WD binaries. In this scenario, the lifetimes of NS and WD progenitors are significantly different, and NS in NS-WD binary can accrete > 0.5M? after NS formation during the giant phase of the progenitor of WD. On the other hand, for the binary system with NS and heavier (> 8M?) giants, the first-born NS will accrete more from the companion and can collapse into black hole. The only way to avoid the supercritical accretion is that the initial masses of progenitors of NS binary should be very close so that they evolve almost at the same time and don't have time to accrete after NS formation.

Lee, Chang-Hwan

2012-02-01

339

Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in AGB stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent AGB models including diffusive overshoot or rotational effects suggest the partial mixing (PM) of protons from the H-rich envelope into the C-rich layers during the third dredge-up. In order to study the impact of such a mixing on the surface abundances, nucleosynthesis calculations based on stellar AGB models are performed for different assumptions of protons (ranging from X_pmix=10-6 to 0.7) in the PM zone. For high proton-to-12C abundance ratios, light nuclei such as fluorine and sodium are efficiently produced, while heavier s-process nuclei are synthesized for lower proton-to-12C ratios. In the framework of the PM model, assuming a smooth exponentially decreasing proton profile, the surface 19F abundance evolution is correlated with that of s-process nuclei in agreement with observations. However, as a function of the surface C/O abundance ratio, the surface 19F enrichment remains difficult to reconcile with observations in AGB stars. Sodium is predicted to be efficiently produced in a small region of the PM zone with proton-to-12C abundance ratio of about 10, but with large overproduction factors (up to fifty times higher than the sodium left over by the hydrogen burning shell). The primary 13C pocket formed in the PM zone at low proton-to-12C ratios is responsible for an efficient production of s-process nuclei. A table of elemental overabundances predicted at the surface of AGB stars at four different metallicities is presented. All the nucleosynthesis calculations are shown to suffer from major nuclear reaction rate uncertainties, in particular, 13C (p,?) 14N, 14N (n,p) 14C and 22Ne (?,n) 25Mg. The major uncertainties associated with the amount of protons mixed into the C-rich zone are found in the extent of the PM zone rather than in the adopted H profile. Finally, the PM scenario predicts that low-metallicity AGB stars enriched in s-process elements should exhibit a large overproduction of Pb and Bi compared to other s-isotopes. The search of such Pb-stars is highly encouraged.

Goriely, S.; Mowlavi, N.

2000-10-01

340

Neutron star evolution with internal heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal evolution predicted by current models of the superfluid-crust interaction is noted to differ substantially from the thermal evolution predicted by models without internal heating as well as previous models of heating. Heating rates approaching the maximum predicted by current models enhance the photon luminosity of the star in the neutrino cooling era, and dramatically alter the thermal evolution in the photon cooling era. Standard cooling models are consistent with current pulsar temperature estimates and upper limits, except those for the Vela pulsar, which are lower than predicted.

Shibazaki, Noriaki; Lamb, Frederick K.

1989-01-01

341

Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

David Blaschke

2014-07-23

342

Asymmetric neutrino production in strongly magnetized proto-neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the neutrino production cross-section through the direct URCA process in proto-neutron star matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We assume isoentropic conditions and introduce a new equation of state parameter set in the relativistic mean-field approach that can allow a neutron star mass up to 2.1M? as required from observations. We find that the production process increases the flux of emitted neutrinos along the direction parallel to the magnetic field and decreases the flux in the opposite direction. This means that the neutrino flux asymmetry due to the neutrino absorption and scattering processes in a magnetic field becomes larger by the inclusion of the neutrino production process.

Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kuroda, Takami; Mathews, Grant J.; Ryu, Chung-Yeol; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Yasutake, Nobutoshi

2014-09-01

343

General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Binary Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary neutron stars are among the most important sources of gravitational waves which are expected to be detected by the current or next generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo, and they are also thought to be at the origin of very important astrophysical phenomena, such as short gamma-ray bursts. I will report on some recent results obtained using the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky in simulating equal-mass binary neutron star systems during the last phases of inspiral, merger and collapse to black hole surrounded by a torus. I will in particular describe how magnetic fields can affect the gravitational wave signal emitted by these sources and their possible role in powering short gamma-ray bursts.

Giacomazzo, Bruno

2011-04-01

344

Long-term evolution of dim isolated neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINs) have periods in the same range as the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). We apply the fallback disc model, which explains the period clustering and other properties of AXP/SGRs, to the six XDINs with measured periods and period derivatives. Present properties of XDINs are obtained in evolutionary scenarios with surface dipole magnetic fields B0 ˜ 1012 G. The XDINs have gone through an accretion epoch with rapid spin-down earlier, and have emerged in their current state, with the X-ray luminosity provided by neutron star cooling and no longer by accretion. Our results indicate that the known XDINs are not likely to be active radio pulsars, as the low B0, together with their long periods place these sources clearly below the `death valley'.

Ertan, Ü.; Çal??kan, ?.; Benli, O.; Alpar, M. A.

2014-10-01

345

Reducing orbital eccentricity in initial data of binary neutron stars  

E-print Network

We develop a method to compute low-eccentricity initial data of binary neutron stars required to perform realistic simulations in numerical relativity. The orbital eccentricity is controlled by adjusting the orbital angular velocity of a binary and incorporating an approaching relative velocity of the neutron stars. These modifications improve the solution primarily through the hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the binary initial data. The orbital angular velocity and approaching velocity of initial data are updated iteratively by performing time evolutions over ~3 orbits. We find that the eccentricity can be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to standard quasicircular initial data, specifically from ~0.01 to <~0.001, by three successive iterations for equal-mass binaries leaving ~10 orbits before the merger.

Koutarou Kyutoku; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi

2014-05-23

346

Quasi-normal modes of superfluid neutron stars  

E-print Network

We study non-radial oscillations of neutron stars with superfluid baryons, in a general relativistic framework, including finite temperature effects. Using a perturbative approach, we derive the equations describing stellar oscillations, which we solve by numerical integration, employing different models of nucleon superfluidity, and determining frequencies and gravitational damping times of the quasi-normal modes. As expected by previous results, we find two classes of modes, associated to superfluid and non-superfluid degrees of freedom, respectively. We study the temperature dependence of the modes, finding that at specific values of the temperature, the frequencies of the two classes of quasi-normal modes show avoided crossings, and their damping times become comparable. We also show that, when the temperature is not close to the avoided crossings, the frequencies of the modes can be accurately computed by neglecting the coupling between normal and superfluid degrees of freedom. Our results have potential implications on the gravitational wave emission from neutron stars.

L. Gualtieri; E. M. Kantor; M. E. Gusakov; A. I. Chugunov

2014-04-29

347

Reducing orbital eccentricity in initial data of binary neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a method to compute low-eccentricity initial data of binary neutron stars required to perform realistic simulations in numerical relativity. The orbital eccentricity is controlled by adjusting the orbital angular velocity of a binary and incorporating an approaching relative velocity of the neutron stars. These modifications improve the solution primarily through the hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the binary initial data. The orbital angular velocity and approaching velocity of initial data are updated iteratively by performing time evolutions over ˜3 orbits. We find that the eccentricity can be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to standard quasicircular initial data, specifically from ˜0.01 to ?0.001, by three successive iterations for equal-mass binaries leaving ˜10 orbits before the merger.

Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

2014-09-01

348

Exploring the Physics of Dense Matter with Neutron Star Transients  

SciTech Connect

Many accreting neutron stars do so intermittently; that is, the accretion ceases for long quiescent intervals. During the accretion outburst, reactions are induced in the crust by the continual accumulation of matter. These reactions heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core, and when accretion stops and the system goes into quiescence, the thermal relaxation of the crust is detectable. This contribution gives a summary of recent theoretical and observational work interpreting the cooling lightcurves of these quasi-persistent transients. In particular, the lightcurves can constrain the core temperature of the neutron star, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the inner crust, and the distribution of heat sources in the outer crust.

Brown, Edward F. [Dept. Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States)

2009-05-07

349

Emission Spectra of Fallback Disks Around Young Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

The nature of the energy source powering anomalous X-ray pulsars is uncertain. Proposed scenarios involve either an ultramagnetized neutron star, or accretion onto a neutron star. We consider the accretion model proposed recently by Chatterjee, Hernquist & Narayan, in which a disk is fed by fallback material following a supernova. We compute the optical, infrared, and submillimeter emission expected from such a disk, including both viscous dissipation and reradiation of X-ray flux impinging on the disk from the pulsar. We find that it is possible with current instruments to put serious constraints on this and on other accretion models of AXPs. Fallback disks could also be found around isolated radio pulsars and we compute the corresponding spectra. We show that the excess emission in the R and I bands observed for the pulsar PSR 0656+14 is broadly consistent with emission from a disk.

Rosalba Perna; Lars Hernquist; Ramesh Narayan

1999-12-15

350

Systematic Parameter Errors in Inspiraling Neutron Star Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coalescence of two neutron stars is an important gravitational wave source for LIGO and other detectors. Numerous studies have considered the precision with which binary parameters (masses, spins, Love numbers) can be measured. Here I consider the accuracy with which these parameters can be determined in the presence of systematic errors due to waveform approximations. These approximations include truncation of the post-Newtonian (PN) series and neglect of neutron star (NS) spin, tidal deformation, or orbital eccentricity. All of these effects can yield systematic errors that exceed statistical errors for plausible parameter values. In particular, neglecting spin, eccentricity, or high-order PN terms causes a significant bias in the NS Love number. Tidal effects will not be measurable with PN inspiral waveforms if these systematic errors are not controlled.

Favata, Marc

2014-03-01

351

Electromagnetic and gravitational outputs from binary-neutron-star coalescence.  

PubMed

The late stage of an inspiraling neutron-star binary gives rise to strong gravitational wave emission due to its highly dynamic, strong gravity. Moreover, interactions between the stellar magnetospheres can produce considerable electromagnetic radiation. We study this scenario using fully general relativistic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that these interactions extract kinetic energy from the system, dissipate heat, and power radiative Poynting flux, as well as develop current sheets. Our results indicate that this power can (i) outshine pulsars in binaries, (ii) display a distinctive angular- and time-dependent pattern, and (iii) radiate within large opening angles. These properties suggest that some binary neutron-star mergers are ideal candidates for multimessenger astronomy. PMID:23971553

Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; Liebling, Steven L; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Motl, Patrick

2013-08-01

352

Binary neutron stars: Equilibrium models beyond spatial conformal flatness  

E-print Network

Equilibria of binary neutron stars in close circular orbits are computed numerically in a waveless formulation: The full Einstein-relativistic-Euler system is solved on an initial hypersurface to obtain an asymptotically flat form of the 4-metric and an extrinsic curvature whose time derivative vanishes in a comoving frame. Two independent numerical codes are developed, and solution sequences that model inspiraling binary neutron stars during the final several orbits are successfully computed. The binding energy of the system near its final orbit deviates from earlier results of third post-Newtonian and of spatially conformally flat calculations. The new solutions may serve as initial data for merger simulations and as members of quasiequilibrium sequences to generate gravitational wave templates, and may improve estimates of the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency set by the last inspiral orbit.

Koji Uryu; Francois Limousin; John L. Friedman; Eric Gourgoulhon; Masaru Shibata

2005-11-25

353

Asymmetric Neutrino Production in Strongly Magnetized Proto-Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We calculate the neutrino production cross-section through the direct URCA process in proto-neutron star matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We assume isoentropic conditions and introduce a new equation of state parameter-set in the relativistic mean-field approach that can reproduce neutron stars with $M > 1.96$ M$_\\odot$ as required by observations. We find that the production process increases the flux of emitted neutrinos along the direction parallel to the magnetic field and decreases the flux in the opposite direction. This means that the neutrino flux asymmetry due to the neutrino absorption and scattering processes in a magnetic field becomes larger by the inclusion of the neutrino production process.

Tomoyuki Maruyama; Myung-Ki Cheoun; Jun Hidaka; Toshitaka Kajino; Takami Kuroda; Grant J. Mathews; Chung-Yeol Ryu; Tomoya Takiwaki; Nobutoshi Yasutake

2014-05-28

354

Joule heating in the cooling of magnetized neutron stars  

E-print Network

We present 2D simulations of the cooling of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields (B \\geq 10^{13} G). We solve the diffusion equation in axial symmetry including the state of the art microphysics that controls the cooling such as slow/fast neutrino processes, superfluidity, as well as possible heating mechanisms. We study how the cooling curves depend on the the magnetic field strength and geometry. Special attention is given to discuss the influence of magnetic field decay. We show that Joule heating effects are very large and in some cases control the thermal evolution. We characterize the temperature anisotropy induced by the magnetic field for the early and late stages of the evolution of isolated neutron stars.

Deborah N. Aguilera; Jose A. Pons; Juan A. Miralles

2007-10-25

355

Joule heating in the cooling of magnetized neutron stars  

E-print Network

We present 2D simulations of the cooling of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields (B \\geq 10^{13} G). We solve the diffusion equation in axial symmetry including the state of the art microphysics that controls the cooling such as slow/fast neutrino processes, superfluidity, as well as possible heating mechanisms. We study how the cooling curves depend on the the magnetic field strength and geometry. Special attention is given to discuss the influence of magnetic field decay. We show that Joule heating effects are very large and in some cases control the thermal evolution. We characterize the temperature anisotropy induced by the magnetic field for the early and late stages of the evolution of isolated neutron stars.

Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

2007-01-01

356

Revised Relativistic Hydrodynamical Model for Neutron-Star Binaries  

E-print Network

We report on numerical results from a revised hydrodynamic simulation of binary neutron-star orbits near merger. We find that the correction recently identified by Flanagan significantly reduces but does not eliminate the neutron-star compression effect. Although results of the revised simulations show that the compression is reduced for a given total orbital angular momentum, the inner most stable circular orbit moves to closer separation distances. At these closer orbits significant compression and even collapse is still possible prior to merger for a sufficiently soft EOS. The reduced compression in the corrected simulation is consistent with other recent studies of rigid irrotational binaries in quasiequilibrium in which the compression effect is observed to be small. Another significant effect of this correction is that the derived binary orbital frequencies are now in closer agreement with post-Newtonian expectations.

G. J. Mathews; J. R. Wilson

1999-11-11

357

Measuring neutron-star ellipticity with measurements of the stochastic gravitational-wave background  

E-print Network

Galactic neutron stars are a promising source of gravitational waves in the analysis band of detectors such as LIGO and Virgo. Previous searches for gravitational waves from neutron stars have focused on the detection of individual neutron stars, which are either nearby or highly non-spherical. Here we consider the stochastic gravitational-wave signal arising from the ensemble of Galactic neutron stars. Using a population synthesis model, we estimate the single-sigma sensitivity of current and planned gravitational-wave observatories to average neutron star ellipticity $\\epsilon$ as a function of the number of in-band Galactic neutron stars $N_\\text{tot}$. For the plausible case of $N_\\text{tot}\\approx 53000$, and assuming one year of observation time with colocated initial LIGO detectors, we find it to be $\\sigma_\\epsilon=2.1\\times10^{-7}$, which is comparable to current bounds on some nearby neutron stars. (The current best $95\\%$ upper limits are $\\epsilon\\lesssim7\\times10^{-8}.$) It is unclear if Advanced LIGO can significantly improve on this sensitivity using spatially separated detectors. For the proposed Einstein Telescope, we estimate that $\\sigma\\epsilon=5.6\\times10^{-10}$. Finally, we show that stochastic measurements can be combined with measurements of individual neutron stars in order to estimate the number of in-band Galactic neutron stars. In this way, measurements of stochastic gravitational waves provide a complementary tool for studying Galactic neutron stars.

Dipongkar Talukder; Eric Thrane; Sukanta Bose; Tania Regimbau

2014-04-15

358

Progenitor neutron stars of the lightest and heaviest millisecond pulsars  

E-print Network

Recent mass measurements of two binary millisecond pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=1.97+/-0.04 Msun and M=1.26+/-0.14 Msun respectively indicate a large span of masses for such objects, and possibly also a broad spectrum of neutron star masses born in core-collapse supernovae. Starting from a zero-age main sequence binary stage, we aim at inferring the masses of the progenitor neutron star of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 by taking into account the differences in the evolutionary stages preceding their formation. Using simulations for the evolution of binary stars we reconstruct the evolutionary tracks leading to the formation of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807. We analyse in detail the spin evolution due to the accretion of matter from a disk in the medium-mass/low-mass X-ray binary. General relativistic effects and the damping of surface magnetic field associated with accretion are accounted for. We consider two equations of state of dense matter, one for purely nucleonic matter and the other one including a high density softening due to the appearance of hyperons, together with a selection of models for the neutron star magnetic field and its decay. The estimated mass of the progenitor neutron stars of PSR J0751+1807 and PSR J1614-2230 could be as small as 1.1 Msun and 1.9 Msun, respectively. These values weakly depend on the equation of state and the assumed model for the polar magnetic field and its accretion-induced decay. The masses of progenitor neutron star of recycled pulsars span over a broad interval, from 1.1 Msun to 1.9 Msun. Including the effect of a slow Roche-lobe detachment phase, which as suggested recently by Tauris could be relevant for PSR J0751+1807, would make the lower mass limit even smaller. A realistic theory for core-collapse supernovae should account for this large range of mass.

M. Fortin; M. Bejger; P. Haensel; J. L. Zdunik

2014-09-03

359

Gamma Ray Bursts from delayed collapse of neutron stars to quark matter stars  

E-print Network

We propose a model to explain how a Gamma Rays Burst can take place days or years after a supernova explosion. Our model is based on the conversion of a pure hadronic star (neutron star) into a star made at least in part of deconfined quark matter. The conversion process can be delayed if the surface tension at the interface between hadronic and deconfined-quark-matter phases is taken into account. The nucleation time (i.e. the time to form a critical-size drop of quark matter) can be extremely long if the mass of the star is small. Via mass accretion the nucleation time can be dramaticaly reduced and the star is finally converted into the stable configuration. A huge amount of energy, of the order of 10$^{52}$--10$^{53}$ erg, is released during the conversion process and can produce a powerful Gamma Ray Burst. The delay between the supernova explosion generating the metastable neutron star and the new collapse can explain the delay proposed in GRB990705 and in GRB011211.

Z. Berezhiani; I. Bombaci; A. Drago; F. Frontera; A. Lavagno

2002-09-13

360

Electric and thermal conductivities of quenched neutron star crusts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric and thermal conductivities in the outer crustal matter of a neutron star quenched into a solid state by cooling are estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of freezing transition for dense plasmas. The conductivities are calculated by the precise evaluation of the scattering integrals, using the procedure of Ichimaru et al. (1983) and Iyetomi and Ichimaru (1983). The results predict the conductivities lower, by a factor of about 3, than those with the single-phonon approximation.

Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo

1990-01-01

361

SHATTERING FLARES DURING CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that resonant shattering flares can occur during close passages of neutron stars in eccentric or hyperbolic encounters. We provide updated estimates for the rate of close encounters of compact objects in dense stellar environments, which we find are substantially lower than given in previous works. While such occurrences are rare, we show that shattering flares can provide a strong electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave bursts expected from such encounters, allowing triggered searches for these events to occur.

Tsang, David, E-mail: dtsang@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2013-11-10

362

Gamma-ray bursts from nearby neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret the puzzling?-ray bursts as emitted by cooling sparks from the surface of spasmodically accreting, old neutron stars. Their spiky, anisotropic radiation is oriented w.r.t. the galactic disk via interstellar accretion, whose orbital angular momentum tends to counteralign with the galactic spin; in this way, larger source numbers in directions of the galactic disk are compensated by smaller beaming

Wolfgang Kundt; Hsiang-Kuang Chang

1993-01-01

363

Uncovering the Properties of Young Neutron Stars and Their Surroundings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject grant provides funding through the NASA LTSA program. This five-year grant involves the study of young neutron stars, particularly those in supernova remnants. In the fifth year of this program, the following studies have been undertaken in support of this effort and are discussed in this report. 1) 3C 58; 2) Chandra Survey for Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants; 3) G327.1-1.1; 4) Infrared Emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae; and Cas A.

Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

2005-01-01

364

A Hydrodynamical Analysis of the Burning of a Neutron Star  

E-print Network

The burning of a neutron star by strange matter is analyzed using relativistic combustion theory with a planar geometry. It is shown that such burning is probably neither slow combustion nor simple detonation. Fast combustion without detonation is possible under certain circumstances, but would involve very efficient heat transfer mechanisms. It is found, however, that the burning is most likely absolutely unstable with no well defined burn front.

Cho, H T; Speliotopoulos, Achilles D; 10.1016/0370-2693(94)91201-7

2009-01-01

365

Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model  

E-print Network

Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract We revisit the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski (EZM) model of dense neutron observations of neutron stars (NSs) in RX J1856-3754 [2] and EXO 0748-676 [3] favor a sti¤ EOS. We are however

366

Magnetar activity mediated by plastic deformations of neutron star crust  

E-print Network

We advance a "Solar flare" model of magnetar activity, whereas a slow evolution of the magnetic field in the upper crust, driven by electron MHD (EMHD) flows, twists the external magnetic flux tubes, producing persistent emission, bursts and flares. At the same time the neutron star crust plastically relieves the imposed magnetic field stress, limiting the strain $ \\epsilon_t $ to values well below the critical strain $ \\epsilon_{crit}$ of a brittle fracture, $ \\epsilon_t \\sim 10^{-2}\\epsilon_{crit} $. Magnetar-like behavior, occurring near the magnetic equator, takes place in all neutron stars, but to a different extent. The persistent luminosity is proportional to cubic power of the magnetic field (at a given age), and hence is hardly observable in most rotationally powered neutron stars. Giant flares can occur only if the magnetic field exceeds some threshold value, while smaller bursts and flares may take place in relatively small magnetic fields. Bursts and flares are magnetospheric reconnection events t...

Lyutikov, Maxim

2014-01-01

367

MAGNETIC ENERGY PRODUCTION BY TURBULENCE IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

The simultaneous detection of electromagnetic and gravitational wave emission from merging neutron star binaries would greatly aid in their discovery and interpretation. By studying turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in local high-resolution simulations of neutron star merger conditions, we demonstrate that magnetar-level ({approx}> 10{sup 16} G) fields are present throughout the merger duration. We find that the small-scale turbulent dynamo converts 60% of the randomized kinetic energy into magnetic fields on a merger timescale. Since turbulent magnetic energy dissipates through reconnection events that accelerate relativistic electrons, turbulence may facilitate the conversion of orbital kinetic energy into radiation. If 10{sup -4} of the {approx}10{sup 53} erg of orbital kinetic available gets processed through reconnection and creates radiation in the 15-150 keV band, then the fluence at 200 Mpc would be 10{sup -7} erg cm{sup -2}, potentially rendering most merging neutron stars in the advanced LIGO and Virgo detection volumes detectable by Swift BAT.

Zrake, Jonathan; MacFadyen, Andrew I. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2013-06-01

368

Neutron Star Binaries as Central Engines of GRBs  

E-print Network

We describe the results high resolution, hydrodynamic calculations of neutron star mergers. The model makes use of a new, nuclear equation of state, accounts for multi-flavour neutrino emission and solves the equations of hydrodynamics using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method with more than $10^6$ particles. The merger leaves behind a strongly differentially rotating central object of $\\sim 2.5$ M$_{\\odot}$ together with a distribution of hot debris material. For the most realistic case of initial neutron star spins, no sign of a collapse to a black hole can be seen. We argue that the differential rotation stabilizes the central object for $\\sim 10^2$ s and leads to superstrong magnetic fields. We find the neutrino emission from the hot debris around the freshly-formed, supermassive neutron star to be substantially lower than predicted previously. Therefore the annihilation of neutrino anti-neutrino pairs will have difficulties to power very energetic bursts ($\\gg 10^{49}$ erg).

S. Rosswog

2002-04-29

369

Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations  

E-print Network

Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless additional strongly repulsive correlations, e.g. through vector current interactions between quarks, are introduced. The extent to which strangeness can accumulate in the equation of state is also discussed.

Thomas Hell; Wolfram Weise

2014-02-17

370

Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations  

E-print Network

Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless addition...

Hell, Thomas

2014-01-01

371

UNIVERSALITY IN OSCILLATION MODES OF SUPERFLUID NEUTRON STARS?  

SciTech Connect

It has been well established that the f-mode of relativistic ordinary fluid neutron stars displays a universal scaling behavior. Here, we study whether the 'ordinary' f{sub o}- and 'superfluid' f{sub s}-modes of superfluid neutron stars also show similar universal behavior. We first consider a simple case where the neutron superfluid and normal fluid are decoupled, and with each fluid modeled by a polytropic equation of state. We find that the f{sub o}-mode obeys the same scaling laws as established for the f-mode of ordinary fluid stars. However, the oscillation frequency of the f{sub s}-mode obeys a different scaling law, which can be derived analytically from a homogenous two-fluid stellar model in Newtonian gravity. Next the coupling effect between the two fluids is studied via a parameterized model of entrainment. We find that the coupling in general breaks the universal behavior seen in the case of decoupled fluids. Based on a relativistic variational principle, an approximated expression is derived for the first-order shift of the f{sub s}-mode squared frequency due to the entrainment.

Wong, K. S.; Lin, L. M.; Leung, P. T. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

2009-07-10

372

Dense baryonic matter: Constraints from recent neutron star observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of 2M? neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density to satisfy these constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless additional strongly repulsive correlations, e.g., through vector current interactions between quarks, are introduced. The extent to which strangeness can accumulate in the equation of state is also discussed.

Hell, Thomas; Weise, Wolfram

2014-10-01

373

Evolutionary Channels for the Formation of Double Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We analyze binary population models of double-neutron stars and compare results to the accurately measured orbital periods and eccentricities of the eight known such systems in our Galaxy. In contrast to past similar studies, we especially focus on the dominant evolutionary channels (we identify three); for the first time, we use a detailed understanding of the evolutionary history of three double neutron stars as actual constraints on the population models. We find that the evolutionary constraints derived from the double pulsar are particularly tight, and less than half of the examined models survive the full set of constraints. The top-likelihood surviving models yield constraints on the key binary evolution parameters, but most interestingly reveal (i) the need for electron-capture supernovae from relatively low-mass degenerate, progenitor cores, and (ii) the most likely evolutionary paths for the rest of the known double neutron stars. In particular, we find that J1913+16 likely went through a phase of C...

Andrews, Jeff J; Kalogera, Vicky; Willems, Bart

2014-01-01

374

Detecting neutrinos from black hole neutron stars mergers  

E-print Network

While it is well known that neutrinos are emitted from standard core collapse protoneutron star supernovae, less attention has been focused on neutrinos from accretion disks. These disks occur in some supernovae (i.e. "collapsars") as well as in compact object mergers, and they emit neutrinos with similar properties to those from protoneutron star supernovae. These disks and their neutrinos play an important role in our understanding of gamma ray bursts as well as the nucleosynthesis they produce. We study a disk that forms in the merger of a black hole and a neutron star and examine the neutrino fluxes, luminosities and neutrino surfaces for the disk. We also estimate the number of events that would be registered in current and proposed supernova neutrino detectors if such an event were to occur in the Galaxy.

O. L. Caballero; G. C. McLaughlin; R. Surman

2009-10-08

375

Cooling of Neutron Stars with Color Superconducting Quark Cores  

E-print Network

We show that within a recently developed nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. We study the cooling of these objects in isolation for different values of the gravitational mass and argue that, if the quark matter phase would allow unpaired quarks, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. The comparison with observational data puts tight constraints on possible color superconducting quark matter phases. Possible candidates with diquark gaps of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV such as the "2SC+X" and the color spin locking (CSL) phase are presented.

David Blaschke; Dmitri N. Voskresensky; Hovik Grigorian

2005-10-27

376

Detecting neutrinos from black hole-neutron star mergers  

SciTech Connect

While it is well known that neutrinos are emitted from standard core collapse protoneutron star supernovae, less attention has been focused on neutrinos from accretion disks. These disks occur in some supernovae (i.e. collapsars) as well as in compact object mergers, and they emit neutrinos with similar properties to those from protoneutron star supernovae. These disks and their neutrinos play an important role in our understanding of gamma ray bursts as well as the nucleosynthesis they produce. We study a disk that forms in the merger of a black hole and a neutron star and examine the neutrino fluxes, luminosities and neutrino surfaces for the disk. We also estimate the number of events that would be registered in current and proposed supernova neutrino detectors if such an event were to occur in the Galaxy.

Caballero, O. L.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308 (United States)

2009-12-15

377

Extracting Neutron Star Properties from X-ray Burst Oscillations  

E-print Network

Many thermonuclear X-ray bursts exhibit brightness oscillations. The brightness oscillations are thought to be due to the combined effects of non-uniform nuclear burning and rotation of the neutron star. The waveforms of the oscillations contain information about the size and number of burning regions. They also contain substantial information about the mass and radius of the star, and hence about strong gravity and the equation of state of matter at supranuclear densities. We have written general relativistic ray-tracing codes that compute the waveforms and spectra of rotating hot spots as a function of photon energy. Using these codes, we survey the effect on the oscillation waveform and amplitude of parameters such as the compactness of the star, the spot size, the surface rotation velocity, and whether there are one or two spots. We also fit phase lag versus photon energy curves to data from the millisecond X-ray pulsar, SAX J1808--3658.

Weinberg, N N; Lamb, D Q; Weinberg, Nevin; Lamb, Donald Q

1999-01-01

378

Extracting Neutron Star Properties from X-ray Burst Oscillations  

E-print Network

Many thermonuclear X-ray bursts exhibit brightness oscillations. The brightness oscillations are thought to be due to the combined effects of non-uniform nuclear burning and rotation of the neutron star. The waveforms of the oscillations contain information about the size and number of burning regions. They also contain substantial information about the mass and radius of the star, and hence about strong gravity and the equation of state of matter at supranuclear densities. We have written general relativistic ray-tracing codes that compute the waveforms and spectra of rotating hot spots as a function of photon energy. Using these codes, we survey the effect on the oscillation waveform and amplitude of parameters such as the compactness of the star, the spot size, the surface rotation velocity, and whether there are one or two spots. We also fit phase lag versus photon energy curves to data from the millisecond X-ray pulsar, SAX J1808--3658.

Nevin Weinberg; M. Coleman Miller; Donald Q. Lamb

1999-12-16

379

Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

1989-01-01

380

A Christmas comet falling onto a neutron star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun and the planets are the main, but not the only, bodies of the Solar System. There are thousands of asteroids and several tens of comets, many of which are still unknown. They are the remnants of the planetesimals that formed at the origin of our Solar System, and they are rocky objects of different dimensions and irregular shape. Sometimes these minor bodies fall onto the Sun or onto planets, like Jupiter. Less dramatic events occur when the infalling bodies do not directly impact onto the target but are tidally disrupted. The tidal disruption of solar mass stars around supermassive black holes has been extensively studied analytically and numerically. In these events the star, as it approaches the black hole, develops into an elongated banana-shaped structure, the most tightly bound debris being at the closer end to the compact object. After completing an (few) eccentric orbit(s), these bound debris fall onto the black hole, emitting energy. Orbital precession may lead to the crossing of the debris orbits producing an accretion disk. Observationally, these events will give rise to luminous events with different temporal decays in different energy bands. Tidal break-up events occur also in planetary systems around normal stars but these events are too faint to be detected. Things change when the star is a compact object. Indeed planets have been discovered around radio pulsars, making likely the existence also of orbiting minor bodies. The direct impact of minor bodies onto neutron stars has been studied in the past and it has been envisaged as a possible (local) explanation for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), producing short-duration (˜ seconds) events. To explain the peculiarities of GRB 101225A (Christmas burst) we propose that it resulted from the tidal disruption event of a minor body around a neutron star in our Galaxy.

Campana, S.

381

Relativistic mechanics of neutron superfluid in (magneto) elastic star crust  

E-print Network

At densities below the neutron drip threshold, a purely elastic solid model (including, if necessary, a frozen-in magnetic field) can provide an adequate description of a neutron star crust, but at higher densities it will be necessary to allow for the penetration of the solid lattice by an independently moving current of superfluid neutrons. In order to do this, the previously available category of relativistic elasticity models is combined here with a separately developed category of relativistic superfluidity models in a unified treatment based on the use of an appropriate Lagrangian master function. As well as models of the purely variational kind, in which the vortices flow freely with the fluid, such a master function also provides a corresponding category of non-dissipative models in which the vortices are pinned to the solid structure.

Brandon Carter; Lars Samuelsson

2006-05-03

382

Herschel and Spitzer Observations of Slowly Rotating, Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 ?m, 160 ?m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 ?m, 4.5 ?m) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ? 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 ?m emission (>5?) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 ?m detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 ?m emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ~10% to ~20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 ?m emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

2014-11-01

383

Advection of magnetic flux by accretion disks around neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our research is to address why millisecond pulsars have relatively weak surface magnetic fields, of about 10^8 G, with a narrow spread. We propose that the accretion of plasma from the companion star fully screens the original neutron star field, but the accretion disk carries additional magnetic flux from the companion star, or itself can generate field by means of dynamo processes. For a strongly magnetized star, the field prevents the disk from approaching the star. The accretion is along the field lines and deposits the matter on the polar cap. Then, the accreted plasma flows, dragging with itself the magnetic field lines, from the pole to the equator (Payne & Melatos 2004). In a following stage, when the star becomes non-magnetic, because the field has been buried, the disk touches the star. We suggest that some effective mechanism of magnetic flux transport such as that proposed by Spruit & Uzdensky 2005 (or Bisnovatyi-Kogan & Lovelace 2007), operates and necessarily leads to a "strongly magnetized disk''. It becomes laminar because the magneto-rotational instability saturates (it is considered to be responsible for turbulence in the disk), and the magnetic difussivity is negligible. Then, the loss of angular momentum allowing the accretion is only caused by the magneto-centrifugal disk-wind (Blandford & Payne 1982). Meanwhile, the wind-driven transport of the magnetic flux by the disk re-magnetizes the star. This process continues until the Lorentz force due to the star's magnetic field forbids any further accretion of matter and magnetic flux, in the Ideal Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics approach. Additional of material can fall onto the star (but at lower rate) if some instability process sets in, allowing the diffusion of mass through the magnetic field lines (e.g the Interchange Instability, Spruit & Taam 1990). All these processes might lead to an asymptotic magnetic field of 10^8 G,as is inferred from observations. We are developing a self-consistent theoretical model to describe the above dynamical processes taking into account the interaction among the star, the strongly magnetized disk, and the disk-wind, justifying our hypothesis.

Flores-Tulian, S.; Reisenegger, A.

384

General relativistic simulations of magnetized binary neutron star mergers  

E-print Network

Binary neutron stars (NSNS) are expected to be among the leading sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based laser interferometers and may be the progenitors of short-hard gamma ray bursts. We present a series of general relativistic NSNS coalescence simulations both for unmagnetized and magnetized stars. We adopt quasiequilibrium initial data for circular, irrotational binaries constructed in the conformal thin-sandwich (CTS) framework. We adopt the BSSN formulation for evolving the metric and a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme to handle the magnetohydrodynamics. Our simulations of unmagnetized binaries confirm the results of Shibata, Taniguchi and Uryu (2003). In cases in which the mergers result in a prompt collapse to a black hole, we are able to use puncture gauge conditions to extend the evolution and determine the mass of the material that forms a disk. We find that the disk mass is less than 2% of the total mass in all cases studied. We then add a small poloidal magnetic field to the initial configurations and study the subsequent evolution. For cases in which the remnant is a hypermassive neutron star, we see measurable differences in both the amplitude and phase of the gravitational waveforms following the merger. For cases in which the remnant is a black hole surrounded by a disk, the disk mass and the gravitational waveforms are about the same as the unmagnetized cases. Magnetic fields substantially affect the long-term, secular evolution of a hypermassive neutron star (driving `delayed collapse') and an accretion disk around a nascent black hole.

Yuk Tung Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Zachariah B. Etienne; Keisuke Taniguchi

2008-03-28

385

Adiabatic oscillations of non-rotating superfluid neutron stars  

E-print Network

We present results concerning the linear (radial and non-radial) oscillations of non-rotating superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian physics. We use a simple two-fluid model to describe the superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons,while the second fluid contains all the comoving constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be "free" in the sense of absence of vortex-mediated forces like mutual friction or pinning, but they can be coupled by the equation of state, in particular by entrainment.We calculate numerically the eigen-frequencies and -modes of adiabatic oscillations, neglecting beta-reactions that would lead to dissipation.We find a doubling of all acoustic-type modes (f-modes, p-modes), and confirm the absence of g-modes in these superfluid models. We show analytically and numerically that only in the case of non-stratified background models (i.e. with no composition gradient) can these doublets of acoustic modes be separated into two distinct families, which are characterised by either co- or counter-moving fluids respectively, and which are sometimes referred to as "ordinary" and "superfluid" modes. In the general, stratified case, however, this separation is not possible, and these acoustic modes can not be classified as being either purely "ordinary" or "superfluid". We show how the properties of the two-fluid modes change as functions of the coupling by entrainment. We find avoided mode-crossings for the stratified models, while the crossings are not avoided in the non-stratified, separable case. The oscillations of normal-fluid neutron stars are recovered as a special case simply by locking the two fluids together.In this effective one-fluid case we find the usual singlet f- and p-modes, and we also find the expected g-modes.

Reinhard Prix; Michel Rieutord

2002-04-30

386

Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported concerning energy-density relation for the normal state of neutron star matter, and the effects of superfluidity and polarization on neutron star matter. Considering constraints on variation, and the theory of quantum fluids, three methods for calculating the energy-density range are presented. The effects of polarization on neutron star structure, and polarization effects on condensation and superfluid-state energy are discussed.

Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C.

1973-01-01

387

Constraints on neutron star models of gamma-burst sources from the Einstein Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six Einstein observations of five gamma-ray burst sources are presented and discussed. With one possible exception, no point source was detected in any of the observations. The data are interpreted in the framework of neutron star models for gamma bursters. Upper limits are derived for the surface temperatures of the neutron stars assumed to be responsible for the bursts. It is shown that the lack of soft X-ray emission may impose stringent constraints on accretion rates onto neutron stars.

Pizzichini, G.; Gottardi, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Laros, J. G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.

1986-01-01

388

Neutron star magnetic field decay - Hall drift and Ohmic diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reconsiders two problems relevant to the transport of magnetic flux in the solid crust. First, it is shown that below the neutron-drip threshold density, there is little diffusion of the Boltzmann gas of neutrons at temperatures less than about 10 to the 10th K. Nuclear abundances form under the equilibrium constraint that the mean baryon number per nucleus is independent of temperature. The equilibrium nuclear species have two different atomic numbers. The two-component plasma formed remains miscible as the star cools. The electrical conductivity, below the lattice Debye temperature, is much smaller than previously assumed, producing rapid Ohmic diffusion of magnetic flux at densities below the neutron-drip threshold. Secondly, it is proposed that the magnetic buoyancy force in the neutron-drip solid produces Hall drift of the magnetic flux analogous to the motion of vortices in the interior proton superconductor (Jones, 1975). The 5 Myr time constant observed in field decay is determined principally by the radial Hall drift velocity. With decreasing magnetic flux density, Hall drift becomes negligible and Ohmic diffusion in the neutron-drip solid is the cause of field changes at 10 greater than about 1000 Myr.

Jones, P. B.

1988-08-01

389

EUV/soft x-ray spectra for low B neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent ROSAT and EUVE detections of spin-powered neutron stars suggest that many emit 'thermal' radiation, peaking in the EUV/soft X-ray band. These data constrain the neutron stars' thermal history, but interpretation requires comparison with model atmosphere computations, since emergent spectra depend strongly on the surface composition and magnetic field. As recent opacity computations show substantial change to absorption cross sections at neutron star photospheric conditions, we report here on new model atmosphere computations employing such data. The results are compared with magnetic atmosphere models and applied to PSR J0437-4715, a low field neutron star.

Romani, Roger W.; Rajagopal, Mohan; Rogers, Forrest J.; Iglesias, Carlos A.

1995-01-01

390

Neutron Star Equation of State Constraints from X-ray Observations of Recycled Millisecond Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface thermal radiation from neutron stars can serve as a powerful probe of the extremely dense matter in their centers. For "recycled" millisecond pulsars in particular, realistic modeling of the rotation-induced thermal X-ray pulsations offers a promising approach toward constraining the elusive neutron star equation of state. In this talk, I will summarize existing observational studies of millisecond pulsars with XMM-Newton and Chandra and the exciting prospect of high-precision constraints on the neutron star mass-radius relation using the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER).

Bogdanov, Slavko

2014-08-01

391

Possibility of s-wave pion condensates in neutron stars revisited  

E-print Network

We examine possibilities of pion condensation with zero momentum (s-wave condensation) in neutron stars by using the pion-nucleus optical potential U and the relativistic mean field (RMF) models. We use low-density phenomenological optical potentials parameterized to fit deeply bound pionic atoms or pion-nucleus elastic scatterings. Proton fraction (Y_p) and electron chemical potential (mu_e) in neutron star matter are evaluated in RMF models. We find that the s-wave pion condensation hardly takes place in neutron stars and especially has no chance if hyperons appear in neutron star matter and/or b_1 parameter in U has density dependence.

A. Ohnishi; D. Jido; T. Sekihara; K. Tsubakihara

2008-10-20

392

Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars with Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Models  

E-print Network

We investigate nuclear matter equations of state in neutron star with kaon condensation. It is generally known that the existence of kaons in neutron star makes the equation of state soft so that the maximum mass of neutron star is not likely to be greater than 2.0 $M_{\\odot}$, the maximum mass constrained by current observations. With existing Skyrme force model parameters, we calculate nuclear equations of state and check the possibility of kaon condensation in the core of neutron stars. The results show that even with the kaon condensation, the nuclear equation of state satisfies both the maximum mass and the allowed ranges of mass and radius.

Yeunhwan Lim; Kyujin Kwak; Chang Ho Hyun; Chang-Hwan Lee

2013-12-10

393

Electromagnetic extraction of energy from black hole-neutron star binaries  

E-print Network

The coalescence of black hole-neutron star binaries is expected to be a principal source of gravitational waves for the next generation of detectors, Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Ideally, these and other gravitational wave sources would have a distinct electromagnetic counterpart, as significantly more information could be gained through two separate channels. In addition, since these detectors will probe distances with non-negligible redshift, a coincident observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal would facilitate a novel measurement of dark energy [1]. For black hole masses not much larger than the neutron star mass, the tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of the neutron star by the black hole provides one avenue for generating an electromagnetic counterpart [2]. However, in this work, we demonstrate that, for all black hole-neutron star binaries observable by Advanced LIGO/Virgo, the interaction of the black hole with the magnetic field of the neutron star will drive a Poynting flux. This Poynting flux generates synchrotron/curvature radiation as the electron-positron plasma in the neutron star magnetosphere is accel- erated, and thermal radiation as the plasma is focused onto the neutron star magnetic poles, creating a "hot spot" on the neutron star surface. This novel effect will gener- ate copious luminosity, comparable to supernovae and active galactic nuclei, so that black hole-neutron star coalescences detectable with gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO/Virgo could also potentially be detectable electromagnetically.

Sean T. McWilliams; Janna Levin

2011-01-10

394

Studies of neutron star X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars represent the endpoint in stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between ~3 and 8 solar masses. They are the densest non- singularities in the universe, cramming more than a solar mass of matter into a sphere with a radius of about 10 km. Such a large mass-to-radius ratio implies deep potential wells, so that when mass transfer is taking place ~10% of the rest-mass is liberated as gravitational binding energy, resulting in prodigious amounts of X-ray emission that contains valuable information on the physical characteristics in accreting binary systems. Much of my research in this dissertation focuses on the spectroscopic and timing properties of the canonical thermonuclear bursting source GS 1826-238. By measuring the relationship between the X-ray flux (which is assumed to trace the accretion rate onto the stellar surface) and the time intervals between subsequent bursts, I find that although the intervals usually decreased proportionately as the persistent flux increased, a few measurements of the flux-recurrence time relationship were significant outliers. Accompanying spectral and timing changes strongly suggest that the accretion disk extends down to smaller radial distances from the source during these atypical episodes. This result is important for understanding the nature of accretion flows around neutron stars because it indicates that accretion disks probably evaporate at some distance from the neutron star surface at lower accretion rates. I also contribute to our understanding of two newly discovered and heavily- absorbed pulsars (neutron stars with strong magnetic fields) by determining the orbital parameters of the systems through pulse timing analysis. Orbital phase- resolved spectroscopy of one source revealed evidence for an "accretion wake" trailing the pulsar through its orbit, showing that X-rays emanating from the surface can ionize the stellar wind in its vicinity. Finally, I develop an innovative application of dust scattering halos (diffuse emission surrounding X-ray sources, resulting from photons scattering from dust grains) to geometrically determine the distance and the distribution of dust along the line of sight to X-ray sources. The distance is clearly important for inferring the absolute luminosities of systems from measured fluxes, and knowledge of the distribution of dust can further understanding of the interstellar medium.

Thompson, Thomas W. J.

395

Coniferyl benzoate in quaking aspen A ruffed grouse feeding deterrent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) staminate flower buds and catkins are important food resources for ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus); however, ruffed grouse select only certain quaking aspen to feed upon. Earlier studies indicate that the primary difference between quaking aspen that ruffed grouse feed upon and those not used is the level of coniferyl benzoate in the flower buds. Bioassays

Walter J. Jakubas; Gordon W. Gullion

1990-01-01

396

Progenitor neutron stars of the lightest and heaviest millisecond pulsars  

E-print Network

Recent mass measurements of two binary millisecond pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=1.97+/-0.04 Msun and M=1.26+/-0.14 Msun respectively indicate a large span of masses for such objects, and possibly also a broad spectrum of neutron star masses born in core-collapse supernovae. Starting from a zero-age main sequence binary stage, we aim at inferring the masses of the progenitor neutron star of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 by taking into account the differences in the evolutionary stages preceding their formation. Using simulations for the evolution of binary stars we reconstruct the evolutionary tracks leading to the formation of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807. We analyse in detail the spin evolution due to the accretion of matter from a disk in the medium-mass/low-mass X-ray binary. General relativistic effects and the damping of surface magnetic field associated with accretion are accounted for. We consider two equations of state of dense matter, one for purely nucleonic matt...

Fortin, M; Haensel, P; Zdunik, J L

2014-01-01

397

GB 790305 as a very strongly magnetized neutron star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The March 5 1979 event was the strongest gamma-ray burst ever observed. Its location in the sky is known with an accuracy of about 10 arcsec, and it coincides with the N49 supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The main burst was followed by a soft tail with the periodic 8 s modulation, and 16 soft gamma events over the following few years. If the source is a magnetic neutron star with the 8 s rotation period and the age of about 10 exp 4 years as indicated by N49 then the field strength of about 5 x 10 exp 14 gauss is implied. The corresponding critical luminosity is about 10 exp 4 L(Edd), as the electron scattering opacity is suppressed by the strong magnetic field. This luminosity is consistent with the observed peak flux of the soft tail and the soft repeaters. The soft spectrum may be approximated with the photospheric emission at kT(eff) = 17 keV. The corresponding photospheric radius is about 14 km, compatible with a neutron star hypothesis. The total magnetic energy of the star is about 4 x 10 exp 46 erg, more than enough to power the March 5 event and all its repeaters.

Paczynski, Bohdan

1992-01-01

398

Constraining population synthesis models via the binary neutron star population  

E-print Network

The observed sample of double neutron-star (NS-NS) binaries presents a challenge to population-synthesis models of compact object formation: the parameters entering into these models must be carefully chosen so as to match (i) the observed star formation rate and (ii) the formation rate of NS-NS binaries, which can be estimated from the observed sample and the selection effects related to the discoveries with radio-pulsar surveys. In this paper, we select from an extremely broad family of possible population synthesis models those few (2%) which are consistent with the observed sample of NS-NS binaries. To further sharpen the constraints the observed NS-NS population places upon our understanding of compact-object formation processes, we separate the observed NS-NS population into two channels: (i) merging NS-NS binaries, which will inspiral and merge through the action of gravitational waves within $10 $ Gyr, and (ii) wide NS-NS binaries, consisting of all the rest. With the subset of astrophysically consistent models, we explore the implications for the rates at which double black hole (BH-BH), black hole-neutron star (BH-NS), and NS-NS binaries will merge through the emission of gravitational waves.

R. O'Shaughnessy; C. Kim; T. Frakgos; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

2005-04-21

399

Observational constraints on the masses of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present state of empirical knowledge about neutron-star masses is reviewed. It is shown how the mass function of a pulsar-containing binary system can be inferred from measurements of the pulsation period and the projected semimajor axis of the pulsar orbit plus independent information concerning the inclination of the orbital plane, the mass of the companion star, or both. Relevant observational properties, the type of information used to constrain the pulsar mass, and the range of allowable pulsar masses are summarized for the binary systems 3U 0900-40, Cen X-3, SMC X-1, Her X-1, and PSR 1913+16. It is found that as long as the general theory of relativity is correct, neutron-star masses should range from about 1.4 to 1.9 solar masses if the companion is a normal white dwarf or should be less than about 1.9 solar masses if the companion is some other object. It is concluded that these mass estimates are entirely consistent with the predictions of nuclear physics theory.

Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S. A.

1976-01-01

400

The neutron star interior composition explorer (NICER): mission definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a 10-month period during 2013 and early 2014, development of the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission [1] proceeded through Phase B, Mission Definition. An external attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS), NICER is scheduled to launch in 2016 for an 18-month baseline mission. Its prime scientific focus is an in-depth investigation of neutron stars—objects that compress up to two Solar masses into a volume the size of a city—accomplished through observations in 0.2-12 keV X-rays, the electromagnetic band into which the stars radiate significant fractions of their thermal, magnetic, and rotational energy stores. Additionally, NICER enables the Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) demonstration of spacecraft navigation using pulsars as beacons. During Phase B, substantive refinements were made to the mission-level requirements, concept of operations, and payload and instrument design. Fabrication and testing of engineering-model components improved the fidelity of the anticipated scientific performance of NICER's X-ray Timing Instrument (XTI), as well as of the payload's pointing system, which enables tracking of science targets from the ISS platform. We briefly summarize advances in the mission's formulation that, together with strong programmatic performance in project management, culminated in NICER's confirmation by NASA into Phase C, Design and Development, in March 2014.

Arzoumanian, Z.; Gendreau, K. C.; Baker, C. L.; Cazeau, T.; Hestnes, P.; Kellogg, J. W.; Kenyon, S. J.; Kozon, R. P.; Liu, K.-C.; Manthripragada, S. S.; Markwardt, C. B.; Mitchell, A. L.; Mitchell, J. W.; Monroe, C. A.; Okajima, T.; Pollard, S. E.; Powers, D. F.; Savadkin, B. J.; Winternitz, L. B.; Chen, P. T.; Wright, M. R.; Foster, R.; Prigozhin, G.; Remillard, R.; Doty, J.

2014-07-01

401

Molecular dynamics simulations of the crust of accreting neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model the crust of accreting neutron stars with molecular dynamics simulations involving complex compositions with many different impurities as predicted by rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis and electron capture calculations. We present results for the phase structure [1], thermal conductivity, and screening factors for nuclear reactions [2]. We find a lattice structure with a high thermal conductivity, instead of an amorphous solid, and we discuss the distribution of impurities. These thermal conductivity results agree with X-Ray observations of crust cooling for neutron stars after extended outbursts. We find that screening factors for the enhancement of thermonuclear reactions may be insensitive to the large scale distribution of impurities in the solid. Fusion of neutron rich oxygen isotopes such as ^24O + ^24O may be an important heat source at densities near ten to the eleventh g/cm^3. Indeed these and similar fusion reactions may be important to heat the crust to carbon ignition temperatures in superbursts. [1] C. J. Horowitz, D. K. Berry, and E. F. Brown, PRE75 (2007) 066101. [2] C. J. Horowitz, H. Dussan, and D. K. Berry, arXiv:0710.5714.

Horowitz, Charles

2008-10-01

402

Rearrangement of the Fermi Surface of Dense Neutron Matter and Direct Urca Cooling of Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

It is proposed that a rearrangement of single-particle degrees of freedom may occur in a portion of the quantum fluid interior of a neutron star. Such a rearrangement is associated with the pronounced softening of the spin-isospin collective mode which, under increasing density, leads to pion condensation. Arguments and estimates based on fundamental relations of many-body theory show that one realization of this phenomenon could produce very rapid cooling of the star via a direct nucelon Urca process displaying a $T^5$ dependence on temperature.

D. N. Voskresensky; V. A. Khodel; M. V. Zverev; J. W. Clark

2000-03-13

403

Inertial modes of neutron stars with the superfluid core  

E-print Network

We investigate the modal properties of inertial modes of rotating neutron stars with the core filled with neutron and proton superfluids, taking account of entrainment effects between the superfluids. In this paper, the entrainment effects are modeled by introducing a parameter $\\eta$ so that no entrainment state is realized at $\\eta=0$. We find that inertial modes of rotating neutron stars with the superfluid core are split into two families, which we call ordinary fluid inertial modes ($i^o$-mode) and superfluid inertial modes ($i^s$-mode). The two superfluids in the core counter-move for the $i^s$-modes. For the $i^o$-modes, $\\kappa_0=\\lim_{\\Omega\\to 0}\\omega/\\Omega$ is only weakly dependent on the entrainment parameter $\\eta$, where $\\Omega$ and $\\omega$ are the angular frequency of rotation and the oscillation frequency observed in the corotating frame of the star, respectively. For the $i^s$-modes, on the other hand, $|\\kappa_0|$ almost linearly increases as $\\eta$ increases. Avoided crossings as functions of $\\eta$ are therefore quite common between $i^o$- and $i^s$-modes. We find that some of the $i^s$-modes that are unstable against the gravitational radiation reaction at $\\eta=0$ become stable when $\\eta$ is larger than $\\eta_{crit}$, the value of which depends on the mode. Since the radiation driven instability associated with the current multipole radiation is quite weak for the inertial modes and the mutual friction damping in the superfluid core is strong, the instability caused by the inertial modes will be easily suppressed unless the entrainment parameter $\\eta$ is extremely small and the mutual friction damping is sufficiently weak.

Shijun Yoshida; Umin Lee

2003-02-16

404

Quantum Vacuum Friction in highly magnetized neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter we calculate the energy loss of a highly magnetized neutron star due to Quantum Vacuum Friction (QVF). Taking into account one-loop corrections in the effective Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian of the light-light interaction, we derive an analytic expression for QVF allowing us to take into account a magnetic field at the surface of the star as high as 1011 T. In the case of magnetars, with magnetic fields above the QED critical field, we show that the QVF is the dominating energy loss process. This has important consequences, in particular for the inferred value of the magnetic field. This also indicates the need for independent measurements of magnetic field, energy loss rate, and the braking index in order to fully characterize magnetars.

Dupays, A.; Rizzo, C.; Bakalov, D.; Bignami, G. F.

2008-06-01

405

Quantum Vacuum Friction in Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

In this letter we calculate the energy loss of highly magnetized neutron star due to friction with quantum vacuum, namely Quantum Vacuum Friction (QVF). Taking into account one-loop corrections in the effective Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian of the light-light interaction, we derive an analytic expression for QVF allowing us to consider magnetic field at the surface of the star as high as $10^{11} $T. In the case of magnetars with high magnetic field above the QED critical field, we show that the energy loss by QVF dominates the energy loss process. This has important consequences, in particular on the inferred value of the magnetic field. This also indicates the need for independent measurements of magnetic field, energy loss rate, and of the braking index to fully characterize magnetars.

Arnaud Dupays; Carlo Rizzo; Dimitar Bakalov; Giovanni F. Bignami

2008-04-11

406

Quantum Vacuum Friction in Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

In this letter we calculate the energy loss of highly magnetized neutron star due to friction with quantum vacuum, namely Quantum Vacuum Friction (QVF). Taking into account one-loop corrections in the effective Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian of the light-light interaction, we derive an analytic expression for QVF allowing us to consider magnetic field at the surface of the star as high as $10^{11} $T. In the case of magnetars with high magnetic field above the QED critical field, we show that the energy loss by QVF dominates the energy loss process. This has important consequences, in particular on the inferred value of the magnetic field. This also indicates the need for independent measurements of magnetic field, energy loss rate, and of the braking index to fully characterize magnetars.

Dupays, Arnaud; Bakalov, Dimitar; Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

2008-01-01

407

Binary evolution and neutron stars in globular clusters  

E-print Network

Improved observations of globular clusters are uncovering a large number of radio pulsars and of X-ray sources. The latter include binaries in which a neutron star or a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion, recycled pulsars, and magnetically active binaries. Most of these sources originate from close encounters between stars in the cluster core; magnetically active binaries and some cataclysmic variables have evolved from primordial binaries. The formation rate through close encounters scales differently with the central density and core radius of the cluster than the probability for a single binary to be perturbed by an encounter. This is exploited in some preliminary observational tests of the close encounter hypothesis. Accreting black holes have been found in globular clusters with other galaxies; the absence of such holes in the Milky Way clusters is compatible with the small number expected.

Frank Verbunt

2002-10-02

408

Second neutron star in globular cluster M4 .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the optical counterpart of the brightest X-ray source C-X 1 in M4 is a ˜ 20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star, probably a millisecond pulsar.

Ró?a?ska, A.; Ka?u?ny, J.; Ró?yczka, M.; Krzemi?ski, W.; Thompson, I. B.

409

A Neutron Star with a Massive Progenitor in Westerlund 1  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of an X-ray pulsar in the young, massive Galactic star cluster Westerlund 1. We detected a coherent signal from the brightest X-ray source in the cluster, CXO J164710.2-455216, during two Chandra observations on 2005 May 22 and June 18. The period of the pulsar is 10.6107(1) s. We place an upper limit to the period derivative of Pdot1 Msun. Taken together, the properties of the pulsar indicate that it is a magnetar. The rarity of slow X-ray pulsars and the position of CXO J164710.2-455216 only 1.6' from the core of Westerlund 1 indicates that it is a member of the cluster with >99.97% confidence. Westerlund 1 contains 07V stars with initial masses M_i=35 Msun and >50 post-main-sequence stars that indicate the cluster is 4+/-1 Myr old. Therefore, the progenitor to this pulsar had an initial mass M_i>40 Msun. This is the most secure result among a handful of observational limits to the masses of the progenitors to neutron stars.

M. P. Muno; J. S. Clark; P. A. Crowther; S. M. Dougherty; R. de Grijs; C. Law; S. L. W. McMillan; M. R. Morris; I. Negueruela; D. Pooley; S. Portegies Zwart; F. Yusef-Zadeh

2005-09-14

410

Isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and properties of axisymmetric neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

Pure hadronic compact stars that are above a limiting value (approx =1.6M{sub c}entre dot) of their gravitational masses, to which predictions of most of other equations of state are restricted, can be reached from the equation of state (EOS) obtained using the density-dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective interaction. This effective interaction is found to be quite successful in providing a unified description of elastic and inelastic scattering, various radioactivities, and nuclear matter properties. We present a systematic study of the properties of pure hadronic compact stars. The beta-equilibrated neutron star matter using this EOS with a thin crust is able to describe highly massive compact stars, such as PSR B1516+02B with a mass M=1.94{sub -0.19}{sup +0.17}M{sub c}entre dot and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=2.1+-0.2M{sub c}entre dot to a 1sigma confidence level.

Chowdhury, Partha Roy; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Basu, D. N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2010-06-15

411

Gamma Ray Bursts from Baryon Decay in Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

The standard unbroken electroweak theory is known to erase baryon number. The baryon number symmetry can be restored in the core of a neutron star as its density diverges via gravitational instability due to a binary merger event. We argue that for certain double Higgs models with discrete symmetries, this process may result in an expanding self-sustained burning front which would convert the entire neutron matter into radiation. This process would release ~10^{54} ergs in electromagnetic radiation over ~10^{-4} sec, with negligible baryonic contamination. The resulting fireball would have all the properties necessary to produce a gamma-ray burst as a result of its interaction with ambient interstellar gas. The subsequent Higgs decay would produce a millisecond burst of ~10^{52} ergs in ~100 GeV neutrinos which might be observable. The above mechanism may have also caused electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe, giving rise to the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry today.

Ue-Li Pen; Abraham Loeb; Neil Turok

1997-12-15

412

General Relativistic Equilibrium Models of Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Magnetic fields play a crucial role in many astrophysical scenarios and, in particular, are of paramount importance in the emission mechanism and evolution of Neutron Stars (NSs). To understand the role of the magnetic field in compact objects it is important to obtain, as a first step, accurate equilibrium models for magnetized NSs. Using the conformally flat approximation we solve the Einstein's equations together with the GRMHD equations in the case of a static axisymmetryc NS taking into account different types of magnetic configuration. This allows us to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on global properties of NSs such as their deformation.

A. G. Pili; N. Bucciantini; L. Del Zanna

2013-11-29

413

Cyclotron harmonics in opacities of isolated neutron star atmospheres  

E-print Network

Some of X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINS) and central compact objects in supernova remnants (CCO) show absorption features in their thermal soft X-ray spectra. There have been suggestions in the literature that these features could be due to the periodic peaks in free-free absorption opacities, caused either by Landau quantization of electron motion in magnetic fields B10^{13} G. I review the physics behind cyclotron quantum harmonics in free-free photoabsorption, discuss different approximations for their calculation, and explain why the ion cyclotron harmonics (beyond the fundamental) cannot be observed.

Potekhin, A Y

2010-01-01

414

Cyclotron line resonant transfer through neutron star atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monte Carlo methods are used to study in detail the resonant radiative transfer of cyclotron line photons with recoil through a purely scattering neutron star atmosphere for both the polarized and unpolarized cases. For each case, the number of scatters, the path length traveled, the escape frequency shift, the escape direction cosine, the emergent frequency spectra, and the angular distribution of escaping photons are investigated. In the polarized case, transfer is calculated using both the cold plasma e- and o-modes and the magnetic vacuum perpendicular and parallel modes.

Wang, John C. L.; Wasserman, Ira M.; Salpeter, Edwin E.

1988-01-01

415

Relativistic outflow from two thermonuclear shell flashes on neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the exceptionally short (32-43 ms) precursors of two intermediate-duration thermonuclear X-ray bursts observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the neutron stars in 4U 0614+09 and 2S 0918-549. They exhibit photon fluxes that surpass those at the Eddington limit later in the burst by factors of 2.6 to 3.1. We are able to explain both the short duration and the super-Eddington flux by mildly relativistic outflow velocities of 0.1c to 0.3c subsequent to the thermonuclear shell flashes on the neutron stars. These are the highest velocities ever measured from any thermonuclear flash. The precursor rise times are also exceptionally short: about 1 ms. This is inconsistent with predictions for nuclear flames spreading laterally as deflagrations and suggests detonations instead. This is the first time that a detonation is suggested for such a shallow ignition column depth (yign ? 1010 g cm-2). The detonation would possibly require a faster nuclear reaction chain, such as bypassing the ?-capture on 12C with the much faster 12C(p,?)13N(?,p)16O process previously proposed. We confirm the possibility of a detonation, albeit only in the radial direction, through the simulation of the nuclear burning with a large nuclear network and at the appropriate ignition depth, although it remains to be seen whether the Zel'dovich criterion is met. A detonation would also provide the fast flame spreading over the surface of the neutron star to allow for the short rise times. This needs to be supported by future two-dimensional calculations of flame spreading at the relevant column depth. As an alternative to the detonation scenario, we speculate on the possibility that the whole neutron star surface burns almost instantly in the auto-ignition regime. This is motivated by the presence of 150 ms precursors with 30 ms rise times in some superexpansion bursts from 4U 1820-30 at low ignition column depths of ~108 g cm-2.

in't Zand, J. J. M.; Keek, L.; Cavecchi, Y.

2014-08-01

416

Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

Liang, Edison P.

1992-01-01

417

Gamma-ray emission from young neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emission models of Cheng et al. (1986) and Harding (1981) are employed to determine likely candidates for pulsed gamma-ray emission on the basis of recent radio data of pulsars. The recent detection of pulsed gamma rays from PSR 1951+32 lends observational support to the scenario of Cheng et al. which also suggests that PSR 1855+09 might be another excellent gamma-ray pulsar candidate. The possible contribution of young neutron stars to the diffuse high energy glow is also discussed.

Hartmann, Dieter H.; Liang, Edison P.; Cordes, J. M.

1991-01-01

418

From Pauli Principle to Hypernucleus, Neutron Star, and Econophysics  

E-print Network

Proposed by Wolfgang Pauli more than 80 years ago, the exclusion principle has been proven to have a far-reaching consequence, from femtoscopic world to macroscopic, super-dense, and fully relativistic physics. Starting from this principle, we discuss two interesting research topics, which have currently drawn considerable attention in the nuclear- and astrophysics communities; the hypernuclear and neutron star physics. Special attention is given to the electromagnetic production of the hypertriton and the consequences of the neutrino electromagnetic properties in dense matter. We also touch on the new arena which could also be fascinating for physicists; the econophysics.

T. Mart

2007-04-28

419

Slowly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct models of slowly rotating, perfect-fluid neutron stars by extending the classical Hartle—Thorne formalism to generic scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Working at second order in the dimensionless angular momentum, we compute the mass M, radius R, scalar charge q, moment of inertia I, and spin-induced quadrupole moment Q, as well as the tidal and rotational Love numbers. Our formalism applies to generic scalar-tensor theories, but we focus in particular on theories that allow for spontaneous scalarization. It was recently discovered that the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, and Love numbers are connected by approximately universal (i.e., equation-of-state independent) "I-Love-Q" relations. We find that similar relations hold also for spontaneously scalarized stars. More interestingly, the I-Love-Q relations in scalar-tensor theories coincide with the general relativistic ones within less than a few percent, even for spontaneously scalarized stars with the largest couplings allowed by current binary-pulsar constraints. This implies that astrophysical measurements of these parameters cannot be used to discriminate between general relativity and scalar-tensor theories, even if spontaneous scalarization occurs in nature. Because of the well-known equivalence between f(R) theories and scalar-tensor theories, the theoretical framework developed in this paper can be used to construct rotating compact stellar models in f(R) gravity. Our slow-rotation expansion can also be used as a benchmark for numerical calculations of rapidly spinning neutron stars in generic scalar-tensor theories.

Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele

2014-07-01

420

Quake: quality-aware detection and correction of sequencing errors  

PubMed Central

We introduce Quake, a program to detect and correct errors in DNA sequencing reads. Using a maximum likelihood approach incorporating quality values and nucleotide specific miscall rates, Quake achieves the highest accuracy on realistically simulated reads. We further demonstrate substantial improvements in de novo assembly and SNP detection after using Quake. Quake can be used for any size project, including more than one billion human reads, and is freely available as open source software from http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/software/quake. PMID:21114842

2010-01-01

421

Post-quake lessons for power utilities  

SciTech Connect

Frequent earthquakes in southern California have taught engineers how to toughen the system; the techniques are useful in vulnerable areas elsewhere. The primary subject matter of the article is divided into the following areas: After the shaking steps; Building a data base; and The after-quake: design changes.

Richter, H.L.

1988-12-01

422

QuakeSim 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

QuakeSim 2.0 improves understanding of earthquake processes by providing modeling tools and integrating model applications and various heterogeneous data sources within a Web services environment. QuakeSim is a multisource, synergistic, data-intensive environment for modeling the behavior of earthquake faults individually, and as part of complex interacting systems. Remotely sensed geodetic data products may be explored, compared with faults and landscape features, mined by pattern analysis applications, and integrated with models and pattern analysis applications in a rich Web-based and visualization environment. Integration of heterogeneous data products with pattern informatics tools enables efficient development of models. Federated database components and visualization tools allow rapid exploration of large datasets, while pattern informatics enables identification of subtle, but important, features in large data sets. QuakeSim is valuable for earthquake investigations and modeling in its current state, and also serves as a prototype and nucleus for broader systems under development. The framework provides access to physics-based simulation tools that model the earthquake cycle and related crustal deformation. Spaceborne GPS and Inter ferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data provide information on near-term crustal deformation, while paleoseismic geologic data provide longerterm information on earthquake fault processes. These data sources are integrated into QuakeSim's QuakeTables database system, and are accessible by users or various model applications. UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data products are added to the QuakeTables database, and are available through a browseable map interface or Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces. Model applications can retrieve data from Quake Tables, or from third-party GPS velocity data services; alternatively, users can manually input parameters into the models. Pattern analysis of GPS and seismicity data has proved useful for mid-term forecasting of earthquakes, and for detecting subtle changes in crustal deformation. The GPS time series analysis has also proved useful as a data-quality tool, enabling the discovery of station anomalies and data processing and distribution errors. Improved visualization tools enable more efficient data exploration and understanding. Tools provide flexibility to science users for exploring data in new ways through download links, but also facilitate standard, intuitive, and routine uses for science users and end users such as emergency responders.

Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Granat, Robert A.; Norton, Charles D.; Rundle, John B.; Pierce, Marlon E.; Fox, Geoffrey C.; McLeod, Dennis; Ludwig, Lisa Grant

2012-01-01

423

No-Hair Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars: Relativistic Results  

E-print Network

Astrophysical charge-free black holes are known to satisfy no-hair relations through which all multipole moments can be specified in terms of just their mass and spin angular momentum. We here investigate the possible existence of no-hair-like relations among multipole moments for neutron stars and quark stars that are independent of their equation of state. We calculate the multipole moments of these stars up to hexadecapole order by constructing uniformly-rotating and unmagnetized stellar solutions to the Einstein equations. For slowly-rotating stars, we construct stellar solutions to quartic order in spin in a slow-rotation expansion, while for rapidly-rotating stars, we solve the Einstein equations numerically with the LORENE and RNS codes. We find that the multipole moments extracted from these numerical solutions are consistent with each other. We confirm that the current-dipole is related to the mass-quadrupole in an approximately equation of state independent fashion, which does not break for rapidly ...

Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis A

2014-01-01

424

Neutron specific heat in the crust of neutron stars from the nuclear band theory Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles,  

E-print Network

Neutron specific heat in the crust of neutron stars from the nuclear band theory N. Chamel Institut´e Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex, France (Dated: December 23, 2008) The inner crust of neutron stars, formed of a crystal lattice of nuclear clusters immersed in a sea of unbound neutrons, may be the unique

Boyer, Edmond

425

Neutron stars in globular clusters: formation and observational manifestations  

E-print Network

Population synthesis is used to model the number of neutron stars in globular clusters that are observed as LMXBs and millisecond PSRs. The dynamical interaction between binary and single stars in a GC are assumed to take place with a permanently replenished "background" of single stars whose density distribution keeps track with the cluster evolution as a whole and evolution of single stars. We use the hypothesis (Podsiadlowski et al) that NS forming in binary systems from components with initial masses \\sim 8-12 M_\\odot during the electron-capture collapse of the degenerate O-Ne-Mg core do not acquire a high space velocities (kicks). The remaining NSs (i.e. from single stars with M>8 M_\\odot or binary comonents with M>12 M_\\odot) are assumed to be born with high kicks, as found from obsrevations of single pulsars (Hobbs et al. 2005). Under this assumption, a sizeable fraction of NSs remain in GCs (about 1000 NSs in a GC with a mass of 5\\times 10^5 M_\\odot). The number of ms PSRs formed in the cluster via accretion spin-up in binaries is then about 10, which is consistent with observations. Our modelling reproduces the observed shape of the X-ray luminosity function for accreting NSs in binaries with normal and degenerate components and the distribution of spin periods of ms PSRs in GCs under the assumption of accretion-driven magnetic field decay of NSs up to a bottom value of 10^8 G. The number of LMXBs and ms PSRs dynamically expelling from GCs is also calculated.

A. G. Kuranov; K. A. Postnov

2006-05-04

426

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM FALLBACK ACCRETION ONTO NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low-mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high-mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, an NS is initially formed, which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (which may or may not be jet powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion spins up the NS sufficiently to produce non-axisymmetric instabilities and gravitational radiation at frequencies of {approx}700-2400 Hz for {approx}30-3000 s until collapse to a BH occurs. Using a realistic excess cross-power search algorithm, we show that such events are detectable by Advanced LIGO out to Almost-Equal-To 17 Mpc. From the rate of nearby core-collapse supernovae in the past five years, we estimate that there will be {approx}1-2 events each year that are worth checking for fallback GWs. The observation of these unique GW signatures coincident with electromagnetic detections would identify the transient events that are associated with this channel of BH formation, while providing information about the protoneutron star progenitor.

Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thrane, Eric, E-mail: piro@caltech.edu, E-mail: eric.thrane@ligo.org [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-12-10

427

QED and the high polarization of the thermal radiation from neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal emission of strongly magnetized neutron-star atmospheres is thought to be highly polarized. However, because of the different orientations of the magnetic field over the surface of the neutron star (NS), it is commonly assumed that the net observed polarization will be significantly reduced as the polarization from different regions will cancel each other. We show that the birefringence

Jeremy S. Heyl; Nir J. Shaviv

2002-01-01

428

Soft nuclear equations of state for super-massive neutron star  

E-print Network

Soft nuclear equations of state for super-massive neutron star K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract Two new nuclear equations of state (EOSs) are proposed and are applied to neutron star (NS). They predict the incompressibilities K0 = 179MeV and 230MeV, respectively. The density dependencies of nuclear

429

Mass of Neutron Star in SdS space-time  

E-print Network

In this work we present a modified TOV equation which incorporates the cosmological constant with regard to the recent astronomical observations that the Universe is in a phase of accelerated expansion. Using this modified TOV equation we considered the structure of a neutron star in SdS space-time and calculated maximum mass limit for neutron stars.

Vinayaraj O K; V C Kuriakose

2008-02-08

430

Linking electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in coalescing binary neutron stars Carlos Palenzuela1  

E-print Network

Linking electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in coalescing binary neutron stars Carlos of the gravitational and electromagnetic emissions from the late stage of an inspiraling neutron star binary of the merger, can yield considerable outflows. We study the gravitational and electromagnetic waves produced

Lumsdaine, Andrew

431

The nuclear symmetry energy and stability of matter in neutron star  

E-print Network

It is shown that behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy is the key quantity in the stability consideration in neutron star matter. The symmetry energy controls the position of crust-core transition and also may lead to new effects in the inner core of neutron star.

Sebastian Kubis

2006-11-23

432

From Neutron Star Binaries to Gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

I summarize recent results about how a neutron star binary coalescence can produce short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Two possibilities are discussed: the annihilation of neutrino anti-neutrino pairs above the merged remnant and the exponential amplification of magnetic fields in the central object up to values close to equipartition. We find that the neutrino annihilation drives bipolar, relativistic outflows with Lorentz-factors large enough to circumvent the GRB 'compactness problem'. The total energy within these outflows is moderate by GRB-standards ($\\sim 10^{48}-10^{49}$ ergs), but the interaction with the baryonic material blown-off by the neutrinos collima