Sample records for quaking neutron star

  1. Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  2. Neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter and gravitational physics. Observations of neutron stars from sources such as radio pulsars, low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray bursts and thermally-emitting neutron stars are setting bounds to neutron star masses, radii, rotation rates, temperatures and ages. Mass measurements constrain the equation of state at the highest densities and set firm bounds to the highest possible density of cold matter. Radii constrain the equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density and yield information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are in remarkable agreement with observational bounds.

  3. The superflares of soft Gamma-ray repeatres: giant quakes in solid quark stars?

    E-print Network

    R. X. Xu; D. J. Tao; Y. Yang

    2006-08-28

    Three times of supergiant flares from soft $\\gamma$-ray repeatres are observed, with typical released energy of $\\sim 10^{44-47}$ erg. A conventional model (i.e., the magnetar model) for such events is catastrophic magnetism-powered instability through magnetohydrodynamic process, in which a significant part of short-hard $\\gamma$-ray bursts could also be the results of magnetars. Based on various observational features (e.g., precession, glitch, thermal photon emission) and the underlying theory of strong interaction (quantum chromodynamics, QCD), it could not be ruled out yet that pulsar-like stars might be actually solid quark stars. Strain energy develops during a solid star's life, and starquakes could occur when stellar stresses reach a critical value, with huge energy released. An alternative model for supergiant flares of soft $\\gamma$-ray repeatres is presented, in which energy release during a star quake of solid quark stars is calculated. Numerical results for spherically asymmetric solid stars show that the released gravitational energy during a giant quake could be as high as $10^{48}$ erg if the tangential pressure is slightly higher than the radial one. Difficulties in magnetar models may be overcome if AXPs/SGRs are accreting solid quark stars with mass $\\sim (1-2)M_\\odot$.

  4. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  5. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  6. Introduction to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  7. Probing Neutron Star Physics with Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Magnetar Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars, the remnants of massive stellar explosions, are prime candidates for studying dense matter physics in conditions not accessible in the laboratory. Among the zoo of neutron star phenomena, magnetars, neutron stars with an extremely high magnetic field, are of particular interest for their spectacular bursting behaviour in X-rays and gamma-rays. They show thousands of recurrent short, bright bursts as well as some of the brightest gamma-ray events, called giant flares, ever observed on earth. The detection of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in giant flares and, more recently, in small recurrent bursts, is generally interpreted as the observable signature of global oscillations of the neutron star following a star quake. This detection has opened up the potential of neutron star seismology: probing the physical conditions in the interior of the star via the information conveyed in star quakes. In this talk, I will give an overview of observational studies of these sources, focusing on recent detections of QPOs in smaller bursts as well as results from the giant flares. I will then tie these observational results to theoretical models of the star quakes that tie observations to the neutron star interior and crust, and I will finish with an outlook of the future of magnetar seismology. DH is supported by the Moore-Sloan Data Science Environment at NYU.

  8. Neutron star models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Bowers, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of neutron star structure calculations is reviewed. Uncertainties in the equation of state for matter at and above nuclear density remain. The role of the delta resonance, pion condensates, and quark matter is reviewed. It is found that recent models yield stable neutron star masses which are consistent with observational estimates.

  9. Quarks and Quakes

    E-print Network

    R. X. Xu; A. Z. Zhou

    2004-10-31

    A quake model of bare strange stars for normal pulsar glitches is summarized. Three mechanisms being responsible for developing elastic stress energy are presented. It is suggested that other kinds of glitches (e.g, the frequency glitch in KS 1947+300 and in AXP/SGRs) could represent the bulk-strain-induced quakes. The apparent field increase of normal pulsars into ``magnetars'' could be the result of stellar catastrophic shrinking when the elastic force raises to a critical point.

  10. Hyperons in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tetsuya; Saito, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    Using the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of 2.08M?, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  11. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  12. Strangeness in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Weber, F; Negreiros, R P; Rosenfield, P; Weber, Fridolin; Ho, Alexander; Negreiros, Rodrigo P.; Rosenfield, Philip

    2006-01-01

    It is generally agreed on that the tremendous densities reached in the centers of neutron stars provide a high-pressure environment in which several intriguing particles processes may compete with each other. These range from the generation of hyperons to quark deconfinement to the formation of kaon condensates and H-matter. There are theoretical suggestions of even more exotic processes inside neutron stars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter. In the latter event, neutron stars would be largely composed of strange quark matter possibly enveloped in a thin nuclear crust. This paper gives a brief overview of these striking physical possibilities with an emphasis on the role played by strangeness in neutron star matter, which constitutes compressed baryonic matter at ultra-high baryon number density but low temperature which is no accessible to relativistic heavy ion collision experiments.

  13. Strangeness in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Weber, F

    2001-01-01

    It is generally agreed on that the tremendous densities reached in the centers of neutron stars provide a high-pressure environment in which numerous novel particles processes are likely to compete with each other. These processes range from the generation of hyperons to quark deconfinement to the formation of kaon condensates and H-matter. There are theoretical suggestions of even more exotic processes inside neutron stars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter, a configuration of matter even more stable than the most stable atomic nucleus, iron. In the latter event, neutron stars would be largely composed of pure quark matter, eventually enveloped in a thin nuclear crust. No matter which physical processes are actually realized inside neutron stars, each one leads to fingerprints, some more pronounced than others though, in the observable stellar quantities. This feature combined with the unprecedented progress in observational astronomy, which allows us to see vistas with remarkab...

  14. Matter accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    1981-09-01

    Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

  15. The Violent Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Neutron stars enable us to study both the highest densities and the highest magnetic fields in the known Universe. In this article I review what can be learned about such fundamental physics using magnetar bursts. Both the instability mechanisms that trigger the bursts, and the subsequent dynamical and radiative response of the star, can be used to explore stellar and magnetospheric structure and composition.

  16. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2013-03-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  17. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, C J

    2013-01-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  18. Neutron Rich Nuclei and Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-09-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  19. Double Neutron Star Systems and Natal Neutron Star Kicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Fryer; Vassiliki Kalogera

    1997-01-01

    We study the four double neutron star systems found in the Galactic disk in terms of the orbital characteristics of their immediate progenitors and the natal kicks imparted to neutron stars. Analysis of the effect of the second supernova explosion on the orbital dynamics, combined with recent results from simulations of rapid accretion onto neutron stars, lead us to conclude

  20. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  1. The Neutron Star Zoo

    E-print Network

    Harding, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

  2. Radius of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.; Riffert, H.

    1987-12-01

    Consideration is given to recent calculations of general relativistic effects in the beaming, spectrum, and pulse properties of accreting neutron stars. Some possible models for X-ray pulsars and QPOs are analyzed, which indicate that current observational and theoretical requirements can be explained with a value of the radius smaller than about two Schwarzschild radii. Concurrent information and calculations on several X-ray burster sources are compatible with this conclusion. 33 references.

  3. Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star #12;Birth of a Neutron Star & neutrinos. The birth temperature of a neutron star is ~5×1011 K, but neutrino emission cools it to `only' 106 to 107 K. #12;Sizes of Neutron Stars Google Maps: Oahu #12;Sizes of Neutron Stars Artist

  4. On Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Luiz L. Lopes; Debora P. Menezes

    2015-03-11

    In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach explores more deeply the concept of pressure, yielding the so called chaotic magnetic field formalism for the stress tensor. We also use a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density, which allows us to build a parameter free model.

  5. Neutron Stars for Undergraduates

    E-print Network

    Richard R. Silbar; Sanjay Reddy

    2003-11-26

    Calculating the structure of white dwarf and neutron stars would be a suitable topic for an undergraduate thesis or an advanced special topics or independent study course. The subject is rich in many different areas of physics accessible to a junior or senior physics major, ranging from thermodynamics to quantum statistics to nuclear physics to special and general relativity. The computations for solving the coupled structure differential equations (both Newtonian and general relativistic) can be done using a symbolic computational package, such as Mathematica. In doing so, the student will develop computational skills and learn how to deal with dimensions. Along the way he or she will also have learned some of the physics of equations of state and of degenerate stars.

  6. Structure–function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    PubMed Central

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins. PMID:23630077

  7. Axion emission from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwamoto, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that axion emission from neutron stars is the dominant energy-loss mechanism for a range of values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale (F) not excluded by previous constraints. This gives the possibility of obtaining a better bound on F from measurements of surface temperature of neutron stars.

  8. Grand unification of neutron stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  9. QCD in Neutron Stars and Strange Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Fridolin [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States); Negreiros, Rodrigo [FIAS, Goethe University, Ruth Moufang Str 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-05-24

    This paper provides an overview of the possible role of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) for neutron stars and strange stars. The fundamental degrees of freedom of QCD are quarks, which may exist as unconfined (color superconducting) particles in the cores of neutron stars. There is also the theoretical possibility that a significantly large number of up, down, and strange quarks may settle down in a new state of matter known as strange quark matter, which, by hypothesis, could be more stable than even the most stable atomic nucleus, {sup 56}Fe. In the latter case new classes of self-bound, color superconducting objects, ranging from strange quark nuggets to strange quark stars, should exist. The properties of such objects will be reviewed along with the possible existence of deconfined quarks in neutron stars. Implications for observational astrophysics are pointed out.

  10. Hyperon-Mixed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, T.

    Hyperon mixing in neutron star matter is investigated by the G-matrix-based effective interaction approach under the attention to use the YN and the YY potentials compatible with hypernuclear data and is shown to occur at densities relevant to neutron star cores, together with discussions to clarify the mechanism of hyperon contamination. It is remarked that developed Y-mixed phase causes a dramatic softening of the neutron star equation of state and leads to the serious problem that the resulting maximum mass Mmax for neutron star model contradicts the observed neutron star mass (Mmax Mobs) the threshold densities for ? and ?- are pushed to higher density side, from ˜2?0 to ˜ 4?0 (?0 being the nuclear density). On the basis of a realistic Y-mixed neutron star model, occurrence of Y-superfluidity essential for "hyperon cooling" scenario is studied and both of ?- and ?-- superfluids are shown to be realized with their critical temperatures 108-9 K, meaning that the "hyperon cooling" is a promising candidate for a fast non-standard cooling demanded for some neutron stars with low surface temperature. A comment is given as to the consequence of less attractive ?? interaction suggested by the "NAGARA event" 6??He.

  11. Double Neutron Star Systems and Natal Neutron Star Kicks

    E-print Network

    Chris Fryer; Vassiliki Kalogera

    1997-06-03

    We study the four double neutron star systems found in the Galactic disk in terms of the orbital characteristics of their immediate progenitors and the natal kicks imparted to neutron stars. Analysis of the effect of the second supernova explosion on the orbital dynamics, combined with recent results from simulations of rapid accretion onto neutron stars lead us to conclude that the observed systems could not have been formed had the explosion been symmetric. Their formation becomes possible if kicks are imparted to the radio-pulsar companions at birth. We identify the constraints imposed on the immediate progenitors of the observed double neutron stars and calculate the ranges within which their binary characteristics (orbital separations and masses of the exploding stars) are restricted. We also study the dependence of these limits on the magnitude of the kick velocity and the time elapsed since the second explosion. For each of the double neutron stars, we derive a minimum kick magnitude required for their formation, and for the two systems in close orbits we find it to exceed 200km/s. Lower limits are also set to the center-of-mass velocities of double neutron stars, and we find them to be consistent with the current proper motion observations.

  12. EUVE Observations of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Eric J. Korpela; Stuart Bowyer

    1998-03-04

    We present the results of searches for EUV emission from neutron stars conducted with the EUVE Deep Survey and Scanner Telescopes. To date, 21 fields containing known neutron stars have been observed in the Lexan/Boron (40--190 angstrom) band. Of these, 11 fields were simultaneously observed in the Aluminum/Carbon (160-385 angstrom) band. Five neutron stars which have been detected in the EUV have been reported previously; no new detections have been made in the studies reported here. For those sources not detected, we have used the observations to obtain limits on the spectral flux from the neutron stars in these bands. We provide means to convert these fluxes into intrinsic source fluxes for black-body and power law spectra for varying levels of absorption by the interstellar medium.

  13. The Neutron Star Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not clear how effective it is or on what timescale a buried field might re-emerge. One piece of evidence in favor of accretion-driven field reduction is the fact that NSs in LMXBs, which are older systems (> 108 yr), have mostly low fields and NSs in HMXBs, which are younger systems (107 - 108 yr), have higher fields. This may be an indication that accretion-driven field reduction or decay has not had enough time to operate in HMXBs but has in LMXBs. However, there does not seem to be any evidence of decaying fields in either the LMXB or HMXB populations; e.g. smaller magnetic fields in older systems. On the other hand, CCOs are very young so if they acquired their low fields through mass fallback accretion, the field submergence would have had to operate on much faster timescales than it apparently does in LMXBs. But as we continue to find new species in the NS zoo, one of these may someday be the "Rosetta Stone" that will give us the clues for solving these puzzles.

  14. The Zoo of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    S. B. Popov

    2007-01-22

    In these lecture notes I briefly discuss the present day situation and new discoveries in astrophysics of neutron stars focusing on isolated objects. The latter include soft gamma repeaters, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, the Magnificent seven, and rotating radio transients. In the last part of the paper I describe available tests of cooling curves of neutron stars and discuss different additional constraints which can help to confront theoretical calculations of cooling with observational data.

  15. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Pacini

    1999-01-01

    I briefly summarize some facts and ideas concerning the presence of neutron\\u000astars in Supernova remnants. While sources similar to the Crab Nebula require\\u000athe presence of a central energetic object, shell-type remnants such as Cas A\\u000aare compatible with the presence of neutron stars releasing a weak relativistic\\u000awind.

  16. Superfluid Hydrodynamics in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, Gregory Allen

    Superfluidity is predicted to exist in neutron stars. Superfluid effects on the dynamics of these stars have not been investigated in depth in the past. In this thesis, superfluid hydrodynamics in neutron stars is developed extensively. It is shown that superfluidity has important effects on the oscillation modes, dissipative properties, and stability of these stars. Very general hydrodynamic equations are derived which describe superfluid mixtures. The fluid equations are coupled to the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Forces due to the quantized vortices of the superfluids are also included. It is shown that new vorticity-preserving forces can be introduced into the superfluid-mixture equations. The equations are then adapted to describe neutron stars composed primarily of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and degenerate electrons and muons. The set of equations is closed by constructing a model of the total energy density and using it to express the dependent variables in terms of the independent variables. The low-frequency long-wavelength limit of the equations is determined. The results can be used to study superfluid effects on the global oscillations of neutron stars. The equations are generalized further to include dissipative effects. Most important is a form of dissipation known as mutual friction, which occurs only in superfluids. In neutron stars, mutual friction is due to electron scattering off the neutron and proton vortices. An energy functional is constructed which determines the damping time of a mode due to the various forms of dissipation, including mutual friction. Plane-wave solutions are found to the equations. Mutual friction is shown to be the dominant form of dissipation in neutron stars for sufficiently large angular velocities. Gravitational radiation tends to make all rotating stars unstable, while internal dissipation tends to counteract this instability. This, gravitational radiation can limit the maximum angular velocity of neutron stars. The most important conclusion of this thesis is that mutual friction completely suppresses the gravitational-radiation instability in rotating neutron stars cooler than the superfluid-transition temperature.

  17. $??$ Interaction and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Yeunhwan Lim; Chang Ho Hyun; Kyujin Kwak; Chang-Hwan Lee

    2014-12-18

    We investigate the effect of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interactions on the bulk properties of neutron star (NS). We employ a few Skyrme-type models and a finite-range force model in order to describe the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions for the nuclear matter of NS. With the model parameters that reproduce the binding energies of the double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we calculate the equation of state (EoS) for the matter of NS self-consistently. By solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation with the new EoS, we find that the bulk properties of NS, such as mass and radius, strongly depend on the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions. It has been generally known (as "hyperonization puzzle") that the existence of hyperons in NS matter is not well supported by the recent discovery of the high mass NS ($M_{NS} \\approx 2 M_\\odot$) because hyperons make the EoS soft. However, we find that some of our NS models can predict both the existence of the $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$ NS and the observationally constrained mass-radius relations. Our results indicate that the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions could provide a clue to this puzzle.

  18. The nuclear physics of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  19. Neutron Stars are Follicly Challenged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo; Pappas, George; Apostolatos, Theocharis; Kyutoku, Koutarou

    2015-04-01

    Black holes satisfy certain no-hair relations through which all multipole moments of the spacetime can be specified in terms of just a few quantities, like their mass and spin angular momentum. I will describe how neutron stars and quark stars also satisfy similar no-hair relations that are approximately independent of their equation of state. I will show how these results hold for both slowly- and rapidly-rotating stars in full General Relativity, provided the stars are uniformly rotating and uncharged. I will then explain why such relations may be relevant to observations of the pulse profile of hot spots on rotating neutron stars with NICER, as well as how they could be used to test General Relativity with binary pulsar and gravitational wave observations. I acknowledge support from the NSF CAREER Award PHY-1250636.

  20. Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO

    E-print Network

    Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

    2005-10-13

    Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

  1. Old and new neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  2. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. Adam; C. Naya; J. Sanchez-Guillen; R. Vazquez; A. Wereszczynski

    2015-02-26

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) provide an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather natural proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide excellent results as well as some new perspectives for the description of bulk properties of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is a few solar masses, the precise value depending on the precise values of the model parameters, and the resulting neutron star radius is of the order of 10 km.

  3. Coalescing binary neutron star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Alan C.; Swesty, F. Douglas; Wang, Edward Y. M.

    2001-10-01

    We present numerical studies of coalescing neutron star pairs with Newtonian hydrodynamics coupled to the 2.5 Post-Newtonian radiation reaction of Blanchet, Damour, and Schäfer [1]. Our simulations evolve the Euler equations using a modification of the ZEUS 2-D algorithm [2] and use a Fast Fourier Transformation method for solving the Poisson equation for the gravitational and radiation reaction potentials. We find that the radiation reaction produces a significant effect on a neutron star pair when compared to a purely Newtonian simulation. .

  4. Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2009-01-28

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

  5. Maximally incompressible neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    Timothy S. Olson

    2000-12-07

    Relativistic kinetic theory, based on the Grad method of moments as developed by Israel and Stewart, is used to model viscous and thermal dissipation in neutron star matter and determine an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars. In the context of kinetic theory, the equation of state must satisfy a set of constraints in order for the equilibrium states of the fluid to be thermodynamically stable and for perturbations from equilibrium to propagate causally via hyperbolic equations. Application of these constraints to neutron star matter restricts the stiffness of the most incompressible equation of state compatible with causality to be softer than the maximally incompressible equation of state that results from requiring the adiabatic sound speed to not exceed the speed of light. Using three equations of state based on experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and properties of light nuclei up to twice normal nuclear energy density, and the kinetic theory maximally incompressible equation of state at higher density, an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars averaging 2.64 solar masses is derived.

  6. Magnetic fields in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Daniele

    2013-09-01

    This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

  7. Holographic Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Jan de Boer; Kyriakos Papadodimas; Erik Verlinde

    2009-07-23

    We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the "Chandrasekhar limit" beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.

  8. From supernovae to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai

    2014-04-01

    Gravitational collapse, bounce, and explosion of an iron core of an 11.2 M? star are simulated by two-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic code. The explosion is driven by the neutrino heating aided by multi-dimensional hydrodynamic effects such as convection. Following the explosion phase, we continue the simulation focusing on the thermal evolution of the protoneutron star up to ˜ 70 s when the crust of the neutron star is formed, using one-dimensional simulation. We find that the crust forms at a high-density region (? ˜ 1014 g cm-3) and it proceeds from inside to outside. This is the first self-consistent simulation that successfully follows from the collapse phase to the protoneutron star cooling phase based on multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation.

  9. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2008-02-27

    A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

  10. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick; Kaluzienski, Lou (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The grant provided funds for a conference entitled 'Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants' held in Boston on 14-17 August 2001, in part to support invited speakers and students attending the meeting. The conference was completed on the specified dates and was a considerable success, attracting over 100 scientists from around the world. The conference included talks and papers on the most recent work in this field, including results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, the Very Large Array, and many other facilities. Theoretical work based on the latest results was also highlighted. The Proceedings of the conference have now been published as 'Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants'. In addition, a large fraction of the papers from the conference have been submitted to astro-ph, and the volume in indexed through the Astronomical Data System.

  11. Energy of neutron-star matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Moszkowski

    1974-01-01

    It is generally believed that the interior of some neutron stars is dense enough that the neutron-star matter (NSM) contains not only neutrons, but also protons, electrons, and various hyperons. In the present paper we calculate the effect of some hyperons on the composition and energy of the NSM. We calculate the energy per baryon and the fractions of the

  12. Properties of neutron star critical collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in the astrophysical realm, especially in gravitational collapse scenarios. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in realistic astrophysical gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution, understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and a neutron star phases, and clarify the implication these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the framework of phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

  13. Antikaon condensation in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Subrata Pal; Debades Bandyopadhyay; Walter Greiner

    2000-03-08

    We investigate the condensation of charged $K^-$ meson and neutral $\\bar K^0$ meson in dense neutron star matter. Calculations are performed in relativistic mean field models in which both the baryon-baryon and (anti)kaon-baryon interactions are mediated by meson exchange. It is found that $\\bar K^0$ condensation is quite sensitive to the antikaon optical potential and depends more strongly on the nucleonic equation of state. For moderate values of antikaon potential and a rather stiff equation of state, a significant region of maximum mass star will contain $\\bar K^0$ meson. The critical density of $\\bar K^0$ condensation is always higher than that of $K^-$ condensation. With the appearance of $K^-$ and $\\bar K^0$ condensates, pairs of $p-K^-$ and $n-\\bar K^0$ are produced with equal proportion leading to a perfectly symmetric matter of nucleons and antikaons in neutron stars. Along with $K^-$ condensate, $\\bar K^0$ condensate makes the equation of state much softer resulting in smaller maximum mass stars compared to the case without any condensate.

  14. Neutron stars as cosmic hadron physics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive observations of Her-1 with the Exosat satellite have led to a new understanding of both the dynamics of neutron-star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars. Detailed microscopic calculations on neutron matter and the properties of the pinned crustal superfluid are provided to serve as a basis for comparing theory with observation on neutron stars. Topics discussed include the Hadron matter equation of state, neutron star structure, Hadron superfluids, the vortex creep theory, Vela pulsar glitches, astrophysical constraints on neutron matter energy gaps, the 35 day periodicity of Her-1, and the neutron matter equation of state. It is concluded that since the post-glitch fits and the identification of the 35th periodicity in Her X-1 as stellar wobble require a rigid neutron matter equation of state, the astrophysical evidence for such an equation seems strong, as well as that for an intermediate Delta(rho) curve.

  15. The HST contribution to neutron star astronomy

    E-print Network

    R. P. Mignani

    2007-10-29

    While isolated neutron stars (INSs) are among the brightest gamma-ray sources, they are among the faintest ones in the optical, and their study is a challenging task which require the most powerful telescopes. HST has lead neutron star optical astronomy yielding nearly all the identifications achieved since the early 1990s. Here, the major HST contributions in the optical studies of INSs and their relevance for neutron stars' astronomy are reviewed.

  16. Neutron rich matter, neutron stars, and their crusts

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Neutron rich matter is at the heart of many fundamental questions in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. What are the high density phases of QCD? Where did the chemical elements come from? What is the structure of many compact and energetic objects in the heavens, and what determines their electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave radiations? Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that is using parity violation to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. Using large scale molecular dynamics, we model the formation of solids in both white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find neutron star crust to be the strongest material known, some 10 billion times stronger than steel. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to...

  17. Burst Oscillations: Watching Neutron Stars Spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2010-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the first detection of rotationally modulated emission from X-ray bursting neutron stars, "burst oscillations," This phenomenon enables us to see neutron stars spin, as the X-ray burst flux asymmetrically lights up the surface. It has enabled a new way to probe the neutron star spin frequency distribution, as well as to elucidate the multidimensional nature of nuclear burning on neutron stars. I will review our current observational understanding of the phenomenon, with an eye toward highlighting some of the interesting remaining puzzles, of which there is no shortage.

  18. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  19. Neutron drip transition in accreting and nonaccreting neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, N.; Fantina, A. F.; Zdunik, J. L.; Haensel, P.

    2015-05-01

    The neutron drip transition in the dense matter constituting the interior of neutron stars generally refers to the appearance of unbound neutrons as the matter density reaches some threshold density ?drip. This transition has been mainly studied under the cold catalyzed matter hypothesis. However, this assumption is unrealistic for accreting neutron stars. After examining the physical processes that are thought to be allowed in both accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars, suitable conditions for the onset of neutron drip are derived and general analytical expressions for the neutron drip density and pressure are obtained. Moreover, we show that the neutron drip transition occurs at lower density and pressure than those predicted within the mean-nucleus approximation. This transition is studied numerically for various initial composition of the ashes from x-ray bursts and superbursts using microscopic nuclear mass models.

  20. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  1. Neutron Stars in Rastall Gravity

    E-print Network

    Oliveira, A M; Fabris, J C; Casarini, L

    2015-01-01

    We calculate static and spherically symmetric solutions for the Rastall modification of gravity to describe Neutron Stars (NS). The key feature of the Rastall gravity is the non-conservation of the energy-momentum tensor proportionally to the space-time curvature. Using realistic equations of state for the NS interior we place a bound on the non-GR behaviour of the Rastall theory which should be $\\lesssim 0.1\\%$ level. This work presents the more stringent contraints on the deviations of GR caused by the Rastall proposal.

  2. Nonstandard thermal evolution of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1994-01-01

    A neutron star may cool much faster than through the 'standard' scenario. Here we calculate thermal evolution of neutron stars through various 'nonstandard' fast cooling scenarios, and the results are compared with the currently up-dated observational data. We discuss the possibility of distinguishing between the standard and various, different nonstandard scenarios, through the current and future X-ray satellite observations.

  3. Rotating Neutron Stars, Pulsars and Supernova Remnants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pacini

    1968-01-01

    I SHALL discuss here some problems connected with theories linking the pulsars to the rotation of neutron stars (ref. 1 and a preprint by L. Woltjer). Because neutron stars can be formed during a supernova explosion, their rotation could be coupled with the surrounding gaseous remnant2,3: the following considerations will therefore also refer to the problem of the activity observed

  4. Thermonuclear runaways on neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermonuclear runaways which develop when neutron stars of 0.476 solar masses accrete hydrogen-rich material at 10 to the -10th and 2 x 10 to the -9th solar masses/year have been followed using a numerical model. It is found that a thermal instability occurs at densities in excess of 10 to the 5th g/cu cm and that the maximum accumulated mass required to initiate the runaway is 0.7 x 10 to the -12th and 2.1 x 10 to the -12th solar masses for the mass accretion rates of 10 to the -10th and 2 x 10 to the -9th solar masses/year, respectively. Heating the of the neutron star envelope by hydrogen burning leads to the ignition of helium. The nonequilibrium burning of helium by a combination of (alpha, p), (p, gamma), and (alpha, gamma) reactions involving O-14, O-15, and other heavy nuclei provides the energy for an X-ray burst. The gross properties of these models bear suggestive resemblance to those observed for some X-ray burst sources.

  5. Birth accelerations of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Heras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that neutron stars experienced at birth three related physical changes, which may originate in magneto-rotational instabilities: (i) an increase in period from the initial value P_0 to the current value P_s, implying a change of rotational energy \\Delta E_rot; (ii) an exponential decay of its magnetic field from the initial value B_0 to the current surface value B_s, implying a change of radiative energy \\Delta E_rad; and (iii) an increase of space velocity from the initial value v_0 to the current value v, implying a change of kinetic energy \\Delta E_kin. These changes are assumed to be connected by \\Delta E_rad + \\Delta E_kin =\\Delta E_rot. This means that the radiation loss and increase of kinetic energy are both at the expense of a rotational energy loss. It is shown that this energy conversion occurs during times of order of 10^(-4) s if the neutron stars are born with magnetic fields in the range of 10^(15)-10^(16) G and initial periods in range 1-20 ms. It is shown that the birth acceleratio...

  6. Electron-neutron scattering and transport properties of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Bridget Bertoni; Sanjay Reddy; Ermal Rrapaj

    2014-09-27

    We show that electrons can couple to the neutron excitations in neutron stars and find that this can limit their contribution to the transport properties of dense matter, especially the shear viscosity. The coupling between electrons and neutrons is induced by protons in the core, and by ions in the crust. We calculate the effective electron-neutron interaction for the kinematics of relevance to the scattering of degenerate electrons at high density. We use this interaction to calculate the electron thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and shear viscosity in the neutron star inner crust, and in the core where we consider both normal and superfluid phases of neutron-rich matter. In some cases, particularly when protons are superconducting and neutrons are in their normal phase, we find that electron-neutron scattering can be more important than the other scattering mechanisms considered previously.

  7. Superfluid dynamics in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    C. J. Pethick; N. Chamel; S. Reddy

    2010-09-13

    A simple description of superfluid hydrodynamics in the inner crust of a neutron star is given. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the lattice of nuclei on the properties of the superfluid neutrons, and the effects of entrainment, the fact that some fraction of the neutrons are locked to the motion of the protons in nuclei.

  8. Collective excitations in neutron-star crusts

    E-print Network

    N. Chamel; D. Page; S. Reddy

    2013-10-15

    We explore the spectrum of low-energy collective excitations in the crust of a neutron star, especially in the inner region where neutron-proton clusters are immersed in a sea of superfluid neutrons. The speeds of the different modes are calculated systematically from the nuclear energy density functional theory using a Skyrme functional fitted to essentially all experimental atomic mass data.

  9. Can neutron stars constrain dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Tinyakov, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Because of their strong gravitational field, neutron stars capture weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs) more efficiently compared to other stars, including the white dwarfs. Once captured, the WIMPs sink to the neutron star center and annihilate, heating the star. We find that this heat could lead to detectable effects on the surface temperature of old neutron stars, especially those in dark-matter-rich regions such as the Galactic center or cores of globular clusters. The capture and annihilation is fully efficient even for WIMP-to-nucleon cross sections (elastic or inelastic) as low as ˜10-45cm2, and for the annihilation cross sections as small as ˜10-57cm2. Thus, detection of a sufficiently cold neutron star in a dark-matter-rich environment would exclude a wide range of dark matter candidates, including those with extremely small cross sections.

  10. Neutron Star Crust and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz; J. Hughto; A. Schneider; D. K. Berry

    2011-09-23

    In this book chapter we review plasma crystals in the laboratory, in the interior of white dwarf stars, and in the crust of neutron stars. We describe a molecular dynamics formalism and show results for many neutron star crust properties including phase separation upon freezing, diffusion, breaking strain, shear viscosity and dynamics response of nuclear pasta. We end with a summary and discuss open questions and challenges for the future.

  11. Relativistic light bending near neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Nollert; U. Kraus; A. Rebetzky; H. Herold; T. Maile; H. Ruder

    1989-01-01

    The deflection of light ray emitted on or near the surface of a neutron star is investigated. A picture of the star as it would appear on a screen far away from the star is computed, giving an impression of the effects of light bending. This geometrical data is combined with emission models in order to obtain frequency dependent pulse

  12. Quark Matter in Neutron Stars: An apercu

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar; Sanjay Reddy; Andrew W. Steiner

    2006-08-16

    The existence of deconfined quark matter in the superdense interior of neutron stars is a key question that has drawn considerable attention over the past few decades. Quark matter can comprise an arbitrary fraction of the star, from 0 for a pure neutron star to 1 for a pure quark star, depending on the equation of state of matter at high density. From an astrophysical viewpoint, these two extreme cases are generally expected to manifest different observational signatures. An intermediate fraction implies a hybrid star, where the interior consists of mixed or homogeneous phases of quark and nuclear matter, depending on surface and Coulomb energy costs, as well as other finite size and screening effects. In this brief review article, we discuss what we can deduce about quark matter in neutron stars in light of recent exciting developments in neutron star observations. We state the theoretical ideas underlying the equation of state of dense quark matter, including color superconducting quark matter. We also highlight recent advances stemming from re-examination of an old paradigm for the surface structure of quark stars and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios from neutron stars to quark stars, with emphasis on astrophysical observations.

  13. Parity Violating Measurements of Neutron Densities:. Implications for Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2002-06-01

    Parity violating electron scattering can measure the neutron density of a heavy nucleus accurately and model independently. This is because the weak charge of the neutron is much larger then that of the proton. The Parity Radius Experiment (PREX) at Jefferson Laboratory aims to measure the root mean square neutron radius of 208Pb with an absolute accuracy of 1% (±0.05 Fm). This is more accurate then past measurements with hadronic probes, which all suffer from controversial strong interaction uncertainties. PREX should clearly resolve the neutron-rich skin. Furthermore, this benchmark value for 208Pb will provide a calibration for hadronic probes, such as proton scattering, which can then be used to measure neutron densities of many exotic nuclei. The PREX result will also have many implications for neutron stars. The neutron radius of Pb depends on the pressure of neutron-rich matter: the greater the pressure, the larger the radius as neutrons are pushed out against surface tension. The same pressure supports a neutron star against gravity. The Pb radius is sensitive to the equation of state at normal densities while the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star also depends on the equation of state at higher densities. Measurements of the radii of a number of isolated neutron stars such as Geminga and RX J185635-3754 should soon improve significantly. By comparing the equation of state information from the radii of both Pb and neutron stars one can search for a softening of the high density equation of state from a phase transition to an exotic state. Possibilities include kaon condensates, strange quark matter or color superconductors.

  14. The Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Gordon Baym

    1996-08-11

    Observational identification of black holes as members of binary systems requires the knowledge of the upper limit on the gravitational mass of a neutron star. We use modern equations of state for neutron star matter, fitted to experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and the properties of light nuclei, to calculate, within the framework of Rhoades & Ruffini (1974), the minimum upper limit on a neutron star mass. Regarding the equation of state as valid up to twice nuclear matter saturation density, rho_{nm}, we obtain a secure upper bound on the neutron star mass equal to 2.9 solar masses. We also find that in order to reach the lowest possible upper bound of 2.2 solar masses, we need understand the physical properties of neutron matter up to a density of about 4 times rho_{nm}.

  15. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Matthias Kaminski; Christoph F. Uhlemann; Marcus Bleicher; Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich

    2014-10-14

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to $1000$ km/s. We discuss possible mechanisms contributing to these kicks in a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Anomalies of the underlying microscopic theory result in chiral transport terms in the hydrodynamic description, and we identify these as explanation for the drastic acceleration. In the presence of vorticity or a magnetic field, the chiral transport effects cause neutrino emission along the respective axes. In typical scenarios, the transport effect due to the magnetic field turns out to be strong enough to explain the kicks. Mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies enter in a distinct way, and we also discuss their implications.

  16. The many lives of magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna , R.; Pons, J. A.; Viganò, D.; Rea, N.

    2014-09-01

    The magnetic field strength at birth is arguably one of the most important properties to determine the evolutionary path of a neutron star. Objects with very high fields, collectively known as magnetars, are characterized by high X-ray quiescent luminosities, occurrence of outbursts, and, for some of them, sporadic giant flares. While the magnetic field strength is believed to drive their collective behaviour, however, the diversity of their properties, and, especially, the observation of magnetar-like bursts from ``low-field'' pulsars, has been a theoretical puzzle. In this review, we discuss results of long-term simulations following the coupled evolution of the X-ray luminosity and the timing properties for a large, homogeneous sample of X-ray emitting isolated neutron stars, accounting for a range of initial magnetic field strengths, envelope compositions, and neutron star masses. In addition, by following the evolution of magnetic stresses within the neutron star crust, we can also relate the observed magnetar phenomenology to the physical properties of neutron stars, and in particular to their age and magnetic field strength and topology. The dichotomy of ``high-B'' field pulsars versus magnetars is naturally explained, and occasional outbursts from old, low B-field neutron stars are predicted. We conclude by speculating on the fate of old magnetars, and by presenting observational diagnostics of the neutron star crustal field topology.

  17. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Sulaksono

    2014-12-23

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on properties of the neutron stars with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of anisotropic pressure on neutron star matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of anisotropic pressure model $h \\le 0.8$[1] and $\\Lambda \\le -1.15$ [2]. The radius of the corresponding neutron star at $M$=1.4 $M_\\odot$ is more than 13 km, while the effect of anisotropic pressure on the minimum mass of neutron star is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the anisotropic pressure in the neutron star, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 $M_\\odot$ cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the neutron star core.

  18. Radiative Falloff in Neutron Star Spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Vasiliki Pavlidou; Konstantinos Tassis; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-07-10

    We systematically study late-time tails of scalar waves propagating in neutron star spacetimes. We consider uniform density neutron stars, for which the background spacetime is analytic and the compaction of the star can be varied continously between the Newtonian limit 2M/R 8/9 the light travel time between the center and the maximum or the curvature potential grows without bound, so that the first peak arrives only at infinitely late time. The modes of neutron stars can therefore no longer be excited in the ultra-relativistic limit, and it is in this sense that the late-time radiative decay from neutron stars looses all its features and gives rise to power-law tails reminiscent of Schwarzschild black holes.

  19. The breaking strain of neutron star crust

    SciTech Connect

    Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horowitz, C J [INDIANA UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.

  20. Neutron rich matter, neutron stars, and their crusts

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2010-08-02

    Neutron rich matter is at the heart of many fundamental questions in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. What are the high density phases of QCD? Where did the chemical elements come from? What is the structure of many compact and energetic objects in the heavens, and what determines their electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave radiations? Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that is using parity violation to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. Using large scale molecular dynamics, we model the formation of solids in both white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find neutron star crust to be the strongest material known, some 10 billion times stronger than steel. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to generate detectable gravitational waves. Finally, we describe a new equation of state for supernova and neutron star merger simulations based on the Virial expansion at low densities, and large scale relativistic mean field calculations.

  1. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Supid

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes neutron stars and thermonuclear x ray bursts. The contents include: 1) Neutron Stars: why do we care?; 2) Thermonuclear Bursts: why do we care?; 3) Neutron Stars: Mass, Radius and Spin: a. Continuum Spectroscopy of Bursts b. Spectral Lines from Bursts c. Timing Properties of Bursts; 4) Neutron Star Atmosphere: Thermonuclear Flame Spreading; and 5) Future Prospects and Conclusions.

  2. Dynamical Capture Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2012-11-01

    We study dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers as may arise in dense stellar regions such as globular clusters. Using general-relativistic hydrodynamics, we find that these mergers can result in the prompt collapse to a black hole or in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star, depending not only on the neutron star equation of state but also on impact parameter. We also find that these mergers can produce accretion disks of up to a tenth of a solar mass and unbound ejected material of up to a few percent of a solar mass. We comment on the gravitational radiation and electromagnetic transients that these sources may produce.

  3. Thermal Conductivity of the Neutron Star Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajad, Abbar; Carlson, Joseph; Duan, Huaiyu; Reddy, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Observations of neutron star crust cooling times after extended outbursts are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity of the neutron star crust. We calculate the thermal conductivity of neutron star crust at relatively low temperatures using static structure factor S(q) obtained from Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and one-phonon approximation. We investigate the importance of quantum effects on the static structure factor. We also compare QMC and the one-phonon approximation over a range of temperatures and show that the thermal conductivity can be calculated directly from S(q) obtained from QMC for temperatures larger than 0.3TP where TP is the plasma temperature.

  4. Gravitational waves from low mass neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Low mass neutron stars may be uniquely strong sources of gravitational waves. The neutron star crust can support large deformations for low mass stars. This is because of the star's weaker gravity. We find maximum ellipticities {epsilon} (fractional difference in moments of inertia) that are 1000 times larger, and maximum quadrupole moments Q{sub 22} over 100 times larger, for low mass stars than for 1.4M{sub {center_dot}}neutron stars. Indeed, we calculate that the crust can support an {epsilon} as large as 0.005 for a minimum mass neutron star. A 0.12M{sub {center_dot}}star, that is maximally strained and rotating at 100 Hz, will produce a characteristic gravitational wave strain of h{sub 0}=2.1x10{sup -24} at a distance of 1 kpc. The gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO should be sensitive to such objects through out the Milky Way Galaxy. A low mass neutron star could be uniquely identified from a large observed spin down rate and its discovery would have important implications for general relativity, supernova mechanisms, and possibly nucleosynthesis.

  5. Make a Quake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    When quakes strike urban areas, the toll in life and property can be great. Luckily, scientists have been working to uncover safer methods of construction and new structural techniques that "mitigate" the effects of earthquakes. In this simple simulation, you choose the ground on which to erect your building and which quake-proofing technological prevention to employ. You can then subject your building to three levels of intensity and see how it stands up.

  6. THE ROLE OF HELIUM STARS IN THE FORMATION OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS N. Ivanova,1

    E-print Network

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    THE ROLE OF HELIUM STARS IN THE FORMATION OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS N. Ivanova,1 K. Belczynski,1,2 V:5 6 M with a 1.4 M neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems phase) leads to the formation of extremely short-period double neutron star systems (with Pd0:1 days

  7. Dark Matter Thermalization in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Bridget Bertoni; Ann E. Nelson; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-11-13

    We study how many-body effects alter the dark matter (DM) thermalization time inside neutron stars. We find that Pauli blocking, kinematic constraints, and superfluidity and superconductivity in the neutron star significantly affect the DM thermalization time, in general lengthening it. This could change the final DM mass and DM-nucleon cross section constraints by considering black hole formation in neutron stars due to DM accretion. We consider the class of models in which DM is an asymmetric, complex scalar particle with a mass between 1 keV and 5 GeV which couples to regular matter via some heavy vector boson. Interestingly, we find that the discovery of asymmetric, bosonic DM could motivate the existence of exotic neutron star cores. We apply our results to the case of mixed sneutrino DM.

  8. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  9. Neutron stars in Einstein-aether theory

    E-print Network

    Christopher Eling; Ted Jacobson; M. Coleman Miller

    2009-12-06

    As current and future experiments probe strong gravitational regimes around neutron stars and black holes, it is desirable to have theoretically sound alternatives to general relativity against which to test observations. Here we study the consequences of one such generalization, Einstein-aether theory, for the properties of non-rotating neutron stars. This theory has a parameter range that satisfies all current weak-field tests. We find that within this range it leads to lower maximum neutron star masses, as well as larger surface redshifts at a particular mass, for a given nuclear equation of state. For non-rotating black holes and neutron stars, the innermost stable circular orbit is only slightly modified in this theory.

  10. Direct URCA process in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattimer, James M.; Prakash, Madappa; Pethick, C. J.; Haensel, Pawel

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the direct URCA process can occur in neutron stars if the proton concentration exceeds some critical value in the range 11-15 percent. The proton concentration, which is determined by the poorly known symmetry energy of matter above nuclear density, exceeds the critical value in many current calculations. If it occurs, the direct URCA process enhances neutrino emission and neutron star cooling rates by a large factor compared to any process considered previously.

  11. Hydrodynamical evolution of coalescing binary neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of the final merging of two neutron stars and the corresponding gravitational wave emission is studied in detail. Various test calculations are presented, including the compressible Roche and Darwin problems and the head-on collision of two polytropes. A complete coalescence calculation is presented for the simplest case of two identical neutron stars, represented by Gamma = 2 polytropes, in a circular orbit, with their spins aligned and synchronized with the orbital rotation.

  12. Chandra observations of neutron stars: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Weisskopf; M. Karovska; G. G. Pavlov; V. E. Zavlin; T. Clarke

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of neutron stars. The outstanding spatial and spectral resolution of this great observatory\\u000a have allowed for observations of unprecedented clarity and accuracy. Many of these observations have provided new insights\\u000a into neutron star physics. We present an admittedly biased and overly brief review of these observations, highlighting some\\u000a new discoveries made

  13. Magnetized Neutron Stars in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropina, O. D.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the propagation of magnetized, isolated old neutron stars through the interstellar medium. We performed axisymmetric, non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the supersonic motion of neutron star with dipole magnetic field aligned with its velocity through the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider two cases: (1) where the accretion radius is larger than Alfvén radius, i.e. Racc>>RA and gravitational focusing is important; and (2) where Racc<star interacts with the ISM as a “georotator”, without significant gravitational focusing. In the first case we observe Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto an isolated magnetized neutron star. In the second case magnetic field lines are stretched downwind from the star and form a hollow elongated magnetotail. Reconnection of the magnetic field is observed in the tail which may lead to acceleration of particles.

  14. 2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Deborah N. Aguilera; José A. Pons; Juan A. Miralles

    2008-04-17

    Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^13 G. A realistic cooling model that includes the presence of high magnetic fields should be reconsidered. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a large effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Both magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in keeping magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is important for intermediate field neutron stars and should be considered in radio-quiet isolated neutron stars or high magnetic field radio-pulsars.

  15. Superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. N.; Shen, H. [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-02-15

    We study the {sup 1}S{sub 0} superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons in neutron star matter and neutron stars. We use the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to calculate the properties of neutron star matter. In the RMF approach, the meson-hyperon couplings are constrained by reasonable hyperon potentials that include the updated information from recent developments in hypernuclear physics. To examine the {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing gap of {Lambda} hyperons, we employ several {Lambda}{Lambda} interactions based on the Nijmegen models and used in double-{Lambda} hypernuclei studies. It is found that the maximal pairing gap obtained is a few tenths of a MeV. The magnitude and the density region of the pairing gap are dependent on the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction and the treatment of neutron star matter. We calculate neutron star properties and find that whether the {sup 1}S{sub 0} superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons exists in the core of neutron stars mainly depends on the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction used.

  16. The decompression of cold neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattimer, J. M.; Mackie, F.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Schramm, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The ejection of cold neutron-star matter is examined, and an attempt is made to determine whether the final composition of this matter may be similar to that normally associated with the hot high-neutron-flux r-process. A semiempirical liquid-drop model is used for the nucleus, and the equilibrium composition of the matter is determined by assuming it to be in its absolute ground state at a given density. Physical mechanisms operating during the expansion are analyzed, and the composition of the ejected matter is found as a function of its density during expansion. The results indicate that it is virtually impossible for deuterium to form, that neutrons can be captured only after beta decay increases the atomic numbers of nuclei, and that no free neutrons can escape. It is concluded that neutron-star ejecta can produce heavy neutron-rich nuclei and may produce somewhat heavier nuclei than a standard r-process.

  17. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has been found on the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. "The compact star at the center of this famous supernova remnant has been an enigma since its discovery," said Wynn Ho of the University of Southampton and lead author of a paper that appears in the latest issue of Nature. "Now we finally understand that it can be produced by a hot neutron star with a carbon atmosphere." By analyzing Chandra's X-ray spectrum - akin to a fingerprint of energy - and applying it to theoretical models, Ho and his colleague Craig Heinke, from the University of Alberta, determined that the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, has an ultra-thin coating of carbon. This is the first time the composition of an atmosphere of an isolated neutron star has been confirmed. The Chandra "First Light" image of Cas A in 1999 revealed a previously undetected point-like source of X-rays at the center. This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. This would explain the lack of X-ray pulsations because -- like a lightbulb that shines consistently in all directions -- this neutron star would be unlikely to display any changes in its intensity as it rotates. Scientists previously have used a neutron star model with a hydrogen atmosphere giving a much smaller emission area, corresponding to a hot spot on a typical neutron star, which should produce X-ray pulsations as it rotates. Interpreting the hydrogen atmosphere model without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of stronger magnetic fields as

  18. Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, George

    1985-01-01

    Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

  19. Which Stars Form Black Holes and Neutron Stars?

    E-print Network

    Michael P. Muno

    2006-11-18

    I describe the current state of our knowledge of the mapping between the initial masses of stars and the compact objects -- particularly neutron stars and black holes -- that they produce. Most of that knowledge is theoretical in nature, and relies on uncertain assumptions about mass loss through winds, binary mass transfer, and the amount of mass ejected during a supernovae. Observational constraints on the initial masses of stars that produce neutron stars and black holes is scarce. They fall into three general categories: (1) models of the stars that produced the supernova remnants associated with known compact objects, (2) scenarios through with high mass X-ray binaries were produced, and (3) associations between compact objects and coeval clusters of stars for which the minimum masses of stars that have undergone supernovae are known. I focus on the last category as the most promising in the near term. I describe three highly-magnetized neutron stars that have been associated with progenitors that had initial masses of $>$30\\msun, and evaluate the prospects of finding further associations between star clusters and compact objects.

  20. Goldstone modes in the neutron star core

    E-print Network

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-07-31

    We formulate a theory of Goldstone bosons and their interactions in the superfluid and superconducting phase of dense nucleonic matter at densities of relevance to the neutron star core. For typical neutron star temperatures in the range T = 10^6 to 10^9 K, the Goldstone mode associated with rotational symmetry, called angulons, couple weakly to each other and to electrons. Consequently, these modes have anomalously large mean free paths and can contribute to both diffusive and ballistic transport of heat and momentum. In contrast, the two Goldstone bosons associated with density oscillations of the neutron and electron + proton fluids, called superfluid phonons, mix and couple strongly to electrons. They have shorter mean free paths, and their contribution to transport is negligible. Long-wavelength superfluid phonons and angulons can play a role in neutron star seismology, and lead to interesting phenomenology as angulons couple to magnetic fields and have anisotropic dispersion relations.

  1. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2007-04-26

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the neutron stars received hardly any velocity kick at birth (Pfahl et al. 2002). The masses of the second-born neutron stars in five of the six low-eccentricity double neutron stars are remarkably low (between 1.18 and 1.30 Msun). It is argued that these low-mass, low-kick neutron stars were formed by the electron-capture collapse of the degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of helium stars less massive than about 3.5 Msun, whereas the higher-mass, higher kick-velocity neutron stars were formed by the collapses of the iron cores of higher initial mass. The absence of low-velocity single young radio pulsars (Hobbs et al. 2005) is consistent with the model proposed by Podsiadlowski et al. (2004), in which the electron-capture collapse of degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores can only occur in binary systems, and not in single stars.

  2. Forecasting neutron star temperatures: predictability and variability

    E-print Network

    Dany Page; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-07-17

    It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of fudge parameters that change the crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these fudge parameters and allow us to predict longer term variability in terms of the neutron star core temperature. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core temperature, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations.

  3. A hypothesis of earth quake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong-Shyeong Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Without a model, it is impossible for a geophysicist to study the possibility of forecasting earth quakes. We will define a quantity, the event-degree, in the paper. This quantity plays an important role in the model of quakes forecasting. In order to make a simple model, we make a hypothesis of earth quakes. The hypothesis is: \\

  4. The neutron star mass distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ?} and 1.55 M {sub ?}, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M {sub ?}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ?2.1 M {sub ?} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ?} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  5. Improved microphysics in neutron star merger simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Neutron star mergers are expected to be among the main sources of gravitational waves detectable by the Advance LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detector network. In many cases, these mergers are also likely to power bright electromagnetic transients, including short gamma-ray bursts and ``kilonovae,'' the optical/infrared emission due to the radioactive decay of neutron rich elements in material unbound by the merger. These EM counterparts can provide important information on the environment in which the merger takes place and the nature of the binary, and their detection could shed a light on the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and of r-process elements. Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers using general relativistic codes are required to understand the merger dynamics, the impact of the equation of state of the neutron star on the gravitational wave signal, and the potential of a given binary to power electromagnetic counterparts to that signal. Until recently, however, general relativistic codes used very simple models for the neutron star - often a simple gamma-law equation of state without any additional microphysics. Although sufficient to model the gravitational wave signal before merger, this cannot be used to follow the post-merger evolution of the system, or even some aspects of the disruption of the neutron star. To do so, nuclear-theory based equations of state with temperature and composition dependence have to be used, and the effects of neutrinos and magnetic fields should be taken into account. In this talk, I will discuss current efforts to include more advanced microphysics in general relativistic simulations, what we can do so far, and what the remaining computational challenges are. I will also show how existing numerical simulations have helped us constrain the outcome of neutron star mergers, and what remains to be done in order to extract as much information as possible from upcoming gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. Neutron star mergers are expected to be among the main sources of gravitational waves detectable by the Advance LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detector network. In many cases, these mergers are also likely to power bright electromagnetic transients, including short gamma-ray bursts and ``kilonovae,'' the optical/infrared emission due to the radioactive decay of neutron rich elements in material unbound by the merger. These EM counterparts can provide important information on the environment in which the merger takes place and the nature of the binary, and their detection could shed a light on the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and of r-process elements. Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers using general relativistic codes are required to understand the merger dynamics, the impact of the equation of state of the neutron star on the gravitational wave signal, and the potential of a given binary to power electromagnetic counterparts to that signal. Until recently, however, general relativistic codes used very simple models for the neutron star - often a simple gamma-law equation of state without any additional microphysics. Although sufficient to model the gravitational wave signal before merger, this cannot be used to follow the post-merger evolution of the system, or even some aspects of the disruption of the neutron star. To do so, nuclear-theory based equations of state with temperature and composition dependence have to be used, and the effects of neutrinos and magnetic fields should be taken into account. In this talk, I will discuss current efforts to include more advanced microphysics in general relativistic simulations, what we can do so far, and what the remaining computational challenges are. I will also show how existing numerical simulations have helped us constrain the outcome of neutron star mergers, and what remains to be done in order to extract as much information as possible from upcoming gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. Einstein Fellow.

  6. Quadrupole moments of rotating neutron stars and strange stars

    E-print Network

    Urbanec, Martin; Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    We present results for models of neutron stars and strange stars constructed using the Hartle-Thorne slow-rotation method with a wide range of equations of state, focusing on the values obtained for the angular momentum $J$ and the quadrupole moment $Q$, when the gravitational mass $M$ and the rotational frequency $\\Omega$ are specified. Building on previous work, which showed surprising uniformity in the behaviour of the moment of inertia for neutron-star models constructed with widely-different equations of state, we find similar uniformity for the quadrupole moment. These two quantities, together with the mass, are fundamental for determining the vacuum space-time outside neutron stars. We study particularly the dimensionless combination of parameters $QM/J^2$ (using units for which $c=G=1$). This quantity goes to 1 in the case of a Kerr-metric black hole and deviations away from 1 then characterize the difference between neutron-star and black-hole space-times. It is found that $QM/J^2$ for both neutron s...

  7. Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Colucci, Giuseppe [Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italia and .N.F.N., Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2011-05-23

    We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.

  8. Quasiparticle Interactions in Neutron Matter for Applications in Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambach, J.; Anisworth, T. L.; Pines, D.

    1993-01-01

    A microscopic model for the quaisiparticle interaction in neutron matter is presented. Both particle-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) correlation are are included. The pp correlations are treated in semi-empirical way, while ph correlations are incorporated by solving coupled two-body equations for the particle hole interaction and the scattering amplitude on the Fermi sphere. The resulting integral equations self-consistently sum the ph reducible diagrams. Antisymmetry is kept at all stages and hence the forward-scattering sum rules are obeyed. Results for Landau parameters and transport coefficients in a density regime representing the crust of a neutron star are presented. We also estimate the S-1 gap parameter for neutron superfluidity and comment briefly on neutron-star implications.

  9. Quasiparticle Interactions in Neutron Matter for Applications in Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambach, J; Ainsworth, T. L.; Pines, D.

    1993-01-01

    A microscopic model for the quasiparticle interaction in neutron matter is presented. Both-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) correlations are included. The pp correlations are treated in semi-empirical way, while ph correlations are incorporated by solving coupled two-body equations for particle-hole interaction and the scattering amplitude of the Fermi sphere. The resulting integral equations self-consistently sum the ph reducible diagrams. Antisymmetry is kept at all stages and hence the forward-scattering sum rules for the scattering amplitude are obeyed. Results for Landau parameters and transport coefficients in a density regime representing the crust of a neutron star are presented. We also estimate the (1)S(sub 0) gap parameter for neutron superfluidity and comment briefly on neutron-star implications.

  10. Constraints on millicharged particles by neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi; Zheng, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hua; Li, Shao-Ze

    2015-06-01

    We have constrained the charge-mass (? -m ) phase space of millicharged particles through the simulation of the rotational evolution of neutron stars, where an extra slow-down effect due to the accretions of millicharged dark matter particles is considered. For a canonical neutron star of M =1.4 M? and R =10 km with typical magnetic field strength B0=1012 G , we have shown an upper limit of millicharged particles, which is compatible with recently experimental and observational bounds. Meanwhile, we have also explored the influences on the ? -m phase space of millicharged particles for different magnetic fields B0 and dark matter density ?DM in the vicinity of the neutron star.

  11. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    D. Kobyakov; C. J. Pethick

    2013-09-07

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  12. r-Process in Neutron Star Mergers.

    PubMed

    Freiburghaus; Rosswog; Thielemann

    1999-11-10

    The production site of the neutron-rich heavy elements that are formed by rapid neutron capture (the r-process) is still unknown despite intensive research. Here we show detailed studies of a scenario that has been proposed earlier by Lattimer & Schramm, Symbalisty & Schramm, Eichler et al., and Davies et al., namely the merger of two neutron stars. The results of hydrodynamic and full network calculations are combined in order to investigate the relevance of this scenario for r-process nucleosynthesis. Sufficient material is ejected to explain the amount of r-process nuclei in the Galaxy by decompression of neutron star material. Provided that the ejecta consist of matter with a proton-to-nucleon ratio of Ye approximately 0.1, the calculated abundances fit the observed solar r-pattern excellently for nuclei that include and are heavier than the A approximately 130 peak. PMID:10525469

  13. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  14. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties

    E-print Network

    L. Engvik; M. Hjorth-Jensen; E. Osnes; G. Bao; E. Oestgaard

    1994-06-23

    We calculate properties of neutron stars such as mass and radius using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-hartree-Fock apprach for asymmetric nuclear matter. For pure neutron matter we find the maximum mass to be 2.4 solar masses with a radius of 12 km. For a proton fraction of 30% we find a max mass of 2.1 solar masses and a radius of 10.5 km. The implications are discussed.

  15. Neutron stars in the derivative coupling model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Glendenning; F. Weber; S. A. Moszkowski

    1992-01-01

    Properties of neutron stars derived from the hybrid derivative coupling model of nuclear field theory are studied. Generalized beta equilibrium with all baryon types to convergence is allowed. Hyperon couplings compatible with the inferred binding energy of the lambda hyperon in saturated nuclear matter predict a large hyperon population, with neutrons having a bare majority population in a 1.5{ital M}{sub

  16. Neutron stars. [quantum mechanical processes associated with magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical processes associated with the presence of high magnetic fields and the effect of such fields on the evolution of neutron stars are reviewed. A technical description of the interior of a neutron star is presented. The neutron star-pulsar relation is reviewed and consideration is given to supernovae explosions, flux conservation in neutron stars, gauge-invariant derivation of the equation of state for a strongly magnetized gas, neutron beta-decay, and the stability condition for a neutron star.

  17. The Outcome of Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-10-01

    Black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star mergers are among the main sources of gravitational waves which will be detected in the coming years by the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA observatories. In some cases, these mergers can also power bright electromagnetic emissions: they are the most likely progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts, and the radioactive decay of neutron-rich material ejected by the merger can power optical/infrared transients days after the merger. Finally, they may provide important constraints on the equation of state of cold dense matter, and on the source of heavy elements in the universe. I will discuss the general relativistic simulations which are required to properly model these events, and what they have told us so far about the outcome of neutron star mergers. I will also discuss efforts to improve the physical realism of the simulations by improving the treatment of the most important effects beyond general relativistic hydrodynamics: magnetic fields, neutrinos, and the properties of nuclear matter.

  18. Radiation from accreting magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1984-01-01

    Some recent development on the understanding of accreting magnetized neutron stars are reviewed. A brief summary of the observations is given, on which current phenomenological models are based. The main part of this paper is a discussion of recent work by several groups on the radiative transfer problem in a strong magnetic field and its application to models of the structure and properties of self-consistent neutron star polar cap emission regions. The assumptions and uncertainties involved are discussed, recent progress is evaluated, and current and future problems are indicated.

  19. Neutron degeneracy and plasma physics effects on radiative neutron captures in neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2012-07-25

    We consider the astrophysical reaction rates for radiative neutron capture reactions ($n,\\gamma$) in the crust of a neutron star. The presence of degenerate neutrons at high densities (mainly in the inner crust) can drastically affect the reaction rates. Standard rates assuming a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for neutrons can underestimate the rates by several orders of magnitude. We derive simple analytical expressions for reaction rates at a variety of conditions with account for neutron degeneracy. We also discuss the plasma effects on the outgoing radiative transition channel in neutron radiative capture reactions and show that these effects can also increase the reaction rates by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, using detailed balance, we analyze the effects of neutron degeneracy and plasma physics on reverse ($\\gamma,n$) photodisintegration. We discuss the dependence of the reaction rates on temperature and neutron chemical potential and outline the efficiency of these reactions in the neutron star crust.

  20. Stochastic background from inspiralling double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tania Regimbau

    2006-12-30

    We review the contribution of extra galactic inspiralling double neutron stars, to the LISA astrophysical gravitational wave foreground. Using recent fits of the star formation rate, we show that sources beyond $z_*=0.005$ contribute to a truly continuous background, which may dominate the LISA instrumental noise in the range $3 \\simeq 10^{-4}$ - $1 \\times 10^{-2}$ Hz and overwhelm the galactic WD-WD confusion noise at frequencies larger than $\

  1. Neutron stars - A cosmic hadron physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, David

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.

  2. Neutron stars: A cosmic hadron physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, David

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.

  3. Generalized equation of state for cold superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.; Goriely, S. [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pearson, J. M. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-09-21

    Mature neutron stars are expected to contain various kinds of superfluids in their interiors. Modeling such stars requires the knowledge of the mutual entrainment couplings between the different condensates. We present a unified equation of state describing the different regions of a neutron star with superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons in its core.

  4. Nuclear physics problems for accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.K.; Woosley, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of p(e/sup -/nu)n and of (p,..gamma..) reactions on /sup 56/Ni during a thermonuclear runaway on a neutron star surface is pointed out. A fast 16-isotope approximate nuclear reaction network is developed that is suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations of such events.

  5. Light curves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutoshi Numata; Umin Lee

    2010-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by a hotspot of a rapidly rotating neutron star, assuming that the spot is perturbed by a core r mode, which is destabilized by emitting gravitational waves. To calculate light curves, we take account of relativistic effects, such as the Doppler boost due to the rapid rotation and light bending, assuming the Schwarzschild metric around

  6. Light curves of oscillating neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umin Lee; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2005-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by r modes with small azimuthal wavenumbers, m, propagating in the surface fluid ocean of rotating neutron stars. We include relativistic effects due to rapid rotation, and propagate photons from the stellar surface to a distant observer using the Schwarzschild metric. The wave motions of the surface r modes are confined to the equatorial region

  7. Life Extinctions by Neutron Star Mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dar

    1997-01-01

    Cosmic ray bursts (CRBs) from mergers or accretion induced collapse of neutron stars that hit an Earth-like planet closer than $\\\\sim 1 kpc$ from the explosion produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground level, underground and underwater. These CRBs also destroy the ozone layer and radioactivate the environment. The mean rate of such life devastating CRBs is one in

  8. Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    E. M. Kantor; M. E. Gusakov

    2011-05-20

    We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity, are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1--3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

  9. Cavitation from bulk viscosity in neutron stars and quark stars

    E-print Network

    Jes Madsen

    2009-09-30

    The bulk viscosity in quark matter is sufficiently high to reduce the effective pressure below the corresponding vapor pressure during density perturbations in neutron stars and strange stars. This leads to mechanical instability where the quark matter breaks apart into fragments comparable to cavitation scenarios discussed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Similar phenomena may take place in kaon-condensed stellar cores. Possible applications to compact star phenomenology include a new mechanism for damping oscillations and instabilities, triggering of phase transitions, changes in gravitational wave signatures of binary star inspiral, and astrophysical formation of strangelets. At a more fundamental level it points to the possible inadequacy of a hydrodynamical treatment of these processes in compact stars.

  10. Tidal Love numbers of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tanja Hinderer

    2009-03-07

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k2. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n~0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l=2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g_tt, and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to ~24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.

  11. Tidal Love Numbers of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderer, Tanja [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: tph25@cornell.edu

    2008-04-20

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k{sub 2}. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n {approx} 0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l = 2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second-order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g{sub tt} and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to {approx}24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.

  12. Shear viscosity in neutron star cores

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2008-08-21

    We calculate the shear viscosity $\\eta = \\eta_{e\\mu}+\\eta_{n}$ in a neutron star core composed of nucleons, electrons and muons ($\\eta_{e\\mu}$ being the electron-muon viscosity, mediated by collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles, and $\\eta_{n}$ the neutron viscosity, mediated by neutron-neutron and neutron-proton collisions). Deriving $\\eta_{e\\mu}$, we take into account the Landau damping in collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles via the exchange of transverse plasmons. It lowers $\\eta_{e\\mu}$ and leads to the non-standard temperature behavior $\\eta_{e\\mu}\\propto T^{-5/3}$. The viscosity $\\eta_{n}$ is calculated taking into account that in-medium effects modify nucleon effective masses in dense matter. Both viscosities, $\\eta_{e\\mu}$ and $\\eta_{n}$, can be important, and both are calculated including the effects of proton superfluidity. They are presented in the form valid for any equation of state of nucleon dense matter. We analyze the density and temperature dependence of $\\eta$ for different equations of state in neutron star cores, and compare $\\eta$ with the bulk viscosity in the core and with the shear viscosity in the crust.

  13. Theoretical Spectra of Unmagnetized Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joss, Paul C.; Madej, Jerzy

    2001-09-01

    We have developed new models for the atmospheres of unmagnetized or weakly magnetized (B <= 1010 G) neutron stars with effective temperatures, Teff, in the range of 4× 106 K <= Teff <= 1× 107 K. Our model calculations include a full and accurate treatment of Compton scattering effects. We consider both pure hydrogen/helium atmospheres and atmospheres containing substantial amounts of iron (i.e., iron abundances at least as high as the solar value). Using our model atmospheres, we are able to determine the thermal X-ray emission spectrum of an unmagnetized neutron star as a function of Teff, surface gravity, and atmospheric chemical composition. We find, in particular, that the spectra of unmagnetized neutron stars with iron-rich atmospheres will feature absorption lines with complex structure that can, in principle, be at least partially resolved in observations that utilize the Chandra transmission gratings. We also find that the spectra of iron-rich atmospheres exhibit substantial flux deficits, relative to the spectra of hydrogen/helium atmospheres or simple blackbodies, at photon energies higher than the bound-free absorption edges of lithium-like and beryllium-like ions of iron at ~2 keV. This latter result provides a method of determining the presence and abundance of iron and/or other heavy elements in a neutron star atmosphere, without the need to resolve individual spectral lines. As described in a companion paper (Stage and Joss, these proceedings), we are currently using our results to fit Chandra observations of the point source in Cassiopeia A and other possible cases of thermal radiation by weakly magnetized neutron stars. This work was supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS8-38249 and by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research under grant No. 2 P03D 013 19.

  14. Rare Isotopes and Accreting Neutron Stars, X-Ray Bursts, Neutron Star Crust, rp-Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, H. [National Superconductiong Cyclotron Laboratory, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2008-01-24

    Rare isotopes from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line are produced on the surface and crust of accreting neutron stars. Understanding their properties is essential to address the open questions raised by a variety of new observations of X-ray binaries, in particular X-ray bursters and transients. This paper provides an introduction to the topic.

  15. Tidal polarizability effects in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernuzzi, S.; Nagar, A.; Balmelli, S.; Dietrich, T.; Ujevic, M.

    2015-05-01

    Using the analytical effective-one-body model and nonlinear 3+1 numerical relativity simulations, we investigate binary neutron star mergers. It is found that, for nonspinning binaries, both the mass-rescaled gravitational wave frequency at merger and the specific binding energy at merger almost uniquely depend on the tidal coupling constants ?T2, which are functions of the stars’ Love numbers, compactnesses and mass ratio. These relations are quasiuniversal in the sense that there is an additional dependence on the spins, which is linear for realistic spins values ? ? 0.1. In the effective-one-body model, the quasiuniversality is a direct consequence of the conservative dynamics of tidally interacting bodies. In the context of gravitational wave astronomy, our findings may be used to constrain the neutron stars’ equation of state using waveforms that accurately model the merger.

  16. Nonlinear radial oscillations of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gabler, Michael [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Sperhake, Ulrich [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Andersson, Nils [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The effects of nonlinear oscillations in compact stars are attracting considerable current interest. In order to study such phenomena in the framework of fully nonlinear general relativity, highly accurate numerical studies are required. A numerical scheme specifically tailored for such a study is based on formulating the time evolution in terms of deviations from a stationary equilibrium configuration. Using this technique, we investigate over a wide range of amplitudes nonlinear effects in the evolution of radial oscillations of neutron stars. In particular, we discuss mode coupling due to nonlinear interaction, the occurrence of resonance phenomena, shock formation near the stellar surface as well as the capacity of nonlinearities to stabilize perturbatively unstable neutron star models.

  17. Ferromagnetism in neutron matter and its implication for the neutron star equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, J. P. W. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Scholtz, F. G. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa)

    2011-09-21

    We investigate the possible contribution of the ferromagnetic phase of neutron matter in the neutron star interior to the star's magnetic field. We introduce a relativistic, self-consistent calculation of the ferromagnetic phase in neutron matter within the context of the relativistic mean-field approximation. The presence of the ferromagnetic phase stiffens the star's equation of state which implies a larger neutron star radius compared to the non-ferromagnetic case.

  18. Coalescing Models of Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, A. C.; Wang, E. Y. M.; Swesty, F. D.

    1999-09-01

    Coalescing pairs of neutron stars are expected to be among the sources of gravitational waves that will be observed by gravitational wave detectors in the next decade. Accurate theoretical predictions of the gravitational wave signatures of these events will be required to extract the signals from background noise. Post-Newtonian models can be applied to these systems, but full 3-d simulations are required to properly capture tidal effects, particularly in the last several orbits. We present additional results of our numerical studies of coalescing neutron star pairs with Newtonian hydrodynamics coupled to the 2.5 Post-Newtonian radiation reaction of Blanchet, Damour, and Schafer (1990). Our simulations evolve the Euler equations using a modification of the ZEUS 2-d algorithm (Stone and Norman 1992) and use a Fast Fourier Transformation method for solving the Poisson equation for the gravitational field. We find that the radiation reaction produces a dramatic effect on a configuration of neutron stars when compared to a purely Newtonian simulation. Our method of simulation produces results that allow us to examine the structure of the gravitational wave radiation producing regions of the configuration. We find that a majority of the gravitational wave radiation produced during simulations of the coalescence emanates from the tidally distorted regions of the stars rather than the regions of highest density.

  19. Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1994-02-12

    This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the temperature structure for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The minimum temperature is approximately 1.35 MeV. The maximum temperature varies from 6 MeV at the beginning of the calculation to 10 MeV at the later times.

  20. Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1994-02-12

    This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the density evolution for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The density is plotted on a log scale. Values range from 10^9 gm-cm^3 at the outer boundary to 1.4 x 10^12 gm-cm^3 at the inner boundary.

  1. Magnetic neutron stars in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars with strong magnetic fields are considered in the framework of f( R) gravity. In order to describe dense matter in magnetic field, the model with baryon octet interacting through ???-fields is used. The hyperonization process results in softening the equation of state (EoS) and in decreasing the maximal mass. We investigate the effect of strong magnetic field in models involving quadratic and cubic corrections in the Ricci scalar R to the Hilbert-Einstein action. For large fields, the Mass-Radius relation differs considerably from that of General Relativity only for stars with masses close to the maximal one. Another interesting feature is the possible existence of more compact stable stars with extremely large magnetic fields (˜6×1018 G instead of ˜4×1018 G as in GR) in the central regions of the stars. Due to cubic terms, a significant increasing of the maximal mass is possible.

  2. Oscillations of rapidly rotating stratified neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Passamonti; B. Haskell; N. Andersson; D. I. Jones; I. Hawke

    2009-03-26

    We use time-evolutions of the linear perturbation equations to study the oscillations of rapidly rotating neutrons stars. Our models account for the buoyancy due to composition gradients and we study, for the first time, the nature of the resultant g-modes in a fast spinning star. We provide detailed comparisons of non-stratified and stratified models. This leads to an improved understanding of the relationship between the inertial modes of a non-stratified star and the g-modes of a stratified system. In particular, we demonstrate that each g-mode becomes rotation-dominated, i.e. approaches a particular inertial mode, as the rotation rate of the star is increased. We also discuss issues relating to the gravitational-wave driven instability of the various classes of oscillation modes.

  3. The late stages of evolution of helium star-neutron star binaries and the formation of double neutron star systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols

    2003-01-01

    With a view to understanding the formation of double neutron-stars (DNS), we\\u000ainvestigate the late stages of evolution of helium stars with masses of 2.8 -\\u000a6.4 Msun in binary systems with a 1.4 Msun neutron-star companion. We found\\u000athat mass transfer from 2.8 - 3.3 Msun helium stars and from 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in\\u000avery close orbits (P_orb

  4. Gravitational waves from neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bonazzola; E. Gourgoulhon

    1996-01-01

    Contents:\\u000a 1. Introduction\\u000a 2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking\\u000a 2.1 Review of classical results about Maclaurin\\/Jacobi ellipsoids\\u000a 2.2 Spontaneous breaking of symmetry: a general phenomenom\\u000a 2.3 Previous results for compressible Newtonian stars\\u000a 2.4 Generation of gravitational waves\\u000a 2.5 Finding the equilibrium configurations of a rotating star in the\\u000aNewtonian regime\\u000a 2.6 Extension to general relativity\\u000a 2.7 First integral of fluid motion in

  5. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  6. Dilatonic Equation of Hydrostatic Equilibrium and Neutron Star Structure

    E-print Network

    S. H. Hendi; G. H. Bordbar; B. Eslam Panah; M. Najafi

    2015-06-30

    In this paper, we present a new hydrostatic equilibrium equation related to dilaton gravity. We consider a spherical symmetric metric to obtain the hydrostatic equilibrium equation of stars in $4$-dimensions, and generalize TOV equation to the case of regarding a dilaton field. Then, we calculate the structure properties of neutron star using our obtained hydrostatic equilibrium equation employing the modern equations of state of neutron star matter derived from microscopic calculations. We show that the maximum mass of neutron star depends on the parameters of dilaton field and cosmological constant. In other words, by setting the parameters of new hydrostatic equilibrium equation, we calculate the maximum mass of neutron star.

  7. AFTERGLOW OF A BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGER

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Masaru; Suwa, Yudai; Kiuchi, Kenta [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito [KEK Theory Center and the Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-06-20

    The merger of two neutron stars often results in a rapidly and differentially rotating hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). We show by numerical-relativity simulation that the magnetic-field profile around such HMNS is dynamically varied during its subsequent evolution, and as a result, electromagnetic radiation with a large luminosity {approx}0.1B {sup 2} R {sup 3}{Omega} is emitted with baryons (B, R, and {Omega} are poloidal magnetic-field strength at stellar surface, stellar radius, and angular velocity of an HMNS). The predicted luminosity of electromagnetic radiation, which is primarily emitted along the magnetic-dipole direction, is {approx}10{sup 47}(B/10{sup 13} G){sup 2}(R/10 km){sup 3}({Omega}/10{sup 4} rad s{sup -1}) erg s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the luminosity of quasars.

  8. Afterglow of binary neutron star merger

    E-print Network

    Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-01-01

    The merger of two neutron stars results often in a rapidly and differentially rotating hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). We show by numerical-relativity simulation that the magnetic-field profile around such HMNS is dynamically varied during its subsequent evolution, and as a result, electromagnetic radiation with a large luminosity ~ 0.1 B^2 R^3 Omega is emitted with baryon (B, R, and Omega are poloidal magnetic-field strength at stellar surface, stellar radius, and angular velocity of a HMNS). The predicted luminosity of electromagnetic radiation, which is primarily emitted along the magnetic-dipole direction, is ~ 10^{47} (B/10^{13} G)^2(R/10 km)^3(Omega/10^4 rad/s) ergs/s, that is comparable to the luminosity of quasars.

  9. Quark Matter in Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    R. Oechslin; G. Poghosyan; K. Uryu

    2002-10-30

    Binary neutron star mergers are expected to be one of the most promising source of gravitational waves (GW) for the network of laser interferometric and bar detectors becoming operational in the next few years. The merger wave signal is expected to be sensitive to the interior structure of the neutron star (NS). The structure of high density phases of matter is under current experimental investigation in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate the dependence of the merger process and its GW signal on the presence of quarks in these phases by performing numerical simulations, where the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the conformally flat approximation for the 3-geometry in general relativistic gravity are implemented.

  10. Slowly rotating superfluid Newtonian neutron star model with entrainment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prix; G. L. Comer; N. Andersson

    2002-01-01

    We develop a formalism that can be used to model slowly rotating superfluid Newtonian neutron stars. A simple two-fluid model is used to describe the matter, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons that are believed to exist in the inner crust and core of mature neutron stars, while the other fluid is a charge neutral conglomerate of the

  11. Disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter

    E-print Network

    P. B. Jones

    2004-11-01

    Lower limits are found for the disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter in the neutron-drip region which is amorphous and heterogeneous in nuclear charge. This temperature-independent resistivity, large compared with that produced by phonon scattering, has direct consequences for theories of neutron-star magnetic field generation and evolution.

  12. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    E-print Network

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    2002-12-26

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  13. Particle acceleration in axisymmetric, magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, K. B.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    The potential drop in the polar cap region of a rotating, magnetized neutron star is found assuming that the magnetic field is dipolar, with the field aligned (or anti-aligned) with the rotation axis. The curvature of the field lines is of critical importance. Charge flow is assumed to be along magnetic field lines. The electric field has a maximum at radius 1.5 R and the magnitude and functional form of the current is determined.

  14. Astrometric Study of Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, Christian

    2006-09-01

    We propose to take advantage of the excellent imaging performance of Chandra to measure the proper motion of the X-ray bright and radio-quiet isolated neutron star RX J1308.6+2127 with the goal to constrain its space velocity, birth place and age. The five year time interval between the proposed Cycle 8 and former Cycle 3 observations obtained by our group will provide a very sensitive measurement.

  15. Topological characterization of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    C. O. Dorso; P. A. Giménez Molinelli; J. A. López

    2012-08-23

    Neutron star crusts are studied using a classical molecular dynamics model developed for heavy ion reactions. After the model is shown to produce a plethora of the so-called "pasta" shapes, a series of techniques borrowed from nuclear physics, condensed matter physics and topology are used to craft a method that can be used to characterize the shape of the pasta structures in an unequivocal way.

  16. Numerical relativity simulations of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierfelder, Marcus; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    We present a new numerical relativity code designed for simulations of compact binaries involving matter. The code is an upgrade of the BAM code to include general relativistic hydrodynamics and implements state-of-the-art high-resolution-shock-capturing schemes on a hierarchy of mesh refined Cartesian grids with moving boxes. We test and validate the code in a series of standard experiments involving single neutron star spacetimes. We present test evolutions of quasiequilibrium equal-mass irrotational binary neutron star configurations in quasicircular orbits which describe the late inspiral to merger phases. Neutron star matter is modeled as a zero-temperature fluid; thermal effects can be included by means of a simple ideal gas prescription. We analyze the impact that the use of different values of damping parameter in the Gamma-driver shift condition has on the dynamics of the system. The use of different reconstruction schemes and their impact in the post-merger dynamics is investigated. We compute and characterize the gravitational radiation emitted by the system. Self-convergence of the waves is tested, and we consistently estimate error bars on the numerically generated waveforms in the inspiral phase.

  17. Magnetically driven crustquakes in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, S. K.; Andersson, N.; Antonopoulou, D.; Watts, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    Crustquake events may be connected with both rapid spin-up `glitches' within the regular slowdown of neutron stars, and high-energy magnetar flares. We argue that magnetic-field decay builds up stresses in a neutron star's crust, as the elastic shear force resists the Lorentz force's desire to rearrange the global magnetic-field equilibrium. We derive a criterion for crust-breaking induced by a changing magnetic-field configuration, and use this to investigate strain patterns in a neutron star's crust for a variety of different magnetic-field models. Universally, we find that the crust is most liable to break if the magnetic field has a strong toroidal component, in which case the epicentre of the crustquake is around the equator. We calculate the energy released in a crustquake as a function of the fracture depth, finding that it is independent of field strength. Crust-breaking is, however, associated with a characteristic local field strength of 2.4 × 1014 G for a breaking strain of 0.001, or 2.4 × 1015 G at a breaking strain of 0.1. We find that even the most luminous magnetar giant flare could have been powered by crustal energy release alone.

  18. Radiation drag near slowly rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1994-05-01

    In a previous paper (Miller & Lamb 1993) we showed that radiation forces are more important than general relativistic corrections to Newtonian gravitational forces in determining the motion of particles accreting onto a nonrotating, isotropically emitting neutron star if the luminosity is greater than ~ 1% of the Eddington critical luminosity L_E(infty ) , even if the radius of the star is less than the radius of the innermost stable orbit. We also showed that at luminosities greater than ~ 0.2L_E(infty ) , a substantial fraction of the accreting matter can transfer most of its angular momentum and gravitational binding energy to the radiation field before reaching the stellar surface. Here we extend this work to include slow rotation of the gravitating mass and radiation source, as well as radiation from ring-like boundary layers. By ``slow rotation" we mean that the azimuthal velocity of the radiating source is v/c<< 1 and that the dimensionless angular momentum of the gravitating mass is jequiv cJ/GM(2<<) 1; for all neutron stars with measured rotation periods j<1, so this is a good approximation. We find that, compared to particle motion around nonrotating stars, the rate of radiation drag is decreased for prograde motion around rotating sources. However, because the drag time is increased, the total energy and angular momentum transfered from the particle to the radiation field can actually be increased compared to the nonrotating case. We conclude that in any disk-accreting neutron star source, radiation drag will have a significant qualitative effect on particle motion. This work was supported in part by NASA grant NAGW 830 at the University of Chicago and by NSF grant PHY 91-00283 and NASA grant NAGW 1583 at the University of Illinois.

  19. Light curves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Numata, Kazutoshi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by a hot spot of a rapidly rotating neutron star, assuming that the spot is perturbed by a core $r$-mode, which is destabilized by emitting gravitational waves. To calculate light curves, we take account of relativistic effects such as the Doppler boost due to the rapid rotation and light bending assuming the Schwarzschild metric around the neutron star. We assume that the core $r$-modes penetrate to the surface fluid ocean to have sufficiently large amplitudes to disturb the spot. For a $l'=m$ core $r$-mode, the oscillation frequency $\\omega\\approx2m\\Omega/[l'(l'+1)]$ defined in the co-rotating frame of the star will be detected by a distant observer, where $l'$ and $m$ are respectively the spherical harmonic degree and the azimuthal wave number of the mode, and $\\Omega$ is the spin frequency of the star. In a linear theory of oscillation, using a parameter $A$ we parametrize the mode amplitudes such that ${\\rm max}\\left(|\\xi_\\theta|,|\\xi_\\phi|\\right)/R=A$ at the surface, w...

  20. Internal Constitution of Neutron and Strange Stars

    E-print Network

    Norman K. Glendenning

    1997-06-24

    In the first of these two lectures I will discuss the rich constitution of neutron stars as a consequence of the Pauli principle which is engaged by the dominance of gravity over the nuclear force. Three especially interesting phenomena are discussed in this contect--(1) a mechanism for the formation of low-mass black holes distinct in their mass-range from the black holes formed in the prompt collapse of an entire star, (2) a multilayered crystalline structure consisting of confined hadronic matter embedded in a background of deconfined quark matter (or vice versa) which occupies a many kilometer thick inner region, and (3) a clean and pronounced signal of the formation of quark matter in the interior of neutron stars. In the second lecture I will discuss the strange matter hypothesis, its viability as well as its consequences for compact stars and a new family of white dwarfs with dense nuclear matter central regions some orders of magnuitude greater than in ordinary white dwarfs.

  1. Neutron Stars in a Chiral Model with Finite Temperature

    E-print Network

    V. Dexheimer; S. Schramm; H. Stoecker

    2008-05-23

    Neutron star matter is investigated in a hadronic chiral model approach using the lowest flavor-SU(3) multiplets for baryons and mesons. The parameters are determined to yield consistent results for saturated nuclear matter as well as for finite nuclei. The influence of baryonic resonances is discussed. The global properties of a neutron star such as its mass and radius are determined. Proto-neutron star properties are studied by taking into account trapped neutrinos, temperature and entropy effects.

  2. Burst Oscillations: A New Spin on Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have shown that the X-ray flux during thermonuclear X-ray bursts fr-om accreting neutron stars is often strongly pulsed at frequencies as high as 620 Hz. We now know that these oscillations are produced by spin modulation of the thermonuclear flux from the neutron star surface. In addition to revealing the spin frequency, they provide new ways to probe the properties and physics of accreting neutron stars. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these oscillations and discuss what they are telling us about neutron stars.

  3. Neutron Stars in f(R) Gravity with Perturbative Constraints

    E-print Network

    Alan Cooney; Simon DeDeo; Dimitrios Psaltis

    2010-09-08

    We study the structure of neutron stars in f(R) gravity theories with perturbative constraints. We derive the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations and solve them for a polytropic equation of state. We investigate the resulting modifications to the masses and radii of neutron stars and show that observations of surface phenomena alone cannot break the degeneracy between altering the theory of gravity versus choosing a different equation of state of neutron-star matter. On the other hand, observations of neutron-star cooling, which depends on the density of matter at the stellar interior, can place significant constraints on the parameters of the theory.

  4. Gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars

    E-print Network

    D. I. Jones; N. Andersson

    2001-06-29

    In this paper we model the gravitational wave emission of a freely precessing neutron star. The aim is to estimate likely source strengths, as a guide for gravitational wave astronomers searching for such signals. We model the star as a partly elastic, partly fluid body with quadrupolar deformations of its moment of inertia tensor. The angular amplitude of the free precession is limited by the finite breaking strain of the star's crust. The effect of internal dissipation on the star is important, with the precession angle being rapidly damped in the case of a star with an oblate deformation. We then go on to study detailed scenarios where free precession is created and/or maintained by some astrophysical mechanism. We consider the effects of accretion torques, electromagnetic torques, glitches and stellar encounters. We find that the mechanisms considered are either too weak to lead to a signal detectable by an Advanced LIGO interferometer, or occur too infrequently to give a reasonable event rate. We therefore conclude that, using our stellar model at least, free precession is not a good candidate for detection by the forthcoming laser interferometers.

  5. Plasmon excitations in homogeneous neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    Marcello Baldo; Camille Ducoin

    2009-07-01

    We study the possible collective plasma modes which can affect neutron-star thermodynamics and different elementary processes in the baryonic density range between nuclear saturation ($\\rho_0$) and $3\\rho_0$. In this region, the expected constituents of neutron-star matter are mainly neutrons, protons, electrons and muons ($npe\\mu$ matter), under the constraint of beta equilibrium. The elementary plasma excitations of the $pe\\mu$ three-fluid medium are studied in the RPA framework. We emphasize the relevance of the Coulomb interaction among the three species, in particular the interplay of the electron and muon screening in suppressing the possible proton plasma mode, which is converted into a sound-like mode. The Coulomb interaction alone is able to produce a variety of excitation branches and the full spectral function shows a rich structure at different energy. The genuine plasmon mode is pushed at high energy and it contains mainly an electron component with a substantial muon component, which increases with density. The plasmon is undamped for not too large momentum and is expected to be hardly affected by the nuclear interaction. All the other branches, which fall below the plasmon, are damped or over-damped.

  6. Thermal radiation of weakly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, M. E.

    1990-08-01

    Two-dimensional energy transport through the crust of homogeneously magnetized neutron stars is considered by iteratively solving a coupled set of nonlinear partial differential equations. Thereby self-consistent temperature and density profiles are obtained if the field strength does not exceed the value of B = 10 to the 11th G. Numerical data are interpreted and compared with the zero-field case. The results of the weak field case suggest that homogeneously magnetized neutron stars of B = 10 to the 11th G seem to cool less efficiently than their nonmagnetic counterparts. At high field strengths of B greater than 10 to the 12th G (strong field case), the physical assumptions of the cooling model are violated and the computer code provides unreliable results. In the weak field case, the two-dimensional density profiles obtained by the code reveal that a certain amount of mass is shifted from the magnetic poles toward the equatorial region of the star in order to adjust the hydrostatic equilibrium.

  7. Gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Brynmor Haskell; Nils Andersson; Caroline D`Angelo; Nathalie Degenaar; Kostas Glampedakis; Wynn C. G. Ho; Paul D. Lasky; Andrew Melatos; Manuel Oppenoorth; Alessandro Patruno; Maxim Priymak

    2014-07-31

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a 'minimal' neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of $B\\approx 10^{12}$ G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the accretion torque in these systems, and show that in most cases the disc/magnetosphere interaction can account for the observed spin periods.

  8. Neutron star equation of state via gravitational wave observations

    E-print Network

    Charalampos Markakis; Jocelyn S. Read; Masaru Shibata; Koji Uryu; Jolien D. E. Creighton; John L. Friedman; Benjamin D. Lackey

    2011-10-18

    Gravitational wave observations can potentially measure properties of neutron star equations of state by measuring departures from the point-particle limit of the gravitational waveform produced in the late inspiral of a neutron star binary. Numerical simulations of inspiraling neutron star binaries computed for equations of state with varying stiffness are compared. As the stars approach their final plunge and merger, the gravitational wave phase accumulates more rapidly if the neutron stars are more compact. This suggests that gravitational wave observations at frequencies around 1 kHz will be able to measure a compactness parameter and place stringent bounds on possible neutron star equations of state. Advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave observatories will be able to tune their frequency band to optimize sensitivity in the required frequency range to make sensitive measures of the late-inspiral phase of the coalescence.

  9. Dark matter transport properties and rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, C J

    2012-01-01

    Neutron stars are attractive places to look for dark matter because their high densities allow repeated interactions. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may scatter efficiently in the core or in the crust of a neutron star. In this paper we focus on WIMP contributions to transport properties, such as shear viscosity or thermal conductivity, because these can be greatly enhanced by long mean free paths. We speculate that WIMPs increase the shear viscosity of neutron star matter and help stabilize r-mode oscillations. These are collective oscillations where the restoring force is the Coriolis force. At present r-modes are thought to be unstable in many observed rapidly rotating stars. If WIMPs stabilize the r-modes, this would allow neutron stars to spin rapidly. This likely requires WIMP-nucleon cross sections near present experimental limits and an appropriate density of WIMPs in neutron stars.

  10. EQUATION OF STATE FOR MASSIVE NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya; Saito, Koichi; Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: koichi.saito@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (TUS), Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we investigate the properties of neutron-star matter in detail. In the present calculation, we consider not only the tensor coupling of vector mesons to octet baryons and the form factors at interaction vertices but also the change in the internal (quark) structure of baryons in dense matter. The relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations are performed in two ways: one with coupling constants determined by SU(6) (quark model) symmetry and the other with coupling constants based on SU(3) (flavor) symmetry. For the latter case, we use the latest Nijmegen (ESC08) model. Then, it is very remarkable that the particle composition of the core matter in SU(3) symmetry is completely different from that in SU(6) symmetry. In SU(6) symmetry, all octet baryons appear in the density region below {approx}1.2 fm{sup -3}, while in the ESC08 model only the {Xi}{sup -} hyperon is produced. Furthermore, the medium modification of the internal baryon structure hardens the equation of state for the core matter. Taking all these effects into account, we can obtain the maximum neutron-star mass which is consistent with the recently observed mass, 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} (PSR J1614-2230). We therefore conclude that the extension from SU(6) symmetry to SU(3) symmetry in meson-baryon couplings and the internal baryon structure variation in matter considerably enhance the mass of neutron stars. Furthermore, the effects of the form factor at the vertex and the Fock contribution, including the tensor coupling due to vector mesons, are indispensable for describing the core matter.

  11. Light curves from binary neutron star coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Nestor; Green, Stephen; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; HAD Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of binary neutron stars, and the extraction of associated gravitational waveforms, have acquired certain maturity using numerical simulations. In this work we look to augment the observational predictions by extracting electromagnetic counterparts. That is, given results from a merger simulation, we produce a photon emission sky map. Our ray-tracing algorithm employ the two-pole caustic model of gamma-ray emission from the binary system's magnetosphere. The combined measurement of both gravitational and electromagnetic wave signals provides additional information to characterize the merger.

  12. Coalescence Rates of Double Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    1999-04-17

    Merger events of close double neutron stars (DNS) lie at the basis of a number of current issues in relativistic astrophysics, such as the indirect and possible direct detection of gravitational waves, the production of gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, and the origin of r-process elements in the universe. In assessing the importance or relevance of DNS coalescence to these issues, knowledge of the rate of coalescence in our Galaxy is required. In this paper, I review the current estimates of the DNS merger rate (theoretical and empirical) and discuss new ways to obtain limits on this rate using all information available at present.

  13. Neutron star cooling and pion condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    1994-01-01

    The nonstandard cooling of a neutron star with the central pion core is explored. By adopting the latest results from the pion condensation theory, neutrino emissivity is calulated for both pure charged pions and a mixture of charged and neutral pions, and the equations of state are constructed for the pion condensate. The effect of superfluidity on cooling is investigated, adopting methods more realistic than in previous studies. Our theoretical models are compared with the currently updated observational data, and possible implications are explored.

  14. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W

    2015-01-23

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound. PMID:25658990

  15. On neutron star/supernova remnant associations

    E-print Network

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    2001-04-01

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1757-24, SGR0525-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possible NS/SNR associations could be enlarged. An observational test is discussed, which could allow to find the true birth-places of NSs associated with middle-aged SNRs, and thereby to get more reliable estimates of their transverse velocities.

  16. A SECOND NEUTRON STAR IN M4?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, Ian B. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a {approx}20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar).

  17. Relativistic Studies of Close Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    G. J. Mathews; P. Marronetti; J. R. Wilson

    1997-10-21

    We discuss (3+1) dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of close neutron star binary systems. The relativistic field equations are solved at each time slice with a spatial 3-metric chosen to be conformally flat. Against this solution the hydrodynamic variables and gravitational radiation are allowed to respond. We have studied four physical processes which occur as the stars approach merger. These include: 1) the relaxation to a hydrodynamic state of almost no spin; 2) relativistically driven compression, heating, and neutrino emission; 3) collapse to two black holes; and 4) orbit inspiral occurring at a lower frequency than previously expected. We give a brief account of the physical origin of these effects and an explanation of why they do not appear in models based upon, 1PN hydrodynamics, a weak field multipole expansion, a tidal analysis, or a rigidly corotating velocity field. The implication of these results for gravity wave detectors is also discussed.

  18. Spectral Models of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    1997-01-01

    We revisit the association of unidentified Galactic plane EGRET sources with tracers of recent massive star formation and death. Up-to-date catalogs of OB associations, SNR's, young pulsars, H2 regions and young open clusters were used in finding counterparts for a recent list of EGRET sources. It has been argued for some time that EGRET source positions are correlated with SNR's and OB associations as a class; we extend such analyses by finding additional counterparts and assessing the probability of individual source identifications. Among the several scenarios relating EGRET sources to massive stars, we focus on young neutron stars as the origin of the gamma-ray emission. The characteristics of the candidate identifications are compared to the known gamma-ray pulsar sample and to detailed Galactic population syntheses using our outer gap pulsar model of gamma-ray emission. Both the spatial distribution and luminosity function of the candidates are in good agreement with the model predictions; we infer that young pulsars can account for the bulk of the excess low latitude EGRET sources. We show that with this identification, the gamma-ray point sources provide an important new window into the history of recent massive star death in the solar neighborhood.

  19. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, galactic neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stirling A. Colgate; Peter J. T. Leonard

    1996-01-01

    What makes a Galactic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the galaxy following a finite period, ~30 My, after their formation (1). Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of GBs is based upon high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks.

  20. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, galactic neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stirling A. Colgate; Peter J. T. Leonard

    1996-01-01

    What makes a Galactic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the galaxy following a finite period, ?30 My, after their formation (1). Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of GBs is based upon high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks.

  1. Nuclear Equation of State and Neutron Star Cooling

    E-print Network

    Yeunhwan Lim; Chang Ho Hyun; Chang-Hwan Lee

    2015-01-19

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) to the neutron star cooling. New era for nuclear EoS has begun after the discovery of $\\sim 2\\msun$ neutron stars PSR J1614$-$2230 and PSR J0348$+$0432 [1, 2]. Also recent works on the mass and radius of neutron stars from low-mass X-ray binaries [3] strongly constrain the EoS of nuclear matter. On the other hand, observations of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) more than 10 years confirmed the existence of nuclear superfluidity [4, 5]. Nuclear superfluidity reduces the heat capacities as well as neutrino emissivities. With nuclear superfluidity the neutrino emission processes are highly suppressed, and the existence of superfluidity makes the cooling path quite different from that of the standard cooling process. Superfluidity also allows new neutrino emission process, which is called `Pair Breaking and Formation'(PBF). PBF is a fast cooling process and can explain the fast cooling rate of neutron star in Cas A. Therefore, it is essential to add the superfluidity effect in the neutron star cooling process. In this work, we simulate neutron star cooling curves using both non-relativistic and relativistic nuclear models. The existence of too early direct Urca process shows that some of nuclear models do not fit for the cooling simulation. After this first selection process, the nuclear pairing gaps are searched using the observational neutron star's age and temperature data.

  2. On the properties of matter in neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Börner

    1973-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the description of neutron star matter is presented, and its relevance to pulsar observations is discussed. Some aspects of the accretion of matter on neutron stars are reviewed, and some of the relevant properties of binary X-ray sources are presented. This review is aimed at the astrophysicist. For a detailed review of the nuclear

  3. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, J.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    Adopting the hypothesis of accretion-induced magnetic field decay in neutron stars, the consequent evolution of a neutron star's spin and magnetic field are calculated. The results are consistent with observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Thermomagnetic effects could provide a possible physical mechanism for such accretion-induced field decay.

  4. R-mode constraints from neutron star equation of state

    E-print Network

    M. C. Papazoglou; C. C. Moustakidis

    2015-06-15

    The gravitational radiation has been proposed a long time before, as an explanation for the observed relatively low spin frequencies of young neutron stars and of accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries as well. In the present work we studied the effects of the neutron star equation of state on the r-mode instability window of rotating neutron stars. Firstly, we employed a set of analytical solution of the Tolman-Oppemheimer-Volkoff equations. In particular, we tried to clarify the effects of the bulk neutron star properties (mass, radius, density distribution, crust size and elasticity) on the r-mode instability window. We found that the critical angular velocity $\\Omega_c$ depends mainly on the neutron star radius. The effects of the gravitational mass and the mass distribution are almost negligible. Secondly, we studied the effect of the elasticity of the crust, via to the slippage factor $S$ and also the effect of the nuclear equation of state, via the slope parameter $L$, on the instability window. We found that the crust effects are more pronounced, compared to those originated from the equation of state. Moreover, we proposed simple analytical expressions which relate the macroscopic quantity $\\Omega_c$ to the radius, the parameter $L$ and the factor ${\\cal S}$. Finally, we investigated the possibility to measure the radius of a neutron star and the factor ${\\cal S}$ with the help of accurate measures of $\\Omega_c$ and the neutron star temperature.

  5. Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics

    E-print Network

    Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract The hot neutron star (NS) is investigated for the ...rst time in the generalized thermo the long-ranged gravitational potential. It is found that at sub-saturation density in hot NS matter

  6. Nature of fault planes in solid neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    P. B. Jones

    2002-10-09

    The properties of tectonic earthquake sources are compared with those deduced here for fault planes in solid neutron-star matter. The conclusion that neutron-star matter cannot exhibit brittle fracture at any temperature or magnetic field is significant for current theories of pulsar glitches, and of the anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft-gamma repeaters.

  7. Proto-Neutron and Neutron Stars in a Chiral SU(3) Model

    E-print Network

    V. Dexheimer; S. Schramm

    2008-07-16

    A hadronic chiral SU(3) model is applied to neutron and proto-neutron stars, taking into account trapped neutrinos, finite temperature and entropy. The transition to the chirally restored phase is studied and global properties of the stars like minimum and maximum masses and radii are calculated for different cases. In addition, the effects of rotation on neutron star masses are included and the conservation of baryon number and angular momentum determine the maximum frequencies of rotation during the cooling.

  8. Constraining decaying dark matter with neutron stars

    E-print Network

    M. Angeles Perez-Garcia; J. Silk

    2015-04-07

    The amount of decaying dark matter, accumulated in the central regions in neutron stars together with the energy deposition rate from decays, may set a limit on the neutron star survival rate against transitions to more compact objects provided nuclear matter is not the ultimate stable state of matter and that dark matter indeed is unstable. More generally, this limit sets constraints on the dark matter particle decay time, $\\tau_{\\chi}$. We find that in the range of uncertainties intrinsic to such a scenario, masses $(m_{\\chi}/ \\rm TeV) \\gtrsim 9 \\times 10^{-4}$ or $(m_{\\chi}/ \\rm TeV) \\gtrsim 5 \\times 10^{-2}$ and lifetimes ${\\tau_{\\chi}}\\lesssim 10^{55}$ s and ${\\tau_{\\chi}}\\lesssim 10^{53}$ s can be excluded in the bosonic or fermionic decay cases, respectively, in an optimistic estimate, while more conservatively, it decreases $\\tau_{\\chi}$ by a factor $\\gtrsim10^{20}$. We discuss the validity under which these results may improve with other current constraints.

  9. Numerical Evolutions of Relativistic Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, E. Y. M.; Calder, A. C.; Swesty, F. D.

    1998-12-01

    The coalescence of compact binary systems is expected to be the main source for the observed gravitational radiation to be detected by gravitational wave observatories. A number of these observatories, including LIGO, are expected to become operational early in the next century. There are expectations that a few merging binary neutron star systems are to be observed by LIGO and her counterparts every year. The focus of our work is to model the coalescence of these systems so as to study the gravitational radiation emitted, and in particular, to predict the the waveforms expected to be observed from such astrophysical events. Past work has involved the evolution of binary neutron star systems in the Newtonian limit and the Newtonian plus (2.5 Post-Newtonian order) radiation reaction limit. Here we present preliminary results which are relevant to our goal of numerically modeling fully-relativistic compact binary mergers in 3D. We present a new numerical formalism for evolving such systems, a 3D relativistic spacetime and hydrodynamics code called ZEPHYR, with a description of the algorithms implemented, and a variety of testbed problems attempted. Our numerical formalism utilizes the recent Bona-Masso formulation of Einstein's equations as a hyperbolic system of coupled first-order differential equations. Future studies and descriptions of other astrophysical systems which can be modeled similarly will be discussed in addition.

  10. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Herant, M.E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Benz, W. [Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  11. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Herant, M.E. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Benz, W. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the Fe'' line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino fireball,'' a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  12. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaksono, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure (AI-P) on properties of the neutron stars (NSs) with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of AI-P on NS matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state EOS, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of AI-P model h ? 0.8 [L. Herrera and W. Barreto, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 084022.] and ? ? -1.15 [D. D. Doneva and S. S. Yazadjiev, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 124023.]. The radius of the corresponding NS at M = 1.4 M? is more than 13 km, while the effect of AI-P on the minimum mass of NS is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the AI-P in the NS, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 M? cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the NS core.

  13. NARROW ATOMIC FEATURES FROM RAPIDLY SPINNING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bauboeck, Michi; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal, E-mail: mbaubock@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: fozel@email.arizona.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Neutron stars spinning at moderate rates ({approx}300-600 Hz) become oblate in shape and acquire a nonzero quadrupole moment. In this paper, we calculate the profiles of atomic features from such neutron stars using a ray-tracing algorithm in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. We show that line profiles acquire cores that are much narrower than the widths expected from pure Doppler effects for a large range of observer inclinations. As a result, the effects of both the oblateness and the quadrupole moments of neutron stars need to be taken into account when aiming to measure neutron-star radii from rotationally broadened lines. Moreover, the presence of these narrow cores substantially increases the likelihood of detecting atomic lines from rapidly spinning neutron stars.

  14. Inertial modes of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prix; G. L. Comer; N. Andersson

    2004-01-01

    We present results concerning adiabatic inertial-mode oscillations of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian gravity, using the anelastic and slow-rotation approximations. We consider a simple two-fluid model of a superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons and the second fluid contains all the comoving constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be `free' in

  15. Adiabatic oscillations of non-rotating superfluid neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Prix; Michel Rieutord

    2002-01-01

    We present results concerning the linear (radial and non-radial) oscillations of non-rotating superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian physics. We use a simple two-fluid model to describe the superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons, while the second fluid contains all the remaining constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be ``free'' in the sense

  16. Tidal Stablization of Neutron Stars and White Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1996-05-16

    What happens to a neutron star or white dwarf near its maximum mass limit when it is brought into a close binary orbit with a companion? Such situation may occur in the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and in coalescing neutron star binaries. Using an energy variational principle, we show that tidal field reduces the central density of the compact object, making it more stable against radial collapse. For a cold white dwarf, the tidal field increases the maximum stable mass only slightly, but can actually lower the maximum central density by as much as $30\\%$. Thus a white dwarf in a close binary may be more susceptible to general relativistic instability than the instability associated with electron capture and pycronuclear reaction (depending on the white dwarf composition). We analyse the radial stability of neutron star using post-Newtonian approximation with an ideal degenerate neutron gas equation of state. The tidal stablization effect implies that the neutron star in coalescing neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole binaries does not collapse prior to merger or tidal disruption.

  17. Light curves of oscillating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Umin Lee; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2005-02-24

    We calculate light curves produced by $r$-modes with small azimuthal wavenumbers, $m$, propagating in the surface fluid ocean of rotating neutron stars. We include relativistic effects due to rapid rotation, and propagate photons from the stellar surface to a distant observer using the Schwarzschild metric. The wave motions of the surface $r$-modes are confined to the equatorial region of the star, and the surface pattern of the temperature variation can be either symmetric (for even modes) or anti-symmetric (for odd modes) with respect to the equator. Since for the surface $r$-modes the oscillation frequency in the corotating frame of the star is much smaller than the rotation frequency, $\\Omega$, we employ the approximation in which the oscillation frequency in the inertial frame, $\\sigma$, is given by $\\sigma= -m\\Omega$. We find that the $even$, $m = 1$ $r$-mode produces the largest light variations. The dominant Fourier component in the light curves of these modes is the fundamental having $\\sigma=-\\Omega$, and the first harmonic component having $\\sigma=-2\\Omega$ is always negligible in comparison. The dominant Fourier component of the even, $m=2$ $r$-modes is the first harmonic. Although the $odd$ $r$-modes produce smaller amplitude light variations compared with the $even$ modes, the light curves of the former have a stronger first harmonic component. If both $m=1$ and 2 $r$-modes are excited simultaneously, a rich variety of light curves is possible, including those having an appreciable first harmonic component. We show that the phase difference, $\\delta-\\delta_E$, between the bolometric light curve and that at a particular photon energy can possibly be used as a probe of the stellar compactness, $R/M$, where $R$ and $M$ are the radius and mass of the star.

  18. Relativistic tidal properties of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); ICRANet, 65122 Pescara (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    We study the various linear responses of neutron stars to external relativistic tidal fields. We focus on three different tidal responses, associated to three different tidal coefficients: (i) a gravito-electric-type coefficient G{mu}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth-order mass multipolar moment GM{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field G{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; (ii) a gravito-magnetic-type coefficient G{sigma}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth spin multipole moment GS{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-magnetic tidal field H{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; and (iii) a dimensionless 'shape' Love number h{sub l} measuring the distortion of the shape of the surface of a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field. All the dimensionless tidal coefficients G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, G{sigma}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, and h{sub l} (where R is the radius of the star) are found to have a strong sensitivity to the value of the star's 'compactness'c{identical_to}GM/(c{sub 0}{sup 2}R) (where we indicate by c{sub 0} the speed of light). In particular, G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}{approx}k{sub l} is found to strongly decrease, as c increases, down to a zero value as c is formally extended to the 'black hole (BH) limit'c{sup BH}=1/2. The shape Love number h{sub l} is also found to significantly decrease as c increases, though it does not vanish in the formal limit c{yields}c{sup BH}, but is rather found to agree with the recently determined shape Love numbers of black holes. The formal vanishing of {mu}{sub l} and {sigma}{sub l} as c{yields}c{sup BH} is a consequence of the no-hair properties of black holes. This vanishing suggests, but in no way proves, that the effective action describing the gravitational interactions of black holes may not need to be augmented by nonminimal worldline couplings.

  19. Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Deborah N. Aguilera; Vincenzo Cirigliano; José A. Pons; Sanjay Reddy; Rishi Sharma

    2008-07-29

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field $B \\gsim 10^{13}$ G. At density $\\rho \\simeq 10^{12}-10^{14} $ g/cm$^3$ the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when temperature $\\simeq 10^8$ K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  20. Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reddy, Sanjay [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, Rishi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilera, Deborah N [BUENOS AIRES

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superftuid neutron matter, called superfiuid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 13} C. At density p {approx_equal} 10{sup 12}--10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity at when temperature {approx_equal} 10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction show observationally discernible differences.

  1. Black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity: Effects of neutron star spin

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Faber, Joshua A.; Shapiro, Stuart L. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Baumgarte, Thomas W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 04011 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We present new sequences of general relativistic, quasiequilibrium black hole-neutron star binaries. We solve for the gravitational field in the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition of Einstein's field equations, coupled to the equations of relativistic hydrostatic equilibrium for a perfect fluid. We account for the black hole by solving these equations in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole whose mass is much larger than that of the neutron star. The background metric is treated in Kerr-Schild as well as isotropic coordinates. For the neutron star, we assume a polytropic equation of state with adiabatic index {gamma}=2, and solve for both irrotational and corotational configurations. By comparing the results of irrotational and synchronized configurations with the same background metric, we conclude that the effect of the rotation on the location of tidal breakup is only on the order of a few percent. The different choices in the background also lead to differences on the order of a few percent, which may be an indication of the level to which these configurations approximate quasiequilibrium.

  2. Structure of accreted neutron star crust

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); University Information Technology Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the structure of neutron star crust made of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis material. We find a regular body-centered cubic lattice, even with the large number of impurities that are present. Low-charge-Z impurities tend to occupy interstitial positions, while high-Z impurities tend to occupy substitutional lattice sites. We find strong attractive correlations between low-Z impurities that could significantly increase the rate of pycnonuclear (density driven) nuclear reactions. The thermal conductivity is significantly reduced by electron impurity scattering. Our results will be used in future work to study the effects of impurities on mechanical properties such as the shear modulus and breaking strain.

  3. Astrophysical observations and future projects of neutron stars and magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars are enigmatic compact objects characterized by dense nuclear matter, rapid stellar rotation, and strong magnetic fields. Such an extreme environment has provided an accessible astrophysical laboratory to test fundamental physics. Recent astronomical observations from radio to gamma-rays have revealed a remarkable diversity of neutron stars: e.g., rotation-powered pulsars, accretion-powered pulsars, and magnetically-powered sources. Among important physical parameters of neutron stars, a wide range of magnetic field from 104 T to 1011 T is thought to be one principal cause of the diversity. Especially, enigmatic X-ray sources, Soft Gamma Repeater (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXPs), are now considered to have extremely strong magnetic field reaching 1010-1011 T, and thus, dubbed as ``magnetars.'' They emerge mainly in the X-ray frequency with intense giant flares, short bursts, and X-ray outbursts. Unlike for rotation-powered or accretion-powered pulsars, the bulk of their X-ray emission appears to be powered by their super-strong magnetic fields. At this talk, I will review recent high energy astrophysical observations of strongly-magnetized neutron stars, and also overview approved future missions to approach the neutron star science, for example, Astro-H (launch in 2015) which realizes the high energy resolution and the Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR Mission (NICER, launch in late 2016) mission which is dedicated to determine the equation of state of neutron stars.

  4. NEUTRON STAR STRUCTURE IN THE PRESENCE OF SCALAR FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, James P. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, Uniontown, PA 15401 (United States); Kazanas, Demosthenes [ASD, NASA/GSFC Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Motivated by the possible presence of scalar fields on cosmological scales, suggested by the recent measurement of the deceleration parameter by supernovae surveys, we present models of neutron star structure under the assumption that a scalar field makes a significant contribution to the stress energy momentum tensor, in addition to that made by the normal matter. To that end we solve the coupled Einstein-scalar field-hydrostatic balance equations to compute the effect of the presence of the scalar field on the neutron star structure. We find that the presence of the scalar field does change the structure of the neutron star, especially in cases of strong coupling between the scalar field and the matter density. We present the neutron star radius as a function of the matter-scalar field coupling constant for different values of the neutron star central density. The presence of the scalar field does affect both the maximum neutron star mass and its radius, the latter increasing with the value of the above coupling constant. Our results can provide limits to the scalar field-matter coupling through spectro-temporal observations of accreting or isolated neutron stars.

  5. Neutron star dynamos and the origins of pulsar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron star convection is a transient phenomenon and has an extremely high magnetic Reynolds number. In this sense, a neutron star dynamo is the quintessential fast dynamo. The convective motions are only mildly turbulent on scales larger than the approximately 100 cm neutrino mean free path, but the turbulence is well developed on smaller scales. Several fundamental issues in the theory of fast dynamos are raised in the study of a neutron star dynamo, in particular the possibility of dynamo action in mirror-symmetric turbulence. It is argued that in any high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo, most of the magnetic energy becomes concentrated in thin flux ropes when the field pressure exceeds the turbulent pressure at the smallest scale of turbulence. In addition, the possibilities for dynamo action during the various (pre-collapse) stages of convective motion that occur in the evolution of a massive star are examined, and the properties of white dwarf and neutron star progenitors are contrasted.

  6. Relativistic effective interaction for nuclei, giant resonances, and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Horowitz, C. J.; Shen, G. [Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Nuclear effective interactions are useful tools in astrophysical applications especially if one can guide the extrapolations to the extremes regions of isospin and density that are required to simulate dense, neutron-rich systems. Isospin extrapolations may be constrained in the laboratory by measuring the neutron skin thickness of a heavy nucleus, such as {sup 208}Pb. Similarly, future observations of massive neutron stars will constrain the extrapolations to the high-density domain. In this contribution we introduce a new relativistic effective interaction that is simultaneously constrained by the properties of finite nuclei, their collective excitations, and neutron-star properties. By adjusting two of the empirical parameters of the theory, one can efficiently tune the neutron skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb and the maximum neutron-star mass. We illustrate this procedure in response to the recent interpretation of x-ray observations by Steiner, Lattimer, and Brown that suggests that the FSUGold effective interaction predicts neutron-star radii that are too large and a maximum stellar mass that is too small. The new effective interaction is fitted to a neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb of only R{sub n}-R{sub p}=0.16 fm and yields a moderately large maximum neutron-star mass of 1.94 M{sub {center_dot}}.

  7. Merger Sites of Double Neutron Stars and their Host Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Belczynski; Tomasz Bulik; Vassiliki Kalogera

    2002-04-24

    Using the StarTrack population synthesis code we analyze the formation channels possibly available to double neutron star binaries and find that they can be richer than previously thought. We identify a group of short lived, tight binaries, which do not live long enough to escape their host galaxies, despite their large center-of-mass velocities. We present our most recent results on all possible evolutionary paths leading to the formation of double neutron stars, calculate their coalescence rates, and also revisit the question of the distribution of merger sites around host galaxies. For a wide variety of binary evolution models and galaxy potentials, we find that most of neutron star mergers take place within galaxies. Our results stem from allowing for radial and common envelope evolution of helium-rich stars (testable in the future with detailed stellar-structure and hydrodynamic calculations) and indicate that double neutron star binaries may not be excluded as Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) progenitors solely on the basis of their spatial distribution around host galaxies. We also find, in contrast to Bethe & Brown (1998), that in a significant fraction of common envelope (CE) phases neutron stars do not accrete enough material to become black holes, and thus the channels involving CEs are still open for the formation of double neutron stars.

  8. The late stages of evolution of helium star-neutron star binaries and the formation of double neutron star systems

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols

    2003-06-03

    With a view to understanding the formation of double neutron-stars (DNS), we investigate the late stages of evolution of helium stars with masses of 2.8 - 6.4 Msun in binary systems with a 1.4 Msun neutron-star companion. We found that mass transfer from 2.8 - 3.3 Msun helium stars and from 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in very close orbits (P_orb > 0.25d) will end up in a common-envelope (CE) and spiral-in phase due to the development of a convective helium envelope. If the neutron star has sufficient time to complete the spiraling-in process before the core collapses, the system will produce very tight DNSs (P_orb ~ 0.01d) with a merger timescale of the order of 1 Myr or less. These systems would have important consequences for the detection rate of GWR and for the understanding of GRB progenitors. On the other hand, if the time left until the explosion is shorter than the orbital-decay timescale, the system will undergo a SN explosion during the CE phase. Helium stars with masses 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in wider orbits (P_orb > 0.25d) and those more massive than 3.8 Msun do not go through CE evolution. The remnants of these massive helium stars are DNSs with periods in the range of 0.1 - 1 d. This suggests that this range of mass includes the progenitors of the galactic DNSs with close orbits (B1913+16 and B1534+12). A minimum kick velocity of 70 km/s and 0 km/s (for B1913+16 and B1534+12, respectively) must have been imparted at the birth of the pulsar's companion. The DNSs with wider orbits (J1518+4904 and probably J1811-1736) are produced from helium star-neutron star binaries which avoid RLOF, with the helium star more massive than 2.5 Msun. For these systems the minimum kick velocities are 50 km/s and 10 km/s (for J1518+4904 and J1811-1736, respectively).

  9. The Possible White Dwarf-Neutron Star Connection

    E-print Network

    R. Canal; J. Gutierrez

    1997-01-29

    The current status of the problem of whether neutron stars can form, in close binary systems, by accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs is examined. We find that, in principle, both initially cold C+O white dwarfs in the high-mass tail of their mass distribution in binaries and O+Ne+Mg white dwarfs can produce neutron stars. Which fractions of neutron stars in different types of binaries (or descendants from binaries) might originate from this process remains uncertain.

  10. Envelope calculations for a low temperature neutron star 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Robert Paul

    1976-01-01

    Temperature Neutron Star (May 1976) Robert Paul NcCoy, B. A. , Cornell University Chairman of Advisory Committee& Dr. R. A. Schorn In this paper analytic and numerical models of the structure of a low temperature neutron star envelope are produced... expected from a supernova explosion. Since the time of the pulsar discoveries, attention has been shifted from this line of search but no direct observation of a neutron star has yet been made. Whether it is possible to detect the surface emissions of a...

  11. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  12. Understanding Neutron Stars using Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star = EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts = modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  13. Properties of ?-stable neutron star matter with hyperons

    E-print Network

    I. Vidaña; A. Polls; A. Ramos; Oe. Elgaroey; L. Engvik; M. Hjorth-Jensen

    1999-12-08

    We present results from many-body calculations for \\beta-stable neutron star matter with nucleonic and hyperonic degrees of freedom, employing the most recent parametrizations of the baryon-baryon interaction of the Nijmegen group. It is found that the only strange baryons emerging in \\beta-stable matter up to total baryonic densities of 1.2 fm^{-3} are \\Sigma^- and \\Lambda. The corresponding equations of state are thence used to compute properties of neutron stars such as the masses, moments of inertia and radii. We also study the possibility of forming a hyperon superfluid and discuss its implications for neutron stars.

  14. Comment on "Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star"

    E-print Network

    M. I. Krivoruchenko; B. V. Martemyanov

    2015-03-04

    If strange matter is absolutely stable, the ordinary nuclei decay to strangelets, while neutron stars convert into strange stars. Lifetimes of the ordinary nuclei are constrained experimentally to be above $\\sim 10^{33}$ years, while lifetimes of the metastable neutron stars depend on the neutron star masses and can exceed the age of the Universe. As a consequence, the neutron stars and the strange stars can coexist in the Universe. We point out that numerical simulations of the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars, performed by M. Herzog and F. K. Roepke in Phys. Rev. D 84, 083002 (2011) [arXiv:1109.0539], are focused on a region in the parameter space of strange matter, in which low-mass neutron stars and strange stars are coexistent, whereas massive neutron stars are unstable and short lived on an astronomical timescale.

  15. Resonant Shattering of Neutron Star Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David; Read, J.; Hinderer, T.; Piro, A.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ~10^46-10^47 erg of energy seconds before the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of sGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. We also discuss the application of such shattering flares as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave bursts from elliptic and parabolic encounters in dense star clusters.

  16. Resonant Shattering of Neutron Star Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David; Read, Jocelyn; Piro, Anthony; Hinderer, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ~10^46-10^47 erg of energy secondsbefore the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of sGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. I will also discuss shattering flares as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave bursts during parabolic and elliptic encounters in dense star clusters.

  17. The equation of state of neutron matter, symmetry energy, and neutron star structure

    E-print Network

    S. Gandolfi; J. Carlson; S. Reddy; A. W. Steiner; R. B. Wiringa

    2013-07-22

    We review the calculation of the equation of state of pure neutron matter using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. QMC algorithms permit the study of many-body nuclear systems using realistic two- and three-body forces in a nonperturbative framework. We present the results for the equation of state of neutron matter, and focus on the role of three-neutron forces at supranuclear density. We discuss the correlation between the symmetry energy, the neutron star radius and the symmetry energy. We also combine QMC and theoretical models of the three-nucleon interactions, and recent neutron star observations to constrain the value of the symmetry energy and its density dependence.

  18. Gamow's Calculation of the Neutron Star's Critical Mass Revised

    E-print Network

    Hendrik Ludwig; Remo Ruffini

    2014-09-05

    It has at times been indicated that Landau introduced neutron stars in his classic paper of 1932. This is clearly impossible because the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick was submitted more than one month after Landau's work. Therefore, and according to his calculations, what Landau really did was to study white dwarfs, and the critical mass he obtained clearly matched the value derived by Stoner and later by Chandrasekhar. The birth of the concept of a neutron star is still today unclear. Clearly, in 1934, the work of Baade and Zwicky pointed to neutron stars as originating from supernovae. Oppenheimer in 1939 is also well known to have introduced general relativity (GR) in the study of neutron stars. The aim of this note is to point out that the crucial idea for treating the neutron star has been advanced in Newtonian theory by Gamow. However, this pioneering work was plagued by mistakes. The critical mass he should have obtained was $6.9\\,M_\\odot$, not the one he declared, namely, $1.5\\ M_\\odot$. Probably, he was taken to this result by the work of Landau on white dwarfs. We revise Gamow's calculation of the critical mass regarding calculational and conceptual aspects and discuss whether it is justified to consider it the first neutron-star critical mass. We compare Gamow's approach to other early and modern approaches to the problem.

  19. Constraining URCA cooling of neutron stars from the neutron radius of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2002-11-01

    Recent observations by the Chandra observatory suggest that some neutron stars may cool rapidly, perhaps by the direct URCA process which requires a high proton fraction. The proton fraction is determined by the nuclear symmetry energy whose density dependence may be constrained by measuring the neutron radius of a heavy nucleus, such as 208Pb. Such a measurement is necessary for a reliable extrapolation of the proton fraction to the higher densities present in a neutron star. A large neutron radius in 208Pb implies a stiff symmetry energy that grows rapidly with density, thereby favoring a high proton fraction and allowing direct URCA cooling. Predictions for the neutron radius in 208Pb are correlated to the proton fraction in dense matter by using a variety of relativistic effective field-theory models. Models that predict a neutron (Rn) minus proton (Rp) root-mean-square radius in 208Pb to be Rn-Rp<~0.20 fm have proton fractions too small to allow the direct URCA cooling of 1.4Msolar neutron stars. Conversely, if Rn-Rp>~0.25 fm, the direct URCA process is allowed (by all models) to cool down a 1.4Msolar neutron star. The Parity Radius Experiment at Jefferson Laboratory aims to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb accurately and model independently via parity-violating electron scattering. Such a measurement would greatly enhance our ability to either confirm or dismiss the direct URCA cooling of neutron stars.

  20. Thermal and transport properties of the neutron star inner crust

    E-print Network

    Dany Page; Sanjay Reddy

    2012-01-26

    We review the nuclear and condensed matter physics underlying the thermal and transport properties of the neutron star inner crust. These properties play a key role in interpreting transient phenomena such as thermal relaxation in accreting neutron stars, superbursts, and magnetar flares. We emphasize simplifications that occur at low temperature where the inner crust can be described in terms of electrons and collective excitations. The heat conductivity and heat capacity of the solid and superfluid phase of matter is discussed in detail and we emphasize its role in interpreting observations of neutron stars in soft X-ray transients. We highlight recent theoretical and observational results, and identify future work needed to better understand a host of transient phenomena in neutron stars.

  1. Transition density and pressure in hot neutron stars 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An.

    2010-01-01

    Using the momentum-dependent effective interaction (MDI) for nucleons, we have studied the transition density and pressure at the boundary between the inner crust and the liquid core of hot neutron stars. We find that their values are larger...

  2. Hadron-Quark Crossover and Hot Neutron Stars at Birth

    E-print Network

    Kota Masuda; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Tatsuyuki Takatsuka

    2015-06-02

    We construct a new isentropic equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature "CRover" on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover at high density. By using the new EOS, we study the structure of hot neutron stars at birth with the typical lepton fraction ($Y_l=0.3-0.4$) and the typical entropy per baryon ($S=1-2$). Due to the gradual appearance of quark degrees of freedom at high density, the temperature T and the baryon density at the center of the hot neutron stars with the hadron-quark crossover are found to be smaller than those without the crossover by a factor of 2 or more. Typical energy release due to the contraction of a hot neutron star to a cold neutron star with 1.4 solarmass is shown to be about 0.04 solarmass with the spin-up rate about 14%.

  3. Eccentric mergers of black holes with spinning neutron stars

    E-print Network

    East, William E; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole-neutron star mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. Using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations, we find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the black hole --- as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  4. Chandra Captures Neutron Star Action - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows a fast moving jet of particles produced by a rapidly rotating neutron star, and may provide new insight into the nature of some of the densest...

  5. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Kaminker, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the formalism by Kaminker et al. (Astron. Astrophys., 343 (1999) 1009) we derive an analytic approximation for neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung emissivity due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in a neutron star crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through the generalized Coulomb logarithm which we fit by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which the neutrino bremsstrahlung in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields. The results can be applied for modelling of many phenomena in neutron stars, such as thermal relaxation in young isolated neutron stars and in accreting neutron stars with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients.

  6. Hadron-Quark Crossover and Hot Neutron Stars at Birth

    E-print Network

    Masuda, Kota; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new isentropic equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature "CRover" on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover at high density. By using the new EOS, we study the structure of hot neutron stars at birth with the typical lepton fraction ($Y_l=0.3-0.4$) and the typical entropy per baryon ($S=1-2$). Due to the gradual appearance of quark degrees of freedom at high density, the temperature T and the baryon density at the center of the hot neutron stars with the hadron-quark crossover are found to be smaller than those without the crossover by a factor of 2 or more. Typical energy release due to the contraction of a hot neutron star to a cold neutron star with 1.4 solarmass is shown to be about 0.04 solarmass with the spin-up rate about 14%.

  7. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

  8. Accretion at a magnetic pole of a neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, K.

    1973-01-01

    As accreted material falls to the surface of a magnetized neutron star like Cen X-3 or Her X-1, it is arrested by radiation pressure in such a manner that a hot, dense mound of nearly stationary gas protrudes above each magnetic pole. Energy released above the mound diffuses out as moderately hard X rays; but that released within the mound emerges as soft X rays from the whole surface of the neutron star.

  9. Do pions condense in neutron-star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J W; Gleeson, A M

    1983-04-01

    Pion condensates in neutron-star matter, formed either as new modes, or on states identifiable with those of the free pion are studied. A description of neutron-star matter at finite temperature is formulated upon a suitable basis of realistic interactions in a modified background field description, and leads to the onset of a pion condensate between the density of nuclear matter and the density of free hadrons. This condensate, however, is blocked when strange hadrons are incorporated in the description.

  10. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, Galactic neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Colgate; P. J. T. Leonard

    1995-01-01

    What makes a Galacic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the Galaxy following a finite period, â¼30My, after their formation. Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of (GBs) is based upon these high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks. The

  11. The dynamics and outcomes of rapid infall onto neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, C.L.; Benz, W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Herant, M. [Theory Division, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theory Division, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-04-01

    We present an extensive study of accretion onto neutron stars in which the velocity of the neutron star and structure of the surrounding medium is such that the Bondi-Hoyle accretion exceeds 10{sup 4} {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup 1}. Two types of initial conditions are considered for a range of entropies and chemical compositions: an atmosphere in pressure equilibrium above the neutron star, and a freely falling inflow of matter from infinity (also parameterized by the infall rate). We then evolve the system with one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic codes to determine the outcome. For most cases, hypercritical (also termed ``super Eddington``) accretion caused by rapid neutrino cooling allows the neutron star to accrete above the Bondi-Hoyle rate as previously pointed out by Chevalier. However, for a subset of simulations which corresponds to evolutionarily common events, convection driven by neutrino heating can lead to explosions by a mechanism similar to that found in core-collapse supernovae. Armed with the results from our calculations, we are in a position to predict the fate of a range of rapid-infall neutron star accretors present in certain low-mass X-ray binaries, common envelope systems, supernova fallbacks, and Thorne-Zytkow objects (TZOs). A majority of the common envelope systems that we considered led to explosions expelling the envelope, halting the neutron star{close_quote}s inward spiral, and allowing the formation of close binary systems. As a result, the smothered neutron stars produced in the collisions studied by Davies & Benz may also explode, probably preventing them from forming millisecond pulsars. For the most massive supernovae, in which the fallback of material toward the neutron star after a successful explosion is large, we find that a black hole is formed in a few seconds. Finally, we argue that the current set of TZO formation scenarios is inadequate and leads instead to hypercritical accretion and black hole formation.

  12. Neutron star properties with in-medium vector mesons

    E-print Network

    F. Weber; Gy. Wolf; T. Maruyama; S. Chiba

    2002-02-21

    We explore the impact of in-medium modification of the properties of vector mesons on the nuclear equation of state and neutron star properties. It is found that in-medium modifications stiffen the nuclear equation of state considerably. If this feature has its correspondence in the full treatment of dense hadronic matter, then very little room is left for the existence of exotic phases like quark matter or boson condensates in the centers of neutron stars of canonical mass.

  13. Crust-core coupling in rotating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Andersson, Nils [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Motivated by their gravitational wave driven instability, we investigate the influence of the crust on r-mode oscillations in a neutron star. Using a simplistic model of an elastic neutron star crust with constant shear modulus, we carry out an analytic calculation with the main objective of deriving an expression for the slippage between the core and the crust. Our analytic estimates support previous numerical results and provide useful insights into the details of the problem.

  14. Properties of Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.; Wang, Y. N.; Wen, W. [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-08-12

    We study the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter at finite temperature density with various proton fractions for use in supernova simulations. The properties of nuclear matter with both uniform and non-uniform distributions are studied consistently. We also discuss the EOS of neutron star matter at zero temperature in a wide density range including hyperons antikaons quarks. The EOS of neutron star matter could be softened by incorporating these new degrees of freedom.

  15. The Role of Helium Stars in the Formation of Double Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ivanova; K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera; F. A. Rasio; R. E. Taam

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the evolution of 60 model binary systems consisting of helium stars in the mass range of MHe=2.5-6Msolar with a 1.4 Msolar neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems. Orbital periods ranging from 0.09 to 2 days are considered, corresponding to Roche lobe overflow starting from the helium main sequence to after the

  16. R-mode instability of strange stars and observations of neutron stars in LMXBs

    E-print Network

    Chun-Mei PI; Shu-Hua Yang; Xiao-Ping Zheng

    2014-09-22

    Using a realistic equation of state (EOS) of strange quark matter, namely, the modified bag model, and considering the constraints to the parameters of EOS by the observational mass limit of neutron stars, we study the r-mode instability window of strange stars, and find the same result as the brief study of Haskell, Degenaar and Ho in 2012 that these instability windows are not consistent with the spin frequency and temperature observations of neutron stars in LMXBs.

  17. R-mode constraints from neutron star equation of state

    E-print Network

    Papazoglou, M C

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational radiation has been proposed a long time before, as an explanation for the observed relatively low spin frequencies of young neutron stars and of accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries as well. In the present work we studied the effects of the neutron star equation of state on the r-mode instability window of rotating neutron stars. Firstly, we employed a set of analytical solution of the Tolman-Oppemheimer-Volkoff equations. In particular, we tried to clarify the effects of the bulk neutron star properties (mass, radius, density distribution, crust size and elasticity) on the r-mode instability window. We found that the critical angular velocity $\\Omega_c$ depends mainly on the neutron star radius. The effects of the gravitational mass and the mass distribution are almost negligible. Secondly, we studied the effect of the elasticity of the crust, via to the slippage factor $S$ and also the effect of the nuclear equation of state, via the slope parameter $L$, on the instability wi...

  18. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

  19. Gravitational radiation during coalescence of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2013-07-01

    The coalescence of components of a binary star with equal masses ( M 1 = M 2 = M ?) and moving in circular orbits is considered. The equation of state for degenerate neutrons is used, leading to the equation of state for an ideal gas. The initial model has zero temperature, corresponding to a polytrope with n = 1.5. To reduce the required computational time, the initial close binary is constructed using the self-consistent field method. The computations use Newtonian gas dynamics, but the back reaction of the gravitational radiation is taken into account in a PN2.5 post-Newton approximation, obtained using ADM formalism. This makes it possible to apply previous experienceof constructing high-order Godunov-type difference schemes, which are suitable for end-to-end calculations of discontinuous solutions of the gas-dynamics equations on a fixed Eulerian grid. The Poisson equations were solved using an original spherical-function expansion method. The 3D computations yielded the parameters of the gravitational signal. Near the radiation maximum, the strain amplitude is rh ˜ 4 × 104 cm, the power maximum is 4 × 1054 erg/s, and the typical radiation frequency is ?1 kHz. The energy carried away by gravitational waves is ?1052 erg. These parameters are of interest, since they form an inherent part of a rotational mechanism for the supernova explosion. They are also of interest for the planning of gravitational-wave detection experiments.

  20. Inferences on Populations of Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendler, Naomi; Price, Larry; Raymond, Vivien; LIGO Team

    2015-04-01

    The aLIGO network stands to make hundreds of detections over the lifetime of the project. While there is much to be learned from the parameters of single events, the parameter distribution of the population of events is also of great interest for astrophysics, as this kind of parameter inference will help to develop gravitational-wave astronomy. The goal of this project is to develop the tools for estimating such population distributions and accounting for selection bias in such inferences. We will then apply the method to a simulated population of binary systems of neutron stars in order to estimate their mass distribution. We were able to create a technique that takes a set of data from aLIGO and runs it through a parameter estimation pipeline, taking into account selection bias effects. We start with a set of mass measurements, each measurement its own distribution due to noise in the detector. We draw these samples from a 2-dimensional distribution in chirp mass and symmetric mass ratio. We then use a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the parameters of the original distribution, as well as the rate of events.

  1. Quark beta decay and the cooling of neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Iwamoto

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the beta decay of quarks in degenerate quark matter is kinematically allowed. The resulting neutrino emissivity is dramatically larger than that of neutron matter and comparable to that of matter with pion condensate. Thus a star with a quark-matter core would cool at a rate comparable to that for a star with a pion-condensed core, and

  2. Structural and Spacial Characters of Neutron Star in Relativistic ?-? Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, De-Hua; Hu, Jian-Xun; Liu, Liang-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The analytical and numerical solutions of structure and curvature of two kinds of static spherically symmetric neutron stars are calculated. The results show that Ricci tensor and curvature scalar cannot denote the curly character of the space directly, however, to static spherically symmetric stars, these two quantities can present the relative curly degree of the space and the matter distribution to a certain extent.

  3. Periodic Box FHNC calculations of neutron star crustal matter. (I)

    E-print Network

    Nicola Bassan; Stefano Fantoni; Kevin E. Schmidt

    2011-06-15

    Neutron star crustal matter, whose properties are relevant in many models aimed at explaining observed astrophysical phenomena, has so far always been studied using a mean field approach. In order to check the results obtained in this way, a sensible next step is to make use of a realistic nuclear potential. The present paper extends the periodic-box Fermi HyperNetted Chain method to include longitudinal-isospin dependence of the correlations, making feasible a study of asymmetric crustal matter. Results are presented for the symmetry energy, the low-density neutron star equation of state and the single particle neutron and proton energies.

  4. The Role of Helium Stars in the Formation of Double Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    N. Ivanova; K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera; F. A. Rasio; R. E. Taam

    2003-07-13

    We have calculated the evolution of 60 model binary systems consisting of helium stars in the mass range of M_He= 2.5-6Msun with a 1.4Msun neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems.Orbital periods ranging from 0.09 to 2 days are considered, corresponding to Roche lobe overflow starting from the helium main sequence to after the ignition of carbon burning in the core. We have also examined the evolution into a common envelope phase via secular instability, delayed dynamical instability, and the consequence of matter filling the neutron star's Roche lobe. The survival of some close He-star neutron-star binaries through the last mass transfer episode (either dynamically stable or unstable mass transfer phase) leads to the formation of extremely short-period double neutron star systems (with Pstar masses (~ 2.6-3.3Msun). The existence of a short-period population of double neutron stars increases the predicted detection rate of inspiral events by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors and impacts their merger location in host galaxies and their possible role as gamma-ray burst progenitors. We use a set of population synthesis calculations and investigate the implications of the mass-transfer results for the orbital properties of DNS populations.

  5. Visual Distortions Near a Neutron Star and Black Hole

    E-print Network

    Robert J. Nemiroff

    1993-12-02

    The visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending to the surface of an extremely compact star are described. Specifically, trips to a ``normal" neutron star, a black hole, and an ultracompact neutron star with extremely high surface gravity, are described. Concepts such as multiple imaging, red- and blue-shifting, conservation of surface brightness, the photon sphere, and the existence of multiple Einstein rings are discussed in terms of what the viewer would see. Computer generated, general relativistically accurate illustrations highlighting the distortion effects are presented and discussed. A short movie (VHS) depicting many of these effects is available to those interested free of charge.

  6. Ferromagnetism of dense matter and magnetic properties of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    P. Haensel; S. Bonazzola

    1996-05-24

    Possible consequences of ferromagnetic transition in dense matter suggested recently by Kutschera and W{\\'o}jcik, for the magnetic properties of neutron stars, are studied. Specific model of dense matter, in which a small admixture of protons is completely polarized due to their interaction with neutrons, is considered. Magnetic field of neutron stars with a ferromagnetic core is calculated within the framework of general relativity. Two types of boundary conditions at the ferromagnetic core edge are considered, corresponding to normal and superconducting liquid envelope, respectively. Numerical results for the neutron star magnetic dipole moment are confronted with pulsar timing. To be consistent with observations, ferromagnetic cores surrounded by a non-superconducting envelope, should consist of weakly ordered ferromagnetic domains. If domains are highly ordered, ferromagnetic core should be screened by a superconducting envelope.

  7. Constraining neutron star tidal Love numbers with gravitational wave detectors

    E-print Network

    Eanna E. Flanagan; Tanja Hinderer

    2007-12-07

    Ground-based gravitational wave detectors may be able to constrain the nuclear equation of state using the early, low frequency portion of the signal of detected neutron star - neutron star inspirals. In this early adiabatic regime, the influence of a neutron star's internal structure on the phase of the waveform depends only on a single parameter lambda of the star related to its tidal Love number, namely the ratio of the induced quadrupole moment to the perturbing tidal gravitational field. We analyze the information obtainable from gravitational wave frequencies smaller than a cutoff frequency of 400 Hz, where corrections to the internal-structure signal are less than 10 percent. For an inspiral of two non-spinning 1.4 solar mass neutron stars at a distance of 50 Mpc, LIGO II detectors will be able to constrain lambda to lambda < 2.0 10^{37} g cm^2 s^2 with 90% confidence. Fully relativistic stellar models show that the corresponding constraint on radius R for 1.4 solar mass neutron stars would be R < 13.6 km (15.3 km) for a n=0.5 (n=1.0) polytrope.

  8. Hydromagnetic Equilibria and their Evolution in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenegger, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The strongest known magnetic fields are found in neutron stars. I briefly discuss how they are inferred from observations, as well as the evidence for their time-evolution. I go on to show how these extremely strong fields are actually weak in terms of their effects on the stellar structure. This is also the case for magnetic stars on the upper main sequence and magnetic white dwarfs, which have similar total magnetic fluxes, perhaps pointing to an evolutionary connection. I suggest that a stable hydromagnetic equilibrium (containing a poloidal and a toroidal field component) could be established soon after the birth of the neutron star, aided by the strong compositional stratification of neutron star matter, and this state is slowly eroded by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic processes such as beta decays and ambipolar diffusion in the core of the star and Hall drift and breaking of the solid in its crust. Over sufficiently long time scales, the fluid in the neutron star core will behave as if it were barotropic, because, depending on temperature and magnetic field strength, beta decays will keep adjusting the composition to the chemical equilibrium state, or ambipolar diffusion will decouple the charged component from the neutrons. Therefore, the still open question regarding stable hydromagnetic equilibria in barotropic fluids will become relevant for the evolution, at least for magnetar fields, which are likely too strong to be stabilized by the solid crust.

  9. Thin accretion discs around neutron and quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Z.; Cheng, K. S.; Harko, T.

    2009-06-01

    Context: The possibility of observationally discriminating between various types of neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the nuclear matter, as well as differentiating neutron stars from other types of exotic objects, for example, quark stars, is one of the fundamental problems in contemporary astrophysics. Aims: We consider and investigate carefully the possibility that different types of rapidly rotating neutron stars, as well as other type of compact general-relativistic objects, can be identified reliably by the study of the emission properties of the accretion discs around them. Methods: We obtain the energy flux, temperature distribution, and emission spectrum from the accretion discs around several classes of rapidly rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state for neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the MIT bag model equation of state, and in the CFL (Color-Flavor-Locked) phase, respectively. Results: Particular signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, implying that the equation of state of the dense matter can be tested directly by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion discs.

  10. How can Newly Born Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars Become Magnetars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-01

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (~1011 G) to generate an ultra-high (~1017 G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ~102 - 3 s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ~1015 G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ~5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  11. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and superconducting material," said Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St Petersburg, Russia, leader of a team with a paper accepted in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Both teams show that this rapid cooling is explained by the formation of a neutron superfluid in the core of the neutron star within about the last 100 years as seen from Earth. The rapid cooling is expected to continue for a few decades and then it should slow down. "It turns out that Cas A may be a gift from the Universe because we would have to catch a very young neutron star at just the right point in time," said Page's co-author Madappa Prakash, from Ohio University. "Sometimes a little good fortune can go a long way in science." The onset of superfluidity in materials on Earth occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, but in neutron stars, it can occur at temperatures near a billion degrees Celsius. Until now there was a very large uncertainty in estimates of this critical temperature. This new research constrains the critical temperature to between one half a billion to just under a billion degrees. Cas A will allow researchers to test models of how the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles, behaves in ultradense matter. These results are also important for understanding a range of behavior in neutron stars, including "glitches," neutron star precession and pulsation, magnetar outbursts and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. Small sudden changes in the spin rate of rotating neutron stars, called glitches, have previously given evidence for superfluid neutrons in the crust of a neutron star, where densities are much lower than seen in the core of the star. This latest news from Cas A unveils new information about the ultra-dense inner region of the neutron star. "Previously we had no idea how extended superconductivity of protons was in a neutron star," said Shternin's co-author Dmitry Yakovlev, also from the Ioffe Institute. The cooling in the Cas A

  12. "Doublet", Neutron and Neutron stars --- An essay on Landau and Neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Renxin Xu

    2011-03-02

    The concept of extremely dense matter at supra-nuclear density was first speculated by L. Landau in the beginning of 1930s when neutron was just discovered. A historical review on these issues not only explains the interaction between micro and cosmic physics, but also has profound implications for scientific innovation. It is surely meaningful in realistic physics education to look back to this history. (The review was published in Chinese.)

  13. Mergers of Black Hole -- Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantsiou, Emmanouela

    Motivated by the scenario that black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers are viable progenitors of observed short Gamma-ray Bursts, we have used a 3D relativistic SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code to study mergers of such binary systems (with relatively low mass ratios). We have investigated a wide range of parameters for those binaries: mass ratio, Equation of State (EOS) for the NS, compactness of the NS. Most importantly, the BH's spin was varied in our simulations (from non-spinning to maximally spinning BHs), and so was the orbital inclination of the NS. We have found that the outcome of such mergers depends sensitively on both the magnitude of the BH spin and its obliquity (i.e., the inclination of the binary orbit with respect to the equatorial plane of the BH). In particular, only systems with sufficiently high BH spin parameter a and sufficiently low orbital inclinations allow any NS matter to escape or to form a long-lived disk outside the BH horizon after disruption. Mergers of binaries with orbital inclinations above ˜60° lead to complete prompt accretion of the entire NS by the BH, even for the case of an extreme Kerr BH. We find that the formation of a significant disk or torus of NS material around the BH always requires a near-maximal BH spin and a low initial inclination of the NS orbit just prior to merger. Furthermore, we have investigated and we are presenting the gravitational waveforms and gravitational wave energy spectra from some representative cases. Despite using simply the quadrupole formula with post-Newtonian extensions (up to 3.5 terms) for radiation reaction, we were able to clearly see the impact of the BH's spin and NS's orbital inclination on the spectra and waveforms produced in our simulations.

  14. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  15. Cooling of young neutron stars in GRB associated to supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, R.; Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Rueda, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The traditional study of neutron star cooling has been generally applied to quite old objects such as the Crab Pulsar (957 years) or the central compact object in Cassiopeia A (330 years) with an observed surface temperature ~106 K. However, recent observations of the late (t = 108-109 s) emission of the supernovae (SNe) associated to GRBs (GRB-SN) show a distinctive emission in the X-ray regime consistent with temperatures ~107-108 K. Similar features have been also observed in two Type Ic SNe SN 2002ap and SN 1994I that are not associated to GRBs. Aims: We advance the possibility that the late X-ray emission observed in GRB-SN and in isolated SN is associated to a hot neutron star just formed in the SN event, here defined as a neo-neutron star. Methods: We discuss the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars in the age regime that spans from ~1 min (just after the proto-neutron star phase) all the way up to ages <10-100 yr. We examine critically the key factor governing the neo-neutron star cooling with special emphasis on the neutrino emission. We introduce a phenomenological heating source, as well as new boundary conditions, in order to mimic the high temperature of the atmosphere for young neutron stars. In this way we match the neo-neutron star luminosity to the observed late X-ray emission of the GRB-SN events: URCA-1 in GRB980425-SN1998bw, URCA-2 in GRB030329-SN2003dh, and URCA-3 in GRB031203-SN2003lw. Results: We identify the major role played by the neutrino emissivity in the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars. By calibrating our additional heating source at early times to ~1012-1015 erg/g/s, we find a striking agreement of the luminosity obtained from the cooling of a neo-neutron stars with the prolonged (t = 108-109 s) X-ray emission observed in GRB associated with SN. It is therefore appropriate a revision of the boundary conditions usually used in the thermal cooling theory of neutron stars, to match the proper conditions of the atmosphere at young ages. The traditional thermal processes taking place in the crust might be enhanced by the extreme high-temperature conditions of a neo-neutron star. Additional heating processes that are still not studied within this context, such as e+e- pair creation by overcritical fields, nuclear fusion, and fission energy release, might also take place under such conditions and deserve further analysis. Conclusions: Observation of GRB-SN has shown the possibility of witnessing the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars. A new campaign of dedicated observations is recommended both of GRB-SN and of isolated Type Ic SN.

  16. SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-05-20

    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

  17. Nuclear Equation of State and Neutron Star Cooling

    E-print Network

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) to the neutron star cooling. New era for nuclear EoS has begun after the discovery of $\\sim 2\\msun$ neutron stars PSR J1614$-$2230 and PSR J0348$+$0432 [1, 2]. Also recent works on the mass and radius of neutron stars from low-mass X-ray binaries [3] strongly constrain the EoS of nuclear matter. On the other hand, observations of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) more than 10 years confirmed the existence of nuclear superfluidity [4, 5]. Nuclear superfluidity reduces the heat capacities as well as neutrino emissivities. With nuclear superfluidity the neutrino emission processes are highly suppressed, and the existence of superfluidity makes the cooling path quite different from that of the standard cooling process. Superfluidity also allows new neutrino emission process, which is called `Pair Breaking and Formation'(PBF). PBF is a fast cooling process and can explain the fast cooling rate of neutron star in Cas A. Therefore, it is essent...

  18. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code is used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes of 1.0-solar-mass neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. The simulations produce outbursts lasting from approximately 750 seconds to approximately one week. The peak effective temperatures and luminosities are 2.6 x 10 to the 7th K and 8 x 10 to the 4th solar luminosities for the 10 km study and 5.3 x 10 to the 6th K and 600 solar luminosities for the 20 km study. It is found that hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting approximately 0.0001 second. The study assumes that the bursters and transient X-ray sources occur as a result of mass transfer from a secondary onto a neutron star in a fashion analogous to the nova phenomena. The peak temperatures and luminosities are found to be inversely proportional to the radius of the neutron stars and the calculations here, together with those in the literature, indicate that the actual radii of most neutron stars must be closer to 10 km than 20 km.

  19. Neutron resonances in few-body systems and the EOS of neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    N. Takibayev; K. Kato; M. Takibayeva; A. Sarsembayeva; D. Nasirova

    2012-12-03

    The effective interactions formed by neutron rescattering between the nuclei fixed in nodes of the crystalline lattice of neutron star crusts have been considered. In the case of two-body resonances in neutron-nucleus subsystems new neutron resonances of few-body nature come into existence in the overdense crystal under certain conditions. The energies and widths of new resonances get additional dependence on the lattice parameters. The effective interactions result in nonlinear correction to the equation of state determined by the balance of gravitational, Coulomb and nuclear resonance forces. This leads to resonant oscillations of density in the accordant layers of crusts that are accompanied by oscillations of gamma radiation. The phenomena may clarify some processes connected with few-body neutron resonances in neutron star crusts, that have influence on the microstructure of pulsar impulses.

  20. Spin-down of neutron stars by neutrino emission

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornikov, Maxim [Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); IZMIRAN, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Dib, Claudio [Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    We study the spin-down of a neutron star during its early stages due to the neutrino emission. The mechanism we consider is the subsequent collisions of the produced neutrinos with the outer shells of the star. We find that this mechanism can indeed slow down the star rotation but only in the first tens of seconds of the core formation, which is when the appropriate conditions of flux and collision rate are met. We find that this mechanism can extract less than 1% of the star angular momentum, a result which is much less than previously estimated by other authors.

  1. Structural analysis of the Quaking homodimerization interface

    PubMed Central

    Beuck, Christine; Qu, Song; Fagg, W. Samuel; Ares, Manuel; Williamson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Quaking is a prototypical member of the STAR protein family, which plays key roles in posttranscriptional gene regulation by controlling mRNA translation, stability and splicing. QkI-5 has been shown to regulate mRNA expression in the central nervous system, but little is known about its roles in other tissues. STAR proteins function as dimers and bind to bipartite RNA sequences, however, the structural and functional roles of homo- and hetero-dimerization are still unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the QkI dimerization domain, which adopts a similar stacked helix-turn-helix arrangement as its homologs GLD-1 and Sam68, but differs by an additional helix inserted in the dimer interface. Variability of the dimer interface residues likely ensures selective homodimerization by preventing association with non-cognate STAR family proteins in the cell. Mutations that inhibit dimerization also significantly impair RNA binding in vitro, alter QkI-5 protein levels, and impair QkI function in a splicing assay in vivo. Together our results indicate that a functional Qua1 homodimerization domain is required for QkI-5 function in mammalian cells. PMID:22982292

  2. Rapidly rotating neutron stars in R -squared gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2015-04-01

    f (R ) theories of gravity are one of the most popular alternative explanations for dark energy, and therefore studying the possible astrophysical implications of these theories is an important task. In the present paper we make a substantial advance in this direction by considering rapidly rotating neutron stars in R2 gravity. The results are obtained numerically, and the method we use is nonperturbative and self-consistent. The neutron star properties, such as mass, radius, and moment of inertia, are studied in detail. The results show that rotation magnifies the deviations from general relativity, and the maximum mass and moment of inertia can reach very high values. This observation is similar to the previous studies of rapidly rotating neutron stars in other alternative theories of gravity, such as scalar-tensor theories, and it can potentially lead to strong astrophysical manifestations.

  3. Spectroscopy of a Neutron Star Transient in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2012-10-01

    Neutron star X-ray transients span a broad range of stellar magnetic fields and spin periods, and their outbursts can span five orders of magnitude in mass accretion rate. They are excellent settings in which to study basic disk physics through X-ray disk winds, and the evolution of disks and accretion flows with mass accretion rate. New observations can also confirm the nature of relativistic disk lines, and exploit such lines to constrain the stellar radius, the equation of state, and even the stellar magnetic field strength. Persistent neutron star binaries represent a rich discovery space. We request 2 40 ksec observations to study a new or known neutron star transient in outburst.

  4. General Relativistic Simulations of Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca; Link, David; Font, José A.

    2011-08-01

    Binary neutron star mergers are one of the possible candidates for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and they are also powerful sources of gravitational waves. We have used our fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code Whisky to investigate the merger of binary neutron star systems and we have in particular studied the properties of the tori that can be formed by these systems, their possible connection with the engine of short GRBs and the gravitational wave signals that detectors such as advanced LIGO will be able to detect. We have also shown how the mass of the torus varies as a function of the total mass of the neutron stars composing the binary and of their mass ratio and we have found that tori sufficiently massive to power short GRBs can indeed be formed.

  5. Thermonuclear Burning as a Probe of Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a fundamental process taking place in the matter transferred onto neutron stars in accreting binary systems. The heat deposited by nuclear reactions becomes readily visible in the X-ray band when the burning is either unstable or marginally stable, and results in the rich phenomenology of X-ray bursts, superbursts, and mHz quasiperiodic oscillations. Fast X-ray timing observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over the past decade have revealed a wealth of new phenomena associated with thermonuclear burning on neutron stars, including the discovery of nuclear powered pulsations during X-ray bursts and superbursts. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these new phenomena, with an emphasis on recent findings, and discuss what they are telling us about the structure of neutron stars.

  6. Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun-down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus' field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star's birth.

  7. Physics in strong magnetic fields near neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena occurring in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars are currently of great interest in high-energy astrophysics. Observations of rotation rate changes and cyclotron lines in pulsars and gamma-ray bursts indicate that surface magnetic fields of neutron stars often exceed a trillion gauss. In fields this strong, where electrons behave much as if they were in bound atomic states, familiar processes undergo profound changes, and exotic processes become important. Strong magnetic fields affect the physics in several fundamental ways: energies perpendicular to the field are quantized, transverse momentum is not conserved, and electron-positron spin is important. Neutron stars therefore provide a unique laboratory for the study of physics in extremely high fields that cannot be generated on earth.

  8. Direct Detection of Gravity Waves from Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Redouane Al Fakir; William G. Unruh

    2008-05-24

    In light of the discovery of the first-ever double pulsar system, PSR J0737-3039, we re-examine an earlier proposal to directly detect gravity waves from neutron stars, which was predicated on a hypothetical system almost identical to the later discovered double pulsar. We re-derive the effect in more detail, and confirm the initial estimate--sometimes doubted in the literature--that it includes a 1/b dependence, where b is the impact parameter of a pulsar with respect to its foreground, gravity-wave emitting, neutron star companion. A coherent modulation in pulsar time-of-arrival measurements of 10 nano-sec/sec is possible. A one-year intermittent experiment on an instrument comparable to the SKA could thus detect the exceedingly faint gravity waves from individual neutron stars.

  9. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  10. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Armen Sedrakian; John W. Clark

    2015-05-30

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  11. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  12. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  13. Merging ``real'' neutron stars for gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duez, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Having more-or-less succeeded in learning to stably evolve Einstein's equations, numerical relativity is taking the leap to including the physics of neutron stars, which will enable us to construct truly realistic pictures of neutron star-neutron star and black hole-neutron star binary mergers. The neutron star profile affects late inspirals and mergers, leaving its imprint on gravitational waveforms and electromagnetic counterpart signals. Furthermore, we expect neutrino radiation, magnetic field, and nuclear recombination effects to drive the post-merger evolution. In this talk, I will describe some recent neutron star merger simulations combining nuclear physics and general relativity. The goal is to connect assumptions about the nuclear equation of state and the premerger binary to resulting binary trajectories, matter outflows, accretion disk dynamics, and neutrino energy output. These can then hopefully be connected to observable signals in the form of gravitational waves, kilonovae, and gamma ray bursts. It is found that an interesting variety of disks, outflows, and neutrino bursts are possible. Connections to observables are being attempted by tracking nuclear reactions in tidal ejecta and estimating energy injection to gamma ray bursts from neutrino annihilation and other sources. Meanwhile, non-vacuum inspiral simulations are finally approaching the length and accuracy needed for interesting comparisons with binary black hole waveforms and post-Newtonian predictions, these being steps toward a reliable characterization of the imprint of the nuclear equation of state on the gravitational waves. The speaker acknowledges support from NASA Grant No. NNX11AC37G and NSF Grant PHY-1068243.

  14. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING NEUTRON-STAR MASSES AND RADII WITH X-RAY PULSE PROFILE MODELING

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Dimitrios

    Modeling the amplitudes and shapes of the X-ray pulsations observed from hot, rotating neutron stars provides a direct method for measuring neutron-star properties. This technique constitutes an important part of the science ...

  15. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A Triggered by Neutron Superfluidity in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the P23 channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ?0.5×109K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star.

  16. Inferring neutron stars crust properties from quiescent thermal emission

    E-print Network

    Aguilera, Deborah N

    2015-01-01

    The observation of thermal emission from isolated neutron stars and the modeling of the corresponding cooling curves has been very useful to get information on the properties of matter at very high densities. More recently, the detection of quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems after active periods opened a new window to the physics of matter at lower densities. Here we analyze a few sources that have been recently monitored and we show how the models can be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and their transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed.

  17. The Many Faces - and Phases - of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2007-10-26

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure and dynamics of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss the many fascinating phases that one encounters as one travels from the low-density crust to the high-density core.

  18. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Simulations at Georgia Tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland

    2009-05-01

    Mixed compact object binaries consisting of a black hole and a neutron star are expected to be not only one of the primary sources of gravitational radiation to be observed by interferometric detectors but also the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts. We report on the status of our effort at Georgia Tech to model these mixed binary systems using the moving puncture method. The results are obtained with an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics Whisky code. We present preliminary results of gravitational waveforms and the disruption of the neutron star for simple polytropic equations of state.

  19. White dwarfs vs. neutron stars - Properties, constraints, and analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    Theoretical expectations and observational constraints pertaining to fundamental properties of white dwarfs and neutron stars are reviewed, including masses, angular velocities and rotation periods, moments of inertia and radii, magnetic fields, space velocities, formation processes, birthrates in the Galaxy, and compositions. Neutron star models are much more constrained by the data than are white dwarf model, even though uncertainties in the equation of state leave much more flexibility in the former. Certain analogies which can be drawn between the two classes support the hypothesis that rapidly rotating pulsars are typically the products of interacting binary systems.

  20. I-Q Relation for Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan; Delsate, Térence; Gürlebeck, Norman; Steinhoff, Jan

    2014-05-01

    We consider a universal relation between moment of inertia and quadrupole moment of arbitrarily fast rotating neutron stars. Recent studies suggest that this relation breaks down for fast rotation. We find that it is still universal among various suggested equations of state for constant values of certain dimensionless parameters characterizing the magnitude of rotation. One of these parameters includes the neutron star radius, leading to a new universal relation expressing the radius through the mass, frequency, and spin parameter. This can become a powerful tool for radius measurements.

  1. Tables of model atmospheres of bursting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madej, Jerzy

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents tables of plane-parallel neutron star model atmospheres in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, with effective temperatures of 8 x 10 exp 6, 1.257 x 10 exp 7, 2 x 10 exp 7, and 3 x 10 exp 7 K, and surface gravities of 15.0 and less (cgs units). The equations of model atmospheres on which the tables are based fully account for nonisotropies of the radiation field and effects of noncoherent Compton scattering of thermal X-rays by free electrons. Both the effective temperatures and gravities listed above are measured on the neutron star surface.

  2. Gravitational radiation from dual neutron star elliptical binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hils, Dieter

    1991-01-01

    General expressions are derived for the gravitational radiation incident on earth due to elliptical binary systems in the Galaxy. These results are applied to dual neutron star elliptical binaries. Calculations show that eccentric dual neutron star binaries lead to a moderate increase in gravitational flux density compared with circular systems for frequencies above approximately 0.0001 Hz. Tables of various quantities such as average gravitational luminosity, number of sources per unit bandwidth, energy spectral flux density, and gravitational wave strain density are given.

  3. Damping of Neutron Star Shear Modes by Superfluid Friction

    E-print Network

    P. B. Jones

    2003-01-07

    The forced motion of superfluid vortices in shear oscillations of rotating solid neutron star matter produces damping of the mode. A simple model of the unpinning and repinning processes is described, with numerical calculations of the consequent energy decay times. These are of the order of 1 s or more for typical anomalous X-ray pulsars but become very short for the general population of radio pulsars. The superfluid friction processes considered here may also be significant for the damping of r-modes in rapidly rotating neutron stars.

  4. Role of isospin physics in supernova matter and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bharat K.; Pal, Subrata [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of hot protoneutron stars shortly after their birth following supernova explosion and the composition and structure of hyperon-rich (proto)neutron stars within a relativistic mean-field model where the nuclear symmetry energy was constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. Light clusters are abundantly formed with increasing temperature well inside the neutrino-sphere for a uniform supernova matter. Liquid-gas phase transition is found to suppress the cluster yield within the coexistence phase as well as decrease considerably the neutron-proton asymmetry over a wide density range. We find symmetry energy has a modest effect on the boundaries and the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, and the composition depends more sensitively on the number of trapped neutrinos and temperature of the protoneutron star. The influence of hyperons in the dense interior of stars makes the overall equation of state soft. However, neutrino trapping distinctly delays the appearance of hyperons because of an abundance of electrons. We also find that a softer symmetry energy further makes the onset of hyperon less favorable. The resulting structures of the (proto)neutron stars with hyperons and with liquid-gas phase transition are discussed.

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts from Decompressing Neutron Star Material()

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Aufderheide, M. B.; Ressell, M. T.; Rogers, R. D.; Meyer, B. S.; Schramm, D. N.

    1992-12-01

    We explore the possibility that decompressing neutron star material may be a source for the isotropic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Such material might be ejected during the collision or tidal disruption of a neutron star in a binary sytem or as a result of neutron star seismic activity. Without gravitational confinement, this extremely neutron-rich material will decompress and heat up through a series of fissions, beta (-) decays, and photodissociations. It will then recombine in an r-process like environment. As the density drops and the material becomes optically thin, short-lived nuclei decay back to stability emitting a burst of gamma rays on a time scale of msec to sec. The resulting gamma-ray spectrum will be directly observable if the burst luminosity is low enough that a pair-dominated photosphere which would reprocess the gamma-ray spectrum is not formed. We report on efforts to model the resulting gamma-ray spectrum, which requires estimates of beta (-) decay, gamma emission, beta -delayed neutron emission, and photodissociation rates for many neutron rich nuclei. This work will eventually be coupled to hydrodynamic and radiation transport codes, in an effort to explain some of the observed gamma-ray bursts. () Work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 and DOE Nuclear Theory Grant SF-ENG-48.

  6. Neutron star matter in an effective model

    E-print Network

    T. K. Jha; P. K. Raina; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra

    2007-11-13

    We study the equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of the compact star with hyperons and calculate the star structure in an effective model in the mean field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyse the resulting EOS with hyperons in beta equilibrium and its underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of the compact star lies in the range $1.21-1.96 ~M_{\\odot}$ for the different EOS obtained, in the model.

  7. A Hot Water Bottle for Aging Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Mark Alford; Pooja Jotwani; Chris Kouvaris; Joydip Kundu; Krishna Rajagopal

    2005-04-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity C_V and the heat loss by neutrino emission L_\

  8. A Hot Water Bottle for Aging Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Alford, M; Kouvaris, C; Kundu, J; Rajagopal, K; Alford, Mark; Jotwani, Pooja; Kouvaris, Chris; Kundu, Joydip; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity C_V and the heat loss by neutrino emission L_\

  9. General relativistic simulations of magnetized binary neutron star mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. T. Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Zachariah B. Etienne; Keisuke Taniguchi

    2008-01-01

    Binary neutron stars (NSNS) are expected to be among the leading sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based laser interferometers and may be the progenitors of short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We present a series of general relativistic NSNS coalescence simulations both for unmagnetized and magnetized stars. We adopt quasiequilibrium initial data for circular, irrotational binaries constructed in the conformal thin-sandwich (CTS)

  10. R-mode instability of strange stars and observations of neutron stars in LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Chun-Mei; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Using a realistic equation of state (EOS) of strange quark matter, namely, the modified bag model, and considering the constraints on the parameters of EOS by the observational mass limit of neutron stars, we investigate the r-mode instability window of strange stars, and find the same result as in the brief study of Haskell, Degenaar and Ho in 2012 that these instability windows are not consistent with the spin frequency and temperature observations of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  11. Collective Modes in the Superfluid Inner Crust of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Urban, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

  12. Collective Modes in the Superfluid Inner Crust of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Michael Urban; Micaela Oertel

    2015-06-01

    The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

  13. Effects of the symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts near the neutron drip density

    E-print Network

    S. S. Bao; J. N. Hu; Z. W. Zhang; H. Shen

    2014-10-19

    We study the effects of the symmetry energy on the neutron drip density and properties of nuclei in neutron star crusts. The nonuniform matter around the neutron drip point is calculated by using the Thomas--Fermi approximation with the relativistic mean-field model. The neutron drip density and the composition of the crust are found to be correlated with the symmetry energy and its slope. We compare the self-consistent Thomas--Fermi approximation with other treatments of surface and Coulomb energies and find that these finite-size effects play an essential role in determining the equilibrium state at low density.

  14. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ? 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been reprocessed and yield continuous time series since 2008. The research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a consequent continuation of the ALPAACT initiatives. It is coordinated with the ZAMG efforts to keep the routine seismological work on a high scientific standard. Three polytechnic schools in Vienna and the southern Vienna Basin (Mödling and Wiener Neustadt) take part in SCHOOLS & QUAKES. So-called school seismometers as well as high performance short period stations have been installed at these locations. In addition to routine maintenance and site optimization of the seismic stations, scholars and teachers of these schools contribute to research by their unprejudiced approach to interactive event detection and travel time picking as well as by their expertise in electronics, informatics, and civil engineering. The development of low cost short period stations which meet the requirements of medium to high noise locations, or the generation of shake maps and their conversion into maps of potential source locations are work in progress in cooperation with graduate students.

  15. The path of black holes and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Rodrigues, I.

    The kinematics of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries in the Galaxy should help to know their birth place and constrain their evolution. We have used multiple tools of modern astronomy to determine the trajectories in the Galaxy and track the origins of seven black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries that are of topical interest in astrophysics. We find three distinct classes of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries: (1) those that move in the Galactic disk along paths that resemble the circular orbits of massive stars formed in the disk, (2) low mass X-ray binaries that move at high velocities on galactocentric orbits similar to the most ancient stars born in the Galactic bulge and the halo, and (3) high and intermediate mass X-ray binaries running away from their parent regions of star formation. The runaway kinetic energies imparted by the explosion of the massive stellar progenitors of compact objects that remain bound in X-ray binaries, differ by at least two orders of magnitude, from less than 1047 ergs up to 1049 ergs}, namely, up to 1% of the kinetic energy of a supernova.

  16. Novel Phases at High Density and their Roles in the Structure and Evolution of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy

    2002-11-14

    We present a pedagogic discussion on the role of novel phases of dense baryonic matter in ``neutron'' stars. Qualitative aspects of the physics that drives phase transitions and some of its astrophysical consequences are discussed. Observable aspects of neutron star structure and early evolution of the newly born neutron star are discussed in some detail.

  17. Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2

    E-print Network

    Xu, Ren-Xin

    Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2 , Wei Liu1 and En-Guang Zhao2 1 a new phase structure of neutron star matter including nucleons and delta isobars is presented. Particle fractions populated and pion condensations in neutron star matter are investgated in this model

  18. KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS, AND THE VALIDITY OF THE ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS, AND THE VALIDITY OF THE ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION August 2006 #12;This document is in the public domain. #12;KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS that the neutron stars are subject to a crushing force late in the inspiral. This crushing effect has had

  19. Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    The energy-density relation was calculated for pure neutron matter in the density range relevant for neutron stars, using four different hard-core potentials. Calculations are also presented of the properties of the superfluid state of the neutron component, along with the superconducting state of the proton component and the effects of polarization in neutron star matter.

  20. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-08-30

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without magnetic a field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by bremsstrahlung or any other process. Instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  1. Radiation from the accretion column of magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1982-01-01

    Some developments in radiative transfer for magnetized neutron star conditions, and their application in models of the structure and properties of self-consistent polar cap emission regions are reviewed. Several of the assumptions and uncertainties involved are discussed, and present problems are indicated.

  2. Surface r-Modes and Burst Oscillations of Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umin Lee

    2004-01-01

    We study the r-modes propagating in steadily mass accreting, nuclear burning, and geometrically thin envelopes on the surface of rotating neutron stars. For the modal analysis, we construct envelope models that are fully radiative or have a convective region. We simply call the former radiative models and the latter convective models in this paper. As the angular rotation frequency Omega

  3. Inhomogeneous seeding of quark bubbles in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Perez-Garcia, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution we briefly discuss about the consequences of the presence of Majorana dark matter in a dense neutron star environment focusing on a particularly interesting possible indirect effect, namely that of bubble nucleation. This is somewhat similar to current techniques developed for direct detection using bubble chamber or superheated droplet detectors.

  4. Eccentric mergers of black holes with spinning neutron stars

    E-print Network

    William E. East; Vasileios Paschalidis; Frans Pretorius

    2015-06-26

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. We initialize the BH-NS systems with positions and velocities corresponding to marginally unbound Newtonian orbits, and evolve them using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. We find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the BH---as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  5. Magnetar activity mediated by plastic deformations of neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    We advance a `solar flare' model of magnetar activity, whereas a slow evolution of the magnetic field in the upper crust, driven by electron magnetohydrodynamic flows, twists the external magnetic flux tubes, producing persistent emission, bursts, and flares. At the same time, the neutron star crust plastically relieves the imposed magnetic field stress, limiting the strain ?t to values well below the critical strain ?crit of a brittle fracture, ?t ˜ 10-2?crit. Magnetar-like behaviour, occurring near the magnetic equator, takes place in all neutron stars, but to a different extent. The persistent luminosity is proportional to cubic power of the magnetic field (at a given age), and hence is hardly observable in most rotationally powered neutron stars. Giant flares can occur only if the magnetic field exceeds some threshold value, while smaller bursts and flares may take place in relatively small magnetic fields. Bursts and flares are magnetospheric reconnection events that launch Alfvén shocks which convert into high-frequency whistlers upon hitting the neutron star surface. The resulting whistler pulse induces a strain that increases with depth both due to the increasing electron density (and the resulting slowing of the waves), and due to the increasing coherence of a whistler pulse with depth. The whistler pulse is dissipated on a time-scale of approximately a day at shallow depths corresponding to ? ˜ 1010 g cm-3; this energy is detected as enhanced post-flare surface emission.

  6. Bulk viscosity and r-modes of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2008-08-08

    The bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process involving hyperons in $K^-$ condensed matter is discussed here. We find that the bulk viscosity is modified in a superconducting phase. Further, we demonstrate how the exotic bulk viscosity coefficient influences $r$-modes of neutron stars which might be sources of detectable gravitational waves.

  7. Neutron Star Kicks from Asymmetric Collapse Chris L. Fryer

    E-print Network

    also receive a kick, most likely at birth. In addition, speci#12;c neutron star and black hole binaries of composition layers (from silicon down to hydrogen) produced by a series of nuclear burning stages where by explosive burning in the oxygen and silicon layers above the iron core (Bazan & Arnett 1998). The large

  8. Eccentric Mergers of Black Holes with Spinning Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-07-01

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole–neutron star (BH–NS) mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. We initialize the BH–NS systems with positions and velocities corresponding to marginally unbound Newtonian orbits, and evolve them using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. We find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the BH—as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  9. The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, K.; NICER Team

    2012-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will be a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity, currently in a Phase A study, dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the Universe where all four fundamental forces of Nature are simultaneously important. Answering the long-standing astrophysics question "How big is a neutron star?," NICER will confront nuclear physics theory with unique observational constraints, exploring the exotic states of matter within neutron stars and revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICER to probe the extreme physical environments of the most powerful cosmic particle accelerators known. Finally, NICER will definitively measure the stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for gravitational-wave detection, a pulsar-based timescale, and autonomous spacecraft navigation. NICER will fly on the International Space Station while Fermi is in orbit and post-RXTE, enabling the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and providing continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  10. The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-01-01

    White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities

  11. Virtual Trips to Black Holes and Neutron Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Nemiroff

    This web-site contains descriptions and movies that take users into black holes and neutron stars. The movies are scientifically accurate computer animations made with adherence to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Descriptions of visual distortions that occur near these objects as well as the principles of gravity and mathematics are written to be understandable on a variety of levels.

  12. Testing General Metric Theories of Gravity with Bursting Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Dimitrios Psaltis

    2008-01-10

    I show that several observable properties of bursting neutron stars in metric theories of gravity can be calculated using only conservation laws, Killing symmetries, and the Einstein equivalence principle, without requiring the validity of the general relativistic field equations. I calculate, in particular, the gravitational redshift of a surface atomic line, the touchdown luminosity of a radius-expansion burst, which is believed to be equal to the Eddington critical luminosity, and the apparent surface area of a neutron star as measured during the cooling tails of bursts. I show that, for a general metric theory of gravity, the apparent surface area of a neutron star depends on the coordinate radius of the stellar surface and on its gravitational redshift in the exact same way as in general relativity. On the other hand, the Eddington critical luminosity depends also on an additional parameter that measures the degree to which the general relativistic field equations are satisfied. These results can be used in conjunction with current and future high-energy observations of bursting neutron stars to test general relativity in the strong-field regime.

  13. Entrainment parameters in a cold superfluid neutron star core

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, Nicolas; Haensel, Pawel [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland); LUTH, Paris Observatory, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-04-15

    Hydrodynamic simulations of neutron star cores that are based on a two-fluid description in terms of a neutron-proton superfluid mixture require the knowledge of the Andreev-Bashkin entrainment matrix which relates the momentum of one constituent to the currents of both constituents. This matrix is derived for arbitrary nuclear asymmetry at zero temperature and in the limits of small relative currents in the framework of the energy density functional theory. The Skyrme energy density functional is considered as a particular case. General analytic formulas for the entrainment parameters and various corresponding effective masses are obtained. These formulas are applied to the liquid core of a neutron star composed of homogeneous plasma of nucleons, electrons, and possibly muons in {beta} equilibrium.

  14. Entrainment parameters in cold superfluid neutron star core

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Chamel; Pawel Haensel

    2006-09-13

    Hydrodynamical simulations of neutron star cores, based on a two fluid description in terms of a neutron-proton superfluid mixture, require the knowledge of the Andreev-Bashkin entrainment matrix which relates the momentum of one constituent to the currents of both constituents. This matrix is derived for arbitrary nuclear asymmetry at zero temperature and in the limits of small relative currents in the framework of the energy density functional theory. The Skyrme energy density functional is considered as a particular case. General analytic formulae for the entrainment parameters and various corresponding effective masses are obtained. These formulae are applied to the liquid core of a neutron star, composed of an homogeneous plasma of nucleons, electrons and possibly muons in beta equilibrium.

  15. Neutron star surface emission: Beyond the dipole model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zane, Silvia

    2007-04-01

    Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a number of X-ray “dim” pulsating neutron stars revealed quite unexpected features in the emission from these sources. Their soft thermal spectrum, believed to originate directly from the star surface, shows evidence for a phase-varying absorption line at some hundred eVs. The pulse modulation is relatively large (pulsed fractions in the range ˜8 35% in amplitude), the pulse shape is often non-sinusoidal, and the hard X-ray color appears to be anti-correlated in phase with the total emission. Moreover, the prototype of this class, RX J0720.4-3125, has been found to undergo rather sensible changes both in its spectral and timing properties over a timescale of a few years. By modeling the light curves of two sources, RBS 1223 and RX J0720.4-3125, it has been found evidence for two hot regions located at a slightly non antipodal direction. All these new findings are difficult to reconcile with the standard picture of a cooling neutron star endowed with a purely dipolar magnetic field. Here we present more realistic models of surface emission, where the effects of different neutron star thermal and magnetic surface distributions are accounted for. We show how a star-centered field made of a dipolar and a quadrupolar component can influence the properties of the observed light curves and we present results that account self-consistently for toroidal and poloidal crustal field configurations.

  16. Cooling of neutron stars with color superconducting quark cores

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorian, Hovik [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian Street 1, 375025 Yerevan (Armenia); Blaschke, David [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Voskresensky, Dmitri [Theory Division, GSI mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-01

    We show that within a recently developed nonlocal, chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M{sub {center_dot}}. We study the cooling of these objects in isolation for different values of the gravitational mass. Our equation of state (EoS) allows for two-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) quark matter with a large quark gap ({approx}100 MeV) for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if the phases with unpaired quarks were allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. If they occurred for M<1.3 M{sub {center_dot}}, as follows from our EoS, one could not appropriately describe the neutron star cooling data existing today. We discuss a ''2SC+X'' phase as a possibility for having all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X gap is of the order of 10 keV-1 MeV. Density-independent gaps do not allow us to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X gap that decreases with increasing density would allow us to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model. This scenario is suggested as an alternative explanation of the cooling data in the framework of a hybrid star model.

  17. Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Heino Falcke; Luciano Rezzolla

    2014-01-21

    Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The pulses do not repeat and are not associated with a known pulsar or gamma-ray burst. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, hence implying an extremely high radio luminosity, far larger than the power of single pulses from a pulsar. We suggest that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses to a black hole due to magnetic braking. The neutron star is initially above the critical mass for non-rotating models and is supported by rapid rotation. As magnetic braking constantly reduces the spin, the neutron star will suddenly collapse to a black hole several thousand to million years after its birth. We discuss several formation scenarios for supramassive neutron stars and estimate the possible observational signatures {making use of the results of recent numerical general-relativistic calculations. While the collapse will hide the stellar surface behind an event horizon, the magnetic-field lines will snap violently. This can turn an almost ordinary pulsar into a bright radio "blitzar": Accelerated electrons from the travelling magnetic shock dissipate a significant fraction of the magnetosphere and produce a massive radio burst that is observable out to z>0.7. Only a few percent of the neutron stars needs to be supramassive in order to explain the observed rate. We suggest that fast radio bursts might trace the solitary formation of stellar mass black holes at high redshifts. These bursts could be an electromagnetic complement to gravitational-wave emission and reveal a new formation and evolutionary channel for black holes that are not seen as gamma-ray bursts. Radio observations of these bursts could trace the core-collapse supernova rate throughout the universe.

  18. Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality

    E-print Network

    S. M. de Carvalho; R. Negreiros; Jorge A. Rueda; Remo Ruffini

    2014-11-19

    Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the density at the base of the crust, $\\rho_{\\rm crust}$. In particular, we find that the traditional increase of the relaxation time with the crust thickness holds only for configurations whose density of the base of the crust is greater than $\\approx 5\\times 10^{13}$ g cm$^{-3}$. The reason for this is that neutron star crusts with very thin or absent inner crust have some neutrino emission process blocked which keep the crust hotter for longer times. Therefore, accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase of neutron stars might give crucial information on the core-crust transition which may aid us in probing the inner composition/structure of these objects.

  19. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, Galactic neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leonard, P.J.T. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Astronomy

    1995-07-01

    What makes a Galacic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the Galaxy following a finite period, {approximately}30My, after their formation. Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of (GBs) is based upon these high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks. The fast NSs are formed in tidally locked binaries, where tidal locking occurs due to the meridional circulation caused by the conservation of angular momentum of the tidal lobes. These same lobes perturb the subsequent collapse to a supernova and forming a slowly rotating NS. Following the collapse to a NS and explosion, subsequent accretion occurs on the rear side of the initially perturbed NS, resulting in a run-away acceleration of the neutron star by neutrino emission from the hot accreted matter. The recoil momentum of the relativistic neutrino emission from the localized, down flowing matter far exceeds the momentum drag of the accreted matter. The recoil of the NS may be oriented towards the companion, but misses because of the initial orbital motion. The near miss captures matter from the companion and forms a disk around the NS. Accretion onto the neutron star from this initially gaseous disk due to the ``alpha`` viscosity results initially in the soft gamma-ray repeater phase, {approximately}10{sup 4} yr. After the neutron star has moved {approximately}30 kpc from its birthplace, solid bodies form in the disk, and accrete to planetoid size bodies after {approximately}3 {times} 10{sup 7} years. Some of these planetoid bodies, with a mass of {approximately}10{sup 21to22} g, are perturbed into being captured by the magnetic field of the NS to create GBs. The high velocity and millions of years delay in forming planetoids, results in isotropy.

  20. Accreting neutron star spins and the equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Duncan [School of Physics and School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2008-02-27

    X-ray timing of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has since 1996 revealed several distinct high-frequency phenomena. Among these are oscillations during thermonuclear (type-I) bursts, which (in addition to persistent X-ray pulsations) are thought to trace the neutron star spin. The recent discoveries of 294 Hz burst oscillations in IGR J17191-2821, and 182 Hz pulsations in Swift J1756.9-2508, brings the total number of measured LMXB spin rates to 22. An open question is why the majority of the {approx_equal}100 known neutron stars in LMXBs show neither pulsations nor burst oscillations.Recent observations suggest that persistent pulsations may be more common than previously thought, although detectable intermittently, and in some cases at very low duty cycles. For example, the 377.3 Hz pulsations in HETE J1900.1-2455 were only present in the first few months of it's outburst, and have been absent since (although X-ray activity continues). Intermittent (persistent) pulsations have since been detected in a further two sources. In two of these three systems the pulsations appear to be related to the thermonuclear burst activity, but in the third (Aql X-1) they are not. This phenomenon offers new opportunities for spin measurements in known systems.Such measurements can constrain the poorly-known neutron star equation of state, and neutron stars in LMXBs offer observational advantages over rotation-powered pulsars which make the detection of more rapidly-spinning examples more likely. Even so, spin rates of at least 50% faster than the present maximum appear necessary to give constraints stringent enough to discriminate between the various models. Although the future prospects for such rapidly-spinning objects do not appear optimistic, several additional observational approaches are possible for LMXBs. The recent study of EXO 0748-676 is an example.

  1. Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, S. M.; Negreiros, R.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2014-11-01

    Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the density at the base of the crust, ?crust. In particular, we find that the traditional increase of the relaxation time with the crust thickness holds only for configurations whose density of the base of the crust is greater than ?5 ×1013 g cm -3. The reason for this is that neutron star crusts with very thin or absent inner crust have some neutrino emission processes blocked, which keeps the crust hotter for longer times. Therefore, accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase of neutron stars might give crucial information on the core-crust transition which may aid us in probing the inner composition and structure of these objects.

  2. The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-04-24

    White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities than commonly found in normal stars, and pressure is created by degenerate fermion kinetic energy and particle interactions. As a result, white dwarfs and neutron stars offer unique cosmic laboratories for studying matter at very high densities. In this review we discuss the basic properties of condensed matter at extreme densities and summarize the extent to which these properties can be examined by observations of compact objects.

  3. Simulating binary neutron stars: Dynamics and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Motl, Patrick M.; Palenzuela, Carlos; Tohline, Joel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Hirschmann, Eric W.; Neilsen, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States); Liebling, Steven L. [Department of Physics, Long Island University-C.W. Post Campus, Brookville, New York 11548 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    We model two mergers of orbiting binary neutron stars, the first forming a black hole and the second a differentially rotating neutron star. We extract gravitational waveforms in the wave zone. Comparisons to a post-Newtonian analysis allow us to compute the orbital kinematics, including trajectories and orbital eccentricities. We verify our code by evolving single stars and extracting radial perturbative modes, which compare very well to results from perturbation theory. The Einstein equations are solved in a first-order reduction of the generalized harmonic formulation, and the fluid equations are solved using a modified convex essentially non-oscillatory method. All calculations are done in three spatial dimensions without symmetry assumptions. We use the had computational infrastructure for distributed adaptive mesh refinement.

  4. Hybrid neutron stars with the field correlator method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio

    2014-07-01

    We study the quark deconfinement phase transition in cold (T = 0) neutron star matter and we calculate various structural properties of hybrid stars. For the quark phase, we use an equation of state (EOS) based on the Field Correlator Method (FCM) extended to the case of nonzero baryon density. For the confined hadronic phase we use a relativistic mean field model considering both pure nucleonic and hyperonic matter. We constrain the values of the gluon condensate G2, which is one of the EOS parameter within the FCM, making use of the measured mass, M = 1.97 ± 0.04 Msolar, of the neutron star in PSR J1614-2230. Our results show that the values of G2 extracted from the mass measurement of PSR J1614-2230 are consistent with the values of the same quantity derived, within the FCM, from recent lattice QCD calculations of the deconfinement transition temperature at zero baryon chemical potential.

  5. Neutron star equations of state with optical potential constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anti?, S.; Typel, S.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear matter and neutron stars are studied in the framework of an extended relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with higher-order derivative and density dependent couplings of nucleons to the meson fields. The derivative couplings lead to an energy dependence of the scalar and vector self-energies of the nucleons. It can be adjusted to be consistent with experimental results for the optical potential in nuclear matter. Several parametrization, which give identical predictions for the saturation properties of nuclear matter, are presented for different forms of the derivative coupling functions. The stellar structure of spherical, non-rotating stars is calculated for these new equations of state (EoS). A substantial softening of the EoS and a reduction of the maximum mass of neutron stars is found if the optical potential constraint is satisfied.

  6. Ancient Guest Stars as harbingers of neutron star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ru

    The well-known AD 1006, 1054, 1572, and 1604 were described as "Guest Stars" by Chinese, Japanese and Korean. In most cases, it might thus be possible to expect a Guest Star to be a term for supernova or nova. There are a lot of records concerning ancient Guest Stars in Chinese historical books. Two catalogues were compiled by Xi (1955) and Xi and Bo (1965, 1966) that listed 90 probable novae or supernovae observed between 1400 BC and AD 1700. Clark and Stephenson (1977), Ho (1962) and Kanda (1935) collected more or less similar records. Among all the historical records more than 80% are from China. The discussion presented in this paper is based on them.

  7. Stochastic Background from Coalescences of Neutron Star-Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbau, T.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, numerical simulations were used to investigate the gravitational stochastic background produced by coalescences of double neutron star systems occurring up to z~5. The cosmic coalescence rate was derived from Monte Carlo methods using the probability distributions for massive binaries to form and for a coalescence to occur in a given redshift. A truly continuous background is produced by events located only beyond the critical redshift z*=0.23. Events occurring in the redshift interval 0.027

  8. Ferromagnetic neutron stars: axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall

    E-print Network

    Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Tetsuo Hatsuda

    2012-09-21

    We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ~ 10^19 [G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

  9. Neutron star properties and the equation of state of neutron-rich matter

    E-print Network

    Plamen G. Krastev; Francesca Sammarruca

    2006-07-24

    We calculate total masses and radii of neutron stars (NS) for pure neutron matter and nuclear matter in beta-equilibrium. We apply a relativistic nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) derived from Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) calculations. We use realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions defined in the framework of the meson exchange potential models. Our results are compared with other theoretical predictions and recent observational data. Suggestions for further study are discussed.

  10. Neutron star cooling constraints for color superconductivity in hybrid stars

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, S. B. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetski pr. 13, RU-119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grigorian, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 375049 Yerevan (Armenia); Blaschke, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR Dubna, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    We apply the recently developed logN-logS test of compact star cooling theories for the first time to hybrid stars with a color superconducting quark matter core. Although there is not yet a microscopically founded superconducting quark matter phase that would fulfill constraints from cooling phenomenology, we explore the hypothetical 2SC+X phase and show that the magnitude and density dependence of the X-gap can be chosen to satisfy a set of tests: temperature-age (T-t), the brightness constraint, logN-logS, and the mass spectrum constraint. The latter test appears as a new conjecture from the present investigation.

  11. Non extensive thermodynamics and neutron star properties

    E-print Network

    Débora P. Menezes; Airton Deppman; Eugenio Megías; Luis B. Castro

    2014-10-31

    In the present work we apply non extensive statistics to obtain equations of state suitable to describe stellar matter and verify its effects on microscopic and macroscopic quantities. Two snapshots of the star evolution are considered and the direct Urca process is investigated with two different parameter sets. $q$-values are chosen as 1.05 and 1.14. The equations of state are only slightly modified, but the effects are enough to produce stars with slightly higher maximum masses. The onsets of the constituents are more strongly affected and the internal stellar temperature decreases with the increase of the $q$-value, with consequences on the strangeness and cooling rates of the stars.

  12. INVESTIGATING SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN NEUTRON STAR INTERIORS WITH GLITCH MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, B. [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pizzochero, P. M.; Seveso, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-02-20

    The high-density interior of a neutron star is expected to contain superconducting protons and superfluid neutrons. Theoretical estimates suggest that the protons will form a type II superconductor in which the stellar magnetic field is carried by flux tubes. The strong interaction between the flux tubes and the neutron rotational vortices could lead to strong ''pinning'', i.e., vortex motion could be impeded. This has important implications especially for pulsar glitch models as it would lead to a large part of the vorticity of the star being decoupled from the ''normal'' component to which the electromagnetic emission is locked. In this Letter, we explore the consequences of strong pinning in the core on the ''snowplow'' model for pulsar glitches, making use of realistic equations of state and relativistic background models for the neutron star. We find that, in general, a large fraction of the pinned vorticity in the core is not compatible with observations of giant glitches in the Vela pulsar. Thus, the conclusion is that either most of the core is in a type I superconducting state or the interaction between vortices and flux tubes is weaker than previously assumed.

  13. Molecular Dynamics of Nuclear Pasta in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2014-09-01

    During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. This research was supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  14. Differential Rotation in Neutron Stars: Magnetic Braking and Viscous Damping

    E-print Network

    Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-10-24

    Diffferentially rotating stars can support significantly more mass in equilibrium than nonrotating or uniformly rotating stars, according to general relativity. The remnant of a binary neutron star merger may give rise to such a ``hypermassive'' object. While such a star may be dynamically stable against gravitational collapse and bar formation, the radial stabilization due to differential rotation is likely to be temporary. Magnetic braking and viscosity combine to drive the star to uniform rotation, even if the seed magnetic field and the viscosity are small. This process inevitably leads to delayed collapse, which will be accompanied by a delayed gravitational wave burst and, possibly, a gamma-ray burst. We provide a simple, Newtonian, MHD calculation of the braking of differential rotation by magnetic fields and viscosity. The star is idealized as a differentially rotating, infinite cylinder consisting of a homogeneous, incompressible conducting gas. We solve analytically the simplest case in which the gas has no viscosity and the star resides in an exterior vacuum. We treat numerically cases in which the gas has internal viscosity and the star is embedded in an exterior, low-density, conducting medium. Our evolution calculations are presented to stimulate more realistic MHD simulations in full 3+1 general relativity. They serve to identify some of the key physical and numerical parameters, scaling behavior and competing timescales that characterize this important process.

  15. Hydrodynamics of coalescing binary neutron stars: Ellipsoidal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1995-04-01

    We employ an approximate treatment of dissipative hydrodynamics in three dimensions to study the coalescence of binary neutron stars driven by the emission of gravitational waves. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids obeying a polytropic equation of state; all internal fluid velocities are assumed to be linear functions of the coordinates. The hydrodynamics equations then reduce to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes of the ellipsoids, the internal velocity parameters, and the binary orbital parameters. Gravitational radiation reaction and viscous dissipation are both incorporated. We set up exact initial binary equilibrium configurations and follow the transition from the quasi-static, secular decay of the orbit at large separation to the rapid dynamical evolution of the configurations just prior to contact. A hydrodynamical instability resulting from tidal interactions significantly accelerates the coalescence at small separation, leading to appreciable radial infall velocity and tidal lag angles near contact. This behavior is reflected in the gravitational waveforms and may be observable by gravitational wave detectors under construction. In cases where the neutron stars have spins which are not aligned with the orbital angular momentum, the spin-induced quadrupole moment can lead to precession of the orbital plane and therefore modulation of the gravitational wave amplitude even at large orbital radius. However, the amplitude of the modulation is small for typical neutron star binaries with spins much smaller than the orbital angular momentum.

  16. Improved Universality in the Neutron Star Three-Hair Relations

    E-print Network

    Barun Majumder; Kent Yagi; Nicolas Yunes

    2015-04-09

    No-hair like relations between the multipole moments of the exterior gravitational field of neutron stars have recently been found to be approximately independent of the star's internal structure. This approximate, equation-of-state universality arises after one adimensionalizes the multipole moments appropriately, which then begs the question of whether there are better ways to adimensionalize the moments to obtain stronger universality. We here investigate this question in detail by considering slowly-rotating neutron stars both in the non-relativistic limit and in full General Relativity. We find that there exist normalizations that lead to stronger equation-of-state universality in the relations among the moment of inertia and the quadrupole, octopole and hexadecapole moments of neutron stars. We determine the optimal normalization that minimizes the equation-of-state dependence in these relations. The results found here may have applications in the modeling of X-ray pulses and atomic line profiles from millisecond pulsars with NICER and LOFT.

  17. Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Electron Fraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1994-02-12

    This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the mixing of composition which results from the convective motions. The variable plotted is the electron fraction Ye, which ranges from 0.2 to 0.5.

  18. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds after neutron star mergers

    E-print Network

    Martin, Dirk; Arcones, Almudena; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Korobkin, Oleg; Rosswog, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to $9 \\cdot 10^{-3} M_\\odot$ becomes unbound until $\\sim 200~{\\rm ms}$. Due to electron fractions of $Y_{\\rm e} \\approx 0.2 - 0.4$ mainly nuclei with mass numbers $A yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve...

  19. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds after neutron star mergers

    E-print Network

    Dirk Martin; Albino Perego; Almudena Arcones; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann; Oleg Korobkin; Stephan Rosswog

    2015-06-16

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to $9 \\cdot 10^{-3} M_\\odot$ becomes unbound until $\\sim 200~{\\rm ms}$. Due to electron fractions of $Y_{\\rm e} \\approx 0.2 - 0.4$ mainly nuclei with mass numbers $A yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve peaks in the blue band after about $4~{\\rm h}$. Furthermore, high opacities due to heavy r-process nuclei in the dynamic ejecta lead to a second peak in the infrared after $3-4~{\\rm d}$.

  20. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating

    E-print Network

    Sanjib S. Gupta; Toshihiko Kawano; Peter Möller

    2008-11-11

    In our calculation of neutron star crust heating we include several key new model features. In earlier work electron capture (EC) only allowed neutron emission from the daughter ground-state; here we calculate, in a deformed QRPA model, EC decay rates to all states in the daughter that are allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rules and energetics. The subsequent branching ratios between the 1n,...,xn channels and the competing $\\gamma$-decay are calculated in a Hauser-Feshbach model. Since EC accesses excited states, many more neutrons are emitted in our calculation than in previous work, leading to accelerated reaction flows. In our multi-component plasma model a single (EC,xn) reaction step can produce several neutron-deficient nuclei, each of which can further decay by (EC,xn). Hence, the neutron emission occurs more continuously with increasing depth as compared to that in a one-component plasma model.

  1. Combustion of a neutron star into a strange quark star: The neutrino signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliara, Giuseppe; Herzog, Matthias; Röpke, Friedrich K.

    2013-05-01

    There are strong indications that the process of conversion of a neutron star into a strange quark star proceeds as a strong deflagration implying that in a few milliseconds almost the whole star is converted. Starting from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion process which provide the temperature profiles inside the newly born strange star, we calculate for the first time the neutrino signal that is to be expected if such a conversion process takes place. The neutrino emission is characterized by a luminosity and a duration that is typical for the signal expected from protoneutron stars and represents therefore a powerful source of neutrinos which could be possibly directly detected in case of events occurring close to our Galaxy. We discuss moreover possible connections between the birth of strange stars and explosive phenomena such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts.

  2. Combustion of a neutron star into a strange quark star: The neutrino signal

    E-print Network

    G. Pagliara; M. Herzog; F. K. Roepke

    2013-05-02

    There are strong indications that the process of conversion of a neutron star into a strange quark star proceeds as a strong deflagration implying that in a few milliseconds almost the whole star is converted. Starting from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion process which provide the temperature profiles inside the newly born strange star, we calculate for the first time the neutrino signal that is to be expected if such a conversion process takes place. The neutrino emission is characterized by a luminosity and a duration that is typical for the signal expected from protoneutron stars and represents therefore a powerful source of neutrinos which could be possibly directly detected in case of events occurring close to our Galaxy. We discuss moreover possible connections between the birth of strange stars and explosive phenomena such as supernovae and gamma-ray-bursts.

  3. Combustion of a neutron star into a strange quark star: the neutrino signal

    E-print Network

    Pagliara, G; Ropke, F K

    2013-01-01

    There are strong indications that the process of conversion of a neutron star into a strange quark star proceeds as a strong deflagration implying that in a few milliseconds almost the whole star is converted. Starting from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion process which provide the temperature profiles inside the newly born strange star, we calculate for the first time the neutrino signal that is to be expected if such a conversion process takes place. The neutrino emission is characterized by a luminosity and a duration that is typical for the signal expected from protoneutron stars and represents therefore a powerful source of neutrinos which could be possibly directly detected in case of events occurring close to our galaxy. We discuss moreover possible connections between the birth of strange stars and explosive phenomena such as Supernovae and Gamma-Ray-Bursts.

  4. The f-MODE Instability in Relativistic Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertig, Erich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of the gravitational-wave driven instability of the f-mode in rapidly rotating relativistic stars. With an approach based on linear perturbation theory we describe the evolution of the mode amplitude and follow the trajectory of a newborn neutron star through its instability window. We study several evolutions with different initial rotation rates and temperature and determine the gravitational waves radiated during the instability. From the thermal evolution we find that the heat generated by shear viscosity during the saturation phase completely balances the neutrinos cooling and prevents the star from entering the regime of mutual friction. The evolution time of the instability is therefore longer and the star loses significantly larger amounts of angular momentum via gravitational waves.

  5. NUCLEAR CONSTRAINTS ON PROPERTIES OF NEUTRON STAR CRUSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jun; Chen Liewen; Ma Hongru [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li Baoan [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States)], E-mail: xujun@comp.tamu.edu, E-mail: hrma@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lwchen@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: Bao-An_Li@tamu-commerce.edu

    2009-06-01

    The transition density {rho} {sub t} and pressure P{sub t} at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of neutron stars are systematically studied using a modified Gogny (MDI) and 51 popular Skyrme interactions within well established dynamical and thermodynamical methods. First of all, it is shown that the widely used parabolic approximation to the full equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter may lead to huge errors in estimating the transition density and pressure, especially for stiffer symmetry energy functionals E {sub sym}({rho}), compared to calculations using the full EOS within both the dynamical and thermodynamical methods mainly because of the energy curvatures involved. Thus, fine details of the EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter are important for locating accurately the inner edge of the neutron star crust. Second, the transition density and pressure decrease roughly linearly with increasing slope parameter L of E {sub sym}({rho}) at normal nuclear matter density using the full EOS within both the dynamical and thermodynamical methods. It is also shown that the thickness, fractional mass, and moment of inertia of the neutron star crust are all very sensitive to the parameter L through the transition density {rho} {sub t} whether one uses the full EOS or its parabolic approximation. Moreover, it is shown that E {sub sym}({rho}) constrained in the same subsaturation density range as the neutron star crust by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies limits the transition density and pressure to 0.040 fm{sup -3} {<=}{rho} {sub t} {<=} 0.065 fm{sup -3} and 0.01 MeV fm{sup -3} {<=}P{sub t} {<=} 0.26 MeV fm{sup -3}, respectively. These constrained values for the transition density and pressure are significantly lower than their fiducial values currently used in the literature. Furthermore, the mass-radius relation and several other properties closely related to the neutron star crust are studied by using the MDI interaction. It is found that the newly constrained {rho} {sub t} and P{sub t} together with the earlier estimate of {delta}I/I>0.014 for the crustal fraction of the moment of inertia of the Vela pulsar impose a more stringent constraint of R {>=} 4.7 + 4.0M/M {sub sun} km for the radius R and mass M of neutron stars compared to previous studies in the literature.

  6. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  7. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    E-print Network

    Ascar Aringazin; Vladimir Dzhunushaliev; Vladimir Folomeev; Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz

    2015-04-09

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.

  8. Radiation of Neutron Stars Produced by Superfluid Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.

    2003-06-01

    We find a new mechanism of neutron star radiation wherein radiation is produced by the stellar interior. The main finding is that the neutron star interior is transparent for collisionless electron sound, the same way as it is transparent for neutrinos. In the presence of the magnetic field the electron sound is coupled with electromagnetic radiation; such collective excitation is known as a fast magnetosonic wave. At high densities such waves reduce to the zero sound in electron liquid, while near the stellar surface they are similar to electromagnetic waves in a medium. We find that zero sound is generated by superfluid vortices in the stellar core. Thermally excited helical vortex waves produce fast magnetosonic waves in the stellar crust that propagate toward the surface and transform into outgoing electromagnetic radiation. The magnetosonic waves are partially absorbed in a thin layer below the surface. The absorption is highly anisotropic; it is smaller for waves that in the absorbing layer propagate closer to the magnetic field direction. As a result, the vortex radiation is pulsed with the period of star rotation. The vortex radiation has the spectral index ?~-0.45 and can explain nonthermal radiation of middle-aged pulsars observed in the infrared, optical, and hard X-ray bands. The radiation is produced in the star interior, rather than in the magnetosphere, which allows direct determination of the core temperature. Comparing the theory with available spectra observations, we find that the core temperature of the Vela pulsar is T~8×108 K, while the core temperature of PSR B0656+14 and Geminga exceeds 2×108 K. This is the first measurement of the temperature of a neutron star core. The temperature estimate rules out equations of state incorporating Bose condensations of pions or kaons and quark matter in these objects. The estimate also allows us to determine the critical temperature of triplet neutron superfluidity in the Vela core, Tc=(7.5+/-1.5)×109 K, which agrees well with the value of critical temperature in a core of a canonical neutron star calculated based on recent data for behavior of strong interactions at high energies. We also find that in the middle-aged neutron stars the vortex radiation, rather than thermal conductivity, is the main mechanism of heat transfer from the stellar core to the surface. The core radiation opens a possibility to study composition of neutron star crust by detection of absorption lines corresponding to the low-energy excitations of crust nuclei. Bottom layers of the crust may contain exotic nuclei with the mass number up to 600, and the core radiation creates a perspective to study their properties. In principle, zero sound can also be emitted by other mechanisms, rather than vortices. In this case the spectrum of stellar radiation would contain features corresponding to such processes. As a result, zero sound opens a perspective of direct spectroscopic study of superdense matter in the neutron star interior.

  9. The Orbit of X Per and Its Neutron Star Companion

    E-print Network

    Hugo Delgado-Marti; Alan M. Levine; Eric Pfahl; Saul A. Rappaport

    2000-04-18

    We have observed the Be/X-ray pulsar binary system X Per/4U 0352+30 on 61 occasions spanning an interval of 600 days with the PCA instrument on RXTE. Pulse timing analyses of the 837-s pulsations yield strong evidence for the presence of orbital Doppler delays. We confirm the Doppler delays by using measurements made with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor. We obtain an orbital period of 250 days, a projected semimajor axis of the neutron star of 454 lt-s, a mass function of 1.61 solar masses, and a modest eccentricity of 0.11. We discuss the formation of the system in the context of the standard evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray binaries with consideration of the possibility that the birth of the neutron star was accompanied by a kick of the type often inferred from the velocity distribution of isolated radio pulsars. The orbital eccentricity just after the supernova explosion was almost certainly virtually the same as at present, because the Be star is much smaller than the orbital separation. We find that the system most likely formed from a pair of massive progenitor stars, and probably involved a quasi-stable and nearly conservative transfer of mass from the primary to the secondary. We find that the He star remnant of the primary most likely had a mass less than 6 solar masses after mass transfer. Finally, we speculate that there may be a substantial population of neutron stars formed with little or no kick.

  10. Life Extinction Due To Neutron Star Mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnon Dar; Ari Laor; Nir J. Shaviv

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic ray bursts (CRBs) from mergers or accretion induced collapse of\\u000aneutron stars that hit an Earth-like planet closer than $\\\\sim 1 kpc$ from the\\u000aexplosion produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground level,\\u000aunderground and underwater. These CRBs also destroy the ozone layer and\\u000aradioactivate the environment. The mean rate of such life devastating CRBs is\\u000aone in

  11. Buoyancy and g-modes in young superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Passamonti; N. Andersson; W. C. G. Ho

    2015-04-28

    We consider the local dynamics of a realistic neutron star core, including composition gradients, superfluidity and thermal effects. The main focus is on the gravity g-modes, which are supported by composition stratification and thermal gradients. We derive the equations that govern this problem in full detail, paying particular attention to the input that needs to be provided through the equation of state and distinguishing between normal and superfluid regions. The analysis highlights a number of key issues that should be kept in mind whenever equation of state data is compiled from nuclear physics for use in neutron star calculations. We provide explicit results for a particular stellar model and a specific nucleonic equation of state, making use of cooling simulations to show how the local wave spectrum evolves as the star ages. Our results show that the composition gradient is effectively dominated by the muons whenever they are present. When the star cools below the superfluid transition, the support for g-modes at lower densities (where there are no muons) is entirely thermal. We confirm the recent suggestion that the g-modes in this region may be unstable, but our results indicate that this instability will be weak and would only be present for a brief period of the star's life. Our analysis accounts for the presence of thermal excitations encoded in entrainment between the entropy and the superfluid component. Finally, we discuss the complete spectrum, including the normal sound waves and, in superfluid regions, the second sound.

  12. Will black hole-neutron star binary inspirals tell us about the neutron star equation of state?

    E-print Network

    Francesco Pannarale; Luciano Rezzolla; Frank Ohme; Jocelyn S. Read

    2011-03-17

    The strong tidal forces that arise during the last stages of the life of a black hole-neutron star binary may severely distort, and possibly disrupt, the star. Both phenomena will imprint signatures about the stellar structure in the emitted gravitational radiation. The information from the disruption, however, is confined to very high frequencies, where detectors are not very sensitive. We thus assess whether the lack of tidal distortion corrections in data-analysis pipelines will affect the detection of the inspiral part of the signal and whether these may yield information on the equation of state of matter at nuclear densities. Using recent post-Newtonian expressions and realistic equations of state to model these scenarios, we find that point-particle templates are sufficient for the detection of black hole-neutron star inspiralling binaries, with a loss of signals below 1% for both second and third-generation detectors. Such detections may be able to constrain particularly stiff equations of state, but will be unable to reveal the presence of a neutron star with a soft equation of state.

  13. Dark matter effect on the mass measurement of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. LI

    2013-07-11

    Newly-determined mass of 1.97 $\\pm$ 0.04 $M_{\\odot}$ for PSR J1614-2230 has been a challenge for the neutron star with a hyperon core (namely hyperon star), since hyperons usually reduce the theoretical maximum mass of the star. In this article, we consider dark matter as another possible constituent in hyperon stars' interior to loose this mass constrain. We take dark matter as self-interacting Fermi gas with certain repulsive interaction among the dark matter particles and non-interaction between dark matter and ordinary matter as is generally assumed. We find that the star maximum mass is sensitive to the particle mass of dark matter, and a high enough star mass larger than 2 $M_{\\odot}$ could be achieved when the particle mass is small enough. In this particular model, a strong upper limit 0.64 GeV for dark matter mass is obtained in strongly-interacting dark matter and 0.16 GeV for dark matter mass in weakly-interacting dark matter. Dark matter accumulated around the star could also contribute to the mass measurement, however, such contribution could be safely ignored when the generally used dark matter density is assumed.

  14. Higgs shifts from electron-positron annihilations near neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Wegner, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the potential for using neutron stars to determine bounds on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling by looking at peculiar shifts in gamma-ray spectroscopic features. In particular, we reanalyse multiple lines observed in GRB781119 detected by two gamma-ray spectrometers, and derive an upper bound on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling that is much more constraining than the one recently obtained from white dwarfs. This calls for targeted analyses of spectra of gamma-ray bursts from more recent observatories, dedicated searches for differential shifts on electron-positron and proton-antiproton annihilation spectra in proximity of compact sources, and signals of electron and proton cyclotron lines from the same neutron star.

  15. Radiation from an asteroid-neutron star collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, W. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Barton, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    A zero impact parameter collision of a 5 x 10 to the 17th g asteroid with a 1.51 solar mass neutron star using a two-dimensional Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics code is calculated. The radiation transfer is followed with a Planckian LTE diffusion model, and allowed to couple to the matter through bremsstrahlung and Compton processes. The effects of self-gravity on the asteroid, relativity, and magnetic fields are not included. The kinetic energy of impact is converted into radiant energy within 1 ms of impact. However, the neutron star is rapidly (less than 1 ms) covered by a low-density optically thick cloud that radiates within an order of magnitude of the Eddington limit at an effective temperature of only a few keV. Thus, such models, without the inclusion of confinement effects such as magnetic fields, are insufficient to explain cosmic gamma-ray bursts or the 1979 March 5 event.

  16. Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model

    E-print Network

    Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract We revisit the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski (EZM) model of dense neutron observations of neutron stars (NSs) in RX J1856-3754 [2] and EXO 0748-676 [3] favor a sti¤ EOS. We are however

  17. A unified equation of state of dense matter and neutron star structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Douchin; P. Haensel

    2001-01-01

    An equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter, describing both the neutron star crust and the liquid core, is calculated. It is based on the effective nuclear interaction SLy of the Skyrme type, which is particularly suitable for the application to the calculation of the properties of very neutron rich matter (Chabanat et al. 1997, 1998). The structure of

  18. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    E-print Network

    David Blaschke

    2014-07-28

    It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

  19. A Neutron Star Atmosphere in the Laboratory With Petawatt Lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Moon; S. C. Wilks; R. I. Klein; B. A. Remington; D. D. Ryutov; A. J. Mackinnon; P. K. Patel; A. Spitkovsky

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary estimates to create Neutron Star atmospheric conditions in the laboratory and the possibility of generating photon bubbles. The minimal requirements for photon-bubble instability could potentially be met with a properly configured 10 ps petawatt laser experiment. The high energy (multi-MeV) electrons generated by an ultra-intense laser interacting with a foil are coupled to the electrons in

  20. On the capture of dark matter by neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güver, Tolga; Emre Erkoca, Arif; Hall Reno, Mary; Sarcevic, Ina

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the number of dark matter particles that a neutron star accumulates over its lifetime as it rotates around the center of a galaxy, when the dark matter particle is a self-interacting boson but does not self-annihilate. We take into account dark matter interactions with baryonic matter and the time evolution of the dark matter sphere as it collapses within the neutron star. We show that dark matter self-interactions play an important role in the rapid accumulation of dark matter in the core of the neutron star. We consider the possibility of determining an exclusion region of the parameter space for dark matter mass and dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons as well as dark matter self-interaction cross section, based on the observation of old neutron stars. We show that for a dark matter density of 103 GeV/cm3and dark matter mass m? lesssim 10 GeV, there is a potential exclusion region for dark matter interactions with nucleons that is three orders of magnitude more stringent than without self-interactions. The potential exclusion region for dark matter self-interaction cross sections is many orders of magnitude stronger than the current Bullet Cluster limit. For example, for high dark matter density regions, we find that for m? ~ 10 GeV when the dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons ranges from ??n ~ 10-52 cm2 to ??n ~ 10-57 cm2, the dark matter self-interaction cross section limit is ??? lesssim 10-33 cm2, which is about ten orders of magnitude stronger than the Bullet Cluster limit.

  1. The Cosmic Coalescence Rates for Double Neutron Star Binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer; M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo

    2004-01-01

    We report on the newly increased event rates due to the recent discovery of the highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. Using a rigorous statistical method, we present the calculations reported by Burgay et al., which produce a coalescence rate for Galactic double neutron star (DNS) systems that is higher by a factor of 6-7 compared to estimates made prior to

  2. Stochastic background from extra-galactic double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    T. Regimbau; B. Chauvineau

    2007-07-30

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of the extra galactic population of inspiralling double neutron stars, and estimate its contribution to the astrophysical gravitational wave background, in the frequency range of ground based interferometers, corresponding to the last thousand seconds before the last stable orbit when more than 96 percent of the signal is released. We show that sources at redshift z>0.5 contribute to a truly continuous background which may be detected by correlating third generation interferometers.

  3. Electric and thermal conductivities of quenched neutron star crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    The electric and thermal conductivities in the outer crustal matter of a neutron star quenched into a solid state by cooling are estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of freezing transition for dense plasmas. The conductivities are calculated by the precise evaluation of the scattering integrals, using the procedure of Ichimaru et al. (1983) and Iyetomi and Ichimaru (1983). The results predict the conductivities lower, by a factor of about 3, than those with the single-phonon approximation.

  4. General relativistic simulations of magnetized binary neutron star mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuk Tung Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Zachariah B. Etienne; Keisuke Taniguchi

    2008-01-01

    Binary neutron stars (NSNS) are expected to be among the leading sources of\\u000agravitational waves observable by ground-based laser interferometers and may be\\u000athe progenitors of short-hard gamma ray bursts. We present a series of general\\u000arelativistic NSNS coalescence simulations both for unmagnetized and magnetized\\u000astars. We adopt quasiequilibrium initial data for circular, irrotational\\u000abinaries constructed in the conformal thin-sandwich

  5. Powering Short GRBs by Mergers of Moderately Magnetized Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Rezzolla, L.; Giacomazzo, B.; Obergaulinger, M.

    2012-07-01

    We explore the process of amplification of the magnetic field initially contained in merging neutron stars on the light shed by the recent results of global and local numerical simulations. We show that the field growth proceeds in two regimes. First, the initial fields are amplified in an unstable KH-shear layer, which results when the two neutron stars touch each other. This amplification lasts, at most, until the central black hole if formed. Subsequently, an MRI unstable toroidal remnant amplifies further the magnetic field. No ultrarelativistic outflow is formed in by the action of the magnetic field, at least in the first ˜ 30 ms after the neutron stars merge, since neither the magnetization, nor the magnetic flux across the event horizon are large enough. However, we conclude that thermally generated ultrarelativistic outflows, which ultimately give rise to short gamma-ray bursts, could be generated soon after the formation of the central BH by our models, if they would include the appropriate neutrino physics.

  6. Quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in LMXBs

    E-print Network

    Anabela Turlione; Deborah N. Aguilera; José A. Pons

    2015-02-19

    We monitored the quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries after active periods of intense activity in x-rays (outbursts). The theoretical modeling of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust may be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed. We numerically simulated the thermal evolution of the neutron star crust and compared them with inferred surface temperatures for five sources: MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260, EXO 0748-676, XTE J1701-462 and IGR J17480-2446. We find that the evolution of MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260 and EXO 0748-676 can be well described within a deep crustal cooling scenario. Conversely, we find that the other two sources can only be explained with models beyond crustal cooling. For the peculiar emission of XTE J1701-462 we propose alternative scenarios such as residual accretion during quiescence, additional heat sources in the outer crust, and/or thermal isolation of the inner crust due to a buried magnetic field. We also explain the very recent reported temperature of IGR J17480-2446 with an additional heat deposition in the outer crust from shallow sources.

  7. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Mission of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics mission of opportunity (MoO) that will reveal the inner workings of neutron stars, cosmic lighthouses that embody unique gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments. NICER achieves this objective by deploying a high-heritage instrument as an attached payload on a zenith-side ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NICER offers order-of-magnitude improvements in time-coherent sensitivity and timing resolution beyond the capabilities of any X-ray observatory flown to date.Through a cost-sharing opportunity between the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) NICER will also demonstrate how neutron stars can serve as deep-space navigation beacons to guide humankind out of Earth orbit, to destinations throughout the Solar System and beyond.I will overview the NICER mission, discuss our experience working with the ISS, and describe the process of forging a partnership between SMD and STMD.

  8. Millisecond Pulsar Searches and Double Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    John Middleditch

    2004-05-06

    A unified strategy is developed that can be used to search for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with ~solar mass companions (including neutron star companions in double neutron star binaries [DNSBs]) belonging to both very short period binaries, and those with periods so long that they could be appropriate targets for acceleration searches, and to bridge the gap between these two extremes. In all cases, the orbits are assumed to be circular. Applications to searches for binary pulsars similar to PSR J0737-3039 are discussed. The most likely candidates for more DNSBs consist of weakly magnetized neutron stars, spinning only moderately fast, like J0737-3039A, with periods generally longer than 15 ms, though this issue is not yet settled. Because of the similarity between the MSP components of DNSBs, and the longer period MSP population specific to massive condensed or core collapsed globular clusters, as well as the uncertainties about accretion-driven spinup, doubts linger about the standard models of DNSB formation.

  9. Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations

    E-print Network

    Thomas Hell; Wolfram Weise

    2014-09-24

    Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless additional strongly repulsive correlations, e.g. through vector current interactions between quarks, are introduced. The extent to which strangeness can accumulate in the equation of state is also discussed.

  10. Vacuum fluctuation inside a star and their consequences for neutron stars, a simple model

    E-print Network

    Gunther Caspar; Isaac Rodriguez; Peter O. Hess; Walter Greiner

    2015-06-03

    Applying semi-classical Quantum Mechanics, the vacuum fluctuations within a star are determined, assuming a constant mass density and applying a monopole approximation. It is found that the density for the vacuum fluctuations does not only depend linearly on the mass density, as assumed in a former publication, where neutron stars up to 6 solar masses were obtained. This is used to propose a simple model on the dependence of the dark energy to the mass density, as a function of the radial distance r. It is shown that stars with up to 200 solar masses can, in principle, be obtained. Though, we use a simple model, it shows that in the presence of vacuum fluctuations stars with large masses can be stabilized and probably stars up to any mass can exist, which usually are identified as black holes.

  11. Vacuum fluctuation inside a star and their consequences for neutron stars, a simple model

    E-print Network

    Caspar, Gunther; Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Applying semi-classical Quantum Mechanics, the vacuum fluctuations within a star are determined, assuming a constant mass density and applying a monopole approximation. It is found that the density for the vacuum fluctuations does not only depend linearly on the mass density, as assumed in a former publication, where neutron stars up to 6 solar masses were obtained. This is used to propose a simple model on the dependence of the dark energy to the mass density, as a function of the radial distance r. It is shown that stars with up to 200 solar masses can, in principle, be obtained. Though, we use a simple model, it shows that in the presence of vacuum fluctuations stars with large masses can be stabilized and probably stars up to any mass can exist, which usually are identified as black holes.

  12. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjib S; Kawano, Toshihiko; Möller, Peter

    2008-12-01

    In our calculation of neutron star crust heating we include several key new model features. In earlier work electron capture (EC) only allowed neutron emission from the daughter ground state; here we calculate, in a deformed quasi-random-phase approximation (QRPA) model, EC decay rates to all states in the daughter that are allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rules and energetics. The subsequent branching ratios between the 1n,...,xn channels and the competing gamma decay are calculated in a Hauser-Feshbach model. In our multicomponent plasma model a single (EC, xn) reaction step can produce several neutron-deficient nuclei, each of which can further decay by (EC, xn). Hence, the neutron emission occurs more continuously with increasing depth as compared to that in a one-component plasma model. PMID:19113537

  13. Galactic Center Minispiral: Interaction Modes of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Zajacek, Michal; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2015-01-01

    Streams of gas and dust in the inner parsec of the Galactic center form a distinct feature known as the Minispiral, which has been studied in radio waveband as well as in the infrared wavebands. A large fraction of the Minispiral gas is ionized by radiation of OB stars present in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC). Based on the inferred mass in the innermost parsec ($\\sim 10^6$ solar masses), over $\\sim 10^3$ -- $10^4$ neutron stars should move in the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH. We estimate that a fraction of them propagate through the denser, ionized medium concentrated mainly along the three arms of the Minispiral. Based on the properties of the gaseous medium, we discuss different interaction regimes of magnetised neutron stars passing through this region. Moreover, we sketch expected observational effects of these regimes. The simulation results may be applied to other galactic nuclei hosting NSC, where the expected distribution of the interaction regimes is different across different galax...

  14. Neutron star/supernova remnant associations: the view from Tbilisi

    E-print Network

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    2002-08-01

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centered supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical center of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical center of the associated SNR. Taking into account these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with some examples. We also show that the concept of an off-centered cavity SN explosion could be used to explain the peculiar structures of a number of SNRs and for searches for stellar remnants possibly associated with them.

  15. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  16. Galactic Center Minispiral: Interaction Modes of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2015-06-01

    Streams of gas and dust in the inner parsec of the Galactic center form a distinct feature known as the Minispiral, which has been studied in radio waveband as well as in the infrared wavebands. A large fraction of the Minispiral gas is ionized by radiation of OB stars present in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC). Based on the inferred mass in the innermost parsec ( ~10^6 solar masses), over ~10^3-10^4 neutron stars should move in the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH. We estimate that a fraction of them propagate through the denser, ionized medium concentrated mainly along the three arms of the Minispiral. Based on the properties of the gaseous medium, we discuss different interaction regimes of magnetised neutron stars passing through this region. Moreover, we sketch expected observational effects of these regimes. The simulation results may be applied to other galactic nuclei hosting NSC, where the expected distribution of the interaction regimes is different across different galaxy types.

  17. Explosive Combustion of a Neutron Star into a Quark Star: the non-premixed scenario

    E-print Network

    Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    We review aspects of the hydrodynamical combustion of nuclear matter to strange quark matter in a neutron star. Numerical studies on non-premixed combustion that consistently include hydrodynamical flows in a reactive-diffusive setup show that in 1D, the conversion (burning) front moves at sub-sonic speeds and stops short of converting the entire star to SQM, essentially due to advective forces. However, in the process, we also find that neutrino cooling of the interface causes it to wrinkle, laying a platform for a deflagrative-to-detonative transition (DDT). We outline progress on improvements in the burning code (Burn-UD: http://quarknova.ucalgary.ca/software/Burn-UD/) that will ultimately reveal the mechanism that can explode the outermost layers of even a dense compact object like a neutron star.

  18. Detecting neutrinos from black hole neutron stars mergers

    E-print Network

    O. L. Caballero; G. C. McLaughlin; R. Surman

    2009-10-08

    While it is well known that neutrinos are emitted from standard core collapse protoneutron star supernovae, less attention has been focused on neutrinos from accretion disks. These disks occur in some supernovae (i.e. "collapsars") as well as in compact object mergers, and they emit neutrinos with similar properties to those from protoneutron star supernovae. These disks and their neutrinos play an important role in our understanding of gamma ray bursts as well as the nucleosynthesis they produce. We study a disk that forms in the merger of a black hole and a neutron star and examine the neutrino fluxes, luminosities and neutrino surfaces for the disk. We also estimate the number of events that would be registered in current and proposed supernova neutrino detectors if such an event were to occur in the Galaxy.

  19. Gravitational wave emission from rotating superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    D. I. Jones

    2009-12-10

    In this paper we investigate the effect of a pinned superfluid component on the gravitational wave emission of a steadily rotating deformed neutron star. We show that the superfluid pinning allows the possibility for there to be gravitational wave emission at both the stellar spin frequency $\\Omega$ and its first harmonic, $2\\Omega$. This contrasts with the conventional case where there is no pinned superfluidity, where either only the $2\\Omega$ harmonic is present, or else the star undergoes precession, a feature which is not believed to be common in the known pulsar population. This work motivates the carrying out of gravitational wave searches where both the $\\Omega$ and $2\\Omega$ harmonics are searched for, even in targeted searches for waves from known pulsars which aren't observed to precess. Observation of such a two-component signal would provide evidence in favour of pinned superfluidity inside the star.

  20. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Popov, S. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Wachter, S., E-mail: posselt@psu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königsstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 ?m, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 ?m, 4.5 ?m) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ? 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 ?m emission (>5?) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 ?m detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 ?m emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ?10% to ?20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 ?m emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  1. Herschel and Spitzer Observations of Slowly Rotating, Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 ?m, 160 ?m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 ?m, 4.5 ?m) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ? 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 ?m emission (>5?) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 ?m detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 ?m emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ~10% to ~20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 ?m emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  2. Cooling of neutron stars and hybrid stars with a stiff hadronic EoS

    E-print Network

    H. Grigorian; D. Blaschke; D. N. Voskresensky

    2015-03-16

    Within the "nuclear medium cooling" scenario of neutron stars all reliably known temperature - age data, including those of the central compact objects in the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and XMMU-J1732, can be comfortably explained by a set of cooling curves obtained by variation of the star mass within the range of typical observed masses. The recent measurements of the high masses of the pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348-0432 on the one hand, and of the low masses for PSR J0737-3039B and the companion of PSR J1756-2251 on the other, provide independent proof for the existence of neutron stars with masses in a broad range from $\\sim 1.2$ to 2 $M_\\odot$. The values $M>2 M_{\\odot}$ call for sufficiently stiff equations of state for neutron star matter. We investigate the response of the set of neutron star cooling curves to a stiffening of the nuclear equation of state so that maximum masses of about $2.4 M_\\odot$ would be accessible and to a deconfinement phase transition from such stiff nuclear matter in the outer core to color superconducting quark matter in the inner core. Without readjustment of cooling inputs the mass range required to cover all cooling data for the stiff DD2 equation of state should include masses of $2.426 M_\\odot$ for describing the fast cooling of CasA while the existence of a quark matter core accelerates the cooling so that CasA cooling data are described with a hybrid star of mass $1.674 M_\\odot$.

  3. Einstein-Maxwell field equations in isotropic coordinates: an application to neutron star and quark star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, N.; Pant, Neeraj

    2014-07-01

    We present a new class of static spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in isotropic coordinates for perfect fluid by considering a specific choice of electrical intensity which involves a parameter K. The resulting solutions represent charged fluid spheres joining smoothly with the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions so obtained are utilized to construct the models for super-dense star like neutron stars ( ? b =2 and 2.7×1014 g/cm3) and Quark stars ( ? b =4.6888×1014 g/cm3). It is observed that the models are well behaved for the restricted value of parameter K (0.141? K?0.159999). Corresponding to K max =0.159999 for which, u max =0.259, the resulting Quark star has a maximum mass M=1.618 M ? and radius R=9.263 km and the neutron star modeling based on the particular solution; corresponding to K=0.15, u=0.238 and by assuming the surface density ? b =2.7×1014 g/cm3 the maximum mass of neutron star M=1.966 M ? and radius R=12.23 km and by assuming the surface density ? b =2×1014 g/cm3 the resulting well behaved solution has a maximum mass of neutron M=2.284 M ? and radius R=14.21 km. The robustness of our result is that it matches with the recent discoveries.

  4. Complex orbital dynamics of a double neutron star system revolving around a massive black hole

    E-print Network

    Grant N. Remmen; Kinwah Wu

    2013-01-14

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behaviour because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravito-magnetism. Generally, gravito-magnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravito-electromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the spacetime around black holes as well as tests of gravito-electromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  5. Complex orbital dynamics of a double neutron star system revolving around a massive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmen, Grant N.; Wu, Kinwah

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behaviour because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravitomagnetism. Generally, gravitomagnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravitoelectromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the space-time around black holes as well as tests of gravitoelectromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  6. Complex Orbital Dynamics of a Double Neutron Star System Revolving around a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmen, Grant; Wu, Kinwah

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behavior because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravito-magnetism. Generally, gravito-magnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravito-electromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the spacetime around black holes as well as tests of gravito-electromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  7. Bulk viscosity coefficients due to phonons in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura [Institut de Ciències del Espai (IEEC/CSIC), Facultat de Ciències, Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Tarrús, Jaume, E-mail: cmanuel@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: tarrus@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: tolos@ice.csic.es [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We calculate the three bulk viscosity coefficients as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. The solution of the dynamical evolution of the phonon number density allows us to calculate the bulk viscosity coefficients as function of the phonon collisional rate and the phonon dispersion law, which depends on the neutron pairing gap. Our method of computation is rather general, and could be used for different superfluid systems, provided they share the same underlying symmetries. We find that the behavior with temperature of the bulk viscosity coefficients is dominated by the contributions coming from the collinear regime of the 2?3 phonon processes. For typical star radial pulsation frequencies of ? ? 10{sup 4}s{sup ?1}, we obtain that the bulk viscosity coefficients at densities n?>4n{sub 0} are within 10% from its static value for T?<10{sup 9} K and for the case of strong neutron superfluidity in the core with a maximum value of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} gap above 1 MeV, while, otherwise, the static solution is not a valid approximation to the bulk viscosity coefficients. Compared to previous results from Urca and modified Urca reactions, we conclude that at T ? 10{sup 9}K phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars, except for n ? 2n{sub 0} when the opening of the Urca processes takes place.

  8. Simulations of Neutron-Star Binaries using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Kaplan; Christian Ott; Curran Muhlberger; Matthew Duez; Francois Foucart; Mark Scheel

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful fully general-relativistic simulations of coalescing neutron-star binaries, researchers have steadily improved the quality of their neutron-star binary evolutions with the goal of drawing connections between neutron-star physics (such as the NS equation of state, magnetic fields, etc.) and astrophysical observables (in the form of gravitational waves and the electromagnetic signature of short gamma-ray bursts). We present

  9. Statistical theory of thermal evolution of neutron stars - II. Limitations on direct Urca threshold

    E-print Network

    Beznogov, M V

    2015-01-01

    We apply our recently suggested statistical approach to thermal evolution of isolated neutron stars and accreting quasistationary neutron stars in X-ray transients for constraining the position and relative broadening alpha of the direct Urca threshold of powerful neutrino emission in neutron star cores. We show that most likely explanation of observations corresponds to alpha = 0.08 - 0.10 and to the neutron star mass, at which the direct Urca process is open, M_D = (1.6 - 1.8) M_sun.

  10. Kaon condensation in neutron stars with Skyrme-Hartree-Fock models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Kwak, Kyujin; Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2014-05-01

    We investigate nuclear-matter equations of state in neutron stars with kaon condensation. It is generally known that the existence of kaons in neutron star makes the equation of state soft so that the maximum mass of a neutron star is not likely to be greater than 2.0M?, the maximum mass constrained by current observations. With existing Skyrme force model parameters, we calculate nuclear equations of state and check the possibility of kaon condensation in the core of neutron stars. The results show that, even with the kaon condensation, the nuclear equation of state satisfies both the maximum mass and the allowed ranges of mass and radius.

  11. Kaon Condensation in Neutron Star with Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Models

    E-print Network

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nuclear matter equations of state in neutron star with kaon condensation. It is generally known that the existence of kaons in neutron star makes the equation of state soft so that the maximum mass of neutron star is not likely to be greater than 2.0 $M_{\\odot}$, the maximum mass constrained by current observations. With existing Skyrme force model parameters, we calculate nuclear equations of state and check the possibility of kaon condensation in the core of neutron stars. The results show that even with the kaon condensation, the nuclear equation of state satisfies both the maximum mass and the allowed ranges of mass and radius.

  12. Relativistic numerical models for stationary superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Prix, Reinhard; Novak, Jerome; Comer, G. L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories, UMR 8102 du C.N.R.S, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Department of Physics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, 63156-0907 (United States)

    2005-02-15

    We have developed a theoretical model and a numerical code for stationary rotating superfluid neutron stars in full general relativity. The underlying two-fluid model is based on Carter's covariant multifluid hydrodynamic formalism. The two fluids, representing the superfluid neutrons on one hand, and the protons and electrons on the other, are restricted to uniform rotation around a common axis, but are allowed to have different rotation rates. We have performed extensive tests of the numerical code, including quantitative comparisons to previous approximative results for these models. The results presented here are the first 'exact' calculations of such models in the sense that no approximations (other than that inherent in a discretized numerical treatment) are used. Using this code we reconfirm the existence of prolate-oblate shaped configurations. We studied the dependency of the Kepler rotation limit and of the mass-density relation on the relative rotation rate. We further demonstrate how one can simulate a (albeit fluid) neutron-star crust by letting one fluid extend further outwards than the other, which results in interesting cases where the Kepler limit is actually determined by the outermost but slower fluid.

  13. Relativistic numerical models for stationary superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prix, Reinhard; Novak, Jérôme; Comer, G. L.

    2005-02-01

    We have developed a theoretical model and a numerical code for stationary rotating superfluid neutron stars in full general relativity. The underlying two-fluid model is based on Carter’s covariant multifluid hydrodynamic formalism. The two fluids, representing the superfluid neutrons on one hand, and the protons and electrons on the other, are restricted to uniform rotation around a common axis, but are allowed to have different rotation rates. We have performed extensive tests of the numerical code, including quantitative comparisons to previous approximative results for these models. The results presented here are the first “exact” calculations of such models in the sense that no approximations (other than that inherent in a discretized numerical treatment) are used. Using this code we reconfirm the existence of prolate-oblate shaped configurations. We studied the dependency of the Kepler rotation limit and of the mass-density relation on the relative rotation rate. We further demonstrate how one can simulate a (albeit fluid) neutron-star crust by letting one fluid extend further outwards than the other, which results in interesting cases where the Kepler limit is actually determined by the outermost but slower fluid.

  14. Neutrino emission rates in highly magnetized neutron stars revisited

    E-print Network

    Mario Riquelme; Andreas Reisenegger; Olivier Espinosa; Claudio Dib

    2005-05-11

    Magnetars are a subclass of neutron stars whose intense soft-gamma-ray bursts and quiescent X-ray emission are believed to be powered by the decay of a strong internal magnetic field. We reanalyze neutrino emission in such stars in the plausibly relevant regime in which the Landau band spacing of both protons and electrons is much larger than kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature), but still much smaller than the Fermi energies. Focusing on the direct Urca process, we find that the emissivity oscillates as a function of density or magnetic field, peaking when the Fermi level of the protons or electrons lies about 3kT above the bottom of any of their Landau bands. The oscillation amplitude is comparable to the average emissivity when the Landau band spacing mentioned above is roughly the geometric mean of kT and the Fermi energy (excluding mass), i. e., at fields much weaker than required to confine all particles to the lowest Landau band. Since the density and magnetic field strength vary continuously inside the neutron star, there will be alternating surfaces of high and low emissivity. Globally, these oscillations tend to average out, making it unclear whether there will be any observable effects.

  15. Gravitational Wave Background of Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binaries

    E-print Network

    Asantha Cooray

    2004-06-21

    We discuss the stochastic background of gravitational waves from ultra compact neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binaries at cosmological distances. Under the assumption that accreting neutron stars and donor white dwarf stars form most of the low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), our calculation makes use of recent results related to the luminosity function determined from X-ray observations. Even after accounting for detached NS-WD binaries not captured in X-ray data, the NS-WD background is at least an order of magnitude below that due to extragalactic white dwarf-white dwarf binaries and below the detectability level of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) at frequencies between 10^-5 Hz and 10^-1 Hz. While the extragalactic background is unlikely to be detected, we suggest that around one to ten galactic NS-WD binaries may be resolved with LISA such that their positions are determined to an accuracy of several degrees on the sky.

  16. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes and the EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kent S.

    White dwarfs are recognized as formally analogous to neutron stars being stellar configurations where the thermal contribution to support is secondary. Both stellar types exist with various intrinsic parameters (spin mass magnetic field temperature/age) and environmental parameters (accretion environment if any characterized by overall rate and flow geometry). Comparison of analogous systems using scalings of these parameters can be fruitful e.g. comparison of stars with similar magnetic moments. Source class characterization is mature enough that such analogies can be used to compare theoretical ideas across a wide dynamic range in parameters one example being theories of quasiperioic oscillations. However the white dwarf side of this program is limited by available high resolution spectroscopy and photometry in the EUV. EUV observation is challenging but this is where white dwarf spectral energy distributions often reach maximum values. (For neutron stars the same role is played by X-rays.) Two types of cataclysmic variable systems exemplified by AM Her and EX Hya are used to illustrate these ideas in detail. Dynamical timescales and envisioned spectroscopic performance parameters of next-generation EUV satellites make possible a new level of source modeling that blends timing and spectroscopic tests. Extensions to include black holes are also considered.

  17. GB 790305 as a very strongly magnetized neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    The March 5 1979 event was the strongest gamma-ray burst ever observed. Its location in the sky is known with an accuracy of about 10 arcsec, and it coincides with the N49 supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The main burst was followed by a soft tail with the periodic 8 s modulation, and 16 soft gamma events over the following few years. If the source is a magnetic neutron star with the 8 s rotation period and the age of about 10 exp 4 years as indicated by N49 then the field strength of about 5 x 10 exp 14 gauss is implied. The corresponding critical luminosity is about 10 exp 4 L(Edd), as the electron scattering opacity is suppressed by the strong magnetic field. This luminosity is consistent with the observed peak flux of the soft tail and the soft repeaters. The soft spectrum may be approximated with the photospheric emission at kT(eff) = 17 keV. The corresponding photospheric radius is about 14 km, compatible with a neutron star hypothesis. The total magnetic energy of the star is about 4 x 10 exp 46 erg, more than enough to power the March 5 event and all its repeaters.

  18. The maximum mass and radius of neutron stars and the nuclear symmetry energy

    E-print Network

    S. Gandolfi; J. Carlson; Sanjay Reddy

    2012-03-14

    We calculate the equation of state of neutron matter with realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions using quantum Monte Carlo techniques, and illustrate that the short-range three-neutron interaction determines the correlation between neutron matter energy at nuclear saturation density and higher densities relevant to neutron stars. Our model also makes an experimentally testable prediction for the correlation between the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence -- determined solely by the strength of the short-range terms in the three neutron force. The same force provides a significant constraint on the maximum mass and radius of neutron stars.

  19. Neutron specific heat in the crust of neutron stars from the nuclear band theory Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Neutron specific heat in the crust of neutron stars from the nuclear band theory N. Chamel Institut´e Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex, France (Dated: December 23, 2008) The inner crust of neutron stars, formed of a crystal lattice of nuclear clusters immersed in a sea of unbound neutrons, may be the unique

  20. Quake: quality-aware detection and correction of sequencing errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R Kelley; Michael C Schatz; Steven L Salzberg

    2010-01-01

    We introduce Quake, a program to detect and correct errors in DNA sequencing reads. Using a maximum likelihood approach incorporating\\u000a quality values and nucleotide specific miscall rates, Quake achieves the highest accuracy on realistically simulated reads.\\u000a We further demonstrate substantial improvements in de novo assembly and SNP detection after using Quake. Quake can be used for any size project, including

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON NATAL KICKS IN GALACTIC DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki, E-mail: TsingWong2012@u.northwestern.ed, E-mail: b-willems@northwestern.ed, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s{sup -1} and 190-450 km s{sup -1} (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M{sub sun} and 1.4-5.0 M{sub sun} (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s{sup -1} (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M{sub sun} (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s{sup -1}, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as {approx}1.5 M{sub sun} or as high as {approx}8 M{sub sun}. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  2. Constraints on Natal Kicks in Galactic Double Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s-1 and 190-450 km s-1 (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M sun and 1.4-5.0 M sun (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s-1 (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M sun (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s-1, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as ~1.5 M sun or as high as ~8 M sun. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  3. Merging neutron star binaries: equation of state and electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    2013-03-01

    Merging neutron star (NS) binaries may be detected by ground-based gravitational wave (GW) interferometers (e.g. LIGO/VIRGO) within this decade and may also generate electromagnetic radiation detectable by wide-field, fast imaging telescopes that are coming online. The GWs can provide new constraint on the NS equation of state (including mass-radius relation and the related nuclear symmetry energy). This paper reviews various hydrodynamical and electrodynamical processes in coalescing NS binaries, with focus on the pre-merger phase.

  4. Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

  5. Cyclotron line resonant transfer through neutron star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John C. L.; Wasserman, Ira M.; Salpeter, Edwin E.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are used to study in detail the resonant radiative transfer of cyclotron line photons with recoil through a purely scattering neutron star atmosphere for both the polarized and unpolarized cases. For each case, the number of scatters, the path length traveled, the escape frequency shift, the escape direction cosine, the emergent frequency spectra, and the angular distribution of escaping photons are investigated. In the polarized case, transfer is calculated using both the cold plasma e- and o-modes and the magnetic vacuum perpendicular and parallel modes.

  6. The Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron Star Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kalogera; R. Narayan; D. N. Spergel; J. H. Taylor

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the coalescence rate of close binaries with two neutron stars\\u000a(NS) and discuss the prospects for the detection of NS-NS inspiral events by\\u000aground-based gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO. We derive the\\u000aGalactic coalescence rate using the observed sample of close NS-NS binaries\\u000a(PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12) and examine in detail each of the sources of\\u000auncertainty

  7. Quasiequilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars undergoing dynamical scalarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Shibata, Masaru; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    We calculate quasiequilibrium sequences of equal-mass, irrotational binary neutron stars in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity that admits dynamical scalarization. We model neutron stars with realistic equations of state (notably through piecewise polytropic equations of state). Using these quasiequilibrium sequences we compute the binary's scalar charge and binding energy versus orbital angular frequency. We find that the absolute value of the binding energy is smaller than in general relativity, differing at most by ˜14 % at high frequencies for the cases considered. We use the newly computed binding energy and the balance equation to estimate the number of gravitational-wave (GW) cycles during the adiabatic, quasicircular inspiral stage up to the end of the sequence, which is the last stable orbit or the mass-shedding point, depending on which comes first. We find that, depending on the scalar-tensor parameters, the number of GW cycles can be substantially smaller than in general relativity. In particular, we obtain that when dynamical scalarization sets in around a GW frequency of ˜130 Hz , the sole inclusion of the scalar-tensor binding energy causes a reduction of GW cycles from ˜120 Hz up to the end of the sequence (˜1200 Hz ) of ˜11 % with respect to the general-relativity case. (The number of GW cycles from ˜120 Hz to the end of the sequence in general relativity is ˜270 .) We estimate that when the scalar-tensor energy flux is also included the reduction in GW cycles becomes of ˜24 %. Quite interestingly, dynamical scalarization can produce a difference in the number of GW cycles with respect to the general-relativity point-particle case that is much larger than the effect due to tidal interactions, which is on the order of only a few GW cycles. These results further clarify and confirm recent studies that have evolved binary neutron stars either in full numerical relativity or in post-Newtonian theory, and point out the importance of developing accurate scalar-tensor-theory waveforms for systems composed of strongly self-gravitating objects, such as binary neutron stars.

  8. Axion cyclotron emissivity of magnetized white dwarfs and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    M. Kachelriess; C. Wilke; G. Wunner

    1997-04-08

    The energy loss rate of a magnetized electron gas emitting axions a due to the process $e^- \\to e^- +a$ is derived for arbitrary magnetic field strength B. Requiring that for a strongly magnetized neutron star the axion luminosity is smaller than the neutrino luminosity we obtain the bound $g_{ae}\\lsim 10^{-10}$ for the axion electron coupling constant. This limit is considerably weaker than the bound derived earlier by Borisov and Grishina using the same method. Applying a similar argument to magnetic white dwarf stars results in the more stringent bound $g_{ae}\\lsim 9x10^{-13} (T/10^7 K)^{5/4} (B/10^{10} G)^{-2}$ where T is the internal temperature of the white dwarf.

  9. Will black hole-neutron star binary inspirals tell us about the neutron star equation of state?

    E-print Network

    Pannarale, Francesco; Ohme, Frank; Read, Jocelyn S

    2011-01-01

    The strong tidal forces that arise during the last stages of the life of a black hole-neutron star binary may severely distort, and possibly disrupt, the star. Both phenomena will imprint signatures about the stellar structure in the emitted gravitational radiation. The information from the disruption, however, is confined to very high frequencies, where detectors are not very sensitive. We thus assess whether the lack of tidal distortion corrections in data-analysis pipelines will affect the detection of the inspiral part of the signal and whether these may yield information on the equation of state of matter at nuclear densities. Using recent post-Newtonian expressions and realistic equations of state to model these scenarios, we find that point-particle templates are sufficient for the detection of black hole-neutron star inspiralling binaries, with a loss of signals below 1% for both second and third-generation detectors. Such detections may be able to constrain particularly stiff equations of state, but ...

  10. Magnetic Neutron Stars in f(R) gravity

    E-print Network

    Astashenok, Artyom V; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2015-01-01

    Neutron stars with strong magnetic fields are considered in the framework of f(R) gravity. In order to describe dense matter in magnetic field, the model with baryon octet interacting through $\\sigma$$\\rho$$\\omega$-fields is used. The hyperonization process results in softening the equation of state (EoS) and in decreasing the maximal mass. We investigate the effect of strong magnetic field in models involving quadratic and cubic corrections in the Ricci scalar $R$ to the Hilbert-Einstein action. For large fields, the Mass-Radius relation differs considerably from that of General Relativity only for stars with masses close to the maximal one. Another interesting feature is the possible existence of more compact stable stars with extremely large magnetic fields ($\\sim 6\\times 10^{18}$ G instead of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{18}$ G as in General Relativity) in the central regions of the stars. Due to cubic terms, a significant increasing of the maximal mass is possible.

  11. Relativistic Force-Free Electrodynamic Simulations of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    E-print Network

    Jonathan C. McKinney

    2006-01-19

    The luminosity and structure of neutron star magnetospheres are crucial to our understanding of pulsar and plerion emission. A solution found using the force-free approximation would be an interesting standard with which any model with more physics could be compared. Prior quasi-analytic force-free solutions may not be stable, while prior time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models used unphysical model parameters. We use a time-dependent relativistic force-free electrodynamics code with no free parameters to find a unique stationary solution for the axisymmetric rotating pulsar magnetosphere in a Minkowski space-time in the case of no surface currents on the star. The solution is similar to the force-free quasi-analytic solution of \\citet{cont99} and the numerical magnetohydrodynamic solution of \\citet{kom05}. The magnetosphere structure and the usefulness of the classical y-point in the general dissipative regime are discussed. The pulsar luminosity is found to be $L \\approx 0.99\\pm 0.01 \\mu^2\\Omega_\\star^4/c^3$ for a dipole moment $\\mu$ and stellar angular frequency $\\Omega_\\star$.

  12. Optical spectroscopy and photometry of the neutron star RX J1856.5-3754

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. van Kerkwijk; S. R. Kulkarni

    2001-01-01

    We present spectroscopy and imaging with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the neutron star RX J1856.5?3754. Little is known about the nature of this source other than that it is a nearby hot neutron star. Our VLT spectrum does not show any strong emission or absorption features. With considerable care to photometric calibration, we obtain photometric measurements over the

  13. Optical spectroscopy and photometry of the neutron star RX J1856.5-3754

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. van Kerkwijk; S. R. Kulkarni

    2001-01-01

    We present spectroscopy and imaging with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the neutron star RX J1856.5-3754. Little is known about the nature of this source other than that it is a nearby hot neutron star. Our VLT spectrum does not show any strong emission or absorption features. With considerable care to photometric calibration, we obtain photometric measurements over the

  14. Peculiar Isolated Neutron Stars and the Source in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The new results of our observing campaign targeting the isolated neutron star 2XMM J104608.7-594306 in the Carina Nebula are used to understand how peculiar groups of isolated neutron stars relate to each other, as well as to the bulk of the normal radio pulsar population.

  15. Prospects for measuring neutron-star masses and radii with X-ray pulse profile modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: fozel@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Modeling the amplitudes and shapes of the X-ray pulsations observed from hot, rotating neutron stars provides a direct method for measuring neutron-star properties. This technique constitutes an important part of the science case for the forthcoming NICER and proposed LOFT X-ray missions. In this paper, we determine the number of distinct observables that can be derived from pulse profile modeling and show that using only bolometric pulse profiles is insufficient for breaking the degeneracy between inferred neutron-star radius and mass. However, we also show that for moderately spinning (300-800 Hz) neutron stars, analysis of pulse profiles in two different energy bands provides additional constraints that allow a unique determination of the neutron-star properties. Using the fractional amplitudes of the fundamental and the second harmonic of the pulse profile in addition to the amplitude and phase difference of the spectral color oscillations, we quantify the signal-to-noise ratio necessary to achieve a specified measurement precision for neutron star radius. We find that accumulating 10{sup 6} counts in a pulse profile is sufficient to achieve a ? 5% uncertainty in the neutron star radius, which is the level of accuracy required to determine the equation of state of neutron-star matter. Finally, we formally derive the background limits that can be tolerated in the measurements of the various pulsation amplitudes as a function of the system parameters.

  16. Astrophysical measurement of the equation of state of neutron star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oezel, Feryal; Guever, Tolga [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Baym, Gordon [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We present the first astrophysical measurement of the pressure of cold matter above nuclear saturation density, based on recently determined masses and radii of three neutron stars. The pressure at higher densities is below the predictions of equations of state that account only for nucleonic degrees of freedom, and thus present a challenge to the microscopic theory of neutron star matter.

  17. Nonlinear electromagnetic and gravitational actions of neutron star fields on electromagnetic wave propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor I. Denisov; Sergei I. Svertilov

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear electrodynamic and gravitational actions on the weak electromagnetic wave propagation in the strong dipole magnetic and gravitational fields of a neutron star are discussed. The eikonal equations for an electromagnetic wave propagating in the external field as well as the motion equations of photons in the dipole magnetic and gravitational fields of a neutron star are obtained from

  18. The nuclear symmetry energy and stability of matter in neutron star

    E-print Network

    Sebastian Kubis

    2006-11-23

    It is shown that behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy is the key quantity in the stability consideration in neutron star matter. The symmetry energy controls the position of crust-core transition and also may lead to new effects in the inner core of neutron star.

  19. The Electromagnetic Christodoulou Memory Effect in Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    E-print Network

    Lydia Bieri; PoNing Chen; Shing-Tung Yau

    2011-06-08

    Gravitational waves are predicted by the general theory of relativity. In [6] D. Christodoulou showed that gravitational waves have a nonlinear memory. We proved in [3] that the electromagnetic field contributes at highest order to the nonlinear memory effect of gravitational waves. In the present paper, we study this electromagnetic Christodoulou memory effect and compute it for binary neutron star mergers. These are typical sources of gravitational radiation. During these processes, not only mass and momenta are radiated away in form of gravitational waves, but also very strong magnetic fields are produced and radiated away. Thus the observed effect on test masses of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector will be enlarged by the contribution of the electromagnetic field. Therefore, the present results are important for the planned experiments. Looking at the null asymptotics of spacetimes, which are solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell (EM) equations, we derived in [3] the electromagnetic Christodoulou memory effect. Moreover, our results allow to answer astro- physical questions, as the knowledge about the amount of energy radiated away in a neutron star binary merger enables us to gain information about the source of the gravitational waves.

  20. Resonant Cyclotron Scattering and Comptonization in Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    E-print Network

    Maxim Lyutikov; Fotis P. Gavriil

    2006-02-10

    Resonant cyclotron scattering of the surface radiation in the magnetospheres of neutron stars may considerably modify the emergent spectra and impede efforts to constraint neutron star properties. Resonant cyclotron scattering by a non-relativistic warm plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field has a number of unusual characteristics: (i) in the limit of high resonant optical depth, the cyclotron resonant layer is half opaque, in sharp contrast to the case of non-resonant scattering. (ii) The transmitted flux is on average Compton up-scattered by ~ $1+ 2 beta_T$, where $\\beta_T$ is the typical thermal velocity in units of the velocity of light; the reflected flux has on average the initial frequency. (iii) For both the transmitted and reflected fluxes the dispersion of intensity decreases with increasing optical depth. (iv) The emergent spectrum is appreciably non-Plankian while narrow spectral features produced at the surface may be erased. We derive semi-analytically modification of the surface Plankian emission due to multiple scattering between the resonant layers and apply the model to anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1048.1--5937. Our simple model fits just as well as the ``canonical'' magnetar spectra model of a blackbody plus power-law.

  1. Stellar neutron sources and s-Process in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, R.; Berg, G. P. A.; Bin, L.; Couder, M.; Deboer, R.; Fang, X.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Goerres, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Ito, T.; Kadoya, T.; Long, A.; Miki, K.; Patel, D.; Tamii, A.; Wiescher, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Yosoi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Potential stellar neutron sources for the s-process in massive stars are associated with ?-capture reactions on light nuclei. The capture-reaction rates provide the reaction flow for the buildup of the neutron sources 22Ne, and 26Mg during the helium-burning phase in stars. A critical influence on these reactions is expected to come from low-energy resonances at stellar energies between 300 keV and 1500 keV. It is possible that these resonances are suspected to correspond to pronounced cluster structures near the ?-threshold. Direct measurements of capture reactions to study these cluster states are handicapped by the Coulomb barrier and limited detector resolutions. Hence, inelastic ?-scattering on these nuclei has been used as an alternative tool to probe into the level structure. Also ?-transfer technique has been used to extract ?-strength information. In reference to this, the experiments performed using the Grand Raiden Spectrometer at RCNP, Osaka will be discussed and preliminary results will be presented.

  2. Accretion onto Neutron Stars in the Presence of Elemental Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J. W.; MacDonald, J.; Sparks, W. M.

    2000-12-01

    We have begun a new series of calculations of accretion onto 10 km, 1.4Msun neutron stars. We are using our 1-D, implicit, Lagrangian hydro-code, NOVA (Starrfield et al. MNRAS, 296, 502, 1998; ApJS, 127, 485, 2000), which includes both a large nuclear reaction network and elemental diffusion (Iben and MacDonald ApJ, 296, 540). In our exploratory calculations, we have varied both the initial neutron star luminosity and mass accretion rate choosing similar values to those used by other investigators to successfully simulate X-ray bursts. We have found, however, for some previously successful sets of initial conditions, that accretion in the presence of diffusion causes the hydrogen to float to the surface. A thick layer of nuclear processed accreted material then grows under the proton rich surface layers and no X-ray burst occurs. Our simulations done with identical initial conditions but without the inclusion of diffusion do result in X-ray bursts. We gratefully acknowledge partial support from grants to our institutions from NASA, NSF, and the DOE.

  3. Gravitational waves from color-magnetic "mountains" in neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Glampedakis, K; Jones, D I; Samuelsson, L

    2012-08-24

    Neutron stars may harbor the true ground state of matter in the form of strange quark matter. If present, this type of matter is expected to be a color superconductor, a consequence of quark pairing with respect to the color and flavor degrees of freedom. The stellar magnetic field threading the quark core becomes a color-magnetic admixture and, in the event that superconductivity is of type II, leads to the formation of color-magnetic vortices. In this Letter, we show that the volume-averaged color-magnetic vortex tension force should naturally lead to a significant degree of nonaxisymmetry in systems such as radio pulsars. We show that gravitational radiation from such color-magnetic "mountains" in young pulsars, such as the Crab and Vela, could be observable by the future Einstein Telescope, thus, becoming a probe of paired quark matter in neutron stars. The detectability threshold can be pushed up toward the sensitivity level of Advanced LIGO if we invoke an interior magnetic field about a factor ten stronger than the surface polar field. PMID:23002735

  4. COMPOSITIONALLY DRIVEN CONVECTION IN THE OCEANS OF ACCRETING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew, E-mail: zmedin@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: cumming@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the effect of chemical separation as matter freezes at the base of the ocean of an accreting neutron star, and argue that the retention of light elements in the liquid acts as a source of buoyancy that drives a slow but continual mixing of the ocean, enriching it substantially in light elements, and leading to a relatively uniform composition with depth. We first consider the timescales associated with different processes that can redistribute elements in the ocean, including convection, sedimentation, crystallization, and diffusion. We then calculate the steady-state structure of the ocean of a neutron star for an illustrative model in which the accreted hydrogen and helium burn to produce a mixture of O and Se. Even though the H/He burning produces only 2% oxygen by mass, the steady-state ocean has an oxygen abundance more than 10 times larger, almost 40% by mass. Furthermore, we show that the convective motions transport heat inward, with a flux of {approx}0.2 MeV nucleon{sup -1} for an O-Se ocean, heating the ocean and steepening the outward temperature gradient. The enrichment of light elements and heating of the ocean due to compositionally driven convection likely have important implications for carbon ignition models of superbursts.

  5. Early phases of different types of isolated neutron star

    E-print Network

    A. Ankay; E. Yazgan; S. Sahin; G. Karanfil

    2004-11-19

    Two Galactic isolated strong X-ray pulsars seem to be in the densest environments compared to other types of Galactic pulsar. X-ray pulsar J1846-0258 can be in an early phase of anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters if its average braking index is ~1.8-2.0. X-ray pulsar J1811-1925 must have a very large average braking index (n~11) if this pulsar was formed by SN 386AD. This X-ray pulsar can be in an early phase of evolution of the radio pulsars located in the region P~50-150 ms and \\.{P}~10$^{-14}-10^{-16}$ s/s of the P-\\.{P} diagram. X-ray/radio pulsar J0540-69 seems to be evolving in the direction to the dim isolated thermal neutron star region on the P-\\.{P} diagram. Possible progenitors of different types of neutron star are also discussed.

  6. Formation of Stable Magnetars from Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Bruno Giacomazzo; Rosalba Perna

    2013-06-25

    By performing fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of binary neutron star mergers, we investigate the possibility that the end result of the merger is a stable magnetar. In particular, we show that, for a binary composed of two equal-mass neutron stars (NSs) of gravitational mass M~1.2 Msun and equation of state similar to Shen et al. at high densities, the merger product is a stable NS. Such NS is found to be differentially rotating and ultraspinning with spin parameter J/M^2~0.86, where J is its total angular momentum, and it is surrounded by a disk of ~0.1 Msun. While in our global simulations the magnetic field is amplified by about two orders of magnitude, local simulations have shown that hydrodynamic instabilities and the onset of the magnetorotational instability could further increase the magnetic field strength up to magnetar levels. This leads to the interesting possibility that, for some NS mergers, a stable and magnetized NS surrounded by an accretion disk could be formed. We discuss the impact of these new results for the emission of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave signals and for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Formation of Stable Magnetars from Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba

    2013-07-01

    By performing fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of binary neutron star mergers, we investigate the possibility that the end result of the merger is a stable magnetar. In particular, we show that, for a binary composed of two equal-mass neutron stars (NSs) of gravitational mass M ~ 1.2 M ? and equation of state similar to Shen et al. at high densities, the merger product is a stable NS. Such NS is found to be differentially rotating and ultraspinning with spin parameter J/M2 ~ 0.86, where J is its total angular momentum, and it is surrounded by a disk of ?0.1 M ?. While in our global simulations the magnetic field is amplified by about two orders of magnitude, local simulations have shown that hydrodynamic instabilities and the onset of the magnetorotational instability could further increase the magnetic field strength up to magnetar levels. This leads to the interesting possibility that, for some NS mergers, a stable and magnetized NS surrounded by an accretion disk could be formed. We discuss the impact of these new results for the emission of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave signals and for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts.

  8. Low-luminosity accretion onto magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, S.H.; Rappaport, S.

    1982-06-15

    We have studied the behavior of matter accreting at low rates (M<10/sup 16/ g s/sup -1/) onto the polar caps of a highly magnetized (Bapprox.10/sup 12/ gauss) neutron star. We have found flow solutions for the case in which the matter undergoes a stationary, collisionless shock. The electron and ion fluids are treated separately, and the ion temperature is found to be much higher than the electron temperature throughout the flow. At these low accretion rates, the emitted radiation is assumed to exert no significant pressure on the infalling matter and is further assumed to escape from the column without significant degradation in energy. We find that cyclotron emission is the dominant energy loss mechanism and yield continuum spectra resembling those observed from X-ray pulsars. From the model, we compute a number of relations among the accretion rate, the surface magnetic field, the shock height, and the characteristic electron and ion temperatures. For magnetic fields > or =10/sup 12/ gauss, typical values of kT/sub e/ are several times the cyclotron energy at the surface of the neutron star. When the magnetic field drops below approx.10/sup 12/ gauss, the electrons become very hot and emit ..gamma..-rays. The self-consistency of our assumptions and results are discussed in detail. Finally, we show how, in the next generation of such calculations, the radiation pressure can be coupled to the hydrodynamic equations.

  9. Fundamental oscillation modes of neutron stars: validity of universal relations

    E-print Network

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Kastaun, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    We study the $f$-mode frequencies and damping times of nonrotating neutron stars (NS) in general relativity (GR) by solving the linearized perturbation equations, with the aim to establish "universal" relations that depend only weakly on the equations of state (EOS). Using a more comprehensive set of EOSs, we re-examine some proposed linearizations that describe the $f$-mode parameters in terms of mass and radius of the neutron star (NS), and we test a more recent proposal for expressing the $f$-mode parameters as quadratic functions of the effective compactness. Our extensive results for each equation of state considered allow us to study the accuracy of each proposal. In particular, we find that the damping time deviates quite considerably from the proposed linearization. We introduce a new universal relation for the product of the $f$-mode frequency and damping time as a function of the (ordinary) compactness, which proved to be more accurate. The relations using the effective compactness on the other hand...

  10. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    Astronomers using radio telescopes from around the world have discovered a spinning neutron star with a superpowerful magnetic field -- called a magnetar -- doing things no magnetar has been seen to do before. The strange behavior has forced them to scrap previous theories about radio pulsars and promises to give new insights on the physics behind these extreme objects. Magnetar Artist's Conception of Magnetar With Radio Beams ALL IMAGES AND ANIMATIONS CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Image and Animation Files Magnetar Graphic (above image, JPEG, 32K) Animation With Sound From GBT Detection of XTE J1810-197 (8.6M) Animation With Sound From GBT Detection of XTE J1810-197 (Full Size, 29M) The magnetar, approximately 10,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, is emitting powerful, regularly-timed pulses of radio waves just like radio pulsars, which are neutron stars with far less intense magnetic fields. Usually, magnetars are visible only in X-rays and sometimes very weakly in optical and infrared light. "No one has ever found radio pulses coming from a magnetar before. We thought that magnetars didn't do this," said Fernando Camilo of Columbia University. "This object is going to teach us new things about magnetar physics that we would never have learned otherwise," Camilo added. Neutron stars are the remnants of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. Containing more mass than the Sun, they are compressed to a diameter of only about 15 miles, making them as dense as atomic nuclei. Ordinary pulsars are neutron stars that emit "lighthouse beams" of radio waves along the poles of their magnetic fields. As the star spins, the beam of radio waves is flung around, and when it passes the direction of Earth, astronomers can detect it with radio telescopes. Scientists have found about 1700 pulsars since their first discovery in 1967. While pulsars have strong magnetic fields, about a dozen neutron stars have been dubbed magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing as well. What's causing this behavior? At the moment, the

  11. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    E-print Network

    Manjari Bagchi; Diego F. Torres

    2014-07-29

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?

  12. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Manjari; Torres, Diego F.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime [1-4]. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?

  13. Cooling of the super-heated neutron star in MAXI J0556-332

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Jeroen

    2013-10-01

    Observing the cooling of neutron stars reheated by accretion provides unique insights into neutron-star structure. Here we propose an observation of the cooling neutron star in MAXI J0556-332, a transient that had been accreting at near-Eddington rates for 16 months when it returned to quiescence in May 2012. XMM and Chandra observations in quiescence have revealed a rapidly cooling neutron star with by far the highest temperatures observed to date for such systems. We request a 70 ks XMM observation of MAXI J0556-332 to cover a period during which rapid cooling may start evolving into a temperature plateau. Knowing when and at what level this occurs will help us in understanding the properties of the neutron-star crust, as we start probing its deeper layers.

  14. Polar kicks and the spin period - eccentricity relation in double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    B. Willems; J. Andrews; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

    2007-10-01

    We present results of a population synthesis study aimed at examining the role of spin-kick alignment in producing a correlation between the spin period of the first-born neutron star and the orbital eccentricity of observed double neutron star binaries in the Galactic disk. We find spin-kick alignment to be compatible with the observed correlation, but not to alleviate the requirements for low kick velocities suggested in previous population synthesis studies. Our results furthermore suggest low- and high-eccentricity systems may form through two distinct formation channels distinguished by the presence or absence of a stable mass transfer phase before the formation of the second neutron star. The presence of highly eccentric systems in the observed sample of double neutron stars may furthermore support the notion that neutron stars accrete matter when moving through the envelope of a giant companion.

  15. Electromagnetic and Radiative Properties of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason G.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetospheres of neutron stars are commonly modeled as either devoid of plasma in "vacuum'' models or filled with perfectly conducting plasma with negligible inertia in "force-free'' models. While numerically tractable, neither of these idealized limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. In this work we improve upon these models by considering the structure of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's Law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and implement a time-dependent numerical code to construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and force-free magnetosphere solutions. We further apply our method to create a self-consistent model for the recently discovered intermittent pulsars that switch between two distinct states: an "on'', radio-loud state, and an "off'', radio-quiet state with lower spin-down luminosity. Essentially, we allow plasma to leak off open field lines in the absence of pair production in the "off'' state, reproducing observed differences in spin-down rates. Next, we examine models in which the high-energy emission from gamma-ray pulsars comes from reconnecting current sheets and layers near and beyond the light cylinder. The reconnected magnetic field provides a reservoir of energy that heats particles and can power high-energy synchrotron radiation. Emitting particles confined to the sheet naturally result in a strong caustic on the skymap and double peaked light curves for a broad range of observer angles. Interpulse bridge emission likely arises from interior to the light cylinder, along last open field lines that traverse the space between the polar caps and the current sheet. Finally, we apply our code to solve for the magnetospheric structure of merging neutron star binaries. We find that the scaling of electromagnetic luminosity with orbital angular velocity varies between the power 4 for nonspinning stars and the power 1.5 for rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars near contact. Our derived scalings and magnetospheres can be used to help understand electromagnetic signatures from merging neutron stars to be observed by Advanced LIGO.

  16. The role of neutron stars in the acceleration of cosmic rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Two cases of cosmic ray acceleration are considered, including the acceleration of the material from the surface of a neutron star and the acceleration of the material in an EM wave interaction with the supernova ejecta. It is assumed that the neutron star mass would probably be somewhat less than the limiting mass of white dwarf stars, 1.4 solar masses. It is found that neutron stars may be effective in accelerating helium and iron to the highest cosmic ray energies, and that at lower energies they may accelerate supernova debris into the cosmic ray fluxes throughout the galaxy.

  17. Neutron conduction in the inner crust of a neutron star in the framework of the band theory of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, N.

    2012-03-01

    Even though the “free” neutrons in the inner crust of a neutron star are superfluid, they are still strongly coupled to nuclei due to nondissipative entrainment effects. These effects have been systematically studied in all regions of the inner crust in the framework of the band theory of solids. Using concepts from solid-state physics, it is shown that the density of conduction neutrons, i.e., neutrons that are effectively free, can be much smaller than the density of unbound neutrons (by an order of magnitude in some layers) due to Bragg scattering. These results suggest that a revision of the interpretation of various observable neutron-star phenomena might be necessary.

  18. Neutron conduction in the inner crust of a neutron star in the framework of the band theory of solids

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Chamel

    2012-03-01

    Even though the "free" neutrons in the inner crust of a neutron star are superfluid, they are still strongly coupled to nuclei due to non-dissipative entrainment effects. These effects have been systematically studied in all regions of the inner crust in the framework of the band theory of solids. Using concepts from solid-state physics, it is shown that the density of conduction neutrons, i.e. neutrons that are effectively "free", can be much smaller than the density of unbound neutrons (by an order of magnitude in some layers) due to Bragg scattering. These results suggest that a revision of the interpretation of various observable neutron-star phenomena may be necessary.

  19. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM FALLBACK ACCRETION ONTO NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thrane, Eric, E-mail: piro@caltech.edu, E-mail: eric.thrane@ligo.org [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low-mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high-mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, an NS is initially formed, which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (which may or may not be jet powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion spins up the NS sufficiently to produce non-axisymmetric instabilities and gravitational radiation at frequencies of {approx}700-2400 Hz for {approx}30-3000 s until collapse to a BH occurs. Using a realistic excess cross-power search algorithm, we show that such events are detectable by Advanced LIGO out to Almost-Equal-To 17 Mpc. From the rate of nearby core-collapse supernovae in the past five years, we estimate that there will be {approx}1-2 events each year that are worth checking for fallback GWs. The observation of these unique GW signatures coincident with electromagnetic detections would identify the transient events that are associated with this channel of BH formation, while providing information about the protoneutron star progenitor.

  20. R-modes of neutron stars with the superfluid core

    E-print Network

    Umin Lee; Shijun Yoshida

    2002-11-26

    We investigate the modal properties of the $r$-modes of rotating neutron stars with the core filled with neutron and proton superfluids, taking account of entrainment effects between the superfluids. The stability of the $r$-modes against gravitational radiation reaction is also examined considering viscous dissipation due to shear and a damping mechanism called mutual friction between the superfluids in the core. We find the $r$-modes in the superfluid core are split into ordinary $r$-modes and superfluid $r$-modes, which we call, respectively, $r^o$- and $r^s$-modes. The two superfluids in the core flow together for the $r^o$-modes, while they counter-move for the $r^s$-modes. For the $r^o$-modes, the coefficient $\\kappa_0\\equiv\\lim_{\\Omega\\to 0}\\omega/\\Omega$ is equal to $2m/[l^\\prime(l^\\prime+1)]$, almost independent of the parameter $\\eta$ that parameterizes the entrainment effects between the superfluids, where $\\Omega$ is the angular frequency of rotation, $\\omega$ the oscillation frequency observed in the corotating frame of the star, and $l^\\prime$ and $m$ are the indices of the spherical harmonic function representing the angular dependence of the $r$-modes. For the $r^s$-modes, on the other hand, $\\kappa_0$ is equal to $2m/[l^\\prime(l^\\prime+1)]$ at $\\eta=0$ (no entrainment), and it almost linearly increases as $\\eta$ is increased from $\\eta=0$. The mutual friction in the superfluid core is found ineffective to stabilize the $r$-mode instability caused by the $r^o$-mode except in a few narrow regions of $\\eta$. The $r$-mode instability caused by the $r^s$-modes, on the other hand, is extremely weak and easily damped by dissipative processes in the star.

  1. Neutron star structure in the presence of conformally coupled scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-10-01

    Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.

  2. Temperature profiles of accretion discs around rapidly rotating strange stars in general relativity: a comparison with neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Sudip Bhattacharyya; Arun V. Thampan; Ignazio Bombaci

    2001-04-24

    We compute the temperature profiles of accretion discs around rapidly rotating strange stars, using constant gravitational mass equilibrium sequences of these objects, considering the full effect of general relativity. Beyond a certain critical value of stellar angular momentum ($J$), we observe the radius ($r_{\\rm orb}$) of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) to increase with J (a property seen neither in rotating black holes nor in rotating neutron stars). The reason for this is traced to the crucial dependence of $dr_{\\rm orb}/dJ$ on the rate of change of the radial gradient of the Keplerian angular velocity at $r_{\\rm orb}$ with respect to $J$. The structure parameters and temperature profiles obtained are compared with those of neutron stars, as an attempt to provide signatures for distinguishing between the two. We show that when the full gamut of strange star equation of state models, with varying degrees of stiffness are considered, there exists a substantial overlap in properties of both neutron stars and strange stars. However, applying accretion disc model constraints to rule out stiff strange star equation of state models, we notice that neutron stars and strange stars exclusively occupy certain parameter spaces. This result implies the possibility of distinguishing these objects from each other by sensitive observations through future X-ray detectors.

  3. QuakeSim 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Granat, Robert A.; Norton, Charles D.; Rundle, John B.; Pierce, Marlon E.; Fox, Geoffrey C.; McLeod, Dennis; Ludwig, Lisa Grant

    2012-01-01

    QuakeSim 2.0 improves understanding of earthquake processes by providing modeling tools and integrating model applications and various heterogeneous data sources within a Web services environment. QuakeSim is a multisource, synergistic, data-intensive environment for modeling the behavior of earthquake faults individually, and as part of complex interacting systems. Remotely sensed geodetic data products may be explored, compared with faults and landscape features, mined by pattern analysis applications, and integrated with models and pattern analysis applications in a rich Web-based and visualization environment. Integration of heterogeneous data products with pattern informatics tools enables efficient development of models. Federated database components and visualization tools allow rapid exploration of large datasets, while pattern informatics enables identification of subtle, but important, features in large data sets. QuakeSim is valuable for earthquake investigations and modeling in its current state, and also serves as a prototype and nucleus for broader systems under development. The framework provides access to physics-based simulation tools that model the earthquake cycle and related crustal deformation. Spaceborne GPS and Inter ferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data provide information on near-term crustal deformation, while paleoseismic geologic data provide longerterm information on earthquake fault processes. These data sources are integrated into QuakeSim's QuakeTables database system, and are accessible by users or various model applications. UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data products are added to the QuakeTables database, and are available through a browseable map interface or Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces. Model applications can retrieve data from Quake Tables, or from third-party GPS velocity data services; alternatively, users can manually input parameters into the models. Pattern analysis of GPS and seismicity data has proved useful for mid-term forecasting of earthquakes, and for detecting subtle changes in crustal deformation. The GPS time series analysis has also proved useful as a data-quality tool, enabling the discovery of station anomalies and data processing and distribution errors. Improved visualization tools enable more efficient data exploration and understanding. Tools provide flexibility to science users for exploring data in new ways through download links, but also facilitate standard, intuitive, and routine uses for science users and end users such as emergency responders.

  4. The long-term rotation dynamics of neutron stars with differentially rotating unmagnetized core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, D. P.; Goglichidze, O. A.; Tsygan, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the pulsar long-term rotation dynamics taking into account the non-rigidity of neutron star rotation. We restrict our attention to the models with two essential assumptions: (1) crust-core interaction occurs via the viscosity (magnetic coupling is not important); (2) neutron star shape is symmetrical over the magnetic axis. The neutron star core is described by linearized quasi-stationary Newtonian hydrodynamical equations in one-fluid and two-fluid (neutron superfluidity) approximations. It is shown that in this case the pulsar inclination angle evolves to 0° or 90° very quickly. Since such fast evolution seems to contradict the observation data, either neutron stars are triaxial or the magnetic field plays the leading role in crust-core coupling.

  5. Are neutron stars crushed? Gravitomagnetic tidal fields as a mechanism for binary-induced collapse

    E-print Network

    Marc Favata

    2006-05-06

    Numerical simulations of binary neutron stars by Wilson, Mathews, and Marronetti indicated that neutron stars that are stable in isolation can be made to collapse to black holes when placed in a binary. This claim was surprising as it ran counter to the Newtonian expectation that a neutron star in a binary should be more stable, not less. After correcting an error found by Flanagan, Wilson and Mathews found that the compression of the neutron stars was significantly reduced but not eliminated. This has motivated us to ask the following general question: Under what circumstances can general-relativistic tidal interactions cause an otherwise stable neutron star to be compressed? We have found that if a nonrotating neutron star possesses a current-quadrupole moment, interactions with a gravitomagnetic tidal field can lead to a compressive force on the star. If this current quadrupole is induced by the gravitomagnetic tidal field, it is related to the tidal field by an equation-of-state-dependent constant called the gravitomagnetic Love number. This is analogous to the Newtonian Love number that relates the strength of a Newtonian tidal field to the induced mass quadrupole moment of a star. The compressive force is almost never larger than the Newtonian tidal interaction that stabilizes the neutron star against collapse. In the case in which a current quadrupole is already present in the star (perhaps as an artifact of a numerical simulation), the compressive force can exceed the stabilizing one, leading to a net increase in the central density of the star. This increase is small (<~1%) but could, in principle, cause gravitational collapse in a star that is close to its maximum mass.

  6. Neutron star matter in a modified PNJL model

    SciTech Connect

    Lastowiecki, R., E-mail: lastowiecki@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Blaschke, D., E-mail: blaschke@ift.uni.wroc.pl [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland); Berdermann, J., E-mail: jens.berdermann@gmail.com [DESY (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We discuss a three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the quark matter equation of state with scalar diquark interaction, isoscalar vector interaction and Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft interaction. We adopt a phenomenological scheme to include possible effects of a change in the gluon pressure at finite baryon density by including a parametric dependence of the Polyakov-loop potential on the chemical potential. We discuss the results for the mass-radius relationships for hybrid neutron stars constructed on the basis of our model EoS in the context of the constraint from the recently measured mass of (1.97 {+-} 0.04) M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} for the pulsar PSR J1614-2230.

  7. Highly magnetized neutron star in GX 301-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Suleimanov, V.; Staubert, R.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.

    2010-07-01

    The angular momentum of matter accreting onto the neutron star produces significant spin-up torque. Effective braking mechanism must exist to balance it in order to explain the existence of slowly-rotating X-ray pulsars. The efficiency of breaking steeply decreases with the rotational frequency and the magnetic field strength. Slowly rotating sources like GX 301-2 must therefore be highly magnetized (B~1014G), which is in apparent contradiction with the field estimate from the position of a cyclotron line observed in GX 301-2 (B~3×1012G). We suggest that this contradiction may be resolved if the line forming region resides in an accretion column of significant height [1]. We investigate this hypothesis using INTEGRAL and BATSE observations and conclude, that the field at the top of the column shall be weak enough to explain the observed cyclotron line energy.

  8. Numerical evolutions of nonlinear r-modes in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblom, Lee; Tohline, Joel E.; Vallisneri, Michele

    2002-04-01

    Nonlinear evolution of the gravitational radiation (GR) driven instability in the r-modes of neutron stars is studied by full numerical 3D hydrodynamical simulations. The growth of the r-mode instability is found to be limited by the formation of shocks and breaking waves when the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to about three in value. This maximum mode amplitude is shown by numerical tests to be rather insensitive to the strength of the GR driving force. Upper limits on the strengths of possible nonlinear mode-mode coupling are inferred. Previously unpublished details of the numerical techniques used are presented, and the results of numerous calibration runs are discussed.

  9. Neutrino Energetics of Black Hole--Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, M. Brett

    2013-04-01

    We present simulations of black hole--neutron star mergers solving the coupled Einstein-hydrodynamics equations, including radiative cooling and chemical evolution. To this end we have added a leakage approximation to the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). The nuclear matter is modeled by the Lattimer & Swesty equation of state. This first in a set of binary configurations uses a low mass ratio (q=4) and high spin (a=0.9). Our choice of parameters is astrophysically optimistic and provides an approximate upper bound on radiation energetics due to the large (initial mass ˜0.15 M), long-lived (>150 ms) disk. We examine the energy of neutrino radiation, the dynamics of the remnant disk, and the characteristics of the tidally ejected fluid.

  10. Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yun; Stebbins, Albert; Turner, Edwin L.

    1996-05-01

    We discuss the gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries, in the context of advanced LIGO type gravitational wave detectors. We consider properties of the expected observational data with cut on the signal-to-noise ratio \\rho, i.e., \\rho>\\rho_0. An advanced LIGO should see unlensed inspiral events with a redshift distribution with cut-off at a redshift z_{\\rm max} < 1 for h \\leq 0.8. Any inspiral events detected at z>z_{\\rm max} should be lensed. We compute the expected total number of events which are present due to gravitational lensing and their redshift distribution for an advanced LIGO in a flat Universe. If the matter fraction in compact lenses is close to 10\\%, an advanced LIGO should see a few strongly lensed events per year with \\rho >5.

  11. Gravitational Lensing of Gravitational Waves from Merging Neutron Star Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Stebbins, A.; Turner, E.L. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, FNAL, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)] [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, FNAL, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We discuss the gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries, in the context of advanced LIGO type gravitational wave detectors. An advanced LIGO should see unlensed inspiral events with a redshift distribution with cutoff at a redshift {ital z}{sub max}{lt}1 for {ital h}{le}0.8. Any inspiral events detected at {ital z}{approx_gt}{ital z}{sub max} should be lensed. We compute the expected total number of events which are present due to gravitational lensing and their redshift distribution for an advanced LIGO in a flat universe. If the matter fraction in compact lenses is close to 10{percent}, an advanced LIGO should see a few strongly lensed events per year with {rho}{approx_gt}5. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. [Nucleosynthesis, Rotation and Magnetism in Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This is my final report on the NASA ATP grant on nucleosynthesis, rotation and magnetism in accreting neutron stars (NAG5-8658). In my last two reports, I summarized the science that I have accomplished, which covered a large range of topics. For this report, I want to point out the graduate students that were partially supported on this grant and where they are now. Andrew Cumming is an Assistant Professor of Physics at McGill University, Greg Ushomirsky is a researcher at MIT s Lincoln Laboratories, Dean Townsley is a postdoctoral researcher at Univ. of Chicago, Chris Deloye is a postdoctoral researcher at Northwestern University. The other two students, Phil Chang and Tony Piro, are still at UCSB and will be completing their PhD s in Summer 05 and Summer 06.

  13. Settling accretion on to isolated neutron stars from interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. B.; Postnov, K. A.; Shakura, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    We apply the model of subsonic settling accretion on to isolated neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium (AINS). We show that in this regime the expected mean X-ray luminosity from AINS turns out to be two to three orders of magnitude as small as the maximum possible Bondi value, i.e. 1027-1028 erg s-1. The intrinsically unstable character of settling accretion due to long plasma cooling time leads to regular appearance of X-ray flares with a duration of about 1 h and a maximum luminosity of about the Bondi value, ˜1031 erg s-1. This feature can be used to distinguish AINS from other dim X-ray sources. With the sensitivity of the forthcoming all-sky X-ray surveys the expected number of the potentially detectable AINS can be from a few to 10.

  14. Long-term evolution of crustal neutron star magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urpin, V. A.; Chanmugam, G.; Sang, Yeming

    1994-01-01

    We have derived an analytic solution to the asymptotic behavior of dipolar magnetic fields that are generated in the crusts of neutron stars. We show that if the conductivity is due to impurity scattering, as expected for late stages of evolution, the surface field strength at the magnetic pole declines with the power law B(sub p) approximately = (t/t(sub 0))(exp -2/3). The results are shown to be qualitatively consistent with detailed numerical calculations. These latter results are consistent with some recent analyses of pulsar statistics and the magnetic fields of several binary pulsars with white dwarf companions whose ages have been determined. The dependence of the surface magnetic field on spin period of the pulsar is derived.

  15. Moving Beyond Chi-Squared in Nuclei and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Andrew W. Steiner

    2014-10-14

    There are several assumptions made in a standard $\\chi^2$ analysis of data, including the frequent assumption that the likelihood function is well approximated by a multivariate Gaussian distribution. This article briefly reviews the standard approach and describes how Bayesian inference can be used to go beyond the assumption that the likelihood is Gaussian. Two separate types of analysis relevant to nuclear physics are used as test cases. The first is the determination of the equation of state of dense matter from neutron star mass and radius data. The second is the use of theoretical nuclear mass models to fit currently available data and predict the value of masses which have not yet been measured. For the problem of predicting nuclear masses, it is demonstrated that approximating the likelihood function with a Gaussian can produce biased predictions of unmeasured masses. Finally, the lessons learned from these fitting problems are used to propose a method for improving constraints on the nuclear symmetry energy.

  16. Moving beyond Chi-squared in nuclei and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, A. W.

    2015-03-01

    There are several assumptions made in a standard ?2 analysis of data, including the frequent assumption that the likelihood function is well approximated by a multivariate Gaussian distribution. This article briefly reviews the standard approach and describes how Bayesian inference can be used to go beyond the assumption that the likelihood is Gaussian. Two separate types of analysis relevant to nuclear physics are used as test cases. The first is the determination of the equation of state of dense matter from neutron star mass and radius data. The second is the use of theoretical nuclear mass models to fit currently available data and predict the value of masses which have not yet been measured. For the problem of predicting nuclear masses, it is demonstrated that approximating the likelihood function with a Gaussian can produce biased predictions of unmeasured masses. Finally, the lessons learned from these fitting problems are used to propose a method for improving constraints on the nuclear symmetry energy.

  17. Surface structure of neutron stars with high magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fushiki, I.; Gudmundsson, E. H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The equation of state of cold dense matter in strong magnetic fields is calculated in the Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations. For use in the latter calculation, a new expression is derived for the exchange energy of the uniform electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Detailed calculations of the density profile in the surface region of a neutron star are described for a variety of equations of state, and these show that the surface density profile is strongly affected by the magnetic field, irrespective of whether or not matter in a magnetic field has a condensed state bound with respect to isolated atoms. It is also shown that, as a consequence of the field dependence of the screening potential, magnetic fields can significantly increase nuclear reaction rates.

  18. FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION OF NEUTRON-STAR MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, J.; Rappaport, S. [37-602B, M.I.T., Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Podsiadlowski, Ph., E-mail: sar@mit.ed, E-mail: jschwab@mit.ed, E-mail: jwschwab@berkeley.ed, E-mail: podsi@astro.ox.ac.u [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-10

    We use a collection of 14 well-measured neutron-star masses to strengthen the case that a substantial fraction of these neutron stars were formed via electron-capture (e-capture) supernovae (SNe) as opposed to Fe core-collapse SNe. The e-capture SNe are characterized by lower resultant gravitational masses and smaller natal kicks, leading to lower orbital eccentricities when the e-capture SN has led to the formation of the second neutron star in a binary system. Based on the measured masses and eccentricities, we identify four neutron stars, which have a mean post-collapse gravitational mass of {approx}1.25 M {sub sun}, as the product of e-capture SNe. We associate the remaining 10 neutron stars, which have a mean mass of {approx}1.35 M {sub sun}, with Fe core-collapse SNe. If the e-capture SN occurs during the formation of the first neutron star, then this should substantially increase the formation probability for double neutron stars, given that more systems will remain bound with the smaller kicks. However, this does not appear to be the case for any of the observed systems and we discuss possible reasons for this.

  19. Realistic fission model and the r-process in neutron star mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Shibagaki, S.; Kajino, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Chiba, S. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8850 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556, U.S.A. and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    About half of heavy elements are considered to be produced by the rapid neutron-capture process, r-process. The neutron star merger is one of the viable candidates for the astrophysical site of r-process nucleosynthesis. Nuclear fission reactions play an important role in the r-process of neutron star mergers. However theoretical predictions about fission properties of neutron-rich nuclei have some uncertainties. Especially, their fission fragment distributions are totally unknown and the phenomenologically extrapolated distribution was often applied to nucleosynthesis calculations. In this study, we have carried out r-process nucleosynthesis calculations based upon new theoretical estimates of fission fragment distributions. We discuss the effects on the r-process in neutron star mergers from the nuclear fission of heavy neutron-rich actinide elements. We also discuss how variations in the fission fragment distributions affect the abundance pattern.

  20. Quasiequilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars undergoing dynamical scalarization

    E-print Network

    Keisuke Taniguchi; Masaru Shibata; Alessandra Buonanno

    2015-01-27

    We calculate quasiequilibrium sequences of equal-mass, irrotational binary neutron stars (BNSs) in a scalar-tensor (ST) theory of gravity that admits dynamical scalarization. We model neutron stars with realistic equations of state (notably through piecewise polytropic equations of state). Using these quasiequilibrium sequences we compute the binary's scalar charge and binding energy versus orbital angular frequency. We find that the absolute value of the binding energy is smaller than in general relativity (GR), differing at most by ~14% at high frequencies for the cases considered. We use the newly computed binding energy and the balance equation to estimate the number of gravitational-wave (GW) cycles during the adiabatic, quasicircular inspiral stage up to the end of the sequence, which is the last stable orbit or the mass-shedding point, depending on which comes first. We find that, depending on the ST parameters, the number of GW cycles can be substantially smaller than in GR. In particular, we obtain that when dynamical scalarization sets in around a GW frequency of ~130 Hz, the sole inclusion of the ST binding energy causes a reduction of GW cycles from ~120 Hz up to the end of the sequence (~1200 Hz) of ~11% with respect to the GR case. We estimate that when the ST energy flux is also included the reduction in GW cycles becomes of ~24%. Quite interestingly, dynamical scalarization can produce a difference in the number of GW cycles with respect to the GR point-particle case that is much larger than the effect due to tidal interactions, which is on the order of only a few GW cycles. These results further clarify and confirm recent studies that have evolved BNSs either in full numerical relativity or in post-Newtonian theory, and point out the importance of developing accurate ST-theory waveforms for systems composed of strongly self-gravitating objects, such as BNSs.

  1. Rotating proto-neutron stars: spin evolution, maximum mass and I-Love-Q relations

    E-print Network

    Grégoire Martinon; Andrea Maselli; Leonardo Gualtieri; Valeria Ferrari

    2014-07-03

    Shortly after its birth in a gravitational collapse, a proto-neutron star enters in a phase of quasi-stationary evolution characterized by large gradients of the thermodynamical variables and intense neutrino emission. In few tens of seconds the gradients smooth out while the star contracts and cools down, until it becomes a neutron star. In this paper we study this phase of the proto-neutron star life including rotation, and employing finite temperature equations of state. We model the evolution of the rotation rate, and determine the relevant quantities characterizing the star. Our results show that an isolated neutron star cannot reach, at the end of the evolution, the maximum values of mass and rotation rate allowed by the zero-temperature equation of state. Moreover, a mature neutron star evolved in isolation cannot rotate too rapidly, even if it is born from a proto-neutron star rotating at the mass-shedding limit. We also show that the I-Love-Q relations are violated in the first second of life, but they are satisfied as soon as the entropy gradients smooth out.

  2. Members of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 : neutron stars or strange stars ?

    E-print Network

    Manjari Bagchi; Jishnu Dey; Sushan Konar; Gour Bhattacharya; Mira Dey

    2008-04-29

    One interesting method of constraining the dense matter Equations of State is to measure the advancement of the periastron of the orbit of a binary radio pulsar (when it belongs to a double neutron star system). There is a great deal of interest on applicability of this procedure to the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 (A/B). Although the above method can be applied to PSR A in future within some limitations, for PSR B this method can not be applied. On the other hand, the study of genesis of PSR B might be useful in this connection and its low mass might be an indication that it could be a strange star.

  3. Explosion Quakes: The 2007 Eruption of Pavlof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.; McNutt, S. R.; Thompson, G.

    2014-12-01

    Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula began to erupt on August 14, 2007 after an 11 year repose. Pavlof is the most active volcano in the Aleutians, with over 40 eruptions in historical times. The 2007 eruption began with low-frequency earthquakes and thermal anomalies. Strombolian activity occurred from a newly formed vent on the SE flank of the volcano. The plume reached 20,000 ft during the peak of the eruption on August 29th and 30th. Seismic activity, monitored by a network of 5 local instruments, consisted of low-frequency events, explosion quakes, volcanic tremor, and lahar-generated signals. Here we focus on explosion quakes. The first explosion quake occurred August 14th at 2:54pm UTC and the last on September 13th at 3:14pm UTC. Explosion events were often embedded in continuous tremor, but could be distinguished by the ground-coupled air waves, which appeared as a high-frequency spike superimposed on the lower-frequency ground waves. Rates were as high as 19 explosion quakes per minute. We establish whether systematic changes in explosion rates, signal properties, and ground-coupled air-wave amplitudes correlate with the height and ash content of the plume. First order trends show a positive correlation between increased explosion quake rates, increased amplitudes, and plume height. In addition, we investigate how atmospheric conditions such as wind speed and direction affect the recording of the ground-coupled air-wave. The time differences in the airwaves at different stations are consistent with the acoustic speed of 340 m/s, but show variations of up to 0.6 s depending on wind speed and direction. Eruptions at Pavlof typically have little or no seismic precursors; this combined with the low visibility common to the area results in Pavlof being dangerous to the many aviation routes that transverse this airspace. It is the goal of this study to determine the conditions under which explosion quake data may be reliably used for more effective monitoring.

  4. Neutrino-driven winds from neutron star merger remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, A.; Rosswog, S.; Cabezón, R. M.; Korobkin, O.; Käppeli, R.; Arcones, A.; Liebendörfer, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed, three-dimensional hydrodynamic study of the neutrino-driven winds emerging from the remnant of a neutron star merger. Our simulations are performed with the Newtonian, Eulerian code FISH, augmented by a detailed, spectral neutrino leakage scheme that accounts for neutrino absorption. Consistent with earlier two-dimensional studies, a strong baryonic wind is blown out along the original binary rotation axis within ?100 ms. From this model, we compute a lower limit on the expelled mass of 3.5 × 10-3 M?, relevant for heavy element nucleosynthesis. Because of stronger neutrino irradiation, the polar regions show substantially larger electron fractions than those at lower latitudes. The polar ejecta produce interesting r-process contributions from A ? 80 to about 130, while the more neutron-rich, lower latitude parts produce elements up to the third r-process peak near A ? 195. We calculate the properties of electromagnetic transients powered by the radioactivity in the wind, in addition to the `macronova' transient stemming from the dynamic ejecta. The polar regions produce ultraviolet/optical transients reaching luminosities up to 1041 erg s-1, which peak around 1 d in optical and 0.3 d in bolometric luminosity. The lower latitude regions, due to their contamination with high-opacity heavy elements, produce dimmer and more red signals, peaking after ˜2 d in optical and infrared.

  5. The collapse of white dwarfs to neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.; Baron, E.

    1992-01-01

    The observable consequences of an accreting white dwarf collapsing directly to a neutron star are considered. The outcome depends critically upon the nature of the wind that is driven by neutrino absorption in the surface layers as the dwarf collapses. Unlike previous calculations which either ignored mass loss or employed inadequate zoning to resolve it, a characteristic mass-loss rate of about 0.005 solar mass/s and an energy input of 5 x 10 exp 50 ergs/s is found. Such a large mass-loss rate almost completely obscures any prompt electromagnetic display and certainly rules out the production by this model of gamma-ray bursts situated at cosmological distances. The occurrence of such collapses with the Milky Way Galaxy might, however, be detected and limited by their nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray line emission. To avoid the overproduction of rare neutron-rich isotopes heavier than iron, such events must be very infrequent, probably happening no more than once every thousand years.

  6. Bulk viscosity of strange matter and r-modes in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2008-12-30

    We discuss bulk viscosity due to non-leptonic processes involving hyperons and Bose-Einstein condensate of negatively charged kaons in neutron stars. It is noted that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient is a few order of magnitude larger than that of the case with the condensate. Further it is found that the hyperon bulk viscosity is suppressed in a superconducting phase. The hyperon bulk viscosity efficiently damps the r-mode instability in neutron stars irrespective of whether a superconducting phase is present or not in neutron star interior.

  7. X-RAY EMISSION FROM NEUTRON STARS:. Some personal reflections and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trümper, Joachim

    2000-09-01

    After a few remarks about the early history of the subject we present a short review of the present observational situation regarding the X-ray emission from isolated neutron stars. In total 32 objects have been detected with ROSAT, the majority of which are radio pulsars showing non -thermal (magnetospheric) emission. For three radio pulsars and three point sources in SNRs thermal emission has been seen which probably comes from the photospheric of the cooling neutron star. A third class comprising the objects represents neutron stars according matter from the interstellar medium.

  8. Surface r Modes and Burst Oscillations of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Lee, U

    2004-01-01

    We study the $r$-modes propagating in steadily mass accreting, nuclear burning, and geometrically thin envelopes on the surface of rotating neutron stars. For the modal analysis, we construct the envelope models which are fully radiaitive or have a convective region. As the angular rotation frequency $\\Omega$ is increased, the oscillation frequency $\\omega$ of the $r$-modes in the thin envelopes deviates appreciably from the asymptotic frequency $\\omega=2m\\Omega/l^\\prime(l^\\prime+1)$ defined in the limit of $\\Omega\\to 0$, where $\\omega$ is the frequency observed in the corotating frame of the star, and $m$ and $l^\\prime$ are the indices of the spherical harmonic function $Y_{l^\\prime}^m$ representing the angular dependence of the modes. We find that the fundamental $r$-modes in the convective models are destabilized by strong nuclear burning in the convective region. Because of excessive heating by nuclear buring, the corotating-frame oscillation frequency $\\omega$ of the $r$-modes in the convective models be...

  9. A realistic model of neutron star in minimal dilatonic gravity

    E-print Network

    Fiziev, Plamen P

    2015-01-01

    We present derivation of the basic equations and boundary conditions for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG) which offers an alternative and simultaneous description of the effects of dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) using one dilaton field $\\Phi$. The numerical results for a realistic equation of state (EOS) MPA1 of neutron matter are represented for the first time. The existing three very different scales: the Compton length of the scalar field $\\lambda_\\Phi$, the star's radius $r^*$, and the finite radius of MDG Universe $r_{U}$ are a source of numerical difficulties. Owing to introduction of a new dark scalar field $\\varphi=\\ln(1+\\ln\\Phi)$ we were able to study numerically an unprecedentedly large interval of $\\lambda_\\Phi$ and discovered existence of $\\lambda_\\Phi^{crit}\\approx 2.1\\, km$ for NS with MPA1 EOS. It is related with bifurcation of the physical domain in phase space of the system. Some novel physical consequences are discu...

  10. Neutrino Scattering in a Newly Born Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy; Madappa Prakash

    1996-10-16

    We calculate neutrino cross sections from neutral current reactions in the dense matter encountered in the evolution of a newly born neutron star. Effects of composition and of strong interactions in the deleptonization and cooling phases of the evolution are studied. The influence of the possible presence of strangeness-rich hyperons on the neutrino scattering cross sections is explored. Due to the large vector couplings of the Sigma-minus and Cascade-minus, |C_V|~2, these particles, if present in protoneutron star matter, give significant contributions to neutrino scattering. In the deleptonization phase, the presence of strangeness leads to large neutrino energies, which results in large enhancements in the cross sections compared to those in matter with nucleons only. In the cooling phase, in which matter is nearly neutrino free, the response of the Sigma-minus hyperons to thermal neutrinos is the most significant. Neutrinos couple relatively weakly to the Lambda hyperons and, hence, their contributions are significant only at high density.

  11. Magnetically-induced outflows from binary neutron star merger remnants

    E-print Network

    Daniel M. Siegel; Riccardo Ciolfi

    2015-05-06

    Recent observations by the Swift satellite have revealed long-lasting ($\\sim 10^2-10^5\\,\\mathrm{s}$), "plateau-like" X-ray afterglows in the vast majority of short gamma-ray bursts events. This has put forward the idea of a long-lived millisecond magnetar central engine being generated in a binary neutron star (BNS) merger and being responsible for the sustained energy injection over these timescales ("magnetar model"). We elaborate here on recent simulations that investigate the early evolution of such a merger remnant in general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. These simulations reveal very different conditions than those usually assumed for dipole spin-down emission in the magnetar model. In particular, the surrounding of the newly formed NS is polluted by baryons due to a dense, highly magnetized and isotropic wind from the stellar surface that is induced by magnetic field amplification in the interior of the star. The timescales and luminosities of this wind are compatible with early X-ray afterglows, such as the "extended emission". These isotropic winds are a generic feature of BNS merger remnants and thus represent an attractive alternative to current models of early X-ray afterglows. Further implications to BNS mergers and short gamma-ray bursts are discussed.

  12. What can we learn about the neutron-star equation of state from gravitational-wave observations of inspiralling binary neutron stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Benjamin; Wade, Leslie

    2014-03-01

    Gravitational-wave observations of inspiralling binary neutron star systems can provide information about the neutron-star equation of state (EOS) through the tidally induced shift in the waveform phase which depends on the tidal deformability parameter ?. Previous work has shown that ?, a function of the neutron-star EOS and mass, is marginally measurable by Advanced LIGO for a single event when including the tidal information up to the frequency of merger. In this work, we describe a method for stacking measurements of ? from multiple inspiral events to measure the EOS. Specifically, we use Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the parameters of a 4-parameter piecewise polytrope EOS that matches theoretical EOS models to a few percent. We find that when 20-50 observations are combined with the constraints from causality and recent high mass neutron-star measurements, the EOS above nuclear density can be measured to better than a factor of two. We also find that quantities that describe the neutron-star structure such as the radius and tidal deformability can be measured to ~10% over a wide range of masses.

  13. Old Neutron Stars as Probes of Isospin-Violating Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao; Sun, Kai-Jia; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM), which couples differently with protons and neutrons, provides a promising mechanism to ameliorate the tension among recent direct detection experiments. Assuming dark matter (DM) is non-interacting bosonic asymmetric IVDM, we investigate how the existence of old neutron stars limits the DM-proton scattering cross-section {{? }p}, especially the effects of the isospin-violating DM-nucleon interactions and the symmetry energy in the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Our calculations are completely based on general relativity and the structure of neutron stars is obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations with nuclear matter EOS constrained by terrestrial experiments. We find that, by considering the more realistic neutron star model rather than a simple uniform neutron sphere as usual, the {{? }p} bounds from old neutron stars can be varied by more than an order of magnitude depending on the specific values of the DM neutron-to-proton coupling ratio {{f}n}/{{f}p}, and they can be further varied by more than a factor of two depending on the density dependence of the symmetry energy. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed nearby isolated old neutron star PSR B1257+12 can set a very strong limit on {{? }p} for low-mass DM particles (?slant 20 GeV) that reaches a sensitivity beyond the current best limits from direct detection experiments and disfavors the DM interpretation of previously reported positive experimental results, including the IVDM.

  14. Transport properties and neutrino emissivity of dense neutron-star matter with localized protons

    E-print Network

    D. A. Baiko; P. Haensel

    1999-06-18

    As pointed out by Kutschera and W{\\'o}jcik, very low concentration of protons combined with a specific density dependence of effective neutron-proton interaction could lead to a localization of ``proton impurities'' in neutron medium at densities exceeding four times normal nuclear matter density. We study consequences of the localization of protons for transport processes in dense neutron star cores, assuming random distribution of proton impurities. Kinetic equations, relevant for the transport of charge, heat and momentum, are solved using variational method. Localization of protons removes a T^{-2} factor from the transport coefficients, which leads, at lower temperatures, to a strong decrease of thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and shear viscosity of neutron star matter, as compared to the standard case, where protons form a Fermi liquid. Due to the localization of protons a number of conventional neutrino emission processes (including modified URCA process) become inoperative in neutron star cores. On the other hand, the energy loss rate from neutrino-antineutrino pair bremsstrahlung due to electron and neutron scattering off (localized) protons, will have a specific T^6 dependence, which could modify the cooling of the neutron star core, as compared to the standard case. Possible astrophysical implications of the localization of protons for neutron star evolution and dynamics are discussed.

  15. Massive neutron stars with a hyperonic core: A case study with the IUFSU relativistic effective interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Bipasha; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Gangopadhyay, G.

    2014-06-01

    The recent discoveries of massive neutron stars, such as PSR J0348+0432 and PSR J1614-2230, have raised questions about the existence of exotic matter such as hyperons in the neutron star core. The validity of many established equations of states (EoSs) like GM1 and FSUGold are also questioned. We investigate the existence of hyperonic matter in the central regions of massive neutron stars by using relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with the recently proposed Indiana University Florida State University (IUFSU) model. The IUFSU model is extended by including hyperons to study the neutron star in ? equilibrium. The effect of different hyperonic potentials, namely ? and ? potentials, on the EoS and hence the maximum mass of neutron stars has been studied. We have also considered the effect of stellar rotation since the observed massive stars are pulsars. It has been found that a maximum mass of 1.93M?, which is within the 3? limit of the observed mass of PSR J0348+0432, can be obtained for rotating stars, with certain choices of the hyperonic potentials. The said star contains a fair amount of hyperons near the core.

  16. Impact of Deformation on the Structure of Non-Rotating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin; Ferrer, Efrain; Incera, Vivian

    2015-04-01

    Conventional models of compact objects such as neutron stars assume they are perfect spheres. However, due to high magnetic fields, certain classes of neutron stars such as magnetars and neutron stars containing color-superconducting quark matter cores are expected to be deformed (non-spherical). In this work, we seek to examine the stellar structure of such objects in the framework of general relativity. We derive the stellar structures equations of non-spherical neutron stars and calculate stellar properties such as masses, radii, along with pressure and density profiles and investigate any changes from standard spherical models. This work is supported through the National Science Foundation under Grants PHYS-1411708 and DUE-1259951. Additional computing resources are provided by the Computational Science Research Center and the Department of Physics at San Diego State University.

  17. Testing general gelativity using gravitational waves from binary neutron stars: Effect of spins

    E-print Network

    Agathos, Michalis; Li, Tjonnie G F; Broeck, Chris Van Den; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We present a Bayesian data analysis pipeline for testing GR using gravitational wave signals from coalescing compact binaries, and in particular binary neutron stars. In this study, we investigate its performance when sources with spins are taken into account.

  18. The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

  19. Black hole remnant of black hole-neutron star coalescing binaries with arbitrary black hole spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannarale, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    A model for determining the dimensionless spin parameter and mass of the black hole remnant of black hole-neutron star mergers with arbitrary initial black hole spin angular momentum, binary mass ratio, and neutron star mass and cold equation of state is formulated. Tests against numerical-relativity results are carried out, showing that both the dimensionless spin parameter and the final mass are accurately reproduced. For the first time, the behavior of both quantities and of the l=2, m=2, n=0 quasinormal mode frequency is inspected throughout the parameter space. Predictions of this frequency may be exploited to guide gravitational-wave modeling and detection efforts and to extract physical information from detected gravitational-wave signals that would help us break degeneracies between binary black hole and black hole-neutron star systems, improve our understanding of compact binary formation, and constrain the neutron star equation of state.

  20. X-Ray Polarimetery of Neutron Stars from a CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2013-04-01

    The propagation of radiation in the intense magnetic fields surrounding neutron stars is strongly affected by the fundamental quantum mechanical properties of photons and electrons as described by the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Measurement of the polarization of X-rays emitted from the surface of a highly magnetized neutron star will unambiguously verify (or reject) a unique signature of strong-field QED and probe the neutron star magnetic field and X-ray emission geometry. We describe an instrument capable of measuring the polarization of soft X-rays from thermally-emitting isolated neutron stars that can be accomplished at modest cost by exploiting CubeSats as novel vehicles for high energy astrophysics.

  1. Topological Currents in Neutron Stars: Kicks, Precession, Toroidal Fields, and Magnetic Helicity

    E-print Network

    James Charbonneau; Ariel Zhitnitsky

    2010-08-16

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and P-parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics -- they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation.

  2. Surface emission from neutron stars and implications for the physics of their interiors.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Feryal

    2013-01-01

    Neutron stars are associated with diverse physical phenomena that take place in conditions characterized by ultrahigh densities as well as intense gravitational, magnetic and radiation fields. Understanding the properties and interactions of matter in these regimes remains one of the challenges in compact object astrophysics. Photons emitted from the surfaces of neutron stars provide direct probes of their structure, composition and magnetic fields. In this review, I discuss in detail the physics that governs the properties of emission from the surfaces of neutron stars and their various observational manifestations. I present the constraints on neutron star radii, core and crust composition, and magnetic field strength and topology obtained from studies of their broadband spectra, evolution of thermal luminosity, and the profiles of pulsations that originate on their surfaces. PMID:23234858

  3. First search for gravitational waves from the youngest known neutron star

    E-print Network

    Barsotti, Lisa

    We present a search for periodic gravitational waves from the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The search coherently analyzes data in a 12 day interval taken from the fifth science run of the Laser ...

  4. EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hebeler, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lattimer, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pethick, C. J. [The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Schwenk, A. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-08-10

    Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

  5. Neutron-capture elements in the s- and r-process-rich stars: Constraints on neutron-capture nucleosynthesis processes

    E-print Network

    Bo Zhang; Kun Ma; Guide Zhou

    2006-05-14

    The chemical abundances of the very metal-poor double-enhanced stars are excellent information for setting new constraints on models of neutron-capture processes at low metallicity. These stars are known as s+r stars, since they show enhancements of both s-process and r-process elements. The observed abundance ratios for the double-enhanced stars can be explained by those of stars that were polluted by an AGB star and subsequently accreted very significant amounts of r-process material out of an AIC (accretion-induced collapse) or Type 1.5 supernova. In this paper we present for the first time an attempt to fit the elemental abundances observed in the s- and r-rich, very metal-poor stars using a parametric model and suggest a new concept of component coefficients to describe the contributions of the individual neutron-capture processes to double-enhanced stars. We find that the abundance ratios of these stars are best fitted by enrichments of s- and r-process material. The overlap factor in the AGB stars where the observed s-process elements were produced lies between 0.1 and 0.81. Taking into account the dependence of the initial-final mass relations on metallicity, this wide range of values could possibly be explained by a wide range of core-mass values of AGB stars at low metallicity. The component coefficient of the r-process is strongly correlated with the component coefficient of the s-process for the double-enhanced stars. This is significant evidence that the r-process material in double-enhanced stars comes from an AIC or Type 1.5 supernova.

  6. Reconstructing the neutron-star equation of state with gravitational-wave detectors from a realistic population of inspiralling binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Benjamin D.; Wade, Leslie

    2015-02-01

    Gravitational-wave observations of inspiralling binary neutron-star systems can be used to measure the neutron-star equation of state (EOS) through the tidally induced shift in the waveform phase that depends on the tidal deformability parameter ? . Previous work has shown that ? , a function of the neutron-star EOS and mass, is measurable by Advanced LIGO for a single event when including tidal information up to the merger frequency. In this work, we describe a method for stacking measurements of ? from multiple inspiral events to measure the EOS. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the parameters of a four-parameter piecewise-polytrope EOS that matches theoretical EOS models to a few percent. We find that, for "realistic" event rates (˜40 binary neutron-star inspiral events per year with signal-to-noise ratio >8 in a single Advanced LIGO detector), combining a year of gravitational-wave data from a three-detector network with the constraints from causality and recent high-mass neutron-star measurements, the EOS above nuclear density can be measured to better than a factor of 2 in pressure in most cases. We also find that in the mass range 1 M?- 2 M? , the neutron-star radius can be measured to better than ±1 km and the tidal deformability can be measured to better than ±1 ×1 036 g cm2 s2 (10%-50% depending on the EOS and mass). The overwhelming majority of this information comes from the loudest ˜5 events. Current uncertainties in the post-Newtonian waveform model, however, lead to systematic errors in the EOS measurement that are as large as the statistical errors, and more accurate waveform models are needed to minimize this error.

  7. Optical spectroscopy and photometry of the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. van Kerkwijk; S. R. Kulkarni

    2001-01-01

    We present spectroscopy and imaging with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of\\u000athe neutron star RX J1856.5-2754. Little is known about the nature of this\\u000asource other than that it is a nearby hot neutron star. Our VLT spectrum does\\u000anot show any strong emission or absorption features. With considerable care to\\u000aphotometric calibration, we obtain photometric measurements over the

  8. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Neutron Stars and Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James

    2015-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae lead to the formation of neutron stars, and both are sensitive to the dense matter equation of state. Hans Bethe first recognized that the matter in the collapsing core of a massive star has a relatively low entropy which prevents nuclear dissociation until nuclei merge near the nuclear saturation density. This recognition means that collapse continues until the core exceeds the saturation density. This prediction forms the foundation for modern simulations of supernovae. These supernovae sample matter up to about twice nuclear saturation density, but neutron stars are sensitive to the equation of state both near the saturation density and at several times higher densities. Two important recent developments are the discovery of two-solar mass neutron stars and refined experimental determinations of the behavior of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter near the saturation density. Combined with the assumption of causality, they imply that the radii of observed neutron stars are largely independent of their mass, and that this radius is in the range of 11 to 13 km. These theoretical results are not only consistent with expectations from theoretical studies of pure neutron matter, but also accumulated observations of both bursting and cooling neutron stars. In the near future, new pulsar timing data, which could lead to larger measured masses as well as measurements of moments of inertia, X-ray observations, such as from NICER, of bursting and other sources, and gravitational wave observations of neutron stars in merging compact binaries, will provide important new constraints on neutron stars and the dense matter equation of state. DOE DE-FG02-87ER-40317.

  9. The Magnificent Seven: Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars with strong Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    F. Haberl

    2005-10-17

    Although the true origin of the broad absorption lines in X-ray spectra of thermal isolated neutron stars is not clear yet, our current knowledge about the "magnificent seven" strongly suggests that they are highly magnetized ($10^{13} - 10^{14}$ G), slowly rotating cooling neutron stars. Further timing studies would be very useful to obtain more independent estimates of the magnetic field strength (as they currently only exist from RX J0720.4-3125).

  10. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H. [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha, P. O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bigdeli, M. [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  11. Bulk viscosity in superfluid neutron star cores. III. Effects of $?^-$ hyperons

    E-print Network

    P. Haensel; K. P. Levenfish; D. G. Yakovlev

    2001-11-15

    Bulk viscosity of neutron star cores containing hyperons is studied taking into account non-equilibrium weak process $n+n \\rightleftharpoons p+\\Sigma^-$. Rapid growth of the bulk viscosity within the neutron star core associated with switching on new reactions (modified Urca process, direct Urca process, hyperon reactions) is analyzed. The suppression of the bulk viscosity by superfluidity of baryons is considered and found out to be very important.

  12. The spin period - eccentricity relation of double neutron stars: evidence for weak supernova kicks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. M. Dewi; Ph. Podsiadlowski; O. R. Pols

    2005-01-01

    Double neutron stars (DNSs), binary systems consisting of a radio pulsar and\\u000aa generally undetected second neutron star (NS), have proven to be excellent\\u000alaboratories for testing the theory of general relativity. The seven systems\\u000adiscovered in our Galaxy exhibit a remarkably well-defined relation between the\\u000apulsar spin period and the orbital eccentricity. Here we show, using a simple\\u000amodel

  13. Equation of State of Dense Matter and Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Haensel

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical models of the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-star matter (starting with the crust and ending at the densest region of the stellar core) are reviewed. Apart from a broad set of baryonic EOSs, strange quark matter, and even more exotic (abnormal and Q-matter) EOSs are considered. Results of calculations of M_max for non-rotating neutron stars and exotic compact

  14. Revealing the high-density equation of state through binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauswein, A.; Stergioulas, N.; Janka, H.-T.

    2014-07-01

    We present a novel method for revealing the equation of state of high-density neutron star matter through gravitational waves emitted during the postmerger phase of a binary neutron star system. The method relies on a small number of detections of the peak frequency in the postmerger phase for binaries of different (relatively low) masses, in the most likely range of expected detections. From such observations, one can construct the derivative of the peak frequency vs the binary mass, in this mass range. Through a detailed study of binary neutron star mergers for a large sample of equations of state, we show that one can extrapolate the above information to the highest possible mass (the threshold mass for black hole formation in a binary neutron star merger). In turn, this allows for an empirical determination of the maximum mass of cold, nonrotating neutron stars to within 0.1M?, while the corresponding radius is determined to within a few percent. Combining this with the determination of the radius of cold, nonrotating neutron stars of 1.6M? [to within a few percent, as was demonstrated in Bauswein et al. Phys. Rev. D 86, 063001 (2012)], allows for a clear distinction of a particular candidate equation of state among a large set of other candidates. Our method is particularly appealing because it reveals simultaneously the moderate and very high-density parts of the equation of state, enabling the distinction of mass-radius relations even if they are similar at typical neutron star masses. Furthermore, our method also allows us to deduce the maximum central energy density and maximum central rest-mass density of cold, nonrotating neutron stars with an accuracy of a few percent.

  15. Contrib. Plasma Phys. 52, No. 2, 122 125 (2012) / DOI 10.1002/ctpp.201100075 Durability of Neutron Star Crust

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    of the Yukawa potential). We perform several molecular dynamics simu- lations of crust breaking and describe neutron star models to compare with observations. Until recently only the elastic constants of the neutron words One component plasma How long do neutron star mountains last? The durability of elastically

  16. Absorption of Magnetosonic Waves in the Crust of Neutron Stars. Radio Emission from Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, D. M.; Harutunyan, A. S.; Hayrapetyan, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The kinetic equation for plasma in the crust of neutron star is solved in the relaxation time approximation. Values of the kinetic coefficients are obtained for crust plasma? with densities in the range of 102- 1014 g/cm3. The propagation of magnetosonic waves in the crust of neutron star is examined with various mechanisms for the dissipation of the wave energy taken into account. It is shown that the crust of neutron star are transparent for magnetosonic waves with frequencies ? ? 1011 Hz and that the wave absorption is lower for stars with higher central densities. A mechanism for radio emission by pulsars is proposed in which the source is on the star's surface and has dimensions equal to the cross section of the beam of magnetosonic waves. Some features of the radio emission (spectral index and pulsar cutoff) are explained.

  17. Can we see the hadron-quark transition happening in neutron stars?

    E-print Network

    F. Grassi

    1997-12-15

    In order to actually see the hadron-quark transition happening in a neutron star, we point out and study two static conditions (the transition hadronic density must be lower than the neutron star maximum hadronic density; the neutron star mass at the transition hadronic density must be in the observed range, of order 1.4 solar mass) and one dynamical condition (nucleation must occur during the star lifetime). We find that the mini-colapse acompanying the transition from metastable hadronic matter to quark matter may be relevant to explain macro-glitches and gamma ray bursts, but that the mecanism increasing the star density must be relatively fast, e.g. accretion but not slowing down. This rules out a scenario for gamma ray bursts proposed recently.

  18. Temperature Profiles and Spectra of Accretion Disks around Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Sudip Bhattacharyya

    2002-05-09

    We calculate temperature profiles and X-ray spectra of accretion disks around rapidly rotating neutron stars considering the full effect of general relativity. Computed disk temperatures and luminosities are compared with the EXOSAT data to constrain the properties of five low-mass-X-ray-binary sources. We fit our model-spectra with an analytical function, which can in turn be used for routine spectral fitting work. Our equation-of-state dependent spectral model may be useful to constrain the equation-of-state models of neutron stars. We also compare the properties of a rotating neutron star with those of a rotating strange star with the hope of giving a possible way to identify a strange star, which will be important for the verification of strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  19. Equation of state of neutron star matter, limiting, rotational periods of fast pulsars, and the properties of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Glendenning, N.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-10-25

    In this paper the following items will be treated: The present status of dense nuclear matter calculations and constraints on the behavior of the associated equation of state at high densities from data on rapidly rotating pulsars. Recent finding of the likely existence of a mixed phase of baryons and quarks forming a coulomb lattice in the dense cores of neutron stars. Review of important findings of recently performed calculations of rapidly rotating compact stars. These are constructed in the framework of general relativity theory for a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. Establish the minimum-possible rotational periods of gravitationally bound neutron stars and self-bound strange stars. Its knowledge is of fundamental importance for the decision between pulsars that can be understood as rotating neutron stars and those that cannot (signature of hypothetical self-bound matter of which strange stars are the likely stellar candidates. Investigate the properties of sequences of strange stars. Specifically, we answer the question whether such objects can give rise to the observed phenomena of pulsar glitches, which is at the present time the only astrophysical test of the strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  20. Phase Transitions in Dense Baryonic Matter and Cooling of Rotating Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Fridolin Weber; Rodrigo Negreiros

    2009-11-26

    New astrophysical instruments such as skA (square kilometer Array) and IXO (formerly Constellation X) promise the discovery of tens of thousands of new isolated rotating neutron stars (pulsars), neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs). Many of these neutron stars will experience dramatic density changes over their active lifetimes, driven by either stellar spin-up or spin-down, which may trigger phase transitions in their dense baryonic cores. More than that, accretion of matter onto neutron stars in LMXBs is believed to cause pycno-nuclear fusion reactions in the inner crusts of neutron stars. The associated reaction rates may be drastically altered if strange quark matter would be absolutely stable. This paper outlines the investigative steps that need to be performed in order to explore the thermal response of neutron stars to rotationally-driven phase transitions in their cores as well as to nuclear burning scenarios in their crusts. Such research complements the exploration of the phase diagram of dense baryonic matter through particle collider experiments, as performed at RHIC in the USA and as planned at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany.