Science.gov

Sample records for qualified health claims

  1. Consumer perceptions of graded, graphic and text label presentations for qualified health claims.

    PubMed

    Kapsak, Wendy Reinhardt; Schmidt, David; Childs, Nancy M; Meunier, John; White, Christy

    2008-03-01

    On December 18, 2002, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the Consumer Health Information for Better Nutrition Initiative. The initiative's goal is to make available more and better information about conventional foods and dietary supplements to help Americans improve their health and reduce risk of disease by making sound dietary decisions. It included a rating system to assess the "weight of the publicly available evidence." It assigns one of four ranked levels to the claim thus resulting in qualified health claims. Two phases of research were conducted by the International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation. Qualitative research to assess consumer understanding, vocabulary, and familiarity with claims helped with the design and orientation of the second quantitative research phase. The quantitative phase employed a Web-based survey. The claim formats included: report card graphic, report card text, embedded claim text, point-counterpoint, structure/function claim, and nutrient content claim. Respondents were asked to rate the product for perceived strength of scientific evidence provided to support the claim, and questions about the product's perceived healthfulness, quality, safety, and purchase intent. Consumers found it difficult to discriminate across four levels and showed inclination to project the scientific validity grade onto other product attributes. Consumers showed preference for simpler messages. PMID:18274974

  2. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71 Health claims: claims not authorized. Health...

  3. FDA perspectives on health claims for food labels.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, J Craig; Hoadley, James E

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulatory authority over health claims was clarified in 1990 legislation known as the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). This law established mandatory nutrition labeling for most foods and placed restrictions on the use of food label claims characterizing the levels or health benefits of nutrients in foods. NLEA set a high threshold for the scientific standard under which the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may authorize health claims, this standard is known as the significant scientific agreement (SSA) standard. Subsequent legislation known as the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) provided an alternative to FDA review of the health claim where an U.S. government scientific body other than FDA concluded that there is SSA for a substance/disease relationship. Courts have since extended the scope of health claims to include qualified health claims (QHC) that are health claims not substantiated on evidence that meets the level of SSA standard, but include a qualifying statement intended to convey to the consumer the level of evidence for the claim. FDA has responded by developing an evidence-based ranking system for scientific data to determine the level of evidence substantiating a health claim. The following is an overview of FDA's regulations and evidence-based method for evaluating health claims. PMID:16480811

  4. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  5. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  6. 43 CFR 3836.21 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessment work on my mining claims? 3836.21 Section 3836.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Deferring Assessment Work § 3836.21 How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims? You qualify for a deferment of...

  7. 43 CFR 3836.21 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessment work on my mining claims? 3836.21 Section 3836.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Deferring Assessment Work § 3836.21 How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims? You qualify for a deferment of...

  8. 43 CFR 3836.21 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assessment work on my mining claims? 3836.21 Section 3836.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Deferring Assessment Work § 3836.21 How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims? You qualify for a deferment of...

  9. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71 Health... dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar substances: (a) Dietary fiber...

  10. [Health claims for medical foods].

    PubMed

    Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Souvenaid (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands) is a medical food for the dietary management of early Alzheimer's disease. The mix of nutrients in this drink is suggested to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function; such implicit health claims for medical foods are not checked by government agencies. Souvenaid has been investigated in three clinical trials. The first trial showed that Souvenaid produced a significant improvement in delayed verbal recall, but not in other psychological tests. The second and largest trial showed no effect on any outcome. The third trial showed no significant effect at 12 or 24 weeks, but a significant difference in the 24-week time course of the composite memory score. None of these outcomes was clearly specified as a primary outcome at trial registration. In conclusion, there is no convincing proof that Souvenaid benefits cognitive function. Better scrutiny of the efficacy of medical foods is warranted. PMID:23759182

  11. Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims.

    PubMed

    van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Lans, Ivo A

    2007-05-01

    The number of food products containing extra or reduced levels of specific ingredients (e.g. extra calcium) that bring particular health benefits (e.g. stronger bones) is still increasing. Nutrition- and health-related (NH) claims promoting these ingredient levels and their health benefit differ in terms of the (legal) strength with which the claim is brought forward and the specific wording of the claim, both of which may differ between countries. Using a large-scale cross-national internet-based survey in Italy (n=1566), Germany (n=1620), UK (n=1560) and US (n=1621), the purpose of the study described here is to investigate consumer perceptions of NH food product claims, across different countries. NH claims are systematically varied as a function of six health benefits (cardiovascular disease, stress, infections, fatigue, overweight and concentration) and five claim types (content, structure-function, product, disease-risk reduction and marketing claim). The general results indicate that consumer perceptions differ substantially by country and benefit being claimed but much less by the claim type. Implications of these findings are being discussed. PMID:17157958

  12. Health Insurance Claim Review Using Information Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Sik; Speedie, Stuart M.; Yoon, Hojung; Lee, Jiseon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)'s payment request (PARE) system that plays the role of the gateway for all health insurance claims submitted to HIRA, and the claim review support (CRS) system that supports the work of claim review experts in South Korea. Methods This study describes the two systems' information technology (IT) infrastructures, their roles, and quantitative analysis of their work performance. It also reports the impact of these systems on claims processing by analyzing the health insurance claim data submitted to HIRA from April 1 to June 30, 2011. Results The PARE system returned to healthcare providers 2.7% of all inpatient claims (97,930) and 0.1% of all outpatient claims (317,007) as un-reviewable claims. The return rate was the highest for the hospital group as 0.49% and the lowest rate was found in clinic group. The CRS system's detection rate of the claims with multiple errors in inpatient and outpatient areas was 23.1% and 2.9%, respectively. The highest rate of error detection occurred at guideline check-up stages in both inpatient and outpatient groups. Conclusions The study found that HIRA's two IT systems had a critical role in reducing heavy administrative workloads through automatic data processing. Although the return rate of the problematic claims to providers and the error detection rate by two systems was low, the actual count of the returned claims was large. The role of IT will become increasingly important in reducing the workload of health insurance claims review. PMID:23115745

  13. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  14. Health claims on foods in Canada.

    PubMed

    L'abbé, Mary R; Dumais, Lydia; Chao, Eunice; Junkins, Beth

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the health effects of foods by both industry and consumers has put a spotlight on the role of health claims on foods in Canada. The current regulatory framework governing the use of different health claims on foods in Canada is described and compared with international approaches. Similarities were observed in how risk-reduction claims for serious diseases are managed in the United States, European Union and proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, including the need for premarket authorization and the requirement for a high level of certainty based on the totality of evidence in substantiating this type of claim. However, approaches to permitting function claims other than those for the well-established functions of known nutrients are divergent among the jurisdictions compared. Canada also differs from other jurisdictions in not establishing core nutritional criteria for foods carrying disease risk-reduction claims. A brief overview of the status in Canada of a number of disease risk-reduction claims that have been approved in the United States, based on significant scientific agreement under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act or through authoritative statements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, is also provided. PMID:18492861

  15. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  16. 42 CFR 405.2462 - Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for rural health clinic and Federally... AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Payment for Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2462 Payment for rural health...

  17. 42 CFR 405.2462 - Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for rural health clinic and Federally... AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Payment for Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2462 Payment for rural health...

  18. 43 CFR 3836.21 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims? 3836.21 Section 3836.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS...

  19. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74 Section 101.74 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74 Health claims: sodium and hypertension....

  20. 48 CFR 1604.7101 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Disputed Health Benefit Claims 1604.7101 Filing health benefit claims/court review of... at 5 CFR 890.105 and 890.107, respectively. The contract clause at 1652.204-72 of this chapter... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health...

  1. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401 Section 162.1401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care...

  2. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401 Section 162.1401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care...

  3. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation. PMID:22385589

  4. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  5. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  6. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74 Section 101.74 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.74...

  7. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  8. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  9. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  10. The Future of Psychiatric Collaboration in Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Kaliebe, Kristopher E

    2016-08-01

    Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide comprehensive care to underserved and disadvantaged populations. FQHCs now comprise the largest primary care network in the United States. Currently, many FQHCs provide limited access to psychiatric services; and when such services are available, most use traditional on-site psychiatric clinics. The author reviews the rationale for increasing access to behavioral health care in FQHCs by adopting collaborative models of care, describes challenges to adopting these models in FQHCs, and discusses ways to increase the primary care team's ability to support patient self-care and family functioning. PMID:27032666

  11. Korean consumers' perceptions of health/functional food claims according to the strength of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Eun Jin; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we investigated that consumers could differentiate between levels of claims and clarify how a visual aid influences consumer understanding of the different claim levels. We interviewed 2,000 consumers in 13 shopping malls on their perception of and confidence in different levels of health claims using seven point scales. The average confidence scores given by participants were 4.17 for the probable level and 4.07 for the possible level; the score for the probable level was significantly higher than that for the possible level (P < 0.05). Scores for confidence in claims after reading labels with and without a visual aid were 5.27 and 4.43, respectively; the score for labeling with a visual aid was significantly higher than for labeling without a visual aid (P < 0.01). Our results provide compelling evidence that providing health claims with qualifying language differentiating levels of scientific evidence can help consumers understand the strength of scientific evidence behind those claims. Moreover, when a visual aid was included, consumers perceived the scientific levels more clearly and had greater confidence in their meanings than when a visual aid was not included. Although this result suggests that consumers react differently to different claim levels, it is not yet clear whether consumers understand the variations in the degree of scientific support. PMID:21103090

  12. Consumer Perceptions of Health Claims in Advertisements and Food Labels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazis, Michael B.; Raymond, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    Of sample of 180 women, 60 received information from ads, 60 from product labels, and 60 from labels with nutrition information. Beliefs about products did not differ whether health claims appeared in ads or on labels. Nutrition information influenced beliefs. Health claims challenged by the Federal Trade Commission or consumer groups were less…

  13. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed. PMID:15894404

  14. Health-benefit claims for probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T

    2008-02-01

    Manufacturers wish to communicate the benefits of probiotics in advertising and labeling with lawful and adequately substantiated claims. Regulatory and substantiation requirements differ for products intended to cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease; to reduce a healthy individual's risk of developing a disease; or to affect the structure or function of the body. Food labeling is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, and advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission; the standards and methods used by these agencies differ. Food manufacturers must design their claims regarding the benefits of probiotics with the regulatory environment in mind and must develop their research plans to provide evidence that satisfies the agencies' substantiation requirements. This article offers an overview of the applicable laws and regulations, what they mandate regarding legitimate claims, and the issues regarding the design of research to substantiate such claims. PMID:18181716

  15. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distinguished from sodium chloride, or salt, which is 39 percent sodium by weight. (2) The scientific evidence... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74... claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood...

  16. 42 CFR 422.527 - Agreements with Federally qualified health centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.527 Agreements with Federally qualified health...

  17. 43 CFR 3836.22 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? 3836.22 Section 3836.22... that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? Correspondence from NPS merely denying your Plan...

  18. 43 CFR 3836.22 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? 3836.22 Section 3836.22... that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? Correspondence from NPS merely denying your Plan...

  19. 43 CFR 3836.22 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? 3836.22 Section 3836.22... that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? Correspondence from NPS merely denying your Plan...

  20. 43 CFR 3836.22 - How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do I qualify for a deferment of assessment work on my mining claims that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? 3836.22 Section 3836.22... that are on National Park System (NPS) lands? Correspondence from NPS merely denying your Plan...

  1. Health claims and other health-related statements in the labeling and advertising of alcohol beverages (99R-199P). Final rule, Treasury decision.

    PubMed

    2003-03-01

    TTB is amending the regulations to prohibit the appearance on labels or in advertisements of any health-related statement, including a specific health claim, that is untrue in any particular or tends to create a misleading impression. A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading unless the claim is truthful and adequately substantiated by scientific evidence; properly detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with both moderate and heavier levels of alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. In addition, TTB will consult with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as needed, on the use of specific health claims on labels. If FDA determines that a specific health claim is a drug claim that is not in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of such statement on a label. Health-related statements that are not specific health claims or health-related directional statements will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if they tend to mislead consumers. The final rule provides that health-related directional statements (statements that direct or refer consumers to a third party or other source for information regarding the effects on health of alcohol consumption) will be presumed misleading unless those statements include a brief disclaimer advising consumers that the statement should not encourage consumption of alcohol for health reasons, or some other appropriate disclaimer to avoid misleading consumers. TTB believes that the final regulations will ensure that labels and advertisements do not contain statements or claims that would tend to mislead the consumer about the significant health consequences of alcohol consumption. PMID:12625361

  2. 40 CFR 158.2204 - Public health and nonpublic health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ingredients that, under the criteria in 40 CFR 153.125(a), is an active ingredient with respect to a public... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public health and nonpublic health... Public health and nonpublic health claims. (a) Public health claim. An antimicrobial pesticide...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2204 - Public health and nonpublic health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ingredients that, under the criteria in 40 CFR 153.125(a), is an active ingredient with respect to a public... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public health and nonpublic health... Public health and nonpublic health claims. (a) Public health claim. An antimicrobial pesticide...

  4. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  5. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements. A complete explanation of how the substance conforms to the requirements of § 101.14(b) (21 CFR... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petitions for health claims. 101.70 Section 101.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  6. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. A complete explanation of how the substance conforms to the requirements of § 101.14(b) (21 CFR... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for health claims. 101.70 Section 101.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements. A complete explanation of how the substance conforms to the requirements of § 101.14(b) (21 CFR... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petitions for health claims. 101.70 Section 101.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements. A complete explanation of how the substance conforms to the requirements of § 101.14(b) (21 CFR... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petitions for health claims. 101.70 Section 101.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements. A complete explanation of how the substance conforms to the requirements of § 101.14(b) (21 CFR... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petitions for health claims. 101.70 Section 101.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  10. 42 CFR 422.316 - Special rules for payments to Federally qualified health centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Payments to Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.316 Special rules for payments to Federally qualified health...

  11. [Health claims made about foods: the new European regulation].

    PubMed

    Baelde, D

    2008-01-01

    Pursuant to the regulation harmonized relating to labelling, the presentation of the foodstuffs and publicity on them, the health claims made on these products should not be likely to mislead the consumer, must be able to be scientifically substantiated and it cannot be stated nor be evoked a property relating to the prevention, the treatment or the cure of a human disease. The recent publication of the European regulation concerning nutrition and health claims made on foods is a specific text, which supplements this device. The scientific evaluation of health claims allegations is centralized at the European Food Safety Authority and is preliminary to the launching of the food products. The food supplements, defined in the lawful plan in the field of the food right, are also subjected to these provisions. PMID:19061729

  12. Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ambreen; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Niaz, Rai Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments. In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral. Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript. However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene. PMID:26417290

  13. 42 CFR 405.2469 - Federally Qualified Health Centers supplemental payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federally Qualified Health Centers supplemental payments. 405.2469 Section 405.2469 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED...

  14. Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: Science Teachers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordheim, Lena; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Flottorp, Signe; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Critical appraisal skills are necessary to navigate the numerous contradictory and pseudo-scientific claims in the popular media. Health and science education in schools is essential for promoting these skills in students. The purpose of this paper is to explore lower secondary school science teachers' perceptions and reported practices…

  15. Exploring "Responsibility" in Advertising: Health Claims about Dietary Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreth, Melinda L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a collaborative research assignment on the health claims made for dietary supplements to help students understand responsibility in advertising. Helps students explore the social, economic, and political contexts in which regulatory standards emerge and evolve as well as how they are disseminated, implemented, and enforced. (SC)

  16. Predicting days in hospital using health insurance claims.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Schreier, Gunter; Chang, David C W; Neubauer, Sandra; Liu, Ying; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-07-01

    Health-care administrators worldwide are striving to lower the cost of care while improving the quality of care given. Hospitalization is the largest component of health expenditure. Therefore, earlier identification of those at higher risk of being hospitalized would help health-care administrators and health insurers to develop better plans and strategies. In this paper, a method was developed, using large-scale health insurance claims data, to predict the number of hospitalization days in a population. We utilized a regression decision tree algorithm, along with insurance claim data from 242 075 individuals over three years, to provide predictions of number of days in hospital in the third year, based on hospital admissions and procedure claims data. The proposed method performs well in the general population as well as in subpopulations. Results indicate that the proposed model significantly improves predictions over two established baseline methods (predicting a constant number of days for each customer and using the number of days in hospital of the previous year as the forecast for the following year). A reasonable predictive accuracy (AUC =0.843) was achieved for the whole population. Analysis of two subpopulations-namely elderly persons aged 63 years or older in 2011 and patients hospitalized for at least one day in the previous year-revealed that the medical information (e.g., diagnosis codes) contributed more to predictions for these two subpopulations, in comparison to the population as a whole. PMID:25680222

  17. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects. 101.79 Section 101.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.79 Health claims: Folate and neural...

  18. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    PubMed

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  19. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; Small Business Health Options Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) related to the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). Specifically, this final rule amends existing regulations regarding triggering events and special enrollment periods for qualified employees and their dependents and implements a transitional policy regarding employees' choice of qualified health plans (QHPs) in the SHOP. PMID:23734400

  20. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for health care claim status transaction... for health care claim status transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claim status transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003 through March 16, 2009: The...

  1. 42 CFR 440.365 - Coverage of rural health clinic and federally qualified health center (FQHC) services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage of rural health clinic and federally... clinic and federally qualified health center (FQHC) services. If a State provides benchmark or benchmark... otherwise, to rural health clinic services and FQHC services as defined in subparagraphs (B) and (C)...

  2. 42 CFR 440.365 - Coverage of rural health clinic and federally qualified health center (FQHC) services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of rural health clinic and federally... clinic and federally qualified health center (FQHC) services. If a State provides benchmark or benchmark... otherwise, to rural health clinic services and FQHC services as defined in subparagraphs (B) and (C)...

  3. 73 FR 56477 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-09-29

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its labeling regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to include vitamin D so that, in addition to the claim for calcium and osteoporosis, an additional claim can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim list sex, race, and......

  4. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 41866 (July 15...) Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Interim Final Rule, 75 FR 74864, 74918-20... of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

  5. Training highly qualified health research personnel: The Pain in Child Health consortium

    PubMed Central

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Stevens, Bonnie J; Chambers, Christine T; Craig, Kenneth D; Finley, G Allen; Grunau, Ruth E; Johnston, C Celeste; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Stinson, Jennifer N; Dol, Justine; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH) is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes. METHODS: Quantitative analyses enumerated PICH faculty, trainees, training activities and scientific outputs. Interviews with PICH stakeholders were analyzed using qualitative methods capturing perceptions of the program’s strengths, limitations, and opportunities for development and sustainability. RESULTS: PICH has supported 218 trainee members from 2002 through 2013, from 14 countries and more than 16 disciplines. The faculty at the end of 2013 comprised nine co-principal investigators, 14 Canadian coinvestigators, and 28 Canadian and international collaborators. Trainee members published 697 peer-reviewed journal articles on pediatric pain through 2013, among other research dissemination activities including conference presentations and webinars. Networks have been established between new and established researchers across Canada and in 13 other countries. Perceptions from stakeholders commended PICH for its positive impact on the development of pediatric pain researchers. Stakeholders emphasized skills and abilities gained through PICH, the perceived impact of PICH training on this research field, and considerations for future training in developing researchers in pediatric pain. CONCLUSIONS: PICH has been successfully developing highly qualified health research personnel within a Canadian and international community of pediatric pain scholarship. PMID:25299474

  6. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  7. Continuing education opportunities for recently qualified mental health diplomates.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S; Tingle, A

    2003-12-01

    While successive reports concerned with mental health services have emphasized the importance of continuing professional development for mental health nurses, there have been long-standing concerns about the provision of appropriate courses and opportunities for attendance. Drawing from a longitudinal study of the careers of a cohort of mental health diplomates, this paper focuses on fulfilment of their continuing education plans in the early post-qualification period. During the first 6 months, just under half the cohort had wanted to start a course but been unable to do so. For some, even at this early career stage, dissatisfaction with continuing education opportunities was cited as reason for leaving, or considering leaving, a first job. Reasons for starting courses included career progress and meeting the care-giving needs of the immediate work situation. Diplomates may need guidance on their continuing education needs; there was much uncertainty about plans to take courses and moreover, demand for courses which they had wanted to start but been unable to do so, was not always sustained. PMID:15005478

  8. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  9. Multi-stage methodology to detect health insurance claim fraud.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marina Evrim; Nagarur, Nagen

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare costs in the US, as well as in other countries, increase rapidly due to demographic, economic, social, and legal changes. This increase in healthcare costs impacts both government and private health insurance systems. Fraudulent behaviors of healthcare providers and patients have become a serious burden to insurance systems by bringing unnecessary costs. Insurance companies thus develop methods to identify fraud. This paper proposes a new multistage methodology for insurance companies to detect fraud committed by providers and patients. The first three stages aim at detecting abnormalities among providers, services, and claim amounts. Stage four then integrates the information obtained in the previous three stages into an overall risk measure. Subsequently, a decision tree based method in stage five computes risk threshold values. The final decision stating whether the claim is fraudulent is made by comparing the risk value obtained in stage four with the risk threshold value from stage five. The research methodology performs well on real-world insurance data. PMID:25600704

  10. A current appraisal of health- and nutrition-related claims in magazine food advertisements.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Briones, Rowena; Shen, Hongmei; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Ai

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a content analysis of health- and nutrition-related claims used in food advertisements in popular women's and men's magazines. The authors analyzed 734 food ads and 100 magazine issues. Their research shows that nutrient content claims (i.e., ones that focus on a specific nutrient component such as "low in fat") are the most predominantly used, followed by general nutrition claims, structure/function claims, and healthy claims. The least used category is health claims, in which the advertised food is linked to reduced risk of a disease or health problem. The use of health- and nutrition-related claims differs across different food groups and types of magazines. PMID:23324114

  11. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal. PMID:19501767

  12. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body—as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU—do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  13. Consumers’ health-related motive orientations and reactions to claims about dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers' health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers' explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers' explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body-as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU-do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers' HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  14. Health claims in the United States: an aid to the public or a source of confusion?

    PubMed

    Hasler, Clare M

    2008-06-01

    Health claims in the United States have been a topic of intense controversy since the mid-1980s. Three categories of claims can currently be used on food and dietary supplement labels in the United States: 1) health claims, 2) nutrient content claims, and 3) structure/function claims. Structure/function claims were authorized under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and describe the effect of a dietary supplement on the structure or function of the body. Nutrient content claims are used to describe the percentage of a nutrient in a product relative to the daily value. Health claims describe a relation between a food, food component, or dietary supplement ingredient and reducing risk of a disease or health-related condition. Health claims are based on a very high standard of scientific evidence and significant scientific agreement. Are U.S. health claims really benefitting public health? Recent evidence suggests that this mode of communication has had limited success and in fact may be misleading to consumers. PMID:18492860

  15. Federally Qualified Health Center Use Among Dual Eligibles: Rates Of Hospitalizations And Emergency Department Visits

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brad; Potter, Andrew J.; Trivedi, Amal

    2016-01-01

    People who are eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid, known as “dual eligibles,” disproportionately are members of racial or ethnic minority groups. They face barriers accessing primary care, which in turn increase the risk of potentially preventable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions. Federally qualified health centers provide services known to address barriers to primary care. We analyzed 2008–10 Medicare data for elderly and nonelderly disabled dual eligibles residing in Primary Care Service Areas with nearby federally qualified health centers. Among our findings: There were fewer hospitalizations for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions among blacks and Hispanics who used these health centers than among their counterparts who did not use them (16 percent and 13 percent fewer, respectively). Use of the health centers was also associated with 3 percent and 12 percent fewer hospitalizations for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions among nonelderly disabled blacks and Hispanics, respectively. These findings suggest that federally qualified health centers can reduce disparities in preventable hospitalizations for some dual eligibles. However, further efforts are needed to reduce preventable ED visits among dual eligibles receiving care in the health centers. PMID:26153309

  16. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit: hidden phytochemicals and health claims

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M. Tauseef; Aziz, Mahwish; Naz, Ambreen; Ahmed, Waqas; Kumar, Naresh; Imran, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Currently, nutrition and health linkages focused on emerging strategy of diet based regimen to combat various physiological threats including cardiovascular disorders, oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus, etc. In this context, consumption of fruits and vegetables is gaining considerable importance as safeguard to maintain human health. Likewise, their phytochemicals and bioactive molecules are also becoming popular as promising demulcent against various ailments. The current review is an effort to sum up information regarding persimmon fruit with special reference to its phytochemistry and associated health claims. Accordingly, the role of its certain bioactive molecules like proanthocyanidin, carotenoids, tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanidin, catechin, etc. is highlighted. Owing to rich phytochemistry, persimmon and its products are considered effective in mitigating oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant potential is too responsible for anti-malignant and anti-melanogenic perspectives of persimmon functional ingredients. Additionally, they are effectual in soothing lifestyle related disparities e.g. cardiovascular disorders and diabetes mellitus. There are proven facts that pharmacological application of persimmon or its functional ingredients like proanthocyanidin may helps against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, astringent taste and diospyrobezoars formation are creating lacuna to prop up its vitality. In toto, persimmon and its components hold potential as one of effective modules in diet based therapy; however, integrated research and meta-analysis are still required to enhance meticulousness. PMID:27047315

  17. Curcumin and cancer: barriers to obtaining a health claim.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay G; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Jones, Peter J H

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule found in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric). It is responsible for the yellow color of turmeric and has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to be of use in preventing or treating a number of diseases. Curcumin has been shown to modulate multiple cell-signaling pathways simultaneously, thereby mitigating or preventing many different types of cancers, including multiple myeloma and colorectal, pancreatic, breast, prostate, lung, head, and neck cancers, in both animal models and humans. Current therapeutic approaches using a single cancer drug for a single target can be expensive, have serious side effects, or both. Consequently, new approaches to the treatment and prevention of cancer, including the integration of curcumin as a viable treatment strategy where dysregulation of many pathways is involved, are warranted. A methodical review of the evidence was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin in support of a health claim, as established through the regulatory framework of Health Canada, for a relationship between the consumption of curcumin and the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:26024538

  18. Memory for Scientific Arguments and Their Sources: Claim-Evidence Consistency Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Brent; Britt, M. Anne; Braasch, Jason L.; Strømsø, Helge; Bråten, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether memory for scientific arguments and their sources were affected by the appropriateness of the claim-evidence relationship. Undergraduates read health articles in one of four conditions derived by crossing claim type (causal with definite qualifier, associative with tentative qualifier) and evidence type (experimental,…

  19. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration..., applicable to workers of Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration...

  20. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more...

  1. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more...

  2. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more...

  3. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more...

  4. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more...

  5. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  6. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  7. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  8. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  9. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  10. Why the European Food Safety Authority was right to reject health claims for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Katan, M B

    2012-06-01

    Probiotics are microbes that are claimed to promote health and well-being when added to foods. However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has so far advised negatively about health claims for probiotics. Companies and scientists have protested against these rejections, sometimes in vigorous language. I argue that EFSA could not have acted differently, given EU regulations and the lack of convincing evidence for some of the claimed effects of probiotics on human health and well-being. One EU regulation that makes it hard to demonstrate the benefits of probiotics is the prohibition of medical claims, i.e. claims that a food prevents or cures a disease. If this prohibition did not exist, manufacturers of nutritional treatments might circumvent the costly procedures required for drugs, and market their products to ill people without thorough proof that they are effective and safe. However, the prohibition is also a legal fiction, because promotion of health and prevention of disease is largely the same thing. EFSA has recently indicated that it will allow health claims based on the ability of probiotics to reduce infections. To a certain extent, this abolishes the distinction between health claims and medical claims. It remains to be seen if probiotics producers can convince EFSA that their products prevent or cure infections and other diseases in humans. PMID:22683835

  11. [Food, health claims and drugs. Introduction: why such a session devoted to this topic].

    PubMed

    Bourlioux, P

    2008-01-01

    During the ten past years, several countries as Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada, USA, France ... got involved in the research of foods with positive impact on health. So, new notions as "functionnal foods" and new products with significant names as "alicaments", "nutraceuticals", "foods with health claims" (some of them claiming therapeutic effects) have been created. Since such health claims were developped in different countries of the European Union, a new directive applicable to the Member States from the 1st of July 2007 has been voted by the European Parliament with the following aims: harmonization of health claims and validation of the only claims supported by relevant scientific proofs. Face to such a situation, the French Academy of Pharmacy needed to improve this question, take a clear position, and express necessary recommendations. PMID:19061722

  12. 72 FR 497 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-01-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend the regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to: Include vitamin D so that, in addition to claims for calcium and osteoporosis, additional claims can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement in Sec. 101.72(c)(2)(i)(A) (21 CFR......

  13. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.204-72 Filing health benefit...

  14. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  15. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  16. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  17. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  18. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  19. Legal action against health claims on foods and beverages marketed to youth.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Edwards, Danielle M; Rodman, Sarah O; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children raises numerous health concerns. One pathway to reduce childhood obesity is by decreasing energy intake through the ingestion of fewer calories. Yet, food and beverage manufacturers often promote energy-dense items for children via varied health claims. Deceptive health claims are prohibited, and may be addressed through litigation or governmental regulatory efforts. While the amount of legal action against these potentially deceptive claims has increased, no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This article, which analyzes litigation and governmental regulatory activities, considers key factors that may influence decisions to take legal action against potentially deceptive health claims on foods and beverages, including scientific support, forum selection, selection of plaintiffs, and potential public health impact. PMID:25602904

  20. Patients' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening tests and preparatory education in federally qualified health centers.

    PubMed

    Gwede, Clement K; Koskan, Alexis M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Davis, Stacy N; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meade, Cathy D

    2015-06-01

    This study explored federally qualified health center (FQHC) patients' perceptions about colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) tests, including immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT), as well as preferences for receiving in-clinic education about CRCS. Eight mixed gender focus groups were conducted with 53 patients. Findings centered on three thematic factors: (1) motivators and impediments to CRCS, (2) test-specific preferences and receptivity to iFOBTs, and (3) preferences for entertaining and engaging plain language materials. Results informed the development of educational priming materials to increase CRCS using iFOBT in FQHCs. PMID:25249181

  1. Yield of claims data and surveys for determining colon cancer screening among health plan members.

    PubMed

    Pignone, Michael; Scott, Tracy L; Schild, Laura A; Lewis, Carmen; Vázquez, Raquel; Glanz, Karen

    2009-03-01

    Screening can reduce incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer but has been underutilized. Efforts to increase screening depend on accurate data about screening status. We sought to evaluate the independent and combined yield of claims and direct survey for identifying colorectal cancer screening among average-risk health plan beneficiaries. Participants were Aetna members ages between 52 and 80 years from 32 primary care practices in Florida and Georgia participating in the Communicating Health Options through Information and Cancer Education study. Main outcomes were the proportion of average-risk patients who were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening based on claims data and the estimated additional yield of survey data for patients with no evidence of screening in their claims history. Of 4,020 average-risk members identified, claims data indicated that 1,066 (27%) had recent colorectal cancer screening. Among the 1,269 average-risk members with no evidence of screening by claims data who returned surveys, 498 (39%) reported being up-to-date with screening. Combining claims data and survey data and accounting for survey nonresponse, we estimate that 47% to 59% of member patients were actually up-to-date with screening, an additional yield of 20 to 32 percentage points. We conclude that, among health plan members, the combination of claims data and survey information had substantially higher yield than claims data alone for identifying colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19273480

  2. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES... to support the covered individual's position. (e) OPM review. (1) If the covered individual...

  3. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES... to support the covered individual's position. (e) OPM review. (1) If the covered individual...

  4. 76 FR 46684 - Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...-AQ32 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical... within that time period; make conforming changes to the Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program... the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to jointly fund State efforts to initiate and...

  5. [Food, health claims and drugs. Conclusions - recommendations. The National Academy of Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Bourlioux, P

    2008-01-01

    Even if the activity of health claim foods is not relevant to the activity of drugs, we are just at the frontier of two fields which needs the greatest attention. Since foods and drugs are present in the same domain of prevention, the French Academy of Pharmacy draws attention on the necessary relevant and scientifically proven demonstration of the health claims using the same quality standard than those used for drugs (good clinical practises, methodologies correspondent to the current requirement, etc.). It is why the Academy wishes to express five recommendations fearing that the risks of confusion and abuse prevail on the possibilities of information and control. Make sure that foods are not mistaken with drugs; largely spread the lists of authorised claims; introduce the new notion of "nutrivigilance"; make sure that the only authorised health claims use advertising; reject the terms "alicaments" and "nutraceuticals" which are confusing with drugs. PMID:19061723

  6. A long and winding road: federally qualified health centers, community variation and prospects under reform.

    PubMed

    Katz, Aaron B; Felland, Laurie E; Hill, Ian; Stark, Lucy B

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers have evolved from fringe providers to mainstays of many local health care systems. Those designated as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), in particular, have largely established themselves as key providers of comprehensive, efficient, high-quality primary care services to low-income people, especially Medicaid and uninsured patients. The Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC's) site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities since 1996 document substantial growth in FQHC capacity, based on growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees and uninsured people, increased federal support, and improved managerial acumen. At the same time, FQHC development has varied considerably across communities because of several important factors, including local health system characteristics and financial and political support at federal, state and local levels. Some communities--Boston; Syracuse, N.Y.; Miami; and Seattle--have relatively extensive FQHC capacity for their Medicaid and uninsured populations, while other communities--Lansing, Mich.; northern New Jersey; Indianapolis; and Greenville, S.C.--fall in the middle. FQHC growth in Phoenix; Little Rock, Ark.; Cleveland; and Orange County, Calif.; has lagged in comparison. Today, FQHCs seem poised to play a key role in federal health care reform, including coverage expansions and the emphasis on primary care and medical homes. PMID:23155547

  7. Identifying emergent social networks at a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Alia, Kassandra A; Freedman, Darcy A; Brandt, Heather M; Browne, Teri

    2014-06-01

    Identifying potential mechanisms connecting farmers' market interventions with health, economic, and community outcomes could inform strategies for addressing health disparities. The present study used social network theory to guide the in-depth examination of naturally occurring social interactions at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center located in a rural, low-income community. Trained observers recorded 61 observation logs at the market over 18 weeks. Thematic analysis revealed a range of actors and nonhuman facilitators instrumental to the farmers' market context. These actors connected with one another for communication and relationship development, economic and financial exchange, education, resource sharing, community ownership of the farmers' market, and conflict resolution. These interactions provided opportunities for social networks to develop among attendees, which may have facilitated the acquisition of social supports related to improved health, economic and community outcomes. Results provide insight into the role social networks may play in mediating the relationship between a farmers' market intervention and individual benefits. Findings also contribute to defining the typology of social networks, which may further disentangle the complex relationships between social networks and health outcomes. Future research should identify strategies for purposefully targeting social networks as a way to reduce diet-related health disparities. PMID:24352510

  8. Health claims on functional foods: the Japanese regulations and an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshio

    2003-12-01

    The Japanese scientific academic community defined 'functional food' early in the 1980s. That is, functional foods are those that have three functions. The primary function is nutrition. The secondary function is a sensory function or sensory satisfaction. The third is the tertiary function, which is physiological. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) set up 'Foods for Specified Health Use' (FOSHU) in 1991 as a regulatory system to approve the statements made on food labels concerning the effect of the food on the human body. Food products applying for approval by FOSHU are scientifically evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and safety by the Council of Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Hygiene under the MHLW. The regulatory range of FOSHU was broadened in 2001 to accept the forms of capsules and tablets in addition to those of conventional foods. FOSHU increased the total to about 330 items in January 2003. The MHLW enacted a new regulatory system, 'Foods with Health Claims', in April 2001, which consists of the existing FOSHU system and the newly established 'Foods with Nutrient Function Claims' (FNFC). Under the FNFC, twelve vitamins (vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E, D, biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and niacin) and two minerals (Ca and Fe) are standardized. Examples of claims regarding these substances are as follows: 'Calcium is a nutrient which is necessary to form bones and teeth'; 'Vitamin D is a nutrient which promotes calcium absorption in the gut intestine and aids in the formation of bones.' The upper and lower levels of the daily consumption of these nutrients are also determined. The labelling of functional foods should always be based on scientific evidence and be in harmony with international standards. The nutrient-function claim was adopted in the guidelines for nutrition claims by the Codex Alimentarius in 1997. The claims of the Japanese FNFC are equivalent to the nutrient function claims standardized by the

  9. Insufficient dollars and qualified personnel to meet United States mental health needs.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-04-01

    The American populace currently supports the need for providing additional mental health services for adolescents who frequently express anger and mood instability and maybe are at risk for major psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems; Vietnam, Iraqi, and Afghanistan veterans or military personnel still on duty diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or other similar combat-related disabilities; the approximately 1 million prisoners currently incarcerated primarily because of substance abuse and needing medically related rehabilitative services; and senior citizens who experience dementia and depression and require improved therapeutics. The problems outlined herein are as follows: far too limited monies are being spent for mental health services (5.6% of total US expenditures for health or roughly one fifth of what is consumed for hospital care); effective therapies are often lacking; and there is a shortage of qualified mental health personnel except in upscale urban and suburban areas. Unfortunately, these problems are so immense that, even with enhanced prioritization of our available resources, they are still not entirely solvable. The American public may continue to impart lip service when attempting to respond to our nation's mental health needs or may decide to spend vastly more money for such care. The latter choice may not be forthcoming in the near future for various cultural-societal-clinical-fiscal reasons. PMID:25816044

  10. An evaluation of the International Monetary Fund's claims about public health.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; Gilmore, Anna; Batniji, Rajaie; Ooms, Gorik; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Hammonds, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's recent claims concerning its impact on public health are evaluated against available data. First, the IMF claims that health spending either does not change or increases with IMF-supported programs, but there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Second, the IMF claims to have relaxed strict spending requirements in response to the 2008-9 financial crisis, but there is no evidence supporting this claim, and some limited evidence from the Center for Economic Policy Research contradicting it. Third, the IMF states that wage ceilings on public health are no longer part of its explicit conditionalities to poor countries, as governments can choose how to achieve public spending targets; but in practice, ministers are left with few viable alternatives than to reduce health budgets to achieve specific IMF-mandated targets, so the result effectively preserves former policy. Fourth, the IMF's claim that it has increased aid to poor countries also seems to be contradicted by its policies of diverting aid to reserves, as well as evidence that a very small fraction of the Fund's new lending in response to the financial crisis has reached poor countries. Finally, the IMF's claim that it follows public health standards in tobacco control contrasts with its existing policies, which fail to follow the guidelines recommended by the World Bank and World Health Organization. The authors recommend that the IMF (1) become more transparent in its policies, practices, and data to allow improved independent evaluations of its impact on public health (including Health Impact Assessment) and (2) review considerable public health evidence indicating a negative association between its current policies and public health outcomes. PMID:20440976

  11. Qui tam claims: threat to voluntary compliance programs in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Ruhnka, J C; Gac, E J; Boerstler, H

    2000-04-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) reports that after violent crime, health care fraud is the department's top priority. The number of health care fraud investigations pending at the DOJ increased from 270 cases in 1992 to more than 4,000 in 1997. The DOJ's primary weapon in prosecuting health care fraud is the federal False Claims Act (FCA) of 1863 (31 U.S.C. secs. 3729-3733). Almost unique among federal antifraud provisions, the FCA may also be used by "private prosecutors" to file lawsuits on behalf of the federal government charging organizations with submitting false claims to the government. The FCA rewards such whistle-blowers with a share of any resulting recoveries as a bounty and protects them from discharge for filing false claims lawsuits against their employers. It also requires defendants to pay the costs and attorneys fees of successful claimants. Although the private "bounty hunter" features of the FCA data back to the Civil War, these so-called qui tam claims were nearly dormant until 1986, when Congress amended the FCA to revive their use. Following the 1986 amendments, and paralleling the rapid increase in federal reimbursements for health care costs, private qui tam claims have far expanded beyond their traditional purview of defense contracts into the field of health care. By 1997, health care providers were the targets of 54 percent of the 530 private qui tam lawsuits field that year. PMID:10946381

  12. STOPPING DECEPTIVE HEALTH CLAIMS: THE NEED FOR A PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal. PMID:27263263

  13. Whole grains health claims in the USA and other efforts to increase whole-grain consumption.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Len; Wiemer, Kathryn L; Jones, Julie M; Jacob, Brenda

    2003-02-01

    In response to the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, the Food and Drug Administration approved seven health claims that addressed the relationship between broad food categories and risk of certain chronic diseases. These claims are based on scientific consensus that includes epidemiological, animal and clinical research. The Food and Drug Administration also established a process to petition for new health claims that address substance-disease relationships supported by adequate scientific and specific regulatory requirements. The whole grain-cancer and heart disease authoritative statement health claim approved in July 1999 followed a completely different process mandated by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997. It is based on an authoritative statement made by a government body that represents scientific consensus and is supported by other scientific agencies and organizations. The scientific basis for the claim published in Diet and Health reflects a comprehensive and deliberative review of epidemiological, animal and human studies by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Diet and Health. Health claims used on whole grain products can attract the attention of health-conscious consumers and are important tools in communicating health messages. However, the US public consumes substantially fewer whole-grain servings than recommended by US dietary guidance. Reasons given by consumers for not purchasing wholegrain foods include colour, price, softness, texture, moisture content and taste. Developing tastier value-added wholegrain foods along with simple coordinated messages from industry, the scientific community, public health experts and government will help consumers identify, purchase and consume more wholegrain products. PMID:12749340

  14. Financial and Clinical Impact of Team-Based Treatment for Medicaid Enrollees With Diabetes in a Federally Qualified Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Dennis P.; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Beich, Jeff; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Gabbay, Robert A.; Milstein, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine whether multidisciplinary team-based care guided by the chronic care model can reduce medical payments and improve quality for Medicaid enrollees with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This study was a difference-in-differences analysis comparing Medicaid patients with diabetes who received team-based care versus those who did not. Team-based care was provided to patients treated at CareSouth, a multisite rural federally qualified community health center located in South Carolina. Control patients were matched to team care patients using propensity score techniques. Financial outcomes compared Medicaid (and Medicare for dually eligible patients) payments 1 year before and after intervention. Trends over time in levels of A1C, BMI, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were analyzed for intervention patients during the postintervention period. RESULTS—Although average claims payments increased for both the CareSouth patients and control patients, there were no statistically significant differences in total payments between the two groups. In the intervention group, patients with A1C >9 at baseline experienced an average reduction of 0.75 mg/dl per year (95% CI 0.50–0.99), patients with BMI >30 at baseline had an average reduction of 2.3 points per year (95% CI 0.99–3.58), and patients with SBP >140 mmHg at baseline had an average reduction of 2.2 mmHg per year (95% CI 0.44–3.88). CONCLUSIONS—Team-based care following the chronic care model has the potential to improve quality without increasing payments. Short-term savings were not evident and should not be assumed when designing programs. PMID:18678609

  15. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Pelgrom, Sylvia M.G.J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; de Kaste, Dries; Verhagen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory) was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29) were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements. PMID:20927202

  16. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A; Egan, Bernadette M; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-03-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%-27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children's development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%-1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  17. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  18. Impact of health claims in prebiotic-enriched breads on purchase intent, emotional response and product liking.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Katie L; Miah, Emma M; Morris, Gordon A; Morris, Cecile

    2014-03-01

    The impact of health claims on purchase intent, emotional response and liking has never been previously reported. In this study, prebiotic-enriched bread was used as a model functional food. Purchase intent, emotional response and liking were investigated in three phases: (1) focus groups were used to gauge consumer perception of health claims and functional foods, (2) the impact of health claims on purchase intent and emotional responses were measured using an online survey (n = 122) and (3) hedonic ratings on bread rolls presented with or without any associated claims were obtained (n = 100). A cluster analysis of the purchase intent data identified two clusters of consumers who were either receptive or non-receptive to health claims. Receptive and non-receptive consumers significantly differed in the emotions they reported with respect to the claims. The hedonic ratings did not significantly differ between the breads tasted with or without health claims. PMID:24059972

  19. The integration of claims to health-care: a programming approach.

    PubMed

    Anand, Paul

    2003-09-01

    The paper contributes to the use of social choice and welfare theory in health economics by developing and applying the integration of claims framework to health-care rationing. Related to Sen's critique of neo-classical welfare economics, the integration of claims framework recognises three primitive sources of claim: consequences, deontology and procedures. A taxonomy is presented with the aid of which it is shown that social welfare functions reflecting these claims individually or together, can be specified. Some of the resulting social choice rules can be regarded as generalisations of health-maximisation and all have normative justifications, though the justifications may not be universally acceptable. The paper shows how non-linear programming can be used to operationalise such choice rules and illustrates their differential impacts on the optimal provision of health-care. Following discussion of relations to the capabilities framework and the context in which rationing occurs, the paper concludes that the integration of claims provides a viable framework for modelling health-care rationing that is technically rigorous, general and tractable, as well as being consistent with relevant moral considerations and citizen preferences. PMID:12946456

  20. Health claims and dietary guidance to reduced cardiovascular disease risk in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book examines the international picture regarding probiotic This book examines the international picture regarding probiotic food applications, placing a particular emphasis on the legal context and assessment procedures of probiotic health claims in the major markets for these products. Health...

  1. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  2. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  3. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  4. 75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 3462) (FRL-8807-9), EPA announced that `` here a health and safety study submitted under... chemical substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials... AGENCY Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety...

  5. 77 FR 31499 - Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...-AQ32 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical...; make conforming changes to the Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) disallowance... FR 46685) in the Federal Register. In addition to the background described in the proposed rule,...

  6. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  7. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....79 Section 101.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that...

  8. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....79 Section 101.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that...

  9. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....79 Section 101.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that...

  10. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....79 Section 101.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that...

  11. Trends in Diabetes Incidence in the Last Decade Based on Korean National Health Insurance Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Wook; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Dae Jung; Park, Seok Won; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data is useful to estimate the necessary manpower and resources used for disease control and prevention of prevalent chronic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of diabetes and identify its trends based on the claims data from the National Health Insurance Service database over the last decade. Methods We extracted claims data on diabetes as the principal and first additional diagnoses of National Health Insurance from January 2003 to December 2012. We investigated the number of newly claimed subjects with diabetes codes, the number of claims and the demographic characteristics of this population. Results Total numbers of claimed cases and populations with diabetes continuously increased from 1,377,319 in 2003 to 2,571,067 by 2012. However, the annual number of newly claimed diabetic subjects decreased in the last decade. The total number of new claim patients with diabetes codes decreased as 30.9% over 2005 to 2009. Since 2009, the incidence of new diabetes claim patients has not experienced significant change. The 9-year average incidence rate was 0.98% and 1.01% in men and women, respectively. The data showed an increasing proportion of new diabetic subjects of younger age (<60 years) combined with a sharply decreasing proportion of subjects of older age (≥60 years). Conclusion There were increasing numbers of newly claimed subjects with diabetes codes of younger age over the last 10 years. This increasing number of diabetic patients will require management throughout their life courses because Korea is rapidly becoming an aging society. PMID:27302715

  12. Insurance Continuity and Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake in Oregon and California Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew; Lapidus, Jodi; Heintzman, John; Bailey, Steffani; DeVoe, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between insurance continuity and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in a network of federally qualified health clinics (FQHCs). Methods. We analyzed retrospective electronic health record data for females, aged 9–26 years in 2008 through 2010. Based on electronic health record insurance coverage information, patients were categorized by percent of time insured during the study period (0%, 1%–32%, 33%–65%, 66%–99%, or 100%). We used bilevel multivariable Poisson regression to compare vaccine-initiation prevalence between insurance groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and age. We also examined vaccine series completion among initiators who had at least 12 months to complete all 3 doses. Results. Significant interactions were observed between insurance category, age, and race/ethnicity. Juxtaposed with their continuously insured peers, patients were less likely to initiate the HPV vaccine if they were insured for less than 66% of the study period, aged 13 years or older, and identified as a racial/ethnic minority. Insurance coverage was not associated with vaccine series completion. Conclusions. Disparities in vaccine uptake by insurance status were present in the FQHCs studied here, despite the fact that HPV vaccines are available to many patients regardless of ability to pay. PMID:25033154

  13. Health claim regulation of probiotics in the USA and the EU: is there a middle way?

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D E

    2013-03-01

    In both the USA and Europe, supermarkets and pharmacies are brimming with probiotics - products containing live micro-organisms claiming they improve health. The availability of these products corresponds to a growing consumer demand for foods that improve or maintain health and wellness. The most persuasive include claims that consumption may confer health benefits. While some of these claims may have merit, others have not been substantiated. For a number of products, claims are based on insufficient research, underpowered studies, or mixed research results, yet individual consumers find that the product is of benefit to them. In attempting to regulate health claims, as distinct from safety, government entities may take positions which represent opposite ends of a philosophical spectrum. On one end of the spectrum they may take a limited approach to regulation relying primarily on the marketplace that respects individual autonomy and assumes a sophisticated consumer and honest sellers; alternatively they may choose substantial regulation based on a belief that consumers need protection from profit-seeking manufacturers. The USA and the European Union have taken two different approaches on this regulatory spectrum. PMID:23257017

  14. QALYs and the integration of claims in health-care rationing.

    PubMed

    Anand, P

    1999-01-01

    The paper argues against the polarization of the health economics literature into pro- and anti-QALY camps. In particular, we suggest that a crucial distinction should be made between the QALY measure as a metric of health, and QALY maximization as an applied social choice rule. We argue against the rule but for the measure and that the appropriate conceptualization of health-care rationing decisions should see the main task as the integration of competing and possibly incommensurable normative claim types. We identify the main types as consequences, rights, social contracts, individual votes and community values and note situations in which the contribution of each claim type is limited. We go on to show that the integration of (at least some of) these claim types can be formalized within the mathematical framework provided by non-linear programming. PMID:10724553

  15. Partnership for Implementation of Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers: Theory and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Justin B.; Curran, Geoffrey; Kramer, Teresa; Mouden, Sip; Ward-Jones, Susan; Owen, Richard; Fortney, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health and substance abuse are among the most commonly reported reasons for visits to Federally Qualified Health Centers (CHCs), yet only 6.5% of encounters are with on-site behavioral health specialists. Rural CHCs are significantly less likely to have on-site behavioral specialists than urban CHCs. Due to this lack of mental health specialists in rural areas, the most promising approach to improving mental health outcomes is to help rural primary care providers deliver evidence based practices (EBPs). Despite the scope of these problems, no research has developed an effective implementation strategy for facilitating the adoption of mental health EBPs for rural CHCs. Objectives To describe the conceptual components of an Implementation Partnership that focuses on the adaption and adoption of mental health EBPs by rural CHCs in Arkansas. Methods We present a conceptual model that integrates seven separate frameworks: 1) Jones and Wells’ Evidence-Based Community Partnership Model, 2) Kitson’s Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) implementation framework, 3) Sackett’s definition of evidence-based medicine, 4) Glisson’s organizational social context model, 5) Rubenstein’s Evidence-Based Quality Improvement (EBQI) facilitation process, 6) Glasgow’s RE-AIM evaluation approach, and 7) Naylor’s concept of shared decision making. Conclusions By integrating these frameworks into a meaningful conceptual model, we hope to develop a successful Implementation Partnership between an academic health center and small rural CHCs to improve mental health outcomes. Findings from this Implementation Partnership should have relevance to hundreds of clinics and millions of patients, and could help promote the sustained adoption of EBPs across rural America. PMID:22982852

  16. English Proficiency Tests and Communication Skills Training for Overseas-Qualified Health Professionals in Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wette, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…

  17. 76 FR 37207 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...This document contains amendments to interim final regulations implementing the requirements regarding internal claims and appeals and external review processes for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. These rules are intended to respond to feedback from a wide range of stakeholders on the interim......

  18. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... public health concern primarily because it is a major risk factor for mortality from coronary heart... in reducing mortality associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. There is a continuum of... mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. (4) Sodium is an essential nutrient, and experts...

  19. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... public health concern primarily because it is a major risk factor for mortality from coronary heart... in reducing mortality associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. There is a continuum of... mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. (4) Sodium is an essential nutrient, and experts...

  20. Assessment of administrative claims data for public health reporting of Salmonella in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Marder, Ellyn; Garman, Katie; Jones, Timothy F; Dunn, John; Jones, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, approximately 4% of the estimated 1 million Salmonella infections occurring annually are reported to public health. Administrative claims data from large health insurance companies capture disease-specific data which could potentially enhance public health surveillance. To determine the utility of medical claims data for public health reporting of Salmonella, we assessed medical claims data from BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee (BCBST) members compared to Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) surveillance data. BCBST Salmonella cases diagnosed during 2007-2011 were matched to TDH Salmonella cases reported during the same time period. Matches and non-matches were validated using medical records. Of the 450 BCBST cases identified, 72% matched TDH cases. All culture-confirmed BCBST cases were reported to TDH. Non-matched BCBST cases included clinical diagnoses which were culture negative or not tested. Our findings indicate administrative claims data are not currently a viable mechanism for enhancing routine reporting of Salmonella infections. PMID:25053578

  1. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed. PMID:25693912

  2. The Effects of Physicians' Computer Applications on Health Insurance Claims and Reimbursements

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Dayton W.; Federico, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Physicians, hospitals and other health care providers are increasingly turning to the utilization of computers for a multitude of functions, not least of which is for the preparation of health insurance claims data. Economies found in computer applications for both providers and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans are moving us quickly into the anticipated age of “paperless” claims. Though there are certain problems to yet be resolved, the mutual interest of reducing paper and simplifying data collection and processing is leading us toward that mutual goal. Computer preparation of claims by physicians or their billing agents and the subsequent computer processing for payment by Blue Shield Plans is increasing the accuracy of this work effort, improving cash flow, reducing problems in servicing and increasing patient satisfaction. And, we are just in the beginning stages.

  3. Making it work: health care provider perspectives on strategies to increase colorectal cancer screening in federally qualified health centers.

    PubMed

    Gwede, Clement K; Davis, Stacy N; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis M; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meade, Cathy D

    2013-12-01

    Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) rates are low among men and women who seek health care at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). This study explores health care providers' perspectives about their patient's motivators and impediments to CRCS and receptivity to preparatory education. A mixed methods design consisting of in-depth interviews, focus groups, and a short survey is used in this study. The participants of this study are 17 health care providers practicing in FQHCs in the Tampa Bay area. Test-specific patient impediments and motivations were identified including fear of abnormal findings, importance of offering less invasive fecal occult blood tests, and need for patient-centered test-specific educational materials in clinics. Opportunities to improve provider practices were identified including providers' reliance on patients' report of symptoms as a cue to recommend CRCS and overemphasis of clinic-based guaiac stool tests. This study adds to the literature on CRCS test-specific motivators and impediments. Providers offered unique approaches for motivating patients to follow through with recommended CRCS and were receptive to in-clinic patient education. Findings readily inform the design of educational materials and interventions to increase CRCS in FQHCs. PMID:23943277

  4. Making It Work: Health Care Provider Perspectives on Strategies to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Davis, Stacy N.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Koskan, Alexis M.; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) rates are low among men and women who seek health care at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). This study explores health care providers' perspectives about their patient's motivators and impediments to CRCS and receptivity to preparatory education. Methods A mixed methods design consisting of in-depth interviews, focus groups, and a short survey. Setting: FQHCs in the Tampa Bay area. Participants: Seventeen health care providers practicing in FQHCs. Results Test-specific patient impediments and motivations were identified including fear of abnormal findings; importance of offering less invasive fecal occult blood tests; and need for patient-centered test-specific educational materials in clinics. Opportunities to improve provider practices were identified including providers' reliance on patients' report of symptoms as a cue to recommend CRCS and overemphasis of clinic-based guaiac stool tests. Conclusions This study adds to the literature on CRCS test-specific motivators and impediments. Providers offered unique approaches for motivating patients to follow through with recommended CRCS and were receptive to in-clinic patient education and. Findings are readily inform the design of educational materials and interventions to increase CRCS in FQHCs. PMID:23943277

  5. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care Claim Status Request and Response (276/277), August 2006, ASC...

  6. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care Claim Status Request and Response (276/277), August 2006, ASC...

  7. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care Claim Status Request and Response (276/277), August 2006, ASC...

  8. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care Claim Status Request and Response (276/277), August 2006, ASC...

  9. 45 CFR 162.1101 - Health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transaction. The health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction is the transmission of... the reimbursement contract is based on a mechanism other than charges or reimbursement rates for specific services, the transaction is the transmission of encounter information for the purpose...

  10. 76 FR 9525 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... health claim that published on December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76526), the Agency provided a period of 75 days... 20740, 301-436-2176. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of September 8, 2000 (65 FR... the IFR. In the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76526), the Agency issued a proposed...

  11. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  12. Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

  13. Effectiveness of a College Course Focused on Evaluation of Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Chamberlin, Valerie M.

    1993-01-01

    A study measured the effectiveness of a college course that instructed students to critically evaluate therapeutic claims for foods, nutrient supplements, weight reduction products and diets, and alternative health care. Pretests and posttests of experimental and comparison groups found experimental group students had desirable changes in source…

  14. Health effects of olive oil polyphenols: recent advances and possibilities for the use of health claims.

    PubMed

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Covas, María Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Kušar, Anita; Pravst, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The Mediterranean diet and consumption of olive oil have been connected in several studies with longevity and a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle, such as regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and the existing social cohesion in Southern European countries have been recognised as candidate protective factors that may explain the Mediterranean Paradox. Along with some other characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, the use of olive oil as the main source of fat is common in Southern European countries. The benefits of consuming olive oil have been known since antiquity and were traditionally attributed to its high content in oleic acid. However, it is now well established that these effects must also be attributed to the phenolic fraction of olive oil with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The mechanisms of these activities are varied and probably interconnected. For some activities of olive oil phenolic compounds, the evidence is already strong enough to enable the legal use of health claims on foods. This review discusses the health effects of olive oil phenols along with the possibilities of communicating these effects on food labels. PMID:23450515

  15. mHealth Quality: A Process to Seal the Qualified Mobile Health Apps.

    PubMed

    Yasini, Mobin; Beranger, Jérôme; Desmarais, Pierre; Perez, Lucas; Marchand, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    A large number of mobile health applications (apps) are currently available with a variety of functionalities. The user ratings in the app stores seem not to be reliable to determine the quality of the apps. The traditional methods of evaluation are not suitable for fast paced nature of mobile technology. In this study, we propose a collaborative multidimensional scale to assess the quality of mHealth apps. During our process, the app quality is assessed in various aspects including medical reliability, legal consistency, ethical consistency, usability aspects, personal data privacy and IT security. A hypothetico-deductive approach was used in various working groups to define the audit criteria based on the various use cases that an app could provide. These criteria were then implemented into a web based self-administered questionnaires and the generation of automatic reports were considered. This method is on the one hand specific to each app because it allows to assess each health app according to its offered functionalities. On the other hand, this method is automatic, transferable to all apps and adapted to the dynamic nature of mobile technology. PMID:27577372

  16. An analysis of the warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding misleading health outcomes claims

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Patel, Harshali K.; Sansgiry, Sujit S.

    Objective To evaluate the number and type of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotional violations. Methods Two reviewers downloaded, printed and independently evaluated warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers from years 2003-2008. Misleading claims were broadly classified as clinical, Quality-of-Life (QoL), and economic claims. Clinical claims included claims regarding unsubstantiated efficacy, safety and tolerability, superiority, broadening of indication and/or omission of risk information. QoL claims included unsubstantiated quality of life and/or health-related quality of life claims. Economic claims included any form of claim made on behalf of the pharmaceutical companies related to cost superiority of or cost savings from the drug compared to other drugs in the market. Results In the 6-year study period, 65 warning letters were issued by FDA, which contained 144 clinical, three QoL, and one economic claim. On an average, 11 warning letters were issued per year. Omission of risk information was the most frequently violated claim (30.6%) followed by unsubstantiated efficacy claims (18.6%). Warning letters were primarily directed to manufacturers of cardiovascular (14.6%), anti-microbial (14.6%), and CNS (12.5%) drugs. Majority of the claims referenced in warning letters contained promotional materials directed to physicians (57%). Conclusions The study found that misleading clinical outcome claims formed the majority of the promotional violations, and majority of the claims were directed to physicians. Since inadequate promotion of medications may lead to irrational prescribing, the study emphasizes the importance of disseminating reliable, credible, and scientific information to patients, and more importantly, physicians to protect public health. PMID:24155837

  17. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. PMID:26269489

  18. The motivational and informational basis of attitudes toward foods with health claims.

    PubMed

    Žeželj, Iris; Milošević, Jasna; Stojanović, Žaklina; Ognjanov, Galjina

    2012-12-01

    This research explored the effects of food choice motives, nutritional knowledge, and the use of food labels, on attitude toward food with health claims. Food with health claims was chosen as a relatively novel category of products designed to be beneficial for health. We identified eight motives served by food in general, and tested if they serve as motivations to positively evaluate functional food. Questionnaire was administered on nationally representative samples of 3085 respondents from six Western Balkan countries. We proposed two structural models relating an extensive list of eight and, alternatively, restricted list of three food-choice motives (health, mood and sensory appeal) to attitude toward functional food. We also expected the indirect association between the health motive and attitude, through nutritional knowledge and use of food labels. The results revealed highly positive, although undifferentiated attitude toward functional food, with no significant differences between the countries. The restricted model provided a better fit then the exhaustive model; the health motive was proven to have indirect influence on attitude through knowledge and label use. The implications of these findings for functional approach to attitudes, understanding the demand for functional food and overcoming barriers to dietary change are discussed. PMID:22989622

  19. Health care justice for temporary migrant workers on 457 visas in Australia: a case study of internationally qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paula; Phillips, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    Workers and their families in Australia under the Temporary Work (Skilled) Visa (subclass 457) scheme have no access to publicly funded health care. Rather, they are required by the Commonwealth government to purchase costly private health insurance. Our empirical study revealed the serious negative effects of the government's policy on the ability of internationally qualified nurses on 457 visas to meet their basic health care needs and to settle effectively into Australian society This article argues that the current policy is unjust and evaluates three options for reform which would accord more fully with the government's obligations to minimise harm to people's health and to ensure that all people in society have their health care needs met in a fair manner. PMID:25980190

  20. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for Weight Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Verrill, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate effect of low-carbohydrate claims on consumer perceptions about food products' healthfulness and helpfulness for weight management. Design: Experiment in which participants were randomly assigned 1 of 12 front-of-package claim conditions on bread or a frozen dinner. Seven of the 12 conditions also included Nutrition Facts (NF)…

  1. Recent developments in false claims enforcement: a minefield for health care providers.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Glenn V; Walton, Victor A

    2007-01-01

    Actions under the False Claims Act represent potentially billions of dollars in damages returned to the state and federal governments each year for fraud recovery. Over the past several years, health care providers have been the target of about half of the FCA suits filed and have paid out an even greater percentage of the damages recovered. Because of the enumerable opportunities for fraud, waste, and abuse in the health care industry, it will likely continue to be a prominent target of FCA suits. Key provisions of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, effective on January 1, 2007, will only increase the reach of the FCA. Providers beware. PMID:19175229

  2. Claiming territory: medical mission, interreligious revivalism, and the spatialization of health interventions in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, new religious actors have become involved in the provision of medical care in urban Tanzania. Muslim revivalist organizations and neo-Pentecostal churches in particular have established a range of health interventions that are tied to revisionist claims about religion, spirituality, and politics in society. In this article I discuss medical mission in Dar es Salaam in the light of (post)colonial histories of health service provision as well as with regard to inter- and intradenominational contestations over health and well-being, a morally acceptable life, and political participation. I argue that the nature of the inscription of revivalist organizations in urban space through health interventions depends on their structural location and their respective members' social and economic capital. I also show that the ongoing transformations of urban space through medical mission have become reflective of, as well as are triggering, moral interpretations of history and social inequality in contemporary Tanzania. PMID:24383752

  3. Health measurement using the ICF: Test-retest reliability study of ICF codes and qualifiers in geriatric care

    PubMed Central

    Okochi, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Sakiko; Takahashi, Tai

    2005-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was published by the World Health Organization (WHO) to standardize descriptions of health and disability. Little is known about the reliability and clinical relevance of measurements using the ICF and its qualifiers. This study examines the test-retest reliability of ICF codes, and the rate of immeasurability in long-term care settings of the elderly to evaluate the clinical applicability of the ICF and its qualifiers, and the ICF checklist. Methods Reliability of 85 body function (BF) items and 152 activity and participation (AP) items of the ICF was studied using a test-retest procedure with a sample of 742 elderly persons from 59 institutional and at home care service centers. Test-retest reliability was estimated using the weighted kappa statistic. The clinical relevance of the ICF was estimated by calculating immeasurability rate. The effect of the measurement settings and evaluators' experience was analyzed by stratification of these variables. The properties of each item were evaluated using both the kappa statistic and immeasurability rate to assess the clinical applicability of WHO's ICF checklist in the elderly care setting. Results The median of the weighted kappa statistics of 85 BF and 152 AP items were 0.46 and 0.55 respectively. The reproducibility statistics improved when the measurements were performed by experienced evaluators. Some chapters such as genitourinary and reproductive functions in the BF domain and major life area in the AP domain contained more items with lower test-retest reliability measures and rated as immeasurable than in the other chapters. Some items in the ICF checklist were rated as unreliable and immeasurable. Conclusion The reliability of the ICF codes when measured with the current ICF qualifiers is relatively low. The result in increase in reliability according to evaluators' experience suggests proper education will have positive

  4. Spurious claims for health-care products: an experimental approach to evaluating current UK legislation and its implementation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Leslie B; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The lay media, and especially the Internet, contain many misleading claims for health products which have previously been inadequately regulated by consumer law. This was an experimental interventional survey within a consumer health-care setting. Three health products were chosen on the basis of being widely available on the UK market and having no available evidence of effectiveness. Twelve volunteers submitted 39 complaints to Consumer Direct (UK portal for the regulator Trading Standards) regarding false health claims, and 36 complaints were followed up for a maximum of 4.8 months. The mean time from submission of complaints to Consumer Direct to acknowledgement by the relevant Trading Standards office was 13 days. There were no responses from Trading Standards for 22% of complaints. At the end of the study one supplier had amended their website following Trading Standards advice, but did not stop all health claims. Another stopped advertising their product on the Internet and the third continued the health claims unchanged. EU directive 2005/29/EC is largely ineffective in preventing misleading health claims for consumer products in the UK. PMID:22403120

  5. Medicaid patients seen at federally qualified health centers use hospital services less than those seen by private providers.

    PubMed

    Rothkopf, Jennifer; Brookler, Katie; Wadhwa, Sandeep; Sajovetz, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Federally qualified health centers, also known as community health centers, play an essential role in providing health care to millions of Americans. In return for providing primary care to underserved, homeless, and migrant populations, these centers are reimbursed at a higher rate than other providers by public programs such as Medicaid. Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the role of the centers is expected to grow. To examine the quality of care that the centers provide, the Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing compared the use of costly hospital-related services by Medicaid clients whose usual source of care was a community health center with the use by clients whose usual source of care was a private, fee-for-service provider. The study found that community health center users were about one-third less likely than the other group to have emergency department visits, inpatient hospitalizations, or preventable hospital admissions. Public funders such as states should work with community health centers to improve the quality and reduce the cost of care even further. PMID:21734208

  6. Some pain, no gain: experiences with the no-claim rebate in the Dutch health care system.

    PubMed

    Holland, J; Van Exel, N J A; Schut, F T; Brouwer, W B F

    2009-10-01

    To contain expenditures in an increasingly demand driven health care system, in 2005 a no-claim rebate was introduced in the Dutch health insurance system. Since demand-side cost sharing is a very controversial issue, the no-claim rebate was launched as a consumer friendly bonus system to reward prudent utilization of health services. Internationally, the introduction of a mandatory no-claim rebate in a social health insurance scheme is unprecedented. Consumers were entitled to an annual rebate of 255 eruos if no claims were made. During the year, all health care expenses except for GP visits and maternity care were deducted from the rebate until the rebate became zero. In this article, we discuss the rationale of the no-claim rebate and the available evidence of its effect. Using a questionnaire in a convenience sample, we examined people's knowledge, attitudes, and sensitivity to the incentive scheme. We find that only 4% of respondents stated that they would reduce consumption because of the no-claim rebate. Respondents also indicated that they were willing to accept a high loss of rebate in order to use a medical treatment. However, during the last month of the year many respondents seemed willing to postpone consumption until the next year in order to keep the rebate of the current year intact. A small majority of respondents considered the no-claim rebate to be unfair. Finally, we briefly discuss why in 2008 the no-claim rebate was replaced by a mandatory deductible. PMID:19239729

  7. 3 CFR - Medicare Demonstration To Test Medical Homes in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services My Administration is committed to building a high-quality, efficient health care system and improving access to health care for all Americans. Health... recommended by the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, an independent advisory body to the...

  8. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Hao, Yi; Holle, Rolf; Graessel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy) remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care. PMID:25337076

  9. Foods, health claims, and the law: comparisons of the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Greene, H L; Prior, T; Frier, H I

    2001-11-01

    Government, academia, and the food industry can play a significant role in the identification of healthy foods and ingredients important for weight management and health. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration developed regulations that define specific food categories for weight management and health. These categories include foods for special dietary uses and medical foods. Medical foods are classified for use in specific disease states and require a physician's recommendation and continuous monitoring. The European regulations specify energy-restricted foods as a subcategory of food for particular nutritional uses, which includes infant formula, medical foods, and foods for sports. European standards for energy-restricted diets have been established, leaving little flexibility for change. Three categories exist (i.e., very-low-calorie diets [450 to 800 kcal], low-calorie diets [800 to 1200 kcal], and meal replacements [200 to 400 kcal]). No claims on anticipated weight loss can be made even where significant clinical research has demonstrated long-term efficacy, thereby preventing informed choice management. Dramatic changes in lifestyle (e.g., disruption of the family unit, altered eating occasions, fast foods, and food grazing) have resulted in an epidemic of obesity and chronic disease. Regulating food selection or dietary patterns to limit the epidemic is not realistic. However, stimulating government health agencies and the food industry to increase public awareness through educational programs and regulating the definition of acceptable methods and products can provide an environment for change. A consensus is needed among academia, government, and industry for appropriate food labeling and claims. These actions are needed to help individuals make healthy food selections and maintain a healthy weight. Public health initiatives should change consumer attitudes with programs that are simple, affordable, effective, and accessible. PMID:11707554

  10. 78 FR 33233 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012) (to be codified at 45 CFR... Payment Parameters for 2014, 78 FR 15410 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at 45 CFR parts 153, 155, 156... Health Plans; Small Business Health Options Program, 77 FR 15553 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at...

  11. 42 CFR 495.204 - Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for qualifying MA-EPs and qualifying MA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for qualifying MA-EPs and qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.204 Section 495.204 Public... Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.204 Incentive payments to qualifying...

  12. 42 CFR 495.204 - Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for qualifying MA-EPs and qualifying MA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for qualifying MA-EPs and qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.204 Section 495.204 Public... Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.204 Incentive payments to qualifying...

  13. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... March 16, 2009: (1) Retail pharmacy drugs claims. The National Council for Prescription Drug Programs... paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) For retail pharmacy supplies and professional services claims, the...) Retail pharmacy drug claims. The Telecommunication Standard Implementation Guide, Version D, Release...

  14. Nutrition Claims Influence Health Perceptions and Taste Preferences in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldavini, Jessica; Crawford, Patricia; Ritchie, Lorrene D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether children perceive food with nutrition claims as healthier and tasting differently than those without claims. Methods: Fourth- and fifth-graders (n = 47) from 3 California schools participated. Two identical products (cookies, crackers, or juice) were placed in front of product packages, 1 with a nutrition claim, the…

  15. Pharmacology in health foods:merits and demerits of food with health claims for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    The merits and demerits of food with health claims for the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MS) are reviewed. One major underlying cause of MS is obesity. Diet and lifestyle changes remain the cornerstones of therapy for obesity, but resulting weight loss is often small and long-term success is extremely uncommon and disappointing. Many anti-obesity drugs have been associated with unintended therapeutic outcomes. Currently, only one drug (mazindol) is approved in Japan for short-term treatment of individuals with a BMI over 35 kg/m(2). Treatment with orlistat with dietary modification, caffeine, or protein supplementation; consuming a low-fat diet; adherence to physical activity routines; prolonged contact with participants; problem-solving therapy; and the alternative treatment of acupressure are efficacious in reducing weight regain after weight loss treatment. Because obesity is highly stigmatized, any effective treatment should be made available to improve quality of life and self-image. Therefore, it is necessary to provide information to consumers through the media concerning 1) basic knowledge about health foods and laws concerning them, 2) scientifically based information on safety/effectiveness of health foods and food elements, and 3) reports on health disturbances associated with health foods around the world. PMID:21436603

  16. PPACA and Low-Income People Living with HIV: 2014 Qualified Health Plan Enrollment in a Medicaid Nonexpansion State.

    PubMed

    McManus, Kathleen A; McGonigle, Keanan M; Engelhard, Carolyn L; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often are uninsured or underinsured, and they may benefit from the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PL 111-148) and its improved access to medical care. Safety net programs, such as AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) funded through the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serve low-income people living with HIV, are incorporating Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Marketplace-qualified health plans (QHPs) and helping to fund patients' participation. This changing landscape differs from state to state, and one main element contributing to the differing situations is whether a state elected to expand Medicaid. This review examines QHP enrollment of ADAP clients in Virginia, a Medicaid nonexpansion state, and explores some issues that affect people living with HIV in other Medicaid nonexpansion states. Virginia is a leader in the shift of ADAP healthcare delivery from direct medication provision to purchasing QHPs. Virginia ADAP clients accounted for approximately 2% of ADAP clients nationally, but they represent 17% of ADAP clients enrolled in QHPs nationwide. Ensuring good HIV care of the ADAP population is important to each patient's personal longevity, the public health, and the efficient use of healthcare dollars. As healthcare delivery models shift, the effects on patients and health outcomes achieved should be monitored, particularly for chronic diseases such as HIV. PMID:27255096

  17. Primary care program improves reimbursement. The Federally Qualified Health Center program helps hospitals improve services to the medically indigent.

    PubMed

    Fahey, T M; Gallitano, D G

    1993-03-01

    Under a program created by Congress in 1989, certain primary care treatment centers serving the medically and economically indigent can become Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Recently enacted rules and regulations allow participants in the FQHC program to receive 100 percent reasonable cost reimbursement for Medicaid services and 80 percent for Medicare services. An all-inclusive annual cost report is the basis for determining reimbursement rates. The report factors in such expenses as physician and other healthcare and professional salaries and benefits, medical supplies, certain equipment depreciation, and overhead for facility and administrative costs. Both Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement is based on an encounter rate, and states employ various methodologies to determine the reimbursement level. In Illinois, for example, typical reimbursement for a qualified encounter ranges from $70 to $88. To obtain FQHC status, an organization must demonstrate community need, deliver the appropriate range of healthcare services, satisfy management and finance requirements, and function under a community-based governing board. In addition, an FQHC must provide primary healthcare by physicians and (where appropriate) midlevel practitioners; it must also offer its community diagnostic laboratory and x-ray services, preventive healthcare and dental care, case management, pharmacy services, and arrangements for emergency services. Because FQHCs must be freestanding facilities, establishing them can trigger a number of ancillary legal issues, such as those involved in forming a new corporation, complying with not-for-profit corporation regulations, applying for tax-exempt status, and applying for various property and sales tax exemptions. Hospitals that establish FQHCs must also be prepared to relinquish direct control over the delivery of primary care services. PMID:10124301

  18. De-identification Methods for Open Health Data: The Case of the Heritage Health Prize Claims Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Luk; Koru, Gunes; Eze, Benjamin; Gaudette, Lisa; Neri, Emilio; Rose, Sean; Howard, Jeremy; Gluck, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many benefits to open datasets. However, privacy concerns have hampered the widespread creation of open health data. There is a dearth of documented methods and case studies for the creation of public-use health data. We describe a new methodology for creating a longitudinal public health dataset in the context of the Heritage Health Prize (HHP). The HHP is a global data mining competition to predict, by using claims data, the number of days patients will be hospitalized in a subsequent year. The winner will be the team or individual with the most accurate model past a threshold accuracy, and will receive a US $3 million cash prize. HHP began on April 4, 2011, and ends on April 3, 2013. Objective To de-identify the claims data used in the HHP competition and ensure that it meets the requirements in the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule. Methods We defined a threshold risk consistent with the HIPAA Privacy Rule Safe Harbor standard for disclosing the competition dataset. Three plausible re-identification attacks that can be executed on these data were identified. For each attack the re-identification probability was evaluated. If it was deemed too high then a new de-identification algorithm was applied to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. We performed an actual evaluation of re-identification risk using simulated attacks and matching experiments to confirm the results of the de-identification and to test sensitivity to assumptions. The main metric used to evaluate re-identification risk was the probability that a record in the HHP data can be re-identified given an attempted attack. Results An evaluation of the de-identified dataset estimated that the probability of re-identifying an individual was .0084, below the .05 probability threshold specified for the competition. The risk was robust to violations of our initial assumptions. Conclusions It was possible to ensure that the probability of re

  19. 77 FR 70163 - Recognition of Entities for the Accreditation of Qualified Health Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the recognition of... the Federal Register (77 FR 42658) titled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data... accrediting entity (77 FR 42662 through 42668). Therefore, this notice serves as public notification that...

  20. The interplay of health claims and taste importance on food consumption and self-reported satiety.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Morwitz, Vicki; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that subtle health claims used by food marketers influence pre-intake expectations, but no study has examined how they influence individuals' post-consumption experience of satiety after a complete meal and how this varies according to the value placed on food taste. In two experiments, we assess how labeling a pasta salad as "healthy" or "hearty" influences self-reported satiety, consumption volume, and subsequent consumption of another food. Using MANOVA, Study 1 shows that individuals who report low taste importance consume less-yet feel just as satiated-when a salad is labeled "hearty" rather than "healthy." In contrast, for individuals with higher taste importance, consumption and self-reported satiety are correlated and are both higher when a salad is labeled as "hearty" versus "healthy." Study 2 primes taste importance, rather than measuring it, and replicates these findings for consumption, but not for self-reported satiety. There was no effect on the consumption of other foods in either study. Overall, our findings add to earlier work on the impact of health labels by showing that subtle food descriptions also influence post-intake experiences of satiety, but that the direction of the effects depends on taste importance and on the selection of direct or indirect measures of satiety. PMID:24055757

  1. The Effectiveness of Insurer-Supported Safety and Health Engineering Controls in Reducing Workers’ Compensation Claims and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Wurzelbacher, Steven J.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lampl, Michael P.; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Meyers, Alysha R.; Robins, David C.; Al-Tarawneh, Ibraheem S.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a program in which a workers’ compensation (WC) insurer provided matching funds to insured employers to implement safety/health engineering controls. Methods Pre- and post-intervention WC metrics were compiled for the employees designated as affected by the interventions within 468 employers for interventions occurring from 2003 to 2009. Poisson, two-part, and linear regression models with repeated measures were used to evaluate differences in pre- and post-data, controlling for time trends independent of the interventions. Results For affected employees, total WC claim frequency rates (both medical-only and lost-time claims) decreased 66%, lost-time WC claim frequency rates decreased 78%, WC paid cost per employee decreased 81%, and WC geometric mean paid claim cost decreased 30% post-intervention. Reductions varied by employer size, specific industry, and intervention type. Conclusions The insurer-supported safety/health engineering control program was effective in reducing WC claims and costs for affected employees. PMID:25223846

  2. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents’ abilities in critically appraising health claims. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents’ critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students’ knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Results Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Conclusion Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant

  3. Health insurance and the demand for medical care: Instrumental variable estimates using health insurer claims data.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe

    2016-07-01

    This paper takes a different approach to estimating demand for medical care that uses the negotiated prices between insurers and providers as an instrument. The instrument is viewed as a textbook "cost shifting" instrument that impacts plan offerings, but is unobserved by consumers. The paper finds a price elasticity of demand of around -0.20, matching the elasticity found in the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. The paper also studies within-market variation in demand for prescription drugs and other medical care services and obtains comparable price elasticity estimates. PMID:27107371

  4. Considerations for the analysis of longitudinal electronic health records linked to claims data to study the effectiveness and safety of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lin, K J; Schneeweiss, S

    2016-08-01

    Health insurance claims and electronic health records (EHR) databases have been considered the preferred data sources with which to study drug safety and effectiveness in routine care. Linking claims data to EHR allows researchers to leverage the complementary advantages of each data source to enhance study validity. We propose a framework to evaluate the need for supplementing claims data with EHR and vice versa to optimize outcome ascertainment, exposure assessment, and confounding adjustment. PMID:26916672

  5. Integration of Oral Health Into the Well-Child Visit at Federally Qualified Health Centers: Study of 6 Clinics, August 2014–March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, Christina; Vargas, Clemencia; Geltman, Paul; Walter, Ashley; Garcia, Raul I.; Tinanoff, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood caries, the most common chronic childhood disease, affects primary dentition and can impair eating, sleeping, and school performance. The disease is most prevalent among vulnerable populations with limited access to pediatric dental services. These same children generally receive well-child care at federally qualified health centers. The objective of this study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the integration of oral health into pediatric primary care at health centers to improve problem recognition, delivery of preventive measures, and referral to a dentist. Methods We collected and analyzed background data and data from structured observations and 39 interviews with administrators and staff at 6 clinics in 2 states, Maryland and Massachusetts. Results Participants valued oral health across professional roles but cited limited time, lack of training and expertise, low caregiver literacy, and lack of shared medical and dental electronic records as barriers to cooperation. Facilitators included an upper-level administration with the vision to see the value of integration, designated team leaders, and champions. An administration’s vision, not structural determinants, patient characteristics, or geographic location, predicted the level of integration. Interviewees generated multilevel recommendations to promote delivery of oral health preventive measures and services during a well-child visit. Conclusion Poor oral health contributes to health care disparities. Barriers to integrating dental care into pediatric medical practice at health centers must be overcome to improve oral health for children living in poverty, with a disability, at a rural address, or any combination of these. Implementation will require adapting delivery systems to support multidisciplinary collaboration. Strategies suggested here may point the way to enhancing children’s oral health. PMID:27126556

  6. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  7. Application of a single sampling plan for auditing medical-claim payments made by Taiwan National Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hwai-Hui; Tsai, Hsien-Tang; Lin, Ching-Wei; Wei, Duan

    2004-11-01

    National Health Insurance (NHI) has been implemented in Taiwan for nearly a decade. Owing to growing demand for medical-care, effective sampling auditing is a key factor in obtaining reasonably priced medical-care services. This investigation proposes a conceptual framework "medical-claim payment auditing (MCPA) procedure" based on the "Military Standard 105E (MIL-STD-105E) single sampling plan" for establishing an objective criterion for making medical-claim payments fairly. The MCPA procedure contributes to the following: (1) meeting international standards of sampling technology; (2) reducing the sampling ratio and consequently auditing costs; and (3) encouraging healthcare providers to honestly apply their medical-claim payments thus avoid wasting medical resources. PMID:15364148

  8. Development of an Electronic Claim System Based on an Integrated Electronic Health Record Platform to Guarantee Interoperability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwa Sun; Cho, Hune

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We design and develop an electronic claim system based on an integrated electronic health record (EHR) platform. This system is designed to be used for ambulatory care by office-based physicians in the United States. This is achieved by integrating various medical standard technologies for interoperability between heterogeneous information systems. Methods The developed system serves as a simple clinical data repository, it automatically fills out the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-1500 form based on information regarding the patients and physicians' clinical activities. It supports electronic insurance claims by creating reimbursement charges. It also contains an HL7 interface engine to exchange clinical messages between heterogeneous devices. Results The system partially prevents physician malpractice by suggesting proper treatments according to patient diagnoses and supports physicians by easily preparing documents for reimbursement and submitting claim documents to insurance organizations electronically, without additional effort by the user. To show the usability of the developed system, we performed an experiment that compares the time spent filling out the CMS-1500 form directly and time required create electronic claim data using the developed system. From the experimental results, we conclude that the system could save considerable time for physicians in making claim documents. Conclusions The developed system might be particularly useful for those who need a reimbursement-specialized EHR system, even though the proposed system does not completely satisfy all criteria requested by the CMS and Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). This is because the criteria are not sufficient but necessary condition for the implementation of EHR systems. The system will be upgraded continuously to implement the criteria and to offer more stable and transparent transmission of electronic claim data. PMID

  9. HPV Awareness and Vaccine Willingness among Dominican Immigrant Parents Attending a Federal Qualified Health Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Quiñones, Valerie; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M.; Conde-Toro, Alexandra; Serra-Rivera, Michelle J.; Martínez, Tania M.; Rodríguez, Verónica; Berdiel, Luis; Villanueva, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV), and willingness to vaccinate among a convenience sample of 60 immigrant Dominican parents of adolescent sons in a Federal Qualified Health Clinic (FQHC) in Puerto Rico (PR). Participation involved completing a self-administered survey. Even though more than half of the parents had not received proper HPV vaccine orientation from healthcare provider (58.3%) nor asked provider for vaccination recommendation for their adolescent sons (56.7%), most parents were aware of HPV (91.7%) and HPV vaccination among males (55.0%). Among those with unvaccinated sons, willingness to vaccinate the son within the next year was high (83.8%). The low vaccination percentage (31.7%) and information exchange between the parents and the son’s healthcare provider indicates an opportunity for future culturally tailored interventions to target HPV vaccination among healthcare providers and parents of foreign descent in order to increase HPV vaccine uptake among males. PMID:25023490

  10. Primary care provider practices and beliefs related to cervical cancer screening with the HPV test in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K.B.; Benard, V.B.; Greek, A.; Hawkins, N.A.; Manninen, D.; Saraiya, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer screening using the human papillomavirus (HPV) test and Pap test together (co-testing) is an option for average-risk women ≥30 years of age. With normal co-test results, screening intervals can be extended. The study objective is to assess primary care provider practices, beliefs, facilitators and barriers to using the co-test and extending screening intervals among low-income women. Method Data were collected from 98 providers in 15 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics in Illinois between August 2009 and March 2010 using a cross-sectional survey. Results 39% of providers reported using the co-test, and 25% would recommend a three-year screening interval for women with normal co-test results. Providers perceived greater encouragement for co-testing than for extending screening intervals with a normal co-test result. Barriers to extending screening intervals included concerns about patients not returning annually for other screening tests (77%), patient concerns about missing cancer (62%), and liability (52%). Conclusion Among FQHC providers in Illinois, few administered the co-test for screening and recommended appropriate intervals, possibly due to concerns over loss to follow-up and liability. Education regarding harms of too-frequent screening and false positives may be necessary to balance barriers to extending screening intervals. PMID:23628517

  11. Access to In-Network Emergency Physicians and Emergency Departments Within Federally Qualified Health Plans in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, Stephen C.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Raja, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Under regulations established by the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must meet minimum standards in order to be sold through the federal Marketplace. These standards to become a qualified health plan (QHP) include maintaining a provider network sufficient to assure access to services. However, the complexity of emergency physician (EP) employment practices – in which the EPs frequently serve as independent contractors of emergency departments, independently establish insurance contracts, etc… – and regulations governing insurance repayment may hinder the application of network adequacy standards to emergency medicine. As such, we hypothesized the existence of QHPs without in-network access to EPs. The objective is to identify whether there are QHPs without in-network access to EPs using information available through the federal Marketplace and publicly available provider directories. Results In a national sample of Marketplace plans, we found that one in five provider networks lacks identifiable in-network EPs. QHPs lacking EPs spanned nearly half (44%) of the 34 states using the federal Marketplace. Conclusion Our data suggest that the present regulatory framework governing network adequacy is not generalizable to emergency care, representing a missed opportunity to protect patient access to in-network physicians. These findings and the current regulations governing insurance payment to EPs dis-incentivize the creation of adequate physician networks, incentivize the practice of balance billing, and shift the cost burden to patients. PMID:26823925

  12. Perception and understanding of health claims on milk powder for children: A focus group study among mothers in Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Kuznesof, Sharron A; Seal, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Health claim regulations and guidelines on food products have been established in some Southeast Asia (SEA) countries. Health claims on food products aim to help consumers make informed food choices to achieve a healthy diet. This study aimed to investigate the perception and understanding of health claims and the associated regulatory frameworks of SEA mothers using semi-structured focus groups conducted in Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand. Milk powder for children for three years and above was used as product focus. The mothers recognised and recalled some specific nutrients and food constituents by name but lacked full understanding of their function. The findings indicated that the mothers in all three countries trusted health claims made on the products which was, in part, explained by their trust in their governments and the international brand manufacturers. Their understanding of health claims was influenced by several factors such as their familiarity of the nutrient, previous knowledge of the nutrients, the perceived relevance of the nutrient, the use of scientific terms, the choice of words, and also the phrasing and length of the claims. Consumer education efforts via Public, Private Partnerships could be an approach to educate SEA consumers and help them to better understand health claims. The findings of this study may be relevant to different stakeholders such as local regulatory bodies, policy makers, food industry, academia and non-profit organisations that aim to effectively communicate health claims. PMID:27374897

  13. Revealing power in truth: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-04-01

    Jeremy Shiffman's editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  14. Cancer Screening at a Federally Qualified Health Center: A qualitative study on organizational challenges in the era of health care reform

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Jhingan, Esther; Angulo, Antoinette; Jimenez, Ricardo; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) serve uninsured and minority populations, who have low cancer screening rates. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model aims to provide comprehensive preventive services, including cancer screening, to these populations. Little is known about organizational factors influencing the delivery of cancer screening in this context. Methods We conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with clinic personnel at four FQHC clinics in Washington State. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two bilingual coders to identify salient themes. Results We found that screening on-site, scheduling separate visits for preventive care, and having non-provider staff recommend and schedule screening services facilitated the delivery of cancer screening. We found work overload to be a barrier to screening. Conclusions To successfully implement screening strategies within the PCMH model, FQHCs must enhance facilitators and address organizational gaps in their cancer screening processes. PMID:22878911

  15. Analyzing health insurance claims on different timescales to predict days in hospital.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Schreier, Günter; Hoy, Michael; Liu, Ying; Neubauer, Sandra; Chang, David C W; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2016-04-01

    Health insurers maintain large databases containing information on medical services utilized by claimants, often spanning several healthcare services and providers. Proper use of these databases could facilitate better clinical and administrative decisions. In these data sets, there exists many unequally spaced events, such as hospital visits. However, data mining of temporal data and point processes is still a developing research area and extracting useful information from such data series is a challenging task. In this paper, we developed a time series data mining approach to predict the number of days in hospital in the coming year for individuals from a general insured population based on their insurance claim data. In the proposed method, the data were windowed at four different timescales (bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and yearly) to construct regularly spaced time series features extracted from such events, resulting in four associated prediction models. A comparison of these models indicates models using a half-yearly windowing scheme delivers the best performance on all three populations (the whole population, a senior sub-population and a non-senior sub-population). The superiority of the half-yearly model was found to be particularly pronounced in the senior sub-population. A bagged decision tree approach was able to predict 'no hospitalization' versus 'at least one day in hospital' with a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.426. This was significantly better than the corresponding yearly model, which achieved 0.375 for this group of customers. Further reducing the length of the analysis windows to three or two months did not produce further improvements. PMID:26827621

  16. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fritze, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, p<0.001) and side-unspecified (HR = 1.20, p<0.001) hearing impairment had higher risks of dementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia. PMID:27391486

  17. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, p<0.001) and side-unspecified (HR = 1.20, p<0.001) hearing impairment had higher risks of dementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia. PMID:27391486

  18. Characterization and stability studies of bioactive compounds and food matrices as evidence in support of health claims.

    PubMed

    González-Ferrero, Carolina; Sáiz-Abajo, María-José

    2015-07-01

    The characterization and stability evaluation of food and food constituents (chemical active ingredient/microorganism) for which nutrition or health claims want to be requested are essential for the success of an application to EFSA. This work reviews the requirements that must be fulfilled for a full characterization of the active substance, comprising origin, elaboration, or extraction method, and chemical/microbiological composition, using validated analytical methods. The review focuses not only on establishing the specifications of the final active ingredient or food but also on ensuring homogeneity between batches. In addition, the article discusses the methodologies and conditions of the stability studies that need to be performed on food and food constituents to verify that the relevant compounds--chemical and microbiological active ingredients--will get to the consumer in the intended state and concentration to accomplish the claimed health effect over shelf life. PMID:26241010

  19. Provider communication and role modeling related to patients' perceptions and use of a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Freedman, Darcy A; Choi, Seul Ki; Anadu, Edith C; Brandt, Heather M; Carvalho, Natalia; Hurley, Thomas G; Young, Vicki M; Hébert, James R

    2014-03-01

    Farmers' markets have the potential to improve the health of underserved communities, shape people's perceptions, values, and behaviors about healthy eating, and serve as a social space for both community members and vendors. This study explored the influence of health care provider communication and role modeling for diabetic patients within the context of a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center. Although provider communication about diet decreased over time, communication strategies included: providing patients with "prescriptions" and vouchers for market purchases; educating patients about diet; and modeling healthy purchases. Data from patient interviews and provider surveys revealed that patients enjoyed social aspects of the market including interactions with their health care provider, and providers distributed prescriptions and vouchers to patients, shopped at the market, and believed that the market had potential to improve the health of staff and patients of the federally qualified health center. Provider modeling of healthy behaviors may influence patients' food-related perceptions and dietary behaviors. PMID:23986503

  20. 74 FR 22942 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-05-15

    ... Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS..., Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis--Small Entity Compliance Guide.'' The small entity compliance guide (SECG) is... claim to be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis, and eliminate several requirements of...

  1. Provider Communication and Role Modeling Related to Patients' Perceptions and Use of a Federally Qualified Health Center-based Farmers' Market

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Choi, Seul Ki; Anadu, Edith C.; Brandt, Heather M.; Carvalho, Natalia; Hurley, Thomas G.; Young, Vicki M.; Hebert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers’ markets have the potential to improve the health of underserved communities, shape people’s perceptions, values, and behaviors about healthy eating, and serve as a social space for both community members and vendors. This study explored the influence of health care provider communication and role modeling for diabetic patients within the context of a farmers’ market located at a federally qualified health center (FQHC). Although provider communication about diet decreased over time, communication strategies included: providing patients with “prescriptions” and vouchers for market purchases; educating patients about diet; and modeling healthy purchases. Data from patient interviews and provider surveys revealed that patients enjoyed social aspects of the market including interactions with their health care provider, and providers distributed prescriptions and vouchers to patients, shopped at the market, and believed the market had potential to improve the health of FHQC staff and patients. Provider modeling of healthy behaviors may influence patients’ food-related perceptions and dietary behaviors. PMID:23986503

  2. Health claims using the term 'sustained energy' are trending but glycaemic response data are being used to support: is this misleading without context?

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, C P F; Harding, S V

    2016-08-01

    One of the most recent food trends is the quest for products that provide 'sustained energy'; a term that is garnering considerable attention within the marketplace. Often, 'sustained energy' health claims are based on a food's post-prandial glycaemic response. However, are generalised health claims regarding 'sustained energy' valid when only supported by glycaemic response data? Without context, the short answer is: probably not. Health claims that link sustained energy to a glycaemic response, or any other attribute of a food or diet, require context to ensure that the public correctly interprets and experiences the claimed effect and is not misled in their quest for healthy foods that impose the desired physiological benefit. PMID:27028560

  3. 45 CFR 156.330 - Changes of ownership of issuers of Qualified Health Plans in Federally-facilitated Exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Federally-Facilitated...

  4. How Strong Is the Primary Care Safety Net? Assessing the Ability of Federally Qualified Health Centers to Serve as Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jamie; Riley, Pamela; Abrams, Melinda; Nocon, Robert

    2015-09-01

    By expanding access to affordable insurance coverage for millions of Americans, the Affordable Care Act will likely increase demand for the services provided by federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), which provide an important source of care in low-income communities. A pair of Commonwealth Fund surveys asked health center leaders about their ability to function as medical homes. Survey findings show that between 2009 and 2013, the percentage of centers exhibiting medium or high levels of medical home capability almost doubled, from 32 percent to 62 percent. The greatest improvement was reported in patient tracking and care management. Despite this increased capability, health centers reported diminished ability to coordinate care with providers outside of the practice, particularly specialists. Ongoing federal funding and technical support for medical home transformation will be needed to ensure that FQHCs can fulfill their mission of providing high-quality, comprehensive care to low-income and minority populations. PMID:26372972

  5. Estimation of the incidence of MRSA patients: evaluation of a surveillance system using health insurance claim data.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, S; Suzuki, S

    2016-08-01

    Because sentinel surveillance systems cannot obtain information about patients who visit non-sentinel medical facilities, the characteristics of patients identified by these systems may be biased. In this study, we evaluated the representativeness of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance system using health insurance claim (HIC) data, which does not depend on physician notification. We calculated the age-specific incidence of MRSA patients using data from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) programme, which is based on sentinel surveillance systems, and inpatient HICs submitted to employee health insurance organizations in 2011, and then computed age-specific incidence ratios between the HIC and JANIS data. Age-specific MRSA incidence in both datasets followed J-shaped curves with similar shapes. For all age groups, the ratios between HIC and JANIS data were around 10. These findings indicate that JANIS notification of MRSA cases was not affected by patients' age. PMID:27350233

  6. 76 FR 37037 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... the Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human... with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group.... The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health...

  7. 75 FR 43109 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in... health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those...

  8. Consumers’ Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer’s understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers’ exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers’ exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer’s in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children’s development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers’ exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers’ food preferences and choices. PMID:26569301

  9. Consumers' Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-11-01

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer's understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers' exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers' exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer's in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children's development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers' exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers' food preferences and choices. PMID:26569301

  10. Positive and Negative Aspects of Food with Health Claims in Japan.

    PubMed

    Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Developments in food science and technology have accelerated the production and availability of health foods. Although consumers may acquire health benefits from some products, they may also suffer adverse health effects and economic losses. Unlike medicine, which is administered by health professionals, foods are chosen directly by the consumer and can be used at their own discretion. Food labeling plays a major role in providing consumers with proper information when choosing the desired products; however, the food labeling system is complex and inadequately understood by consumers. Moreover, there are some products that do not follow food labeling laws and contain ingredients that have not undergone proper effectiveness and safety evaluations. With the increasing popularity of health foods, it is becoming more important to ensure that they are effective and safely used. The biggest concern is that some consumers may mistake health foods for medicines that can cure or prevent diseases. The main reason that consumers are confused and misled is due to the vast amount of information that is available. This paper provides an overview of the following four approaches that we have taken in order to develop countermeasures against health foods being used improperly by consumers: (1) conducting a survey of actual health food use; (2) collecting data on adverse events suspected to be caused by health foods, and evaluating the causal relationship with methods suited to investigating health foods; (3) examining the safety of natural ingredients used in health foods; and (4) constructing an online database that compiles information on the safety and effectiveness of health foods and/or ingredients, and sharing such information with consumers and health professionals. PMID:26598827

  11. Factors Associated With Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adult Patients at Four Federally Qualified Health Centers, Bronx, New York, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Arthur E.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Methods Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Results Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. Conclusion SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities. PMID:25569695

  12. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    PubMed Central

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than

  13. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths…

  14. Incidence and Prevalence of Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: A Population-Based Study Using the National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Yeon; Lee, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been a few national population-based epidemiological studies of myasthenia gravis (MG) with wide variation of incidence and prevalence rates worldwide. Herein we report the first nationwide population-based epidemiological study of MG in Korea. Methods We attempted to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates of MG using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database for 2010 to 2013. Cases with MG were defined as those having claim records with a principal diagnosis of MG and the prescription of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressive agents including corticosteroids and azathioprine within 2 years after the diagnosis. The year 2010 was set as a washout period, such that patients were defined as incident cases if their first records of MG were observed in 2011. Results In 2011 there were 1,236 incident cases, and the standardized incidence rate was 2.44 per 100,000 person-years. The standardized prevalence rates were 9.67 and 10.66 per 100,000 persons in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The incidence and prevalence rates peaked in the elderly population aged 60 to 69 years for both sexes. Conclusions This is one of the largest national population-based epidemiological studies of MG, and it has confirmed the high incidence and prevalence rates of MG in the elderly population of South Korea. PMID:27165426

  15. Epidemiologic Study on Kawasaki Disease in Korea, 2007-2014: Based on Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service Claims.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sangmi; Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Kyu Yeun; Kim, Dong Soo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the actual epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Korea using the data from Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) claims from 2007 to 2014. We investigated HIRA claims of patients who had KD (International Classification of Diseases-10, M30.3) as a major diagnosis and were given intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) from 2007 to 2014. A total of 39,082 patients were reported during the period. The male-to-female ratio was 1.42 and the median age was 28 months. The incidence rates were 168.3 per 100,000 population aged 0 to 4 years in 2007, 159.1 in 2008, 167.3 in 2009, 190.4 in 2010, 188.2 in 2011, 190.2 in 2012, 210.4 in 2013 and 217.2 in 2014. These rates were much higher than those in the previous studies in Korea. KD occurred more often in early summer (May, June and July) and winter (December and January). The annual incidence rate of KD had been increasing every year, reaching 217.2 per 100,000 population aged 0 to 4 years in 2014. It is the second highest incidence rate of KD in the world after Japan. PMID:27510389

  16. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  17. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    PubMed Central

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  18. Impact of a Comprehensive Workplace Hand Hygiene Program on Employer Health Care Insurance Claims and Costs, Absenteeism, and Employee Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, James W.; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R.; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. Methods: A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both groups). Four years of retrospective data were collected for all participants. Results: Hygiene-preventable health care claims were significantly reduced in the intervention group by over 20% (P < 0.05). Absenteeism was positively impacted overall for the intervention group. Employee survey data showed significant improvements in hand hygiene behavior and perception of company concern for employee well-being. Conclusion: Providing a comprehensive, targeted, yet simple to execute hand hygiene program significantly reduced the incidence of health care claims and increased employee workplace satisfaction. PMID:27281645

  19. (Re)claiming the church's role in promoting health: a practical framework.

    PubMed

    Chase-Ziolek, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing healthcare environment and burgeoning healthcare costs offer a unique opportunity for the church to reclaim her biblical and historic foundations for ministries of health, healing, and wholeness. This article proposes a framework for those foundations significant to church culture, considered in light of the challenges and opportunities created by the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Practical applications for health ministry based on the framework are provided. PMID:25898445

  20. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  1. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  2. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  3. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  4. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  5. Seasonality in acute liver injury? Findings in two health care claims databases

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Rachel B; Schuemie, Martijn J; Ryan, Patrick B; Stang, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Background Presumed seasonal use of acetaminophen-containing products for relief of cold/influenza (“flu”) symptoms suggests that there might also be a corresponding seasonal pattern for acute liver injury (ALI), a known clinical consequence of acetaminophen overdose. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether there were any temporal patterns in hospitalizations for ALI that would correspond to assumed acetaminophen use in cold/flu season. Methods In the period 2002–2010, monthly hospitalization rates for ALI using a variety of case definitions were calculated. Data sources included Truven MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters (CCAE) and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (MDCR) databases. We performed a statistical test for seasonality of diagnoses using the periodic generalized linear model. To validate that the test can distinguish seasonal from nonseasonal patterns, we included two positive controls (ie, diagnoses of the common cold [acute nasopharyngitis] and influenza), believed to change with seasons, and two negative controls (female breast cancer and diabetes), believed to be insensitive to season. Results A seasonal pattern was observed in monthly rates for common cold and influenza diagnoses, but this pattern was not observed for monthly rates of ALI, with or without comorbidities (cirrhosis or hepatitis), breast cancer, or diabetes. The statistical test for seasonality was significant for positive controls (P<0.001 for each diagnosis in both databases) and nonsignificant for ALI and negative controls. Conclusion No seasonal pattern was observed in the diagnosis of ALI. The positive and negative controls showed the expected patterns, strengthening the validity of the statistical and visual tests used for detecting seasonality. PMID:27099532

  6. Predictive validation of modeled health technology assessment claims: lessons from NICE.

    PubMed

    Belsey, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The use of cost-effectiveness modeling to prioritize healthcare spending has become a key foundation of UK government policy. Although the preferred method of evaluation-cost-utility analysis-is not without its critics, it represents a standard approach that can arguably be used to assess relative value for money across a range of disease types and interventions. A key limitation of economic modeling, however, is that its conclusions hinge on the input assumptions, many of which are derived from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses that cannot be reliably linked to real-world performance of treatments in a broader clinical context. This means that spending decisions are frequently based on artificial constructs that may project costs and benefits that are significantly at odds with those that are achievable in reality. There is a clear agenda to carry out some form of predictive validation for the model claims, in order to assess not only whether the spending decisions made can be justified post hoc, but also to ensure that budgetary expenditure continues to be allocated in the most rational way. To date, however, no timely, effective system to carry out this testing has been implemented, with the consequence that there is little objective evidence as to whether the prioritization decisions made are actually living up to expectations. This article reviews two unfulfilled initiatives that have been carried out in the UK over the past 20 years, each of which had the potential to address this objective, and considers why they failed to deliver the expected outcomes. PMID:26548424

  7. The genetic conception of health: is it as radical as claimed?

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alan

    2006-10-01

    The so-called new genetics is widely predicted to radically transform medicine and public health and deliver considerable benefits in the future. This article argues that, although it is doubtful that many of the promised benefits of genetic research will be delivered, an increasingly pervasive genetic worldview and expectations about future genetic innovations are profoundly shaping conceptions of health and illness and priorities in healthcare. Further, it suggests that debates about the normative and justice implications of new genetic technologies thus far have been constrained by bioethics discourse, which has tended to frame questions narrowly in terms of how best to ensure the protection and promotion of the rights and freedoms of the individual. Sociologists and other social scientists can help broaden debate in this field by exposing the assumptions underlying the genetic conception of health and exploring the implications of associated developments. PMID:16973682

  8. Nutrition issues in Codex: Health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: A conference report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous workshop had reviewed the development of the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) and its central role in protecting the health of consumers and ensuring fair practices in international food trade. This workshop further reviewed how Codex promotes harmonization and consensus by promoting the coordi...

  9. 75 FR 76525 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... FR 2478). Among the regulations issued under that final rule were: (1) Section 101.14 (21 CFR 101.14... must include. Each of these regulations became effective on May 8, 1993. On January 4, 1994 (59 FR 395... FR 54686),\\3\\ the agency issued an interim final rule (IFR) in response to these two health...

  10. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance..., Department of the Treasury, at (202) 622-6080. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. Introduction In FR Doc. 2011-15890 of June 24, 2011 (76 FR 37208), there were technical errors that are identified in...

  11. 30 CFR 75.155 - Qualified hoisting engineer; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Qualified hoisting engineer; qualifications. 75.155 Section 75.155 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.155 Qualified hoisting...

  12. Why Wait until Qualified?: The Benefits and Experiences of Undergoing Mental Health Awareness Training for PGCE Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, Julie Ann; Kitt, Richard; Kitt, Candi

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale research project in England investigates the reasons why mental health training should be incorporated into the curriculum for initial teacher education (ITE). Most mental health problems begin in adolescence, but often remain undetected until adulthood. Early intervention is vital to recovery in the case of serious psychotic…

  13. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  14. Between credit claiming and blame avoidance: the changing politics of priority-setting for Korea's National Health Insurance System.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minah; Reich, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Priority-setting involves diverse parties with intense and often conflicting interests and values. Still, the political aspects of priority-setting are largely unexplored in the literature on health policy. In this paper, we examine how policy makers in Korea changed their strategies as the policy context for priority setting changed from only expanding benefits to a double burden of benefit expansion plus cost containment. This analysis shows that priority-setting is a profoundly political process. The policy context shapes how policy makers choose their political strategies. In particular, we find that policy makers sway between "credit claiming" and "blame avoidance" strategies. Korean policy makers resorted to three types of political strategies when confronted with a double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment: delegating responsibility to other institutions (agency strategies), replacing judgment-based decisions with automatic rules (policy strategies), and focusing on the presentation of how decisions are made (presentational strategies). The paper suggests implications for future studies on priority-setting in the Korean health care system and in other countries that face similar challenges, and concludes that Korean policy makers need to put more effort into developing transparent and systematic priority-setting processes, especially in times of double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment. PMID:24176287

  15. Alternatives to litigation for health care conflicts and claims: alternative dispute resolution in medicine.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Edward A

    2002-12-01

    Health care has undergone radical changes, and it may be predicted that further changes are in the offing as the burdens and the benefits of the newer configurations become known. Change in any system stresses it, creating opportunities for conflict as people and organizations adjust to new realities and encounter changed expectations. The opportunities for conflict in health care (and legal conflict with it), therefore, have been and will continue to be a measurable part of health care's daily life. Many of these conflicts can be managed through one or another of the several forms of ADR. Some ADR procedures are most productive when used as alternatives to impending litigation. Others may be employed when litigation is not likely but when the persistence of conflict, such as that within a newly structured provider organization, would otherwise take its toll on the productivity of the organization and those who work within it. The challenge in using ADR for any of these problems is similar to what physicians understand as differential diagnosis. A good therapy applied to the wrong case yields a bad result. The world of ADR has matured to the point at which the salient features of both cases and procedures are well-enough understood to allow for low-risk and high-benefit applications. This is particularly true for disputes involving allegations of medical error, where the indicators of efficacy are very positive and the risks to safety are comfortably low. Mediation in particular, but mediation of the interest-based style rather than the settlement conference style, deserves fuller consideration and broader use. PMID:12512175

  16. Using Technology to Claim Rights to Free Maternal Health Care: Lessons about Impact from the My Health, My Voice Pilot Project in India.

    PubMed

    Dasgupt, Jashodhara; Sandhya, Y K; Lobis, Samantha; Verma, Pravesh; Schaaf, Marta

    2015-01-01

    My Health, My Voice is a human rights-based project that pilots the use of technology to monitor and display online data regarding informal payments for maternal health care in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. SAHAYOG, an organization based in Uttar Pradesh, partnered with a grassroots women's forum to inform women about their entitlements, to publicize the project, and to implement a toll-free hotline where women could report health providers' demands for informal payments. Between January 2012 and May 2013, the hotline recorded 873 reports of informal payment demands. Monitoring and evaluation revealed that the project enhanced women's knowledge of their entitlements, as well as their confidence to claim their rights. Anecdotal evidence suggests that health providers' demands for informal payments were reduced in response to the project, although hospital and district officials did not regularly consult the data. The use of technology accorded greater legitimacy among governmental stakeholders. Future research should examine the sustainability of changes, as well as the mechanisms driving health sector responsiveness. PMID:26766855

  17. Administrative simplification: adoption of operating rules for eligibility for a health plan and health care claim status transactions. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    Section 1104 of the Administrative Simplification provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereafter referred to as the Affordable Care Act) establishes new requirements for administrative transactions that will improve the utility of the existing HIPAA transactions and reduce administrative costs. Specifically, in section 1104(b)(2) of the Affordable Care Act, Congress required the adoption of operating rules for the health care industry and directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to "adopt a single set of operating rules for each transaction * * * with the goal of creating as much uniformity in the implementation of the electronic standards as possible." This interim final rule with comment period adopts operating rules for two Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) transactions: eligibility for a health plan and health care claim status. This rule also defines the term "operating rules" and explains the role of operating rules in relation to the adopted transaction standards. In general, transaction standards adopted under HIPAA enable electronic data interchange through a common interchange structure, thus minimizing the industry's reliance on multiple formats. Operating rules, in turn, attempt to define the rights and responsibilities of all parties, security requirements, transmission formats, response times, liabilities, exception processing, error resolution and more, in order to facilitate successful interoperability between data systems of different entities. PMID:21739765

  18. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy. PMID:24673153

  19. Knowledge, politics and power in global health: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-02-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  20. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 282 - Processing a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Processing a Claim D Appendix D to Part 282.... 282, App. D Appendix D to Part 282—Processing a Claim (a) Initial Component Processing. Upon receipt... apply for a waiver. (Paragraph (d) of this Appendix explains which claims qualify and the procedures...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 282 - Processing a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing a Claim D Appendix D to Part 282.... 282, App. D Appendix D to Part 282—Processing a Claim (a) Initial Component Processing. Upon receipt... apply for a waiver. (Paragraph (d) of this Appendix explains which claims qualify and the procedures...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 282 - Processing a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing a Claim D Appendix D to Part 282.... 282, App. D Appendix D to Part 282—Processing a Claim (a) Initial Component Processing. Upon receipt... apply for a waiver. (Paragraph (d) of this Appendix explains which claims qualify and the procedures...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 282 - Processing a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing a Claim D Appendix D to Part 282.... 282, App. D Appendix D to Part 282—Processing a Claim (a) Initial Component Processing. Upon receipt... apply for a waiver. (Paragraph (d) of this Appendix explains which claims qualify and the procedures...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 282 - Processing a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing a Claim D Appendix D to Part 282.... 282, App. D Appendix D to Part 282—Processing a Claim (a) Initial Component Processing. Upon receipt... apply for a waiver. (Paragraph (d) of this appendix explains which claims qualify and the procedures...

  5. Treatment patterns and health care resource utilization associated with dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective claims database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Amy; Grabner, Michael; Palli, Swetha Rao; Elder, Jessica; Sidovar, Matthew; Aupperle, Peter; Krieger, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dalfampridine extended release (D-ER) tablets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), there are limited real-world data on D-ER utilization and associated outcomes in patients with MS. Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns, budget impact, and health care resource utilization (HRU) associated with D-ER use in a real-world setting. Methods A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted using the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM. Adherence (measured by medication possession ratio, or [MPR]) and persistence (measured by days between initial D-ER claim and discontinuation or end of follow-up) were evaluated over 1-year follow-up. Budget impact was calculated as cost per member per month (PMPM) over the available follow-up period. D-ER and control cohorts were propensity-score matched on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and MS-related resource utilization to compare walking-impairment-related HRU over follow-up. Results Of the 2,138 MS patients identified, 1,200 were not treated with D-ER (control) and 938 were treated with D-ER. Patients were aged 51 years on average and 74% female. Approximately 82.6% of D-ER patients were adherent (MPR >80%). The estimated budget impact range of D-ER was $0.014–$0.026 PMPM. Propensity-score-matched D-ER and controls yielded 479 patients in each cohort. Postmatching comparison showed that the D-ER cohort was associated with fewer physician (21.5% vs 62.4%, P<0.0001) and other outpatient visits (22.8% vs 51.4%, P<0.0001) over the 12-month follow-up. Changes in HRU from follow-up to baseline were lower in the D-ER cohort for metrics including walking-impairment-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Conclusion The majority of D-ER patients were adherent to treatment. D-ER utilization was associated with fewer walking-impairment-related physician and outpatient visits, with lower HRU

  6. A population health approach to reducing observational intensity bias in health risk adjustment: cross sectional analysis of insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Sandra M; Bevan, Gwyn; Skinner, Jonathan S; Gottlieb, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of two new approaches to risk adjustment that are free of the influence of observational intensity with methods that depend on diagnoses listed in administrative databases. Setting Administrative data from the US Medicare program for services provided in 2007 among 306 US hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis. Participants 20% sample of fee for service Medicare beneficiaries residing in one of 306 hospital referral regions in the United States in 2007 (n=5 153 877). Main outcome measures The effect of health risk adjustment on age, sex, and race adjusted mortality and spending rates among hospital referral regions using four indices: the standard Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services—Hierarchical Condition Categories (HCC) index used by the US Medicare program (calculated from diagnoses listed in Medicare’s administrative database); a visit corrected HCC index (to reduce the effects of observational intensity on frequency of diagnoses); a poverty index (based on US census); and a population health index (calculated using data on incidence of hip fractures and strokes, and responses from a population based annual survey of health from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Results Estimated variation in age, sex, and race adjusted mortality rates across hospital referral regions was reduced using the indices based on population health, poverty, and visit corrected HCC, but increased using the standard HCC index. Most of the residual variation in age, sex, and race adjusted mortality was explained (in terms of weighted R2) by the population health index: R2=0.65. The other indices explained less: R2=0.20 for the visit corrected HCC index; 0.19 for the poverty index, and 0.02 for the standard HCC index. The residual variation in age, sex, race, and price adjusted spending per capita across the 306 hospital referral regions explained by the indices (in terms of weighted R2) were 0.50 for

  7. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  8. Estimating the Ratio of Patients with a Certain Disease Between Hospitals for the Allocation of Patients to Clinical Trials Using Health Insurance Claims Data in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshihiro; Mihara, Naoki; Murata, Taizo; Shimai, Yoshie; Okada, Katsuki; Manabe, Shiro; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, investigating the ratio of patients with each disease who are treated in a hospital is important for determining the number of patients who are allocated to hospitals. The Japanese health insurance claims data includes standardized disease and medicine data. However, the disease data has some problems in terms of reliability, because the healed diseases are sometimes not deleted or because a disease that a patient does not actually have is registered to claim the cost of the examination. On the other hand, therapeutic medicines are administered to target particular diseases. In this study, we developed a system for estimating the number of patients with each disease using the disease data and the therapeutic medicine data. We converted the ICD-10 code to a 4-grade classification code so that we could predict the diseases in the shallow layer (e.g. gastrointestinal disease) when it was difficult to predict the precise diseases in the deep layer (e.g. gastric ulcers). A table showing the disease code and the corresponding therapeutic medicine code was provided by the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (JAPIC). We calculated the disease probability score from the diseases and therapeutic medicines and recorded the predicted disease. For the system evaluation, we used the health insurance claims data from Osaka University Hospital for January 2015. A total of 58,526 diseases were predicted from the health insurance claims data of 18,393 patients. One hundred twenty patients were randomly extracted for use in a chart review that was performed by an expert physician. Two hundred twenty-four of 329 predicted diseases, were correctly predicted; 56 were reasonably predicted, and 49 were incorrectly predicted. The main disease was correctly predicted in 71 patients. In conclusion, we could estimate the number of patients with each disease using the health insurance claims data with a certain degree of accuracy. PMID:27577441

  9. 42 CFR 401.607 - Claims collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims collection. 401.607 Section 401.607 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Claims Collection and Compromise § 401.607 Claims collection. (a) General policy. CMS recovers amounts...

  10. Improving the Care of Dual Eligible Patients in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers: The impact of care coordinators and clinical pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Daniel; Emmett, Mary; Crist, Amber; Robinson, Craig; Grome, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Dual eligible persons are those covered by both Medicare and Medicaid. There are 9.6 million dual eligible persons in the United States; 82,000 in West Virginia (2010). Dual eligibles are poorer, sicker, and more burdened with serious mental health conditions than Medicare or Medicaid patients as a whole. Their health care costs are significantly higher and they are more likely to receive fragmented ineffective care. Purpose To improve the care experience and health care outcomes of dual eligible patients by the expanded use of care coordinators and clinical pharmacists. Methods During 2012 three rural Federally Qualified Community Health Centers in West Virginia identified 200 dual eligible patients each. Those with hospitalizations received more frequent care coordinator contacts. Those on more than 15 chronic medications had drug utilization reviews with recommendations to primary care providers. Baseline measures included demographics, chronic diseases, total medications and Beers list medications, hospitalization and ER use in the previous year. Post intervention measures included hospitalization, ER use, total medications, and Beers list medications. Results Out of 600 identified patients, 502 were contacted and enrolled. Sixty-five percent were female. The median age was 69, with a range of 29 to 93. Nineteen percent (19%) of patients were on 15 or more medications, 56% on psychotropic medication, and 33% on chronic opiates. For all sites combined, there was a 5. 5% reduction in total medications and a 14.8% reduction in Beers list medications. One site showed reductions of 18% in hospitalizations and 31% in ER visits. Conclusions A modest investment in care coordination and clinical pharmacy review can produce significant reductions in hospitalization and harmful polypharmacy for community dwelling dual eligible patients. PMID:26582045

  11. Long-acting bronchodilator use after hospitalization for COPD: an observational study of health insurance claims data

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christine L; Zou, Kelly H; Su, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with long-acting bronchodilator (LABD) medications is recommended by the 2014 Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. The primary objective of this study was to examine LABD prescription fills after a COPD-related hospitalization. Methods This retrospective observational study used claims from Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases. Patients (age ≥40, commercial; age ≥65, Medicare supplemental) had a first hospitalization with a primary COPD diagnosis between April 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 (index hospitalization) and were continuously enrolled for 1 year before and 9 months after hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to pre-index and/or post-index pharmacy claims. Results A total of 27,738 patients had an index hospitalization and met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of those, 19,783 patients had COPD as a primary or secondary diagnosis during the year before index hospitalization and were included in the analysis. Approximately one quarter of the patients (26.32%) did not fill a prescription for an LABD or short-acting bronchodilator both 90 days before and 90 days after hospitalization. During the 90-day pre-index period, 40.57% of patients filled an LABD (with or without a short-acting bronchodilator) prescription. Over half of the patients (56.88%) filled an LABD prescription at some point during the 180-day post-index period, but, of those, a significantly greater proportion of patients filled an LABD prescription in the 1- to 90-day post-index period than in the 91- to 180-day post-index period (51.27% versus 43.66%; P<0.0001). Conclusion A significant proportion of COPD patients in this study did not fill an LABD prescription before hospitalization for COPD. Moreover, hospitalization did not appear to greatly impact LABD initiation. Lastly, patients who did not fill an LABD prescription within the

  12. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  13. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  14. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  15. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  16. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  17. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  18. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  19. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  20. 30 CFR 77.103 - Electrical work; qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical work; qualified person. 77.103... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 77.103 Electrical work; qualified person. (a) Except...

  1. 30 CFR 77.103 - Electrical work; qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical work; qualified person. 77.103... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 77.103 Electrical work; qualified person. (a) Except...

  2. 30 CFR 77.103 - Electrical work; qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical work; qualified person. 77.103... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 77.103 Electrical work; qualified person. (a) Except...

  3. Miracle Health Claims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices in the marketplace. Privacy Policy About Us Contact Us Share Our Resources. Here's ...

  4. Intrauterine devices at six months: does patient age matter? Results from an urban family medicine Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) network

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Anita; Prine, Linda; Waltermaurer, Eve; Miller, Natasha; Rubin, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) can address high unintended adolescent pregnancy rates in the United States by increasing access to intrauterine devices (IUDs) in underserved settings. Despite national guidelines endorsing IUDs in adolescents, some physicians remain concerned about IUD tolerance and safety in adolescents. Thus, we compared adolescents and adults in a family physician staffed FQHC network with regard to: (1) IUD post-insertion experience, (2) device discontinuation and (3) sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study among women less than 36 years of age who had a 2011 IUD insertion at a New York City family physician staffed FQHC network. Results 684 women (27 % adolescents, 73% adults) were included. During the six month post-insertion period, 59% of adolescent and 43% of adults initiated IUD related post-insertion clinical contact, most commonly for bleeding changes and pelvic or abdominal pain. There were no significant differences between groups in IUD expulsion, removal or STI rates. Conclusions Urban FQHC providers may anticipate that, as compared to their adult IUD utilizers, adolescents will initiate more clinical follow-up visits post-insertion. However both groups will have similar clinical concerns, reasons for and rate of device discontinuation and low STI rates. PMID:25381080

  5. 7 CFR 82.10 - Claim for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.10 Claim for payment. To obtain payment for the trees... form shall include the CCPA's certification that the qualifying trees from the acreage have...

  6. 7 CFR 82.10 - Claim for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.10 Claim for payment. To obtain payment for the trees... form shall include the CCPA's certification that the qualifying trees from the acreage have...

  7. Opportunities and Barriers to Rural, Remote and First Nation Health Services Research in Canada: Comparing Access to Administrative Claims Data in Manitoba and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Josée G; Wong, Sabrina; Katz, Alan; Sinclair, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Access to geographically disaggregated data is essential for the pursuit of meaningful rural, remote and First Nation health services research. This paper explores the opportunities and challenges associated with undertaking administrative claims data research in the context of two different models of administrative data management: the Manitoba and British Columbia models. We argue that two conditions must be in place to support rural, remote and First Nation health services research: (1) pathways to data access that reconcile the need to protect privacy with the imperative to conduct analyses on disaggregated data; and (2) a trust-based relationship with data providers. PMID:27585026

  8. A review of the systematic review process and its applicability for use in evaluating evidence for health claims on probiotic foods in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Julie; King, Sarah; Guarner, Francisco; Hill, Colin; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of evidence for health benefits of probiotic foods, especially relating to health claim substantiation in the European Union. A systematic review is a protocol-driven, transparent and replicable approach, widely accepted in a number of scientific fields, and used by many policy-setting organizations to evaluate the strength of evidence to answer a focused research question. Many systematic reviews have been published on the broad category of probiotics for many different outcomes. Some of these reviews have been criticized for including poor quality studies, pooling heterogeneous study results, and not considering publication bias. Well-designed and -conducted systematic reviews should address such issues. Systematic reviews of probiotics have an additional challenge - rarely addressed in published reviews - in that there must be a scientifically sound basis for combining evidence on different strains, species or genera. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is increasingly adopting the systematic review methodology. It remains to be seen how health claims supported by systematic reviews are evaluated within the EFSA approval process. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies deems randomized trials to be the best approach to generating evidence about the effects of foods on health outcomes. They also acknowledge that systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses) are the best approach to assess the totality of the evidence. It is reasonable to use these well-established methods to assess objectively the strength of evidence for a probiotic health claim. Use of the methods to combine results on more than a single strain or defined blend of strains will require a rationale that the different probiotics are substantively similar, either in identity or in their mode of action. PMID:25889449

  9. Claiming Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    The reputations of scientific heroes shift constantly, modified by politicians as well as by historians. Now that the Scientific Revolution has been reappraised, Nicolas Copernicus is portrayed as a friend of the Catholic Church rather than a scientific martyr. As a German-speaking Pole he has been claimed as a figure of national historical importance by both Germany and Poland, and since the early 20th century has been an important symbol of Polish independence. PMID:16271765

  10. To amend the Public Health Service Act to convert funding for graduate medical education in qualified teaching health centers from direct appropriations to an authorization of appropriations.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Guthrie, Brett [R-KY-2

    2011-03-29

    05/26/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) in an appropriate composting facility, or in a home compost pile or device. (c) A marketer should... composting facilities, a marketer should clearly and prominently qualify compostable claims if such... municipal or institutional composting facilities is irrelevant. Example 2: A garden center sells...

  12. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) in an appropriate composting facility, or in a home compost pile or device. (c) A marketer should... composting facilities, a marketer should clearly and prominently qualify compostable claims if such... municipal or institutional composting facilities is irrelevant. Example 2: A garden center sells...

  13. 42 CFR 417.412 - Qualifying condition: Administration and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualifying condition: Administration and management... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL... Qualifying condition: Administration and management. The HMO or CMP must demonstrate that it— (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 310.9 - Medical attention and injury claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Government for which they qualify. See, for example, 42 CFR part 32. Such persons who are not Federal... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical attention and injury claims. 310.9 Section 310.9... Medical attention and injury claims. (a) Medical attention and hospitalization. The school shall...

  15. 46 CFR 310.9 - Medical attention and injury claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Government for which they qualify. See, for example, 42 CFR part 32. Such persons who are not Federal... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical attention and injury claims. 310.9 Section 310.9... Medical attention and injury claims. (a) Medical attention and hospitalization. The school shall...

  16. 46 CFR 310.9 - Medical attention and injury claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Government for which they qualify. See, for example, 42 CFR part 32. Such persons who are not Federal... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical attention and injury claims. 310.9 Section 310.9... Medical attention and injury claims. (a) Medical attention and hospitalization. The school shall...

  17. 46 CFR 310.9 - Medical attention and injury claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Government for which they qualify. See, for example, 42 CFR part 32. Such persons who are not Federal... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical attention and injury claims. 310.9 Section 310.9... Medical attention and injury claims. (a) Medical attention and hospitalization. The school shall...

  18. 46 CFR 310.9 - Medical attention and injury claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government for which they qualify. See, for example, 42 CFR part 32. Such persons who are not Federal... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical attention and injury claims. 310.9 Section 310.9... Medical attention and injury claims. (a) Medical attention and hospitalization. The school shall...

  19. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Coordination with other entity classifications. If a fund... segregation requirement of paragraph (c)(3) of this section. (2) Classification of fund established to resolve... to the qualified settlement fund for non-allowable claims. (i) (j) Classification of fund prior...

  20. The good, the bad, and the ugly: the unnecessarily broad impact of qui tam civil False Claims Act cases on rural health care providers.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    The civil False Claims Act (FCA) imposes harsh penalties against parties who misappropriate federal funds. The statute's qui tam whistle-blower provisions create strong financial incentives for private individuals to bring and pursue FCA cases against health providers on the government's behalf--even where government attorneys decline to intervene. FCA cases where the government declined to intervene account for less than 2 percent of all recoveries in health care FCA cases. Yet the costs of defending such cases may be very high, especially for rural providers with small operating margins. Federal provider self-referral and anti-kickback laws carve out various exceptions to support the financial viability of rural providers. The FCA, however, contains no such exceptions. Although Department of Justice (DOJ) policy directs officials to take into account community access to care in pursuing FCA cases against rural providers, the ability for private whistleblowers to pursue cases where the government declines to intervene undermines the DOJ's ability to achieve that aim. This Article highlights the liability risks rural providers commonly face under the FCA and argues for amending the FCA to allow a whistleblower claim to proceed against providers serving designated underserved areas only where government authorities intervene in the case. PMID:24341079

  1. 43 CFR 3836.12 - What work qualifies as assessment work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What work qualifies as assessment work... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.12 What work qualifies as assessment...

  2. 43 CFR 3836.12 - What work qualifies as assessment work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What work qualifies as assessment work... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.12 What work qualifies as assessment...

  3. 43 CFR 3836.12 - What work qualifies as assessment work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What work qualifies as assessment work... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.12 What work qualifies as assessment...

  4. 43 CFR 3836.12 - What work qualifies as assessment work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What work qualifies as assessment work... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.12 What work qualifies as assessment...

  5. Becoming "Highly Qualified"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kimberly; Gomez, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The Data Analysis for Teachers course helps teachers to learn instructional strategies, and make them "highly qualified" to teach mathematics for understanding. Going through the process of asking statistical questions, collecting appropriate data, analyzing the data, and interpreting the data was very exciting and students responded well when…

  6. HIV-AIDS Patients' Evaluation of Health Information on the Internet: The Digital Divide and Vulnerability to Fraudulent Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Kalichman, Seth; Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2004-01-01

    Access to health information on the Internet has revolutionized how medical patients learn about their illnesses. Valuable information can be found online; however, many health Web sites contain inaccurate or misleading information. The authors surveyed 324 adults with HIV concerning their Internet use for obtaining health information. Health…

  7. 45 CFR 155.400 - Enrollment of qualified individuals into QHPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Exchange Functions in the Individual Market: Enrollment in Qualified Health Plans §...

  8. 45 CFR 155.400 - Enrollment of qualified individuals into QHPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Exchange Functions in the Individual Market: Enrollment in Qualified Health Plans §...

  9. Hot Billet Surface Qualifier

    SciTech Connect

    Tzyy-Shuh Chang

    2007-04-30

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), developed a prototype of a Hot Billet Surface Qualifier (“Qualifier”) based on OGT’s patented HotEye™ technology and other proprietary imaging and computing technologies. The Qualifier demonstrated its ability of imaging the cast billets in line with high definition pictures, pictures capable of supporting the detection of surface anomalies on the billets. The detection will add the ability to simplify the subsequent process and to correct the surface quality issues in a much more timely and efficient manner. This is challenging due to the continuous casting environment, in which corrosive water, temperature, vibration, humidity, EMI and other unbearable factors exist. Each installation has the potential of 249,000 MMBTU in energy savings per year. This represents a cost reduction, reduced emissions, reduced water usage and reduced mill scale.

  10. Utilization and Expenditure of Hospital Admission in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: National Health Insurance Claims Database Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hung, Wen-Jiu; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im

    2011-01-01

    There were not many studies to provide information on health access and health utilization of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study describes a general profile of hospital admission and the medical cost among people with ASD, and to analyze the determinants of medical cost. A retrospective study was employed to analyze…

  11. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  12. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  13. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  14. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  15. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  16. What Is a Highly Qualified Adapted Physical Education Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Rebecca; Lavay, Barry; Rizzo, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This article presents information related to the new position statement on the definition of a "highly qualified adapted physical education teacher" published by the Adapted Physical Activity Council (a council of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance). It discusses the legal references for "highly qualified"…

  17. 42 CFR 417.416 - Qualifying condition: Furnishing of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualifying condition: Furnishing of services. 417.416 Section 417.416 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT...

  18. 42 CFR 68c.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What loans qualify for repayment? 68c.9 Section 68c.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACEPTION AND...

  19. 42 CFR 68c.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What loans qualify for repayment? 68c.9 Section 68c.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACEPTION AND...

  20. 42 CFR 68c.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What loans qualify for repayment? 68c.9 Section 68c.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACEPTION AND...

  1. 42 CFR 417.416 - Qualifying condition: Furnishing of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifying condition: Furnishing of services. 417.416 Section 417.416 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS...

  2. 42 CFR 68a.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What loans qualify for repayment? 68a.9 Section 68a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM...

  3. 42 CFR 68a.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What loans qualify for repayment? 68a.9 Section 68a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM...

  4. Medicare Program: Expanding Uses of Medicare Data by Qualified Entities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    This final rule implements requirements under Section 105 of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 that expand how qualified entities may use and disclose data under the qualified entity program to the extent consistent with applicable program requirements and other applicable laws, including information, privacy, security and disclosure laws. This rule also explains how qualified entities may create non-public analyses and provide or sell such analyses to authorized users, as well as how qualified entities may provide or sell combined data, or provide Medicare claims data alone at no cost, to certain authorized users. In addition, this rule implements certain privacy and security requirements, and imposes assessments on qualified entities if the qualified entity or the authorized user violates the terms of a data use agreement required by the qualified entity program. PMID:27400462

  5. Minimum Value of Eligible Employer-Sponsored Plans and Other Rules Regarding the Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2015-12-18

    This document contains final regulations on the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010, the Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011, and the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011. These final regulations affect individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges, sometimes called Marketplaces) and claim the health insurance premium tax credit, and Exchanges that make qualified health plans available to individuals and employers. PMID:26685369

  6. Sex Differences in the Treatment and Outcome of Korean Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2015-09-01

    Evidence showing higher acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rates among female compared with male inpatients has stimulated interest in whether this disparity is the result of biological factors or differences in the provision of healthcare services. We investigated the impact of sex on in-hospital mortality rates due to AMI, and evaluated the contribution of differences in the delivery of optimal medical services for AMI.We retrospectively constructed a dataset of 85,329 new patients admitted to Korean hospitals with AMI between 2003 and 2007 from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database. We used the claims database to provide information about treatment after admission or death for each patient.Proportionally more female than male patients aged 65 years or older had complications; however, proportionally fewer female patients underwent invasive procedures. Female patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than males (21.2% vs 14.6%, odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-1.64). The probability of death within 30 days after admission remained higher for females than males after adjusting for demographic characteristics and severity (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13). After additionally adjusting for invasive and medical management, the probability of death within 30 days did not differ between males and females (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99-1.08). A similar trend was revealed by an additional analysis of patients according to younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) age groups.The higher in-hospital mortality rates after AMI in Korean female patients was associated with a lower procedure rate. Evidence indicating that AMI symptoms differ according to sex highlights the need for health policies and public education programs that raise awareness of sex-related differences in early AMI symptoms to increase the incidence of appropriate early treatment in females. PMID:26334894

  7. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-01-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  8. Frequent Users of Hospital Emergency Departments in Korea Characterized by Claims Data from the National Health Insurance: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung Hoon; Grinspan, Zachary; Shapiro, Jason; Rhee, Sang Youl

    2016-01-01

    The Korean National Health Insurance, which provides universal coverage for the entire Korean population, is now facing financial instability. Frequent emergency department (ED) users may represent a medically vulnerable population who could benefit from interventions that both improve care and lower costs. To understand the nature of frequent ED users in Korea, we analyzed claims data from a population-based national representative sample. We performed both bivariate and multivariable analyses to investigate the association between patient characteristics and frequent ED use (4+ ED visits in a year) using claims data of a 1% random sample of the Korean population, collected in 2009. Among 156,246 total ED users, 4,835 (3.1%) were frequent ED users. These patients accounted for 14% of 209,326 total ED visits and 17.2% of $76,253,784 total medical expenses generated from all ED visits in the 1% data sample. Frequent ED users tended to be older, male, and of lower socio-economic status compared with occasional ED users (p < 0.001 for each). Moreover, frequent ED users had longer stays in the hospital when admitted, higher probability of undergoing an operative procedure, and increased mortality. Among 8,425 primary diagnoses, alcohol-related complaints and schizophrenia showed the strongest positive correlation with the number of ED visits. Among the frequent ED users, mortality and annual outpatient department visits were significantly lower in the alcohol-related patient subgroup compared with other frequent ED users; furthermore, the rate was even lower than that for non-frequent ED users. Our findings suggest that expanding mental health and alcohol treatment programs may be a reasonable strategy to decrease the dependence of these patients on the ED. PMID:26809051

  9. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  10. Sex Differences in the Treatment and Outcome of Korean Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence showing higher acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rates among female compared with male inpatients has stimulated interest in whether this disparity is the result of biological factors or differences in the provision of healthcare services. We investigated the impact of sex on in-hospital mortality rates due to AMI, and evaluated the contribution of differences in the delivery of optimal medical services for AMI. We retrospectively constructed a dataset of 85,329 new patients admitted to Korean hospitals with AMI between 2003 and 2007 from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database. We used the claims database to provide information about treatment after admission or death for each patient. Proportionally more female than male patients aged 65 years or older had complications; however, proportionally fewer female patients underwent invasive procedures. Female patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than males (21.2% vs 14.6%, odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–1.64). The probability of death within 30 days after admission remained higher for females than males after adjusting for demographic characteristics and severity (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.13). After additionally adjusting for invasive and medical management, the probability of death within 30 days did not differ between males and females (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99–1.08). A similar trend was revealed by an additional analysis of patients according to younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) age groups. The higher in-hospital mortality rates after AMI in Korean female patients was associated with a lower procedure rate. Evidence indicating that AMI symptoms differ according to sex highlights the need for health policies and public education programs that raise awareness of sex-related differences in early AMI symptoms to increase the incidence of appropriate early treatment in females. PMID:26334894

  11. 45 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to...

  12. 45 CFR 35.6 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final denial of claim. 35.6 Section 35.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.6 Final denial of claim. (a) Final denial of an administrative claim shall be in writing...

  13. 45 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.7 Payment of approved claims. (a) Upon allowance of his claim, claimant or...

  14. 42 CFR 417.412 - Qualifying condition: Administration and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifying condition: Administration and management. 417.412 Section 417.412 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  15. Clinical and cost outcomes from different hyaluronic acid treatments in patients with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from a US health plan claims database

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Vinod; DeKoven, Mitch; Sun, Kainan; Scott, Allan; Lim, Sooyeol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) effectively reduces pain and delays total knee replacement (TKR) surgery; however, little is known about relative differences in clinical and cost outcomes among different HA products. Objective: To compare disease-specific costs and risk of TKR among patients receiving different HA treatments in a commercially insured cohort of patients with knee OA in the USA. Method: Retrospective analyses using IMS Health’s PharMetrics Plus Health Plan Claims Database were conducted by identifying knee OA patients with claims indicating initiation of HA treatment at an ‘index date’ during the selection period (2007–2010). Patients were required to be continuously enrolled in the database for 12 months preindex to 36 months postindex. A generalized linear model (GLM) with a gamma distribution and log-link function was used to model aggregate patient-based changes in disease-specific costs. A Cox proportional hazards model (PHM) was used to model the risk of TKR. Both multivariate models included covariates such as age, gender, comorbidities, and preindex healthcare costs. Results: 50,389 patients with HA treatment for knee OA were identified. 18,217 (36.2%) patients were treated with HA products indicated for five injections per treatment course (Supartz and Hyalgan). The remainder were treated with HA products indicated for fewer than five injections per treatment course, with 20,518 patients (40.7%) receiving Synvisc; 6,263 (12.4%), Euflexxa; and 5,391 (10.7%), Orthovisc. Synvisc- and Orthovisc-injected patients had greater disease-specific costs compared to Supartz/Hyalgan (9.0%, p<0.0001 and 6.8%, p=0.0050, respectively). Hazard ratios (HRs) showed a significantly higher risk of TKR for patients receiving Synvisc compared to Supartz/Hyalgan (HR=1.069, p=0.0009). Patients treated with Supartz/Hyalgan, Euflexxa, and Orthovisc had longer delays to TKR than those treated with

  16. The Impact of an Online Crowdsourcing Diagnostic Tool on Health Care Utilization: A Case Study Using a Novel Approach to Retrospective Claims Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quisel, Thomas R; Foschini, Luca; Ladapo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with difficult medical cases often remain undiagnosed despite visiting multiple physicians. A new online platform, CrowdMed, uses crowdsourcing to quickly and efficiently reach an accurate diagnosis for these patients. Objective This study sought to evaluate whether CrowdMed decreased health care utilization for patients who have used the service. Methods Novel, electronic methods of patient recruitment and data collection were utilized. Patients who completed cases on CrowdMed’s platform between July 2014 and April 2015 were recruited for the study via email and screened via an online survey. After providing eConsent, participants provided identifying information used to access their medical claims data, which was retrieved through a third-party web application program interface (API). Utilization metrics including frequency of provider visits and medical charges were compared pre- and post-case resolution to assess the impact of resolving a case on CrowdMed. Results Of 45 CrowdMed users who completed the study survey, comprehensive claims data was available via API for 13 participants, who made up the final enrolled sample. There were a total of 221 health care provider visits collected for the study participants, with service dates ranging from September 2013 to July 2015. Frequency of provider visits was significantly lower after resolution of a case on CrowdMed (mean of 1.07 visits per month pre-resolution vs. 0.65 visits per month post-resolution, P=.01). Medical charges were also significantly lower after case resolution (mean of US $719.70 per month pre-resolution vs. US $516.79 per month post-resolution, P=.03). There was no significant relationship between study results and disease onset date, and there was no evidence of regression to the mean influencing results. Conclusions This study employed technology-enabled methods to demonstrate that patients who used CrowdMed had lower health care utilization after case resolution. However

  17. A cross-sectional study of the identification of prevalent asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among initiators of long-acting β-agonists in health insurance claims data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Claims data are potentially useful for identifying long-acting β-agonist (LABA) use by patients with asthma, a practice that is associated with increased mortality. We evaluated the accuracy of claims data for classifying prevalent asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among initiators of LABAs. Methods This study included adult LABA initiators during 2005–2008 in a US commercial health plan. Diagnosis codes from the 6 months before LABA initiation identified potential asthma or COPD and a physician adjudicated case status using abstracted medical records. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of covariate patterns for identifying asthma and COPD. Results We sought 520 medical records at random from 225,079 LABA initiators and received 370 (71%). The PPV for at least one asthma claim was 74% (CI 63–82), and decreased as age increased. Having at least one COPD claim resulted in a PPV of 82% (CI 72–89), and of over 90% among older patients, men, and recipients of inhaled anticholinergic drugs. Only 2% (CI 0.2–7.6) of patients with a claim for COPD alone were found to have both COPD and asthma, while 9% (CI 4–16) had asthma only. Twenty-one percent (CI 14–30) of patients with claims for both diagnoses had both conditions. Among patients with no asthma or COPD claims, 62% (CI 50–72) had no confirmed diagnosis and 29% (CI 19–39) had confirmed asthma. Conclusions Subsets of patients with asthma, COPD, and both conditions can be identified and differentiated using claims data, although categorization of the remaining patients is infeasible. Safety surveillance for off-label use of LABAs must account for this limitation. PMID:24645984

  18. 42 CFR 495.206 - Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA... RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.206 Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations. (a) CMS makes payment to qualifying...

  19. 42 CFR 495.206 - Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA... RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.206 Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations. (a) CMS makes payment to qualifying...

  20. 42 CFR 495.206 - Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA... RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.206 Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations. (a) CMS makes payment to qualifying...

  1. 42 CFR 495.206 - Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA... RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.206 Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations. (a) CMS makes payment to qualifying...

  2. 42 CFR 401.707 - Operating and governance requirements for qualified entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operating and governance requirements for qualified... Data for Performance Measurement § 401.707 Operating and governance requirements for qualified entities. A qualified entity must meet the following operating and governance requirements: (a) Submit to...

  3. 42 CFR 401.707 - Operating and governance requirements for qualified entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operating and governance requirements for qualified... Data for Performance Measurement § 401.707 Operating and governance requirements for qualified entities. A qualified entity must meet the following operating and governance requirements: (a) Submit to...

  4. 42 CFR 401.707 - Operating and governance requirements for qualified entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operating and governance requirements for qualified... Data for Performance Measurement § 401.707 Operating and governance requirements for qualified entities. A qualified entity must meet the following operating and governance requirements: (a) Submit to...

  5. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; exchange standards for employers. Final rule, Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-03-27

    This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges ("Exchanges"), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly compare available private health insurance options on the basis of price, quality, and other factors. The Exchanges, which will become operational by January 1, 2014, will help enhance competition in the health insurance market, improve choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing clout as large businesses. PMID:22479737

  6. Excess costs of dementia disorders and the role of age and gender - an analysis of German health and long-term care insurance claims data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing is associated with an increasing number of dementia patients, who reportedly incur higher costs of care than individuals without dementia. Regarding Germany, evidence on these excess costs is scarce. Adopting a payer perspective, our study aimed to quantify the additional yearly expenditures per dementia patient for various health and long-term care services. Additionally, we sought to identify gender-specific cost patterns and to describe age-dependent cost profiles. Methods The analyses used 2006 claims data from the AOK Bavaria Statutory Health Insurance fund of 9,147 dementia patients and 29,741 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Cost predictions based on two-part regression models adjusted for age and gender and excess costs of dementia care refer to the difference in model-estimated means between both groups. Corresponding analyses were performed stratified for gender. Finally, a potentially non-linear association between age and costs was investigated within a generalized additive model. Results Yearly spending within the social security system was circa €12,300 per dementia patient and circa €4,000 per non-demented control subject. About two-thirds of the additional expenditure for dementia patients occurred in the long-term care sector. Within our study sample, male and female dementia patients incurred comparable total costs. However, women accounted for significantly lower health and significantly higher long-term care expenditures. Long-term care spending increased in older age, whereupon health care spending decreased. Thus, at more advanced ages, women incurred greater costs than men of the same age. Conclusions Dementia poses a substantial additional burden to the German social security system, with the long-term care sector being more seriously challenged than the health care sector. Our results suggest that female dementia patients need to be seen as a key target group for health services research in an

  7. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

  8. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  9. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  10. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  11. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  12. Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

  13. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.55 Confidentiality claims. (a)(1) Section 14(b) of TSCA provides that EPA may...

  14. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the government. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property used for the benefit of the...

  15. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  16. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  17. 45 CFR 156.265 - Enrollment process for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enrollment process for qualified individuals. 156.265 Section 156.265 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  18. 45 CFR 156.1240 - Enrollment process for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enrollment process for qualified individuals. 156.1240 Section 156.1240 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  19. 45 CFR 156.1240 - Enrollment process for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enrollment process for qualified individuals. 156.1240 Section 156.1240 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  20. 45 CFR 156.260 - Enrollment periods for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enrollment periods for qualified individuals. 156.260 Section 156.260 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  1. 45 CFR 156.260 - Enrollment periods for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enrollment periods for qualified individuals. 156.260 Section 156.260 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  2. 45 CFR 156.265 - Enrollment process for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enrollment process for qualified individuals. 156.265 Section 156.265 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  3. 45 CFR 156.260 - Enrollment periods for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enrollment periods for qualified individuals. 156.260 Section 156.260 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING...

  4. 42 CFR 35.46 - Conflicting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conflicting claims. 35.46 Section 35.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS... the interest of persons who may be ultimately entitled thereto, delivery may be withheld from...

  5. 42 CFR 35.46 - Conflicting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conflicting claims. 35.46 Section 35.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS... the interest of persons who may be ultimately entitled thereto, delivery may be withheld from...

  6. 42 CFR 35.46 - Conflicting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conflicting claims. 35.46 Section 35.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS... the interest of persons who may be ultimately entitled thereto, delivery may be withheld from...

  7. 42 CFR 35.46 - Conflicting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conflicting claims. 35.46 Section 35.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS... the interest of persons who may be ultimately entitled thereto, delivery may be withheld from...

  8. 42 CFR 35.46 - Conflicting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicting claims. 35.46 Section 35.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS... the interest of persons who may be ultimately entitled thereto, delivery may be withheld from...

  9. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX "really" move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  10. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-11-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX really move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  11. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  12. 7 CFR 81.10 - Claim for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.10 Claim for payment. (a) To obtain payment for the trees... Committee. Such form shall include the Committee's certification that the qualifying trees from the blocks... check to the producer in the amount of $8.50 per eligible tree removed. (b)...

  13. 7 CFR 81.10 - Claim for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.10 Claim for payment. (a) To obtain payment for the trees... Committee. Such form shall include the Committee's certification that the qualifying trees from the blocks... check to the producer in the amount of $8.50 per eligible tree removed. (b)...

  14. Economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation compared with other ablation techniques in women with menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff-Everding, Christoph; Soeder, Ruediger; Neukirch, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) compared with other ablation techniques for the treatment of menorrhagia. Methods Using German health claims data, women meeting defined inclusion criteria for the intervention group (RFA) were selected. A comparable control group (other endometrial ablations) was established using propensity score matching. These two groups were compared during the quarter of treatment (QoT) and a follow-up of 2 years for the following outcomes: costs during QoT and during follow-up, repeated menorrhagia diagnoses during follow-up and necessary retreatments during follow-up. Results After performing propensity score matching, 50 cases could be allocated to the intervention group, while 38 were identified as control cases. Patients in the RFA group had 5% fewer repeat menorrhagia diagnoses (40% vs 45%; not significant) and 5% fewer treatments associated with recurrent menorrhagia (6% vs 11%; not significant) than cases in the control group. During the QoT, the RFA group incurred €578 additional costs (€2,068 vs €1,490; ns). However, during follow-up, the control group incurred €1,254 additional costs (€4,561 vs €5,815; ns), with medication, outpatient physician consultations, and hospitals costs being the main cost drivers. However, none of the results were statistically significant. Conclusion Although RFA was more cost-intensive in the QoT compared with other endometrial ablation techniques, an average total savings of €676 was generated during the follow-up period. While having evidence that RFA is clinically equivalent to other endometrial ablation procedures, we generated indications that RFA is non-inferior and favorable with regard to economic outcomes. PMID:26848277

  15. 7 CFR 1150.109 - Qualified program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.109 Qualified program. Qualified program means any dairy product...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.109 - Qualified program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.109 Qualified program. Qualified program means any dairy product...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.109 - Qualified program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.109 Qualified program. Qualified program means any dairy product...

  18. 42 CFR 401.607 - Claims collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims collection. 401.607 Section 401.607 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. (3) CMS decision. CMS will determine the number, amount and...

  19. 45 CFR 34.9 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims involving carriers or insurers. 34.9 Section 34.9 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES ACT § 34.9 Claims involving carriers or insurers. (a) Carriers. (1) If property is damaged, lost...

  20. 42 CFR 414.425 - Claims for damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims for damages. 414.425 Section 414.425 Public... Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) § 414.425 Claims for damages. (a) Eligibility for filing a claim for damages as a result of the termination of supplier contracts by...

  1. 21 CFR 101.69 - Petitions for nutrient content claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petitions for nutrient content claims. 101.69 Section 101.69 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101.69 Petitions for nutrient content claims....

  2. 30 CFR 77.502-1 - Qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Qualified person. 77.502-1 Section 77.502-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 77.502-1 - Qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Qualified person. 77.502-1 Section 77.502-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 77.501-1 - Qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Qualified person. 77.501-1 Section 77.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 77.501-1 - Qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Qualified person. 77.501-1 Section 77.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 77.501-1 - Qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Qualified person. 77.501-1 Section 77.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 77.502-1 - Qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Qualified person. 77.502-1 Section 77.502-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  8. 42 CFR 456.722 - Electronic claims management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic claims management system. 456.722 Section 456.722 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for...

  9. 42 CFR 435.1007 - Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries. 435.1007 Section 435.1007 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1007 Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries....

  10. 30 CFR 75.159 - Records of certified and qualified persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....159 Section 75.159 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.159 Records of certified and qualified persons. The operator of each coal mine shall...

  11. 30 CFR 75.159 - Records of certified and qualified persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....159 Section 75.159 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.159 Records of certified and qualified persons. The operator of each coal mine shall...

  12. 30 CFR 75.159 - Records of certified and qualified persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....159 Section 75.159 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.159 Records of certified and qualified persons. The operator of each coal mine shall...

  13. 30 CFR 75.159 - Records of certified and qualified persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....159 Section 75.159 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.159 Records of certified and qualified persons. The operator of each coal mine shall...

  14. 30 CFR 75.159 - Records of certified and qualified persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....159 Section 75.159 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.159 Records of certified and qualified persons. The operator of each coal mine shall...

  15. 75 FR 27934 - Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... driver and all passengers of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. However, a working condition fringe... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH65 Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to qualified nonpersonal use vehicles as defined in section 274(i). Qualified...

  16. 20 CFR 302.3 - Qualifying conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualifying conditions. 302.3 Section 302.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED EMPLOYEE § 302.3 Qualifying conditions. (a) Basic requirements. To qualify for benefits...

  17. 20 CFR 302.3 - Qualifying conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Qualifying conditions. 302.3 Section 302.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED EMPLOYEE § 302.3 Qualifying conditions. (a) Basic requirements. To qualify for benefits...

  18. 20 CFR 302.3 - Qualifying conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Qualifying conditions. 302.3 Section 302.3... QUALIFIED EMPLOYEE § 302.3 Qualifying conditions. (a) Basic requirements. To qualify for benefits with... paragraph (a) of this section, service months deemed under § 210.3 of this chapter shall be disregarded....

  19. 20 CFR 302.3 - Qualifying conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying conditions. 302.3 Section 302.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED EMPLOYEE § 302.3 Qualifying conditions. (a) Basic requirements. To qualify for benefits...

  20. 20 CFR 302.3 - Qualifying conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualifying conditions. 302.3 Section 302.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED EMPLOYEE § 302.3 Qualifying conditions. (a) Basic requirements. To qualify for benefits...

  1. Antiplatelet Therapy of Cilostazol or Sarpogrelate with Aspirin and Clopidogrel after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claim Database

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Yoojin; Lee, Jimin; Shin, Sooyoung; Lim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Soo Kyung; Oh, Euichul; Kim, Grace Juyun; Kim, Ju Han; Lee, Sukhyang

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Addition of cilostazol or sarpogrelate to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel has been implemented in patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stents in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple antiplatelet therapies. Methods This retrospective cohort study was performed using the Korean National Insurance Claim Data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014. The study cohort population consisted of patients with ischemic heart diseases and a history of PCI. They were treated with antiplatelet therapy of aspirin, clopidogrel (AC); aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol (ACCi); or aspirin, clopidogrel, sarpogrelate (ACSa) during the index period from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011. During the follow-up period up to December 31, 2014, the major adverse cardiac or cerebral events (MACCE) including death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and ischemic stroke were assessed. Bleeding complications were also evaluated as adverse drug events. Results Out of 93,876 patients with PCI during the index period, 69,491 patients started dual (AC) or triple therapy (ACSa or ACCi). The clinical outcomes of comparing ACSa and ACCi therapy showed beneficial effects in the ACSa group in the prevention of subsequent cardiac or cerebral events. After Propensity score-matching between ACSa and ACCi groups, there were significant differences in MI and revascularization, with corresponding HR of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.20–0.73) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53–0.82) in ACSa vs. ACCi at 12 months, respectively. At the 24-month follow-up, the triple therapy groups (ACS or ACC) had a higher incidence of MACCE compared to the dual therapy (AC) group; ACSa vs. AC HR of 1.69 (95% CI, 1.62–1.77); ACC vs. AC HR of 1.22 (95% CI, 1.06–1.41). There was no significant difference in severe or life-threatening bleeding risk among

  2. State Your Claim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers relates a young couple's experience in learning about small claims court through an incident involving damage to the husband's leather jacket. The damage to the jacket occurred when it was left at a dry clearner, but the dry cleaner claims that it sent the jacket to a special cleaner that handles…

  3. NCLB: Highly Qualified Teachers - The Search for Highly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett; Hoke, Mandy; Hirsch, Eric

    2004-01-01

    At the same time that NCLB has given states a mandate to staff their classrooms with "highly qualified teachers," the federal government is pushing a dangerously narrow definition of the knowledge and skills that today's teachers need. Over the last decade, policy makers and business leaders have come to realize what parents have always known -…

  4. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  5. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  6. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  7. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129... Justice § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited... person to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a...

  8. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129 Section... § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited to... to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a violation...

  9. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  10. Automated claim and payment verification.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark J; Morris, Susan; Rubin, James M O

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of managed care, there has been steady deterioration in the ability of physicians, hospitals, payors, and patients to understand reimbursement and the contracts and payment policies that drive it. This lack of transparency has generated administrative costs, confusion, and mistrust. It is therefore essential that physicians, hospitals, and payors have rapid access to accurate information on contractual payment terms. This article summarizes problems with contract-based reimbursement and needed responses by medical practices. It describes an innovative, Internet-based claims and payment verification service, Phynance, which automatically verifies the accuracy of all claims and payments by payor, contract and line item. This service enables practices to know and apply the one, true, contractually obligated allowable. The article details implementation costs and processes and anticipated return on investment. The resulting transparency improves business processes throughout health care, increasing efficiency and lowering costs for physicians, hospitals, payors, employers--and patients. PMID:12122814

  11. Paralinguistic Qualifiers: Our Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A case is made for the increased study of paralinguistic voice qualifiers, which include variations in breathing, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, velopharyngeal, lingual, labial, mandibular, articulatory, articulatory tension, and objectual control. It is proposed that attention to these voice qualities has a variety of practical, literary,…

  12. Canada's Highly Qualified Manpower Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. G.; And Others

    The purpose of this report is to assemble basic statistics on highly qualified manpower resources in Canada, especially focusing on scientists and engineers, for the development of policies and research in this field. The economic background contributing to the growth of the white-collar and professional labor force is discussed, and the roles of…

  13. 45 CFR 149.330 - Content of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Content of claims. 149.330 Section 149.330 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.330 Content of claims....

  14. 45 CFR 149.325 - Requirements for eligibility of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 149.325 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.325 Requirements for eligibility of claims. A claim may be submitted only if it represents costs for...

  15. 45 CFR 149.330 - Content of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Content of claims. 149.330 Section 149.330 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.330 Content of claims....

  16. 45 CFR 149.330 - Content of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of claims. 149.330 Section 149.330 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.330 Content of claims....

  17. 45 CFR 149.330 - Content of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Content of claims. 149.330 Section 149.330 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.330 Content of claims....

  18. 45 CFR 149.330 - Content of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content of claims. 149.330 Section 149.330 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.330 Content of claims....

  19. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  20. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement from qualified herds. 77.36 Section 77.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  1. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement from qualified herds. 77.36 Section 77.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  2. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement from qualified herds. 77.36 Section 77.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.36...

  3. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement from qualified herds. 77.36 Section 77.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  4. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.141 Qualified expert panels. (a)...

  5. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement from qualified herds. 77.36 Section 77.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  6. 42 CFR 68.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS (LRPs) § 68.9 What loans qualify for repayment? The NIH LRPs will repay participants' lenders the principal, interest, and related expenses of..., transportation and commuting costs, and other living expenses, as determined by the NIH....

  7. 42 CFR 68.9 - What loans qualify for repayment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS (LRPs) § 68.9 What loans qualify for repayment? The NIH LRPs will repay participants' lenders the principal, interest, and related expenses of..., transportation and commuting costs, and other living expenses, as determined by the NIH....

  8. Health worker migration and universal health care in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sieleunou, Isidore

    2011-01-01

    There is a more and more emerging consensus claiming universal access to health care in order to achieve the desired Millennium Development Goals related to health in Africa. Unfortunately, the debate of the universal coverage has focussed so far mainly on financial affordability, while it is also a human resource matter. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing severe shortages of skilled health care workers. There are several causes, the importance of which varies by country, but one of the most significant factors is brain drain. In those countries, scarcity of doctors increases the distance between a doctor and patients, and bridging that increased distance implies costs, both time and money. Adequate number of qualified health personnel is then vital to increase coverage and improve the quality of care. In as much as access to health services is also determined by access to qualified health workers, any reflection on the universal health coverage has to also consider the inequities in qualified health personnel distribution throughout the world. PMID:22384301

  9. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  10. 42 CFR 417.413 - Qualifying condition: Operating experience and enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifying condition: Operating experience and... Qualifying condition: Operating experience and enrollment. (a) Condition. The HMO or CMP must demonstrate that it has operating experience and an enrolled population sufficient to provide a reasonable...

  11. 42 CFR 435.1007 - Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Medicare beneficiaries. 435.1007 Section 435.1007 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1007 Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries. (a..., medically needy beneficiaries, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries, subject to the restrictions...

  12. 42 CFR 435.1007 - Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Medicare beneficiaries. 435.1007 Section 435.1007 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1007 Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries. (a..., medically needy beneficiaries, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries, subject to the restrictions...

  13. 42 CFR 435.1007 - Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Medicare beneficiaries. 435.1007 Section 435.1007 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1007 Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries. (a..., medically needy recipients, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries, subject to the restrictions contained...

  14. 42 CFR 435.1007 - Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicare beneficiaries. 435.1007 Section 435.1007 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Limitations on Ffp § 435.1007 Categorically needy, medically needy, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries. (a..., medically needy beneficiaries, and qualified Medicare beneficiaries, subject to the restrictions...

  15. 14 CFR 314.6 - Qualifying dislocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying dislocation. 314.6 Section 314.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM General § 314.6 Qualifying dislocation. A qualifying dislocation is...

  16. 7 CFR 4290.110 - Qualified management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified management. 4290.110 Section 4290.110... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.110 Qualified management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that its current or proposed management team is qualified and...

  17. 7 CFR 4290.110 - Qualified management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified management. 4290.110 Section 4290.110... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.110 Qualified management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that its current or proposed management team is qualified and...

  18. 7 CFR 4290.110 - Qualified management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified management. 4290.110 Section 4290.110... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.110 Qualified management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that its current or proposed management team is qualified and...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.110 - Qualified management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified management. 4290.110 Section 4290.110... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.110 Qualified management. Link to an amendment..., that its current or proposed management team is qualified and has the knowledge, experience,...

  20. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  1. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  2. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  3. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  4. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  5. 45 CFR 149.320 - Universe of claims that must be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Universe of claims that must be submitted. 149.320 Section 149.320 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH... Universe of claims that must be submitted. (a) Claims submitted for an early retiree, as defined in §...

  6. 45 CFR 149.320 - Universe of claims that must be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Universe of claims that must be submitted. 149.320 Section 149.320 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH... Universe of claims that must be submitted. (a) Claims submitted for an early retiree, as defined in §...

  7. 45 CFR 149.320 - Universe of claims that must be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Universe of claims that must be submitted. 149.320 Section 149.320 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH... Universe of claims that must be submitted. (a) Claims submitted for an early retiree, as defined in §...

  8. 45 CFR 149.320 - Universe of claims that must be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Universe of claims that must be submitted. 149.320 Section 149.320 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH... Universe of claims that must be submitted. (a) Claims submitted for an early retiree, as defined in §...

  9. 45 CFR 149.320 - Universe of claims that must be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Universe of claims that must be submitted. 149.320 Section 149.320 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH... Universe of claims that must be submitted. (a) Claims submitted for an early retiree, as defined in §...

  10. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures. PMID:27217574

  11. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  12. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.202 Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and...

  13. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.202 Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and...

  14. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.202 Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and...

  15. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.202 Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and...

  16. 45 CFR 95.11 - Payment of claims subject to appropriations restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.11 Payment of claims subject...

  17. 20 CFR 410.588 - Claims of creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims of creditors. 410.588 Section 410.588 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.588 Claims of creditors. A relative or...

  18. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death of the borrower. The holder of the loan may not attempt to collect on the loan from the...

  19. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death of the borrower. The holder of the loan may not attempt to collect on the loan from the...

  20. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death of the borrower. The holder of the loan may not attempt to collect on the loan from the...

  1. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death of the borrower. The holder of the loan may not attempt to collect on the loan from the...

  2. 20 CFR 410.588 - Claims of creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims of creditors. 410.588 Section 410.588 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.588 Claims of creditors. A relative or...

  3. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... patient to request payment for medical expenses.) CMS-1500—Health Insurance Claim Form. (For use by...-Medicare Payment for Services to a Patient now Deceased. (For use in requesting amounts payable under title... paragraph, the following terms have the following meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45...

  4. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death. (b) Disability. (1) The Secretary will discharge a borrower's liability on the loan in...

  5. SALT: Weaving the Claim Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, Tudor; Möller, Knud; Handschuh, Siegfried; Trif, Diana; Decker, Stefan

    In this paper we present a solution for "weaving the claim web", i.e. the creation of knowledge networks via so-called claims stated in scientific publications created with the SALT (Semantically Annotated {mboxLaTeX}) framework. To attain this objective, we provide support for claim identification, evolved the appropriate ontologies and defined a claim citation and reference mechanism. We also describe a prototypical claim search engine, which allows to reference to existing claims and hence, weave the web. Finally, we performed a small-scale evaluation of the authoring framework with a quite promising outcome.

  6. 42 CFR 60.40 - Procedures for filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... application; (4) The history of the loan activities from the date of loan disbursement through the date of... default claim at least the following: (A) Repayment schedule(s); (B) A collection history, if any; (C)...

  7. 42 CFR 60.40 - Procedures for filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION... application; (4) The history of the loan activities from the date of loan disbursement through the date of... default claim at least the following: (A) Repayment schedule(s); (B) A collection history, if any; (C)...

  8. 42 CFR 414.425 - Claims for damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims for damages. 414.425 Section 414.425 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Competitive Bidding for Certain Durable Medical Equipment,...

  9. A Logic for Qualified Syllogisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel G.

    In various works, L.A. Zadeh has introduced fuzzy quantifiers, fuzzy usuality modifiers, and fuzzy likelihood modifiers. This paper provides these notions with a unified semantics and uses this to define a formal logic capable of expressing and validating arguments such as 'Most birds can fly; Tweety is a bird; therefore, it is likely that Tweety can fly'. In effect, these are classical Aristotelean syllogisms that have been "qualified" through the use of fuzzy quantifiers. It is briefly outlined how these, together with some likelihood combination rules, can be used to address some well-known problems in the theory of nonmonotonic reasoning. The work is aimed at future applications in expert systems and robotics, including both hardware and software agents.

  10. Why does A&E attract newly qualified registered nurses?

    PubMed

    Cronin, Gerard; Cronin, Camille

    2006-04-01

    Workforce planning is a particular buzzword that nurse managers must grapple with and now must understand. They must develop strategies to ensure the life and growth of a department while incorporating numerous government targets to ensure the service reaches quality, achieves and meets predetermined goals. To do all this that manager needs a workforce. The recruitment of nursing staff to a specialist area such as Accident & Emergency (A&E) requires a level of creativity and sustained effort. Newly qualified registered nurse working in A&E have, in the past, been considered to be an unusual group of staff to apply to work in A&E. However, many health service managers receive applications from staff in this category and are often encouraged to recruit newly qualified registered nurse's rather than pay for agency workers. Using a qualitative approach this paper explores the key reasons why newly qualified registered nurses choose to work in an Accident & Emergency environment. Data was collected from a sample of 25 newly qualified registered nurses and analysed thematically. Five themes are presented: challenge, teamwork, diversity, support, and learning. These themes have implications for Accident and Emergency units and human resource and workforce planning departments. PMID:16464593

  11. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable basis substantiating the claim. A reasonable basis consists of competent and reliable evidence. In... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... qualified to do so, using procedures generally accepted in the profession to yield accurate and...

  12. Hyaluronic Acid Injections Are Associated with Delay of Total Knee Replacement Surgery in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Evidence from a Large U.S. Health Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Roy; Lim, Sooyeol; Steen, R. Grant; Dasa, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and the medical costs associated with total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for end-stage OA motivate a search for agents that can delay OA progression. We test a hypothesis that hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is associated with delay of TKR in a dose-dependent manner. Methods and Findings We retrospectively evaluated records in an administrative claims database of ~79 million patients, to identify all patients with knee OA who received TKR during a 6-year period. Only patients with continuous plan enrollment from diagnosis until TKR were included, so that complete medical records were available. OA diagnosis was the index event and we evaluated time-to-TKR as a function of the number of HA injections. The database included 182,022 patients with knee OA who had TKR; 50,349 (27.7%) of these patients were classified as HA Users, receiving ≥1 courses of HA prior to TKR, while 131,673 patients (72.3%) were HA Non-users prior to TKR, receiving no HA. Cox proportional hazards modelling shows that TKR risk decreases as a function of the number of HA injection courses, if patient age, gender, and disease comorbidity are used as background covariates. Multiple HA injections are therefore associated with delay of TKR (all, P < 0.0001). Half of HA Non-users had a TKR by 114 days post-diagnosis of knee OA, whereas half of HA Users had a TKR by 484 days post-diagnosis (χ2 = 19,769; p < 0.0001). Patients who received no HA had a mean time-to-TKR of 0.7 years; with one course of HA, the mean time to TKR was 1.4 years (χ2 = 13,725; p < 0.0001); patients who received ≥5 courses delayed TKR by 3.6 years (χ2 = 19,935; p < 0.0001). Conclusions HA injection in patients with knee OA is associated with a dose-dependent increase in time-to-TKR. PMID:26694145

  13. Documenting Characteristics of Highly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Lucille B.

    2007-01-01

    Primarily because it is an aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the concept of "highly qualified teacher" has become more important and more widely implemented throughout the schools of the United States. NCLB requires teachers in all pertinent schools to be highly qualified. Before NCLB, the concept was associated mainly with…

  14. Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Examination Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This booklet is an explanation of what the Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Examination means to Alaskans and how it fits into a larger school accountability reform initiative. The high school class of 2002 is the first group of students who will need to pass the High School Graduation Qualifying Examination to receive a high school…

  15. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1)...

  17. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1)...

  19. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... the use of a qualified blind trust is the lack of knowledge, or actual ``blindness,'' by an...

  20. 7 CFR 802.1 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified laboratories. 802.1 Section 802.1... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN WEIGHING EQUIPMENT AND RELATED GRAIN HANDLING SYSTEMS § 802.1 Qualified laboratories. (a) Metrology laboratories. (1) Any State metrology laboratory currently approved by the NBS...

  1. 30 CFR 795.10 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualified laboratories. 795.10 Section 795.10... laboratories. (a) Basic qualifications. To be designated a qualified laboratory, a firm shall demonstrate that... necessary field samples and making hydrologic field measurements and analytical laboratory determinations...

  2. 13 CFR 108.110 - Qualified management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified management. 108.110... management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of SBA, that its current or proposed management team is qualified and has the knowledge, experience, and capability in Community Development Finance...

  3. 7 CFR 802.1 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified laboratories. 802.1 Section 802.1... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN WEIGHING EQUIPMENT AND RELATED GRAIN HANDLING SYSTEMS § 802.1 Qualified laboratories. (a) Metrology laboratories. (1) Any State metrology laboratory currently approved by the NBS...

  4. 30 CFR 795.10 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Qualified laboratories. 795.10 Section 795.10... laboratories. (a) Basic qualifications. To be designated a qualified laboratory, a firm shall demonstrate that... necessary field samples and making hydrologic field measurements and analytical laboratory determinations...

  5. 30 CFR 795.10 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Qualified laboratories. 795.10 Section 795.10... laboratories. (a) Basic qualifications. To be designated a qualified laboratory, a firm shall demonstrate that... necessary field samples and making hydrologic field measurements and analytical laboratory determinations...

  6. 30 CFR 795.10 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Qualified laboratories. 795.10 Section 795.10... laboratories. (a) Basic qualifications. To be designated a qualified laboratory, a firm shall demonstrate that... necessary field samples and making hydrologic field measurements and analytical laboratory determinations...

  7. 7 CFR 802.1 - Qualified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified laboratories. 802.1 Section 802.1... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN WEIGHING EQUIPMENT AND RELATED GRAIN HANDLING SYSTEMS § 802.1 Qualified laboratories. (a) Metrology laboratories. (1) Any State metrology laboratory currently approved by the NBS...

  8. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., construction or reconstruction its fair market value. The party must obtain the prior written permission of the... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C. 53509...: (i) The acquisition, construction or reconstruction of a qualified agreement vessel; (ii)...

  9. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., construction or reconstruction its fair market value. The party must obtain the prior written permission of the... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C. 53509...: (i) The acquisition, construction or reconstruction of a qualified agreement vessel; (ii)...

  10. 48 CFR 14.210 - Qualified products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified products. 14.210 Section 14.210 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.210 Qualified products. See subpart 9.2....

  11. 45 CFR 156.270 - Termination of coverage for qualified individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination of coverage for qualified individuals. 156.270 Section 156.270 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT,...

  12. 42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and...

  13. 42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and...

  14. 42 CFR 406.15 - Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment. 406.15 Section 406.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND...

  15. 42 CFR 406.15 - Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment. 406.15 Section 406.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND...

  16. 42 CFR 406.15 - Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment. 406.15 Section 406.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND...

  17. 42 CFR 406.15 - Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment. 406.15 Section 406.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND...

  18. 42 CFR 406.15 - Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special provisions applicable to Medicare qualified government employment. 406.15 Section 406.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND...

  19. Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using refill gap more than 30 days and from 56.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 62.3% for extended-release methylphenidate using refill gap more than 60 days. In the number of discontinued, we found significant differences among medications using refill gap more than 30 days. Among 4 ADHD medications, extended-release methylphenidate and atomoxetine had more days than immediate-release methylphenidate and osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate. In logistic regression analyses, extended-release methylphenidate, osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate, and atomoxetine showed less discontinuation compared to immediate-release methylphenidate group when a refill gap more than 30 days was used. In logistic regression analysis of adherence, we could not find any differences among 4 medication types. We suggest that the utilization patterns should be assessed regularly in order to improve future outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:27478341

  20. Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database.

    PubMed

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Hwang, Jun-Won; Kwak, Young-Sook; Joung, Yoo Sook; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Bongseog; Sohn, Seok Han; Chung, Un Sun; Yang, Jaewon; Hong, Minha; Bahn, Geon Ho; Choi, Hyung Yun; Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Yeon Jung

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using refill gap more than 30 days and from 56.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 62.3% for extended-release methylphenidate using refill gap more than 60 days. In the number of discontinued, we found significant differences among medications using refill gap more than 30 days. Among 4 ADHD medications, extended-release methylphenidate and atomoxetine had more days than immediate-release methylphenidate and osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate. In logistic regression analyses, extended-release methylphenidate, osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate, and atomoxetine showed less discontinuation compared to immediate-release methylphenidate group when a refill gap more than 30 days was used. In logistic regression analysis of adherence, we could not find any differences among 4 medication types. We suggest that the utilization patterns should be assessed regularly in order to improve future outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:27478341

  1. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  2. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  3. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  4. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  5. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  6. Integrative health coaching: a behavior skills approach that improves HbA1c and pharmacy claims-derived medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Dreusicke, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Medication adherence requires underlying behavior skills and a supporting mindset that may not be addressed with education or reminders. Founded in the study of internal motivation and health psychology, integrative health coaching (IHC) helps patients gain insight into their behaviors and make long-term, sustainable lifestyle changes. The purpose of the study is to determine whether IHC improves oral medication adherence, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and psychosocial measures, and to assess whether adherence changes are sustained after the intervention. Methods Using a prospective observational design, participants (n=56) received 14 coaching calls by telephone over 6 months. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated for time intervals before, during, and after the intervention. HbA1c and patient-reported psychosocial outcomes were obtained to test interactions with MPR. Results Medication adherence (MPR) increased from 0.74±0.197 to 0.85±0.155 during coaching, and was sustained at 0.82±0.175 during a 6-month period after the study. Better adherence correlated with a greater decrease in HbA1c. HbA1c decreased from 8.0±1.92% to 7.7±1.70% over the 6-month intervention. All psychosocial measures showed significant improvement. In addition to discussing medication adherence strategies with their coach, patients discussed nutrition and exercise (86.9% of calls), stress management (39.8%), and social support and relationships (15.4%). Conclusions IHC targets internal motivation and supports behavior change by facilitating patients’ insight into their own behaviors, and it uses this insight to foster self-efficacy. This approach may yield sustainable results for medication adherence and warrants further exploration for health-related behavior change. PMID:27239318

  7. 45 CFR 158.160 - Other non-claims costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other non-claims costs. 158.160 Section 158.160 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER..., expenditures for activities that improve health care quality, and Federal and State taxes and licensing...

  8. 42 CFR 431.834 - Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to records: Claims processing assessment... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.834 Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems. The agency, upon written request, must...

  9. 42 CFR 60.41 - Determination of amount of loss on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of amount of loss on claims. 60.41... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.41 Determination of amount of loss on claims... loan. (c) Special rules for loans made by school lenders. (1) If the loan for which a claim is...

  10. 45 CFR 35.2 - Administrative claim; when presented; place of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative claim; when presented; place of filing. 35.2 Section 35.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.2 Administrative claim; when presented; place...

  11. 45 CFR 95.11 - Payment of claims subject to appropriations restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictions. 95.11 Section 95.11 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.11 Payment of claims subject to... made before September 30, 1978, only if the State had filed a claim for that expenditure with us...

  12. 45 CFR 95.11 - Payment of claims subject to appropriations restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictions. 95.11 Section 95.11 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.11 Payment of claims subject to... made before September 30, 1978, only if the State had filed a claim for that expenditure with us...

  13. 45 CFR 95.11 - Payment of claims subject to appropriations restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictions. 95.11 Section 95.11 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.11 Payment of claims subject to... made before September 30, 1978, only if the State had filed a claim for that expenditure with us...

  14. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  15. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  16. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  17. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  18. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  19. [Scientific evidence and legal liability in occupational health: indemnity claim based on lack of safety and hygiene controls after a worker's death due to mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    G Benavides, Fernando; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; Delclòs, Jordi; Luque, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect, under the precautionary principle, on the relationship between scientific causation and legal liability in connection with a lawsuit regarding compensation for lack of occupational safety and hygiene controls following the death of a worker with mesothelioma that had been previously accepted as an occupational disease. The worker had spent 28 years as a shipyard welder, with a diagnosis of occupationally-related mesothelioma in 2007, and who died in 2009. After reviewing the advances in a) scientific knowledge on the health effects of asbestos exposure, which were consolidated between 1955 and 1976, and b) the development of a regulatory framework for the protection of workers in Spain that began generically in 1940 and became more specific in 1982, we conclude that our case probably would have benefited from application of the precautionary principle, which is now widely accepted. PMID:23775153

  20. 42 CFR 81.25 - Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cancers. 81.25 Section 81.25 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.25 Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers. For claims including two or more primary cancers, DOL will use NIOSH-IREP to calculate the...