Sample records for qualitative analysis results

  1. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  2. Requiem for Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Five papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982) focused on qualitative analysis curricula and instruction. Topics included benefits of qualitative analysis, use of iodo/bromo-complexes in qualitative analysis schemes, lecture demonstrations, and brief descriptions of three courses. (JN)

  3. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  4. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. Purpose To provide insights into students’ experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. Methods A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. Results The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students’ anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. Conclusion On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students’ support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians. PMID:25278789

  5. Estimation of precipitable water vapour from GPS measurements in Argentina: Validation and qualitative analysis of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, L. I.; Salio, P.; Natali, M. P.; Meza, A. M.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents PWV estimates from GPS data computed at four continuously operated GPS stations in Argentina established at Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Salta over a 1 year period (2006-2007). The objective is to analyze the behaviour of the GPS PWV estimation using mean tropospheric temperature ( Tm) values from the Bevis model, Sapucci model and obtained by a numerical integration of variables provided by the operational analysis of the National Centre of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The results are validated using PWV values from nearest radio soundings. Moreover, a comparison between PWV values determined from microwave sensors deployed on the NOAA-18 satellite and PWV from GPS observations is also presented. From the analysis we can see that the computation of GPS PWV using the Tm from the Bevis model, originally deduced for the northern hemisphere, shows similar behaviour to the respective computation using a Sapucci model inside 0.5 mm. The differences between the Tm values computed from the Sapucci model and the numerical integration of NCEP variables are of the order of 15 K, although it does not represent a significant error in PWV. Nevertheless, differences in bias are imperceptible during the dry period and they are as big as 3 mm during the moist or high precipitation period. This behaviour could not represent an improvement when comparing radio soundings with respect to the GPS PWV values using different estimations of Tm. Thus, we conclude that the usage of Tm estimated from the Bevis model is the best choice for regional studies, considering the simplicity and dissemination of the method, unless some more studies taking into account the geographical and climatological characteristic of the region are performed. As expected, GPS PWV values show very good agreement with radio sounding determinations, small differences can be observed especially during extreme precipitation periods. In general the NOAA PWV values denote an over estimation of the available water vapour. It is important to note that the determination of PWV is not the mean product of the NOAA-18 satellite mission. These results show the potential of such a product although a preliminary calibration using GPS PWV is still necessary.

  6. The NUDIST qualitative data analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

    1991-01-01

    Most computer approaches to qualitative data analysis have concentrated on coding and retrieval of text. This paper describes a research project which set out to support a range of methods for the analysis of unstructured data, with emphasis on the building and testing of grounded theory. It resulted in software whose innovations include: a) No limit to the number of

  7. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  8. Qualitative analysis of mediated communication experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viljakaisa Aaltonen; Martin Schrader; Göte Nyman; Miikka Lehtonen; Jari Takatalo

    2010-01-01

    We studied the experiences of participants collaborating in video and teleconference situations. We utilized a qualitative experience measurement methodology where participants freely described their experiences by giving attributes that best described their experience. The most frequent descriptions were combined to attributes which were used to discriminate the experimental conditions. The results indicated that qualitative methodology can discriminate the experience differences

  9. Blogging Medical Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Alig, Stefan K.; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students’ learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners. PMID:23467720

  10. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  11. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  12. Filtrates and Residues: Qualitative Analysis of Some Transition Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilner, Cary

    1985-01-01

    Describes a qualitative analysis laboratory in which students examine specific precipitates that can be used to identify copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron cations. The objective of the laboratory is to determine which test or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each cation and to use the results to identify several unknowns. (JN)

  13. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative. PMID:22450402

  14. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  15. Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

  16. Computing in Qualitative Analysis: A Healthy Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Lyn; Richards, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the potential impact of computers in qualitative health research. Describes the original goals, design, and implementation of NUDIST, a qualitative computing software. Argues for evaluation of the impact of computer techniques and for an opening of debate among program developers and users to address the purposes and power of computing…

  17. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  18. ‘Membership matters’: applying Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA) to qualitative data using Computer?Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew King

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and outlines a methodology that may be unfamiliar to some qualitative researchers: Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA). The first section of the paper explains the basic principles of MCA and why it is a valid method for exploring the power of categorisations in texts and talk. Additionally, it explains why MCA differs from other forms of qualitative data

  19. Database Organization for Qualitative Analysis: The NUDIST System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

    1991-01-01

    Qualitative data analysis is an approach to the use of unstructured data that is widely practised (and studied) in the social sciences, history and literary studies. It is used in many areas derivative from social sciences, such as market analysis, legal evidence analysis, health and demographic studies, education, journalism, etc. It is also coming to be recognised as significant in

  20. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  1. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01

    and the capturing of additional profits is the only force behind the growth machine's actions. The historical development of Clear Lake City, Texas and the analysis of a major land developer (Friendswood Development Company) responsible for the city's growth...

  2. Data analysis in health-relateD qualitative research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traditionally, coding was done manually, by use of coloured pens to categorise data, and consequently cutting and sorting the data. With the advent of software technology, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), such as NUDIST, NVivo and Atlas-ti, the process has been greatly simplified from the traditional tedious one. The software enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the analysis process

  3. Qualitative Spatial Reasoning for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Qualitative Spatial Reasoning for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Analysis Jordi Inglada.michel@c-s.fr Abstract High resolution remote sensing images allow us to access new kinds of information. Classical Connection Calculus for the analysis of high resolution remote sensing images is presented. A graph based

  4. Chinese Retirees' Learning Interests: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Angela; Chi, Iris; Chiang, Vico

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two semistructured focus group interviews with 17 retirees that explore the issues these retirees perceived as central to their learning in later life (LLL). Focus is especially placed on the factors leading to their learning interests after retirement. A total of six themes (past experience in adulthood and…

  5. Evaluation of Stemming Errors: Towards a Qualitative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinaldo Viana Alvares; Rubem Mondaini

    In this work we stress the importance of the qualitative evaluation approach of stemming algorithms. The evaluation methods of stemming errors are usually depicted in a quantitative analysis (2). The application of stemming algorithms to a previously chosen word leads to the isolation of its stem. The stem is considered a concise representation of a word and should be seen

  6. Validation of Competencies in E-Portfolios: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Hanft, Anke; Baecker, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the example of an Internet-based advanced studies course to show how the portfolio method, as a competence-based form of examination, can be integrated in a blended learning design. Within the framework of a qualitative analysis of project portfolios, we examined which competencies are documented and how students reflected on their…

  7. Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

  8. Qualitative and quantitative thermoluminescence analysis on irradiated oregano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. D’Oca; A. Bartolotta; M. C. Cammilleri; M. Brai; M. Marrale; A. Triolo; A. Parlato

    2007-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry is one of the physical methods used for the identification of irradiated food, suitable for foods from which silicate minerals can be extracted. The aims of the present work were to apply the TL analysis for a qualitative identification of irradiated oregano, and to set up a quantitative procedure to estimate the original treatment dose on the

  9. Qualitative and quantitative cost analysis for sheet metal stamping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunbing Tang; Walter Eversheim; Günther Schuh

    2004-01-01

    This research paper presents a qualitative and quantitative cost analysis system for sheet metal stamping development at an early design stage. First, the authors identify problems in the traditional metal stamping part and die development processes and outline the need for performance of concurrent stamping part design in order to achieve cost effectiveness that accommodates the concept of concurrent engineering.

  10. An Array of Qualitative Data Analysis Tools: A Call for Data Analysis Triangulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important steps in the qualitative research process is analysis of data. The purpose of this article is to provide elements for understanding multiple types of qualitative data analysis techniques available and the importance of utilizing more than one type of analysis, thus utilizing data analysis triangulation, in order to…

  11. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  12. A computational approach to qualitative analysis in large textual datasets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

  13. Perceptions of Gain Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Significant research has focused on psychological difficulties following spinal cord injury (SCI), and there is a small prevalence of individuals who experience distress after injury. However, the converse is that many adjust well to injury and rate their quality of life highly. Despite this, there has been a comparative dearth of research investigating positive psychological outcomes after SCI, perceived by individuals living with this disability. Objective: To explore individuals’ perceptions of gain following the experience of SCI. Methods: Participants, who had sustained an SCI between the ages 16 and 83, responded to an open-ended written question: “What do you think you have gained from the experience of spinal cord injury?” This was administered at 4 time points post injury: 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Results: Participants’ responses were analyzed qualitatively using the framework of thematic analysis. Thirteen themes were identified: relationships, appreciation of relationships, perspective and appreciation of life, new goals or priorities, understanding of SCI or disability, appreciation of health or health care, changed personality, opportunity or challenge, knowledge of SCI or body, newly acquired skills, spirituality, acceptance, and nothing. Descriptive statistics were incorporated in the presentation of the data. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a broad range of positive as well as negative psychological outcomes are possible following SCI. More research is needed to better understand the process through which these outcomes arise and to inform how such outcomes may be communicated to persons experiencing this type of injury. PMID:23960704

  14. Dealing with Complex Causality in Realist Synthesis: The Promise of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Fritz; Andereggen, Celine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors state two arguments: first, that the four categories of context, politics, polity, and policy make an adequate framework for systematic review being both exhaustive and parsimonious; second, that the method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is an appropriate methodical approach for gaining realistic results

  15. Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within a 2-week period in all units (n = 53) in nursing homes located in New York City. Narrative reconstructions were created for each event based on information from residents and staff who were involved as well as other sources. The event reconstructions were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common features of RRA events. Results: Analysis of the 122 event reconstructions identified 13 major forms of RRA, grouped under five themes. The resulting framework demonstrated the heterogeneity of types of RRA, the importance of considering personal, environmental, and triggering factors, and the potential emotional and physical harm to residents. Implications: These results suggest the need for person-centered and environmental interventions to reduce RRA, as well as for further research on the topic. PMID:22048811

  16. Correlating Traditional Ayurvedic and Modern Medical Perspectives on Cancer: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Frederick M.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bodeker, Gerard; Abrams, Donald; Lad, Vasant; Adler, Shelley R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To characterize Ayurvedic perspectives on the etiopathogenesis and supportive treatments for a biomedical diagnosis of cancer. Methods: Hour-long, digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 10 experienced Ayurvedic clinicians, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using techniques of qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Four major themes were identified. The Ayurvedic description of the pathophysiology of cancer uses traditional concepts translated into a modern context. Although the biomedical treatment of cancer is considered valuable, from an Ayurvedic perspective it results in degeneration and depletion. In cases where biomedical treatment of cancer is not feasible, an Ayurvedic approach focusing on strengthening digestion, eliminating toxins, reducing tumor growth, and improving tissue metabolism is useful. An Ayurvedic approach to cancer supportive care focuses on restoring equilibrium, building strength, and rejuvenation. Conclusion: Ayurvedic medicine offers a unique perspective on the biomedical diagnosis of cancer that emphasizes restoring wholeness, uses natural remedies, includes a focus on emotional health, and emphasizes prevention strategies. PMID:24341342

  17. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  18. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques (Lisle, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  19. A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen

    2001-01-01

    Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

  20. Informal Payments for Health Care in Iran: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    PARSA, Mojtaba; ARAMESH, Kiarash; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; KANDI, Mohammad Jafar; LARIJANI, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Informal payments to health care providers have been reported in many African, Asian and European countries. This study aimed to investigate different aspects of these payments that are also known as under-the-table payments in Iran. Methods This is an in-depth interview-based qualitative study conducted on 12 purposively chosen clinical specialists. The interviewees answered 9 questions including the ones about, definitions of informal payments, the specialties and hospitals mostly involved with the problem, how they are paid, factors involved, motivation of patients for the payments, impact of the payments on the health care system and physician-patient relationship and the ways to face up with the problem. The findings of the study were analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Results Six topics were extracted from the interviews including definitions, commonness, varieties, motivations, outcomes and preventive measures. It was revealed that under-the-table payments are the money taken (either in private or public portions) from patients in addition to what formally is determined. This problem is mostly seen in surgical services and the most important reason for it is unrealistic tariffs. Conclusion Regarding the soaring commonness of informal payments rooted in underpayments of health expenditures in some specialties, which deeply affect the poor, the government has to boost the capitation and to invest on health sectors through supporting the health insurance companies and actualizing the health care costs in accord with the real price of the health care delivered.

  1. Psychiatrists' experiences of being stalked: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Louise; Reiss, David; Whyte, Seán; Christopherson, Simon; Petch, Edward; Penny, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Stalking is a well-recognized social phenomenon, one that particularly affects health care professionals, especially psychiatrists and other mental health workers; however, the nature and effects of stalking of psychiatrists have not been examined in detail. This study is a qualitative thematic analysis of the free-text responses of 2,585 psychiatrists in the United Kingdom (approximately 25% of all U.K. psychiatrists), almost 11 percent of whom described being stalked according to a strict research definition, and 21 percent of whom perceived themselves as having been stalked. It demonstrates that threat minimization, negative psychological impact, awareness of vulnerability, and difficulty obtaining help were major themes in how psychiatrists viewed their experiences of being stalked. It shows how some psychiatrists coped better than others and makes suggestions for appropriate professional support. PMID:23771932

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of EHR Clinical Document Synthesis by Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Farri, Oladimeji; Pieckiewicz, David S.; Rahman, Ahmed S.; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians utilize electronic health record (EHR) systems during time-constrained patient encounters where large amounts of clinical text must be synthesized at the point of care. Qualitative methods may be an effective approach for uncovering cognitive processes associated with the synthesis of clinical documents within EHR systems. We utilized a think-aloud protocol and content analysis with the goal of understanding cognitive processes and barriers involved as medical interns synthesized patient clinical documents in an EHR system to accomplish routine clinical tasks. Overall, interns established correlations of significance and meaning between problem, symptom and treatment concepts to inform hypotheses generation and clinical decision-making. Barriers identified with synthesizing EHR documents include difficulty searching for patient data, poor readability, redundancy, and unfamiliar specialized terms. Our study can inform recommendations for future designs of EHR clinical document user interfaces to aid clinicians in providing improved patient care. PMID:23304398

  3. Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

  4. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  5. Relational Analysis: An Add-On Technique for Aiding Data Integration in Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver C. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    The innovation of “add-on” techniques to supplement existing qualitative methods can be seen as part of a move towards a pluralist, eclectic qualitative psychology. This article presents such a technique, termed Relational Analysis, which can be used to help explore the full spectrum of possible relationships between analytical themes within qualitative data. To this end it employs 10 “key relational

  6. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  7. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

  8. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created. PMID:25336172

  9. Schizophrenia Patient or Spiritually Advanced Personality? A Qualitative Case Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Srinivasan, T M; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Many aspects of spiritual experience are similar in form and content to symptoms of psychosis. Both spiritually advanced people and patients suffering from psychopathology experience alterations in their sense of 'self.' Psychotic experiences originate from derangement of the personality, whereas spiritual experiences involve systematic thinning out of the selfish ego, allowing individual consciousness to merge into universal consciousness. Documented instances and case studies suggest possible confusion between the spiritually advanced and schizophrenia patients. Clinical practice contains no clear guidelines on how to distinguish them. Here we use a case presentation to help tabulate clinically useful points distinguishing spiritually advanced persons from schizophrenia patients. A 34-year-old unmarried male reported to our clinic with four main complaints: lack of sense of self since childhood; repeated thoughts questioning whether he existed or not; social withdrawal; and inability to continue in any occupation. Qualitative case analysis and discussions using descriptions from ancient texts and modern psychology led to the diagnosis of schizophrenia rather than spiritual advancement. PMID:25543321

  10. Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

  11. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  12. Youngsters’ use of public libraries for information: Results of a qualitative research project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew K. Shenton; Pat Dixon

    2002-01-01

    As public libraries straggle to compete with domestic electronic materials for use by young people, more research is needed to explore youngsters’ exploitation of and attitudes to these organisations. This paper investigates such issues by drawing on the results of a qualitative research project sampling 188 English youngsters between four and eighteen years of age. Attention is specifically focused on

  13. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  14. Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

  17. American Indian Doctorate Receipt 1980-200: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    E-print Network

    Lintner, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    This research presents a quantitative and qualitative analysis of American Indian doctorate receipt between 1980-2000. A quantitative analysis of American Indian doctorate receipt by sex and by broadfield category is initially presented...

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

  19. MARIKA - A model revision system using qualitative analysis of simulations. [of human orientation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.

  20. Detecting, analyzing and responding to security incidents: a qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Werlinger; David Botta; Konstantin Beznosov

    2007-01-01

    This study develops categories of responses to security in- cidents, based on a grounded theory analysis of interviews with security practitioners, with a focus on the tasks per- formed during security incidents, and the necessary resources to perform these tasks. The results include a list of types of incidents, a model for the tasks, the skills employed, and the strategies

  1. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  2. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

  4. Career Counseling Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Experts' Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiston, Susan C.; Lindeman, Dawn; Rahardja, Daryn; Reed, Jordan H.

    2005-01-01

    A consensual qualitative research methodology was used to analyze the career counseling cases of 12 noted vocational psychologists to identify common themes and factors. The findings indicated that the career counseling described by these experts often involved the same counseling or helping skills found in personal counseling or psychotherapy.…

  5. Towards a Methodological Improvement of Narrative Inquiry: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2009-01-01

    The article suggests that though narrative inquiry as a research methodology entails free conversations and personal stories, yet it should not be totally free and fictional as it has to conform to some recognized standards used for conducting educational research. Hence, a qualitative study conducted by Russ (1999) was explored as an exemplar…

  6. Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M Kavanagh; Dorothy H Broom

    1997-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved.Design: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews.Setting: Australian gynaecology clinics.Subjects: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist.Main outcome measures: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs.Results: Most

  7. The Voices of Higher Education Service-Learning Directors: A Qualitative Inductive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    This research explored issues surrounding service-learning directors (SLDs) within higher education institutions, including who they are, how they became SLDs, and what they experience in the role. Qualitative data were drawn from in-depth interviews of 11 SLDs, as well as review of their vitaes. A qualitative inductive analysis was conducted in…

  8. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  9. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of calcium-based microfillers using terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Abina, Andreja; Puc, Uroš; Jegli?, Anton; Prah, Jana; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras; Zidanšek, Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    In different industrial applications, several strictly defined parameters of calcium-based microfillers such as average particle size, particle size distribution, morphology, specific surface area, polymorphism and chemical purity, play a key role in the determination of its usefulness and effectiveness. Therefore, an analytical tool is required for rapid and non-destructive characterization of calcium-based microfillers during the synthesis process or before its use in a further manufacturing process. Since spectroscopic techniques are preferred over microscopy and thermogravimetry, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and short analysis time, we applied terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to analyse calcite microfillers concentration in polymer matrix, its granulation and chemical treatment. Based on the analysis of peak absorbance amplitude, peak frequency position, and the appearance of additional spectral features, quantitative and qualitative analysis was successfully achieved. In addition, THz imaging was also applied for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of calcium-based microfillers. By using spatial distribution map, the inhomogeneity in concentration of calcium carbonate in polymer matrix was characterized. Moreover, by THz spectroscopy and imaging different calcium compounds were detected in binary mixtures. Finally, we demonstrated that the applied spectroscopic technique offers valuable results and can be, in combination with other spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, converted to a powerful rapid analytical tool. PMID:26078145

  11. Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results

  12. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F.

    2008-04-01

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Distributed Physical Systems with Applications to Control Synthesis \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Qualitative Analysis of Distributed Physical Systems with Applications to Control Synthesis \\Lambda­ ature distribution, air flow, and acoustic waves, are described as continuous, distributed parameter fields. Analyzing and controlling these physical processes and systems are common tasks in many

  14. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L. [CICATA- IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico); Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Cno. Parque Centenario e/505 y 508 Gonnet C.C. 124 (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-04-15

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  15. Qualitative Data Analysis of Issue Interrelations and Interdependencies for E-Government Research Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Bicking, Melanie

    Science and technology roadmapping is currently a popular method to develop long-term strategies for e-government. In the scope of the EC-co-funded research project eGovRTD2020, an innovative methodology has been developed, which combines scenarios and roadmapping to support long-term strategic policy-making for e-government research. This approach bases on systematically analyzing qualitative data throughout the whole roadmapping process based on individual issues and their interrelations. The paper explores the complex analysis of the network of relations and interdependencies between these issues. We introduce a concept for the systematic analysis of interlinks between single issues, which helps improving the quality of analysis and advances the consolidation of results to form well grounded strategic policy-making. A case example extracted from the project serves as proof of concept.

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed…

  17. Generating a model of epileptic stigma: The role of qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Scambler; Anthony Hopkins

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses an account of the goals, methods and results of a British community study of coping with epilepsy to consider the nature and range of the contributions qualitative analyses can make to theory formation. Different functions and contexts of qualitative analyses are described, and illustrations given of ways in which these helped generate and inform a particular model

  18. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  19. Contextualising the Research Process: Using Interviewer Notes in the Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that for the secondary analysis of qualitative data to be effective researchers also need to subject any accompanying interviewer notes to the same secondary analysis process. The secondary analysis of interviewer notes can provide a great deal of insight into the research process and the attitudes, experiences and…

  20. Beliefs about fast food in Australia: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip B; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A

    2008-09-01

    The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, (1988)), a qualitative design was employed to examine the beliefs and perceptions associated with fast-food consumption within an Australian sample. Findings provided an indication that positive affective reactions to fast food, convenience, and self-serving cognitions may override cognitive analyses of the longer-term health risks associated with frequent fast-food consumption. PMID:18430490

  1. A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay. PMID:25127598

  2. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

  3. The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

  4. Qualitative environmental analysis for industrial districts implantation using geoprocessing techniques.

    PubMed

    Baretta, Luciane; Veronez, Maurício Roberto; Reinhardt, Alessandro Ott

    2008-12-01

    Industrial districts became important instruments which are used by the Public Power to induce economic decentralization and create new development poles. For this reason the legislative process is an indispensable means to define the priorities in the uses of soil, also to conduct and follow the process of industrial registration. However, the industrial district establishment shall not be analyzed by taking into account just the economic factor, but also the environmental issue of the enterprise. Thus, this research has the objective of determining adequate places for industrial districts implantation, having as a pilot area the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Geographic Information System for execution of spatial analysis and criteria creation on a large volume of environmental information will be used as a tool, which will be guided by the Municipal, State and Federal legislation and a Quickbird satellite image that covers the interest area. The main information used on this research are: altimeter, hydrography, soil use, pedology, geology and infrastructure. The results are visualized in scenarios modeled in accordance with the restrictions imposed upon the information, allowing at the end, to combine all scenarios and create through the multiple criteria method a map that indicates adequate places for implantation of industrial districts. PMID:19151443

  5. [Qualitative analysis of factors supporting the motivation for gastric bypass].

    PubMed

    Mboyato, S; Somasse, E; Coppieters, Y

    2012-01-01

    Half of Belgium's adult population is overweight and approximately 14% are obese. Apart from organic diseases associated with obesity, the psychological repercussion is very important and requires a specific caring. Conservative treatments containing diet, physical-activity and drugs often show limits in particular when the patient presents food behavioural disorders. The bariatric surgery is presented like an ultimate therapy. It is a specific treatment which involves risks and high cost for the patient. This study is based on a qualitative study including patients coming to a gastric bypass in order to appreciate the surgical indications and to describe the individual motivations which lead the patients to request this intervention. The study consists of semi-structured interviews with hospitalized patients. The majority of the patients do not correspond to the criteria defined by the law. The psychological repercussion of obesity compared to the family sight and the society seems to constitute a crucial factor in the recourse to the gastric bypass. The motivations to undergo this intervention are: importance attached to the physique, need for being with the mode, for answering at the request of a spouse or for decreasing health risks. The social support of the family and friends, during and after the intervention is a key component of the success and the acceptability of the intervention. This study proposes to re-examine the criteria of access to the bariatric surgery and to ensure a psychological accompaniment before and after the intervention. That is important for patients who are badly informed about conditions and consequences of the intervention. PMID:23167135

  6. A quantitative and qualitative historical analysis of the scientific discipline of agroecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wezel; V. Soldat

    2009-01-01

    At present, agroecology can be interpreted as a scientific discipline, as a movement or as a practice. In this paper we analyse the historical evolution of the scientific discipline of agroecology with a quantitative bibliometric analysis of 711 publications using the term agroecology and the derived term agroecological, as well as a qualitative analysis of definitions, topics and scales, where

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of User Experiences With a Self-Tracker for Activity, Sleep, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent increase in chronic diseases and an aging population warrant the necessity of health self-management. As small electronic devices that track one’s activity, sleep, and diet, called self-trackers, are being widely distributed, it is prudent to investigate the user experience and the effectiveness of these devices, and use the information toward engineering better devices that would result in increased efficiency and usability. Objective The aim of this study was to abstract the constructs that constitute the user experiences of the self-tracker for activity, sleep, and diet. Additionally, we aimed to develop and verify the Health Information Technology Acceptance Model-II (HITAM-II) through a qualitative data analysis approach. Methods The study group consisted of 18 female college students who participated in an in-depth interview after completing a 3-month study of utilizing a self-tracker designed to monitor activity, sleep, and diet. The steps followed in the analysis were: (1) extraction of constructs from theoretical frameworks, (2) extraction of constructs from interview data using a qualitative methodology, and (3) abstraction of constructs and modeling of the HITAM-II. Results The constructs that constitute the HITAM-II are information technology factors, personal factors, social factors, attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior. These constructs are further divided into subconstructs to additionally support the HITAM-II. Conclusions The HITAM-II was found to successfully describe the health consumer’s attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior from another perspective. The result serves as the basis for a unique understanding of the user experiences of HIT. PMID:24594898

  8. Mass Spectrometer Analysis Results

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. After undergoing initial separation ...

  9. Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

  10. Towards an intelligent decision support system for public health surveillance - a qualitative analysis of information needs.

    PubMed

    Mera, Maritza; González, Carolina; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Public health information systems are often implemented considering the functionalities and requirements established by administrative staff or researchers, but sometimes ignoring the particular needs of decision makers. This paper describes a proposal to support the design of a Decision Support System for Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, by conducting a qualitative study to identify the real needs of people involved in decision making processes. Based on the study results, an intelligent computational component that supports Data Analysis Automation, Prediction of future scenarios and the identification of new Behavioral Patterns is proposed. The component will be implemented using the Case Based Reasoning methodology, which will be integrated as a new component of the Open Source DHIS2 Platform, enabling public health decision-making. PMID:25000011

  11. Thematic Analysis of Iranian Female Adolescents’ Perceptions About HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; FayyazJahani, Farshid; Ahmadnezhad, Somayyeh; Karamyyar, Mohammad; BazarganHejazi, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate common opinions and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Iranian teenager girls. Methods: This Qualitative study (face-to-face interviews with tape recording) was conducted among fifty female teenager school students in Urmia-Iran. Results: The thematic analysis indicated the main information sources for HIV/AIDS among teenage girls to be their mother and teachers. The participants had little concern about the dissemination of HIV/AIDS in Iran. Using a common syringe is mentioned as the main risk factor for HIV transmission. There were some misconceptions about the at-risk group among teenage girls. Conclusions: Considering the misconceptions among the teenage girls, their beliefs should be reformed and reorganized in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV. The best practice is training life skills in the school level. PMID:23671782

  12. A qualitative analysis of health promotion among older African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamika R. Sanchez-Jones

    2006-01-01

    Disparities in health have placed African American elders at risk for poor health outcomes. African American elders suffer from disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality. Health promotion activities aimed at reducing health risk have not been widely studied and require further understanding.The purpose of this ethnographic content analysis was to investigate the health-promoting lifestyle behaviors of community dwelling African American

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of the Lesbian Connection's Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin,Terry McVannel

    2006-01-01

    Letters submitted to the discussion forum of the Lesbian Connection between 2000 and 2002 were analyzed to identify issues of importance to lesbians. The analysis revealed 5 discussion categories: (a) isolation, safety, and aging; (b) children; (c) lesbian relationships and sexuality; (d) physical and mental health; and (e) political issues. The…

  14. Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

  15. Qualitative methods of structural analysis: Layer-based methods are informationally trivial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis de MESNARD

    2000-01-01

    Some methods of qualitative structural analysis, as MFA, are based on the analysis of layers (flow matrices generated at each iteration when the equilibrium of an input-output model is computed). MFA mixes the analysis of the pure structure of production (the technical coefficients) and of the final demand. I have demonstrated that all column-coefficient matrices (or row-coefficient matrices) computed from

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of Decision-Making for Total Knee Replacement in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.; Richardson, Marsha; Kroll, Tony L.; Sharf, Barbara F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Variation in the utilization of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for patients with osteoarthritis has been well documented. Conceivably, patient preferences may play a major role in these differences; however, this has not been adequately assessed. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis of decision-making factors influencing preferences for TKA in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods We conducted six focus groups of patients with knee osteoarthritis from diverse ethnic backgrounds attending primary care clinics affiliated to the largest private outpatient institution in Houston, TX. All groups were lead by race-concordant facilitators. The group discussions were centered on factors considered to be important in the decision-making for TKA. Thematic analysis was conducted, using a grounded theory approach aided by qualitative software. Results Several themes emerged from the groups’ discussions. Positive and negative personal experiences played a major role in decision-making. Generally, participants had good expectations about improved function and quality of life, but a number of fears were identified, the most prevalent being fear of a lengthy recovery, followed by fear of complications and of anesthesia. Additional emerging themes included trust in surgeon, financial concerns, and worries about general health. Conclusions The attitudes and beliefs of patients with knee osteoarthritis about TKA are largely based on personal experiences, expectations, and fears, and they are largely influenced by their close social environment. These findings emphasize the need for open doctor-patient communication around individual experiences to achieve satisfactory shared decision-making for TKA. PMID:20414128

  17. Service Learning in School Counselor Preparation: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arman, John F.; Scherer, David

    2002-01-01

    The Traverse Outreach Project (TOP) is a service learning model of counselor preparation. This article reports on the efficacy of the project to prepare school counselors using a service learning pedagogy. Results indicate that service learning was an effective method of integrating the theory and practice of school counseling. (Author)

  18. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    E-print Network

    Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

    2015-01-07

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  19. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  20. The variable experiences of becoming retired and seeking retirement guidance: a qualitative thematic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver C. Robinson; James D. Demetre; Roslyn H. Corney

    2011-01-01

    Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals across the UK who had retired between two and ten years ago, with the aim of exploring the variability of retirement experiences in terms of (a) retirement antecedents\\/reasons for retirement, (b) change in wellbeing and satisfaction over time, (c) personal relationships and (d) retirement guidance. Interviews were subject to a multi-level thematic qualitative analysis.

  1. Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition

    E-print Network

    Jabin, Pierre-Emmanuel

    Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition Elena De Angelis(1. Moreover, competition with the immune system starts if tumor cells are recognized by immune cells to the immune response to the evolution of the progression of endothe- lial cells which have lost

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of Mothers' Childrearing Behaviour towards Their Disabled Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2007-01-01

    The present study provides a qualitative analysis of mothers' childrearing behaviour focused on the coercive-inductive dimension, in particular in an effort to show that coerciveness is not always negative, but may be adaptive to the child's characteristics. Thirty-one mothers provided self-reports from a structured interview on their childrearing…

  3. THE QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT MAPS: SOME UNFORESEEN CONSEQENCES AND EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Kinchin

    The qualitative analysis of concept maps produced by students and teachers from secondary and higher education consistently show the occurrence of three morphological types: spokes, chains and nets. The significance of these structures is discussed in terms of their implications for university teaching and for further learning, and supports a reconceptualisation of the notion of expertise as a dynamic transformation

  4. Competence and Critique in Technical Communication: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabelle

    1996-01-01

    Uses qualitative content analysis to discuss current perspectives in technical communication pedagogy. Examines the 1990-94 issues of 5 major scholarly journals--totaling 563 articles--to identify 98 articles mentioning teaching in undergraduate technical communication courses. Classifies the articles into four pedagogical perspectives: (1)…

  5. BioSystems xxx (2006) xxxxxx Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray

    E-print Network

    Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2006-01-01

    BioSystems xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray data:10.1016/j.biosystems.2005.10.006 BIO-2511; No. of Pages 22 #12;2 A. Siegel et al. / BioSystems xxx (2006) xxx­xxx tinuous and discrete models is made by piecewise linear differential models (de Jong et

  6. Choosing Qualitative Data Analysis Software: Atlas\\/ti and Nudist Compared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Barry

    1998-01-01

    Choosing between Nudist and Atlas\\/ti, the main qualitative data analysis software packages can be difficult. To assist researchers in making this choice, I have conceptualised their differences along two dimensions, related to the qualities of the software and of the research project. The software dimension is structural design, and the project dimension is complexity. Software structure is dichotomised between structured,

  7. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  9. A Qualitative Organic Analysis that Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then…

  10. Qualitative Analysis of a Neural Network Model with Multiple Time Delays

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Sue Ann

    Qualitative Analysis of a Neural Network Model with Multiple Time Delays Sue Ann Campbell, 1 Shigui neurons where each neuron receives two time delayed inputs: one from itself and another from the previous words. Neural network model, time delay, stability, Hopf bifurcation. AMS subject classifications. 34K20

  11. Qualitative system analysis as a means for sustainable governance of emerging technologies: the case of nanotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnim Wiek; Daniel J. Lang; Michael Siegrist

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable governance of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is a demanding societal challenge due to the “technological throughput” of today's and tomorrow's social life. A prerequisite for sustainable governance is an integrated understanding of the factors, interdependencies and developmental potentials of the technological system under investigation. This paper presents a transdisciplinary qualitative system analysis on nanotechnology in Switzerland, integrating perspectives

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning.

    E-print Network

    Madden, Michael

    models were developed to identify the presence of chlorinated solvents in mixtures at levels of ~5 solvent waste is chlorinated or not will determine firstly how it is transported for disposal and secondlyQualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine

  13. A qualitative analysis of child sex offenders involved in the manufacture of indecent images of children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Sheehan; Joe Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of four males convicted of manufacturing indecent images of children to determine whether there were similarities or differences in their experiences, perspectives and behaviours which might lead to a better understanding of this offence type. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is used to examine the participants' responses to a semi-structured interview. The

  14. Preservice Teacher Preparation for Managing Problem Behaviors: An Interpretive Qualitative Analysis of the Classroom Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Sandra Hall

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines the content of a required classroom management course to determine how preservice teachers are prepared for managing problem behaviors. Qualitative content analysis of interviews with four adjunct classroom management course instructors, their course syllabi, textbooks, assignments and projects, ancillary course…

  15. Foucauldian Scientificity: Rethinking the Nexus of Qualitative Research and Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2006-01-01

    This essay calls for qualitative policy analysis that can engage strategically with the increased calls for the usefulness of social policy toward the improvement of educational practice. Michel Foucault's concept of scientificity is used as a tool against the "repositivization" at work in neo-liberal times and its "rage for accountability" where…

  16. MULTIPHASE MODELING AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OF THE GROWTH OF TUMOR CORDS

    E-print Network

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    MULTIPHASE MODELING AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OF THE GROWTH OF TUMOR CORDS ANDREA TOSIN Abstract. In this paper a macroscopic model of tumor cords growth is developed, relying on the mathematical theory of deformable porous media. Tumor is modeled as a saturated mixture of proliferating cells

  17. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  18. Behavioral determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: A qualitative directed content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. METHODS This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. RESULTS Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. CONCLUSION Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors. PMID:25161674

  19. Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehran’s hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes) emerged from the data analysis: 1) God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God), 2) Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes) and 3) Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources). Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources. PMID:23043231

  20. Qualitative Analysis of Causal Anisotropic Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models

    E-print Network

    R. J. van den Hoogen; A. A. Coley

    1996-05-28

    The truncated Israel-Stewart theory of irreversible thermodynamics is used to describe the bulk viscous pressure and the anisotropic stress in a class of spatially homogeneous viscous fluid cosmological models. The governing system of differential equations is written in terms of dimensionless variables and a set of dimensionless equations of state is utilized to complete the system. The resulting dynamical system is then analyzed using standard geometric techniques. It is found that the presence of anisotropic stress plays a dominant role in the evolution of the anisotropic models. In particular, in the case of the Bianchi type I models it is found that anisotropic stress leads to models that violate the weak energy condition and to the creation of a periodic orbit in some instances. The stability of the isotropic singular points is analyzed in the case with zero heat conduction; it is found that there are ranges of parameter values such that there exists an attracting isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model. In the case of zero anisotropic stress but with non-zero heat conduction the stability of the singular points is found to be the same as in the corresponding case with zero heat conduction; hence the presence of heat conduction does not apparently affect the global dynamics of the model.

  1. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Lüdecke, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

  2. What Happens Along the Diagnostic Pathway to CHD Treatment? Qualitative Results Concerning Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Lutfey, Karen E.; McKinlay, John. B.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research on health disparities documents persistent differential diagnosis and treatment of many conditions according to patient characteristics, physician attributes, and healthcare systems. Less is known about how physicians arrive at their decisions. We use qualitative data from a vignette-based factorial experiment to examine how physicians reason through and account for their clinical decisions, and how variations arise despite the presentation of identical symptoms of CHD. We find that physicians show evidence of cognitive biases but also actively interpret social characteristics they deem relevant to medical treatment. In an uncertain clinical context, these diagnostic pathways expose key junctures wherein physicians are detoured to alternative diagnoses, their certainty of CHD lowered, and scientific logic makes it difficult to return to a CHD diagnosis—thereby providing a fuller picture of why some cases are counted as CHD while others are not. These results have important implications insofar as diagnostic decisions like these contribute to the compilation of epidemiologic base rates, and are therefore used as part of Bayesian decision making to determine the probability of CHD in subsequent patients. This work resonates with social constructivist concerns regarding the ways disease categories are established and maintained, and potential sources of bias in official rates. PMID:19619155

  3. [Strengthening health literacy of people with migration background : results of a qualitative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Horn, Annett; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Schaeffer, Doris

    2015-06-01

    The concept of "health literacy", which has gained attention in English-speaking countries during the last decade, is becoming increasingly popular in Germany. While studies on an international level indicate that people with migration background are often limited in their health literacy, there is a lack of empirical data on that topic in Germany. However, it is well known that they are exposed to health-related risks and problems comparatively often whereas they use health care services less frequently. This article focuses on the native speaking counseling services of the Independent Patient Counseling Germany (UPD gGmbH) as an example of good practice and introduces the results of the evaluation of this counseling service. Qualitative interviews were conducted with UPD-consultants as well as with users of the services. It became apparent that Turkish and Russian-speaking immigrants often have limited health-related literacy. Therefore, support and counseling services should focus not only on issues concerning language and cultural aspects. Furthermore, strategies strengthening the health literacy of persons with migration background are required. Therefore, instruments and strategies will be developed in cooperation with the UPD which aim to improve such skills of the UPD-consultants. PMID:25861043

  4. What happens along the diagnostic pathway to CHD treatment? Qualitative results concerning cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Lutfey, Karen E; McKinlay, John B

    2009-11-01

    Extensive research on health disparities documents persistent differential diagnosis and treatment of many conditions according to patient characteristics, physician attributes, and healthcare systems. Less is known about how physicians arrive at their decisions. We use qualitative data from a vignette-based factorial experiment to examine how physicians reason through and account for their clinical decisions, and how variations arise despite the presentation of identical symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD). We find that physicians show evidence of cognitive biases but also actively interpret social characteristics they deem relevant to medical treatment. In an uncertain clinical context, these diagnostic pathways expose key junctures wherein physicians are detoured to alternative diagnoses, their certainty of CHD lowered, and scientific logic makes it difficult to return to a CHD diagnosis - thereby providing a fuller picture of why some cases are counted as CHD while others are not. These results have important implications insofar as diagnostic decisions like these contribute to the compilation of epidemiologic base rates, and are therefore used as part of Bayesian decision making to determine the probability of CHD in subsequent patients. This work resonates with social constructivist concerns regarding the ways disease categories are established and maintained, and potential sources of bias in official rates detected. PMID:19619155

  5. Breastfeeding and Smoking among Low-Income Women: Results of a Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldade, Kate; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

    2009-01-01

    Background The benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers have been well established, yet rates of breastfeeding remain well below national recommendations in the United States and even lower for women who smoke during pregnancy. Primary goals of this study were to explore contextual factors that contribute to breastfeeding intentions and behavior and to examine how smoking status affected women’s decision making about breastfeeding. Methods This paper is based on a longitudinal qualitative study of smoking, pregnancy, and breastfeeding among 44 low-income women in the southwest U.S. who smoked during pregnancy. Each woman was interviewed 9 times; 6 times during pregnancy and 3 times postpartum using semistructured questionnaires. Interviews lasted 1 to 3 hours and were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Results Despite 36 (82%) respondents stating that they intended to breastfeed for an average duration of 8 months, rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration were much lower than intentions. By 6 months postpartum, only two women were breastfeeding exclusively. Conclusions Women perceived that a strong risk of harming the baby was posed by smoking while breastfeeding and received little encouragement to continue breastfeeding despite an inability to stop smoking. The perceptions of the toxic, addictive, and harmful effects of smoking on breastmilk constitution and quantity factored into reasons why women weaned their infants from breastfeeding much earlier than the recommended 6 months. The results indicate a need for more consistency and routine in educating women on the relationship between smoking and breastfeeding and in promoting breastfeeding in spite of smoking postpartum. (BIRTH 35:3 September 2008) PMID:18844649

  6. Analytical and Methodological Issues in the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software: A Description of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum-Leys, Jon; Kupperman, Jeff; Boyle-Heimann, Kristen

    This paper presents perspectives on the use of data analysis software in the process of qualitative research. These perspectives were gained in the conduct of three qualitative research studies that differed in theoretical frames, areas of interests, and scope. Their common use of a particular data analysis software package allows the exploration…

  7. Transient segregation behavior in Cd1-xZnxTe with low Zn content-A qualitative and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, M.; Jurisch, M.

    2015-06-01

    The paper analyzes experimental compositional profiles in Vertical Bridgman (VB, VGF) grown (Cd,Zn)Te crystals, found in the literature. The origin of the observed axial ZnTe-distribution profiles is attributed to dendritic growth after initial nucleation from supercooled melts. The analysis was done by utilizing a boundary layer model providing a very good approximation of the experimental data. Besides the discussion of the qualitative results also a quantitative analysis of the fitted model parameters is presented as far as it is possible by the utilized model.

  8. Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay as an Alternative to Western Blot Analysis for Confirmation of HIV Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Virginia M.; Neide, Brandy; Hodinka, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 RNA qualitative assay was evaluated as an alternative to Western blot analysis for the confirmation of HIV infection using serum samples that were repeatedly reactive for HIV antibodies. The Aptima HIV assay readily discriminated between HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals and effectively reduced the number of indeterminate results relative to Western blot analysis. PMID:21346052

  9. Iranian Nurses’ Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients’ care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses’ status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran’s council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses’ status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including “the policy making framework”, “perceived status of nurses in policy making”, and “the manner of nurses’ participation in policy making”. The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran’s macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications.

  10. Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within…

  11. Barriers to evidence-based practice implementation: results of a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Charles A; Etzel-Wise, Diane; Marty, Doug; Coffman, Melinda; Carlson, Linda; Asher, Dianne; Callaghan, Jennifer; Holter, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on a qualitative study of barriers to EBP implementation in one state that sought to implement supported employment and integrated dual diagnosis treatment. The study found that the most significant obstacles emanated from the behavior of supervisors, front-line staff and other professionals in the agency. A lack of synergy profoundly impeded implementation. PMID:19685185

  12. Evidence-based Practice Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Rob Whitley

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the strategies used to implement the evidence-based practices of supported employment and integrated\\u000a dual diagnosis treatment. Using qualitative research methods, the study uncovered eight strategies that contributed to successful\\u000a implementation in six sites.

  13. Description and Analysis of the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Qualitative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephan; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    This qualitative report of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Girls' Education Activity (GEA) focuses on the results of project activities in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Section 1 outlines the overall purpose and goals of the GEA; contrasts the major tactics of the program in each country; and describes the…

  14. A discussion of qualitative data analysis in hospitality research with examples from an ethnography of English public houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter John Sandiford; Diane Seymour

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that qualitative Hospitality research is infrequently reported in Hospitality journals and that when such research does appear, the processes of data analysis seldom receive rigorous attention. Different analytic practices are discussed using a real-life example of qualitative research—an ethnography of English pubs—showing some techniques in action and highlighting issues and challenges that often face qualitative researchers. Data

  15. Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents’ and physicians’ experiences of stillbirth–a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate. In the months and years following a stillbirth, these parents continue to memorialize their children as part of their family. Conclusions Hospitals need to examine the physical environment for deliveries and, wherever possible, offer designated private areas with staff trained in stillbirth care. Training programs in obstetrics need to better address the bereavement needs of parents following a stillbirth, and research is needed to evaluate effective bereavement interventions, accounting for cultural variation. Critical improvements are also needed for mental health support beyond hospitalization. Finally, medical professionals and parents can play an important role in reversing the stigma that surrounds stillbirth. PMID:23181615

  16. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Calendula officinalis-advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Christine M; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a chemical fingerprint of a plant to allow identification and quantify the main constituents within the plant. The aims of this study were to compare HPTLC and HPLC, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of Calendula officinalis and to investigate the effect of different extraction techniques on the C. officinalis extract composition from different parts of the plant. The results found HPTLC to be effective for qualitative analysis, however, HPLC was found to be more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of the two methods may be useful in a quality control setting as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extract composition. PMID:24880991

  17. Students’ Experiences and Perceived Benefits of a Sex Education Curriculum: A Qualitative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggy B. Smith; Janet P. Realini; Ruth S. Buzi; Mario Martinez

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative evaluation explored the experiences and perceived benefits of students who participated in an abstinence-plus sex education program at enrollment and conclusion. The sample included 1130 inner-city high school students, 73.7% of whom were Hispanic. Thematic analysis was used to identify main themes in responses made by students to 3 open-ended questions. The most common preparticipation request was for

  18. Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Subhashree; Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti; Mishra, Subash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934) suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region) and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region) Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg's angle (2?) of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable. PMID:22171318

  19. Women's attitudes toward testing for fragile X carrier status: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Anido, Aimee; Carlson, Lisa M; Taft, Lisa; Sherman, Stephanie L

    2005-08-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is primarily due to a repeat expansion mutation found in the FMR1 X-linked gene. We have conducted a qualitative analysis of responses from women concerning their attitudes toward testing for carrier status of the fragile X mutation among reproductive-age women. We obtained responses from focus groups including women with and without FXS in their families. We found the following themes: (1) mothers of children with FXS have difficulty formulating their opinions on population screening because of their unique experiences surrounding their own carrier diagnosis and their relationship with their children with FXS, (2) the motivation for carrier testing and need for information differ by family history of FXS and parental status, and (3) the timing of carrier testing with respect to a woman's life stage dictates whether carrier information will be viewed as beneficial or detrimental. There was evidence that non-carrier women from the general population would be wholly unprepared for positive carrier results. These findings have significant implications for genetic counseling as well as for population screening. PMID:16047092

  20. Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse–Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M.Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An exploratory, qualitative directed content analysis examined 15 narrative case summaries written by APNs and fieldnotes from biweekly case conferences. Results: Three central themes emerged: patients and caregivers having the necessary information and knowledge, care coordination, and the caregiver experience. An additional category was also identified, APNs going above and beyond. Implications: APNs implemented individualized approaches and provided care that exceeds the type of care typically staffed and reimbursed in the American health care system by applying a Transitional Care Model, advanced clinical judgment, and doing whatever was necessary to prevent negative outcomes. Reimbursement reform as well as more formalized support systems and resources are necessary for APNs to consistently provide such care to patients and their caregivers during this vulnerable time of transition. PMID:21908805

  2. Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

    2015-06-01

    Objectives To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. Methods An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Conclusions Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'. Chinese Abstract ??? 266???? ????????. ??????????. PMID:25472698

  3. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  4. Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice Implementation: Results of a Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Mark Holter

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative study of barriers to EBP implementation in one state that sought to implement supported\\u000a employment and integrated dual diagnosis treatment. The study found that the most significant obstacles emanated from the\\u000a behavior of supervisors, front-line staff and other professionals in the agency. A lack of synergy profoundly impeded implementation.

  5. The role of the “champion” in infection prevention: results from a multisite qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Damschroder; J Banaszak-Holl; C P Kowalski; J Forman; S Saint; S L Krein

    2009-01-01

    Background:Although 20% or more of healthcare-associated infections can be prevented, many hospitals have not implemented practices known to reduce infections. We explored the types and numbers of champions who lead efforts to implement best practices to prevent hospital-acquired infection in US hospitals.Methods:Qualitative analyses were conducted within a multisite, sequential mixed methods study of infection prevention practices in Veteran Affairs and

  6. Expediting the Analysis of Qualitative Data in Evaluation: A Procedure for the Rapid Identification of Themes from Audio Recordings (RITA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P.; VanDyke, Erika; Kornbluh, Mariah

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative data offer advantages to evaluators, including rich information about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences. However, qualitative data analysis is labor-intensive and slow, conflicting with evaluators' needs to provide punctual feedback to their clients. In this method note, we contribute to the literature on rapid…

  7. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

  8. Object orientated automated image analysis: quantitative and qualitative estimation of inflammation in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Apfeldorfer, Coralie; Ulrich, Kristina; Jones, Gareth; Goodwin, David; Collins, Susie; Schenck, Emanuel; Richard, Virgile

    2008-01-01

    Historically, histopathology evaluation is performed by a pathologist generating a qualitative assessment on thin tissue sections on glass slides. In the past decade, there has been a growing interest for tools able to reduce human subjectivity and improve workload. Whole slide scanning technology combined with object orientated image analysis can offer the capacity of generating fast and reliable results. In the present study, we combined the use of these emerging technologies to characterise a mouse model for chronic asthma. We monitored the inflammatory changes over five weeks by measuring the number of neutrophils and eosinophils present in the tissue, as well as, the bronchiolar associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) area on whole lungs sections. We showed that inflammation assessment could be automated efficiently and reliably. In comparison to human evaluation performed on the same set of sections, computer generated data was more descriptive and fully quantitative. Moreover optimisation of our detection parameters allowed us to be to more sensitive and to generate data in a larger dynamic range to traditional experimental evaluation, such as bronchiolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cell counts obtained by flow cytometry. We also took advantage of the fact that we could increase the number of samples to be analysed within a day. Such optimisation allowed us to determine the best study design and experimental conditions in order to increase statistical significance between groups. In conclusion, we showed that combination of whole slide digital scanning and image analysis could be fully automated and deliver more descriptive and biologically relevant data over traditional methods evaluating histopathological pulmonary changes observed in this mouse model of chronic asthma. PMID:18673504

  9. A qualitative analysis of a consensus process to develop quality indicators of injury care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus methodologies are often used to create evidence-based measures of healthcare quality because they incorporate both available evidence and expert opinion to fill gaps in the knowledge base. However, there are limited studies of the key domains that are considered during panel discussion when developing quality indicators. Methods We performed a qualitative content analysis of the discussions from a two-day international workshop of injury control and quality-of-care experts (19 panel members) convened to create a standardized set of quality indicators for injury care. The workshop utilized a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness method. Workshop proceedings were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used constant comparative analysis to analyze the transcripts of the workshop to identify key themes. Results We identified four themes in the selection, development, and implementation of standardized quality indicators: specifying a clear purpose and goal(s) for the indicators to ensure relevant data elements were included, and that indicators could be used for system-wide benchmarking and improving patient outcomes; incorporating evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives to identify important clinical problems and potential measurement challenges; considering context and variations between centers in the health system that could influence either the relevance or application of an indicator; and contemplating data collection and management issues, including availability of existing data sources, quality of data, timeliness of data abstraction, and the potential role for primary data collection. Conclusion Our study provides a description of the key themes of discussion among a panel of clinical, managerial, and data experts developing quality indicators. Consideration of these themes could help shape deliberation of future panels convened to develop quality indicators. PMID:23594974

  10. Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. Objectives: This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Results: Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. Conclusions: The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status. PMID:25031848

  11. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

  12. Qualitative Results from a Flight Investigation to Determine Aileron Effectiveness of Two Rocket-Propelled 1/20-Scale Models of the MX -76 Missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Joseph E.

    1955-01-01

    Free-flight tests of two rocket-propelled l/20-scale models of the Bell MX-776 missile have been conducted to obtain measurements of the aileron deflection required to counteract the induced rolling moments caused by combined angles of attack and sideslip and thus to determine whether the ailerons provided were capable of controlling the model at the attitudes produced by the test conditions. Inability to obtain reasonably steady-state conditions and superimposed high-frequency oscillations in the data precluded any detailed analysis of the results obtained from the tests. For these reasons, the data presented are limited largely to qualitative results.

  13. Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  14. Qualitative task analysis to enhance sports characterization: a surfing case study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports' structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals' behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities' characterization through the observation, surfer's opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave's components and constraints and the surfboards' qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  15. The effect of sample treatment on separation profiles of tear fluid proteins: Qualitative and semi-quantitative protein determination by an automated analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Schmut; Jutta Horwath-Winter; Andrea Zenker; Gabriele Trummer

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. Qualitative and quantitative determination of tear fluid components is of increasing interest in ophthalmology. Until now, for diagnosis and course control of some diseases of the anterior parts of the eye, different methods for tear fluid protein analysis are available. Results can be obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), immunochemistry, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A new method for

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models satisfying the Israel-Stewart theory of Irreversible Thermodynamics

    E-print Network

    A A Coley; R J van den Hoogen

    1996-05-28

    Isotropic and spatially homogeneous viscous fluid cosmological models are investigated using the truncated Israel-Stewart theory of irreversible thermodynamics to model the bulk viscous pressure. The governing system of differential equations is written in terms of dimensionless variables and a set of dimensionless equations of state is then utilized to complete the system. The resulting dynamical system is analyzed using geometric techniques from dynamical systems theory to find the qualitative behaviour of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models with bulk viscosity. In these models there exists a free parameter such that the qualitative behaviour of the models can be quite different (for certain ranges of values of this parameter) from that found in models satisfying the Eckart theory studied previously. In addition, the conditions under which the models inflate are investigated.

  17. Group medical visits can deliver on patient-centred care objectives: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-centred care emerged in the late 1960s as a framework to guide providers and decision-makers towards the provision of more effective health care and better outcomes. An important body of literature has since emerged, reporting mixed results in terms of outcomes. To date, assessments of the effectiveness of patient-centred approaches have focused one-on-one consultations. The purpose of this article is to explore dimensions identified as key in the patient-centred literature in the context of primary health care services delivered in a group setting. Group Medical Visits (GMVs) offer a novel format for the delivery of patient-centred primary health care services, especially for patients living with complex morbidities. Methods Drawing on a large study of GMVs, we report on key format and process-oriented elements identified in GMVs, and on their link to improved outcomes. For the purpose of this study, we interviewed 34 providers and 29 patients who have been engaged in GMVs, delivered in rural, northern and First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Results Our analysis shows that the delivery of PHC in a group format results in a shift in the role of the provider, from that of an adjudicator involved in imparting norms of self-care, to that of a facilitator who assists the group in defining norms of self-care that are based on medical knowledge but also on the broader context of patients’ lived experience and on their pragmatic experience. In a group process, peer-patients take on the role of promoting these norms to other patients. This results in a significant shift in the role of the provider, increased trust, increased knowledge for the providers and the patients and better patient self-management. Our results also show increase satisfaction for patients and providers. Conclusions GMVs offer an alternative format for the provision of PHC that brings together the benefit of a group process and of a clinical encounter. This format can successfully deliver on the promises of patient-centred care. PMID:23627609

  18. Qualitative time trend analysis of ground water monitoring networks : An example from The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Frapporti, G; Vriend, S P; van Gaans, P F

    1994-03-01

    The detection of significant (short-term) time trends is one of the major goals of ground water monitoring networks. These trends can be used to recognize active geochemical processes and potential environmental threats. This paper presents a case history of time trend analysis on macrochemical parameters of ground water quality. It shows the difficulties and traps that are generally encountered in such studies. The data used originated from the Dutch National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network. This network is operative since 1979, and keeps track of the ground water composition at 350 locations at two depths (ca. 10 and 25 m below surface; general density, one location per 100 km(2)). Prior to the trend analysis the data set was divided into geochemically homogeneous groups using fuzzy c-means clustering. Each group represents a specific ground water type, characterized by a distinct source (seawater, surface water or precipitation) and a unique combination of dominant geochemical processes (e.g. mineralization of organic matter, carbonate dissolution and cation exchange).To study trends qualitatively, the concentrations of the various macro-constituents in ground water are correlated with time of sampling. The nonparametric and outlier insensitive Spearman rank correlation coefficient is computed per well screen. A frequency distribution of correlation coefficients is formed by combining the Spearman correlation coefficients of all individual wells within a homogeneous group. This distribution is tested for trends against the appropriate theoretical distribution of zero correlation by use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. The type of trend is derived from the shape of the distribution.Most ground water types show statistically significant qualitative trends, of which many, however, are caused by changes in the sampling and analytical procedures over the monitoring period. After elimination of differences in limits of detection for NO3, total-P, and NH4, most trends in these compounds disappeared. In some water types trends for alkalinity, apparent trends for pH, Ec, and total-P are caused by variations in the laboratory practice, e.g. varying storage procedures, leading to erroneous analyses. Other parameters showed statistically significant trends, related to geochemical processes.The most interesting and most substantial trends are observed in the water type characterized by infiltrating rainwater with agricultural pollutants. In this water type the lowering ground water table induces lower rates of evapotranspiration, giving lower concentrations in time of conservative parameters (Cl, Na, Ca). The aerated zone is enlarged, resulting in increased oxidation of organic material, less efficient nutrient (NO3, K) uptake by plant roots, leading to increased ground water concentrations of nutrients. In other water types trends are quantitatively small. However, trends are not necessarily linear, and all should be closely monitored in future. PMID:24213709

  19. [Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Richter, D

    2014-09-01

    Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e.?g., communication training) and psychological coping (e.?g., resilience enhancement). PMID:24452430

  20. Why women engage in anal intercourse: results from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Rogala, Bridget

    2015-05-01

    This study used qualitative methods to assess why women engage in heterosexual anal (receptive) intercourse (AI) with a male partner. Four focus groups which comprised women from diverse ethnicities were conducted. All groups were digitally recorded for transcription; transcripts were analyzed using the methods of grounded theory to determine themes. Women's reasons for engaging in anal intercourse with a male partner can be described in broad categories including that the women wanted to have anal intercourse, either because of their own desire, to please a male partner, or they were responding to a quid pro quo situation. The riskiness of AI was assessed within relationship contexts. Past experience with AI including emotional and physical reactions was identified. Among the negative physical experiences of AI were pain and disliking the sensation, and uncomfortable side effects, such as bleeding of the rectum. Negative emotional experiences of AI included feelings of shame, disgust, and being offended by something her male partner did, such as spitting on his penis for lubrication. Positive physical experiences included liking the sensation. Many of the women also endorsed positive emotional experiences of AI, including that it was more intimate than vaginal sex, and that it was something they reserved only for special partners. The majority of AI episodes were unplanned and not discussed prior to initiation. Pain during AI was mitigated by the use of lubricants or illicit drugs. Even those women who found pleasure in AI expressed a preference for vaginal intercourse. PMID:25378264

  1. [Anorectal malformations and difficulties to talk about it. Results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Berglein, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Anorectal malformations cause life long conditions, making it necessary to find ways of communicating the disability in the social context. Incontinence, regular enemas, genital reconstruction, catheterization and scares are just some of the common difficulties affected people have to live with. Intimate disabilities like anorectal malformations cause feelings of shame and embarrassment, and are taboo in our society. Experiences of rejection or just the fear of it cause affected people to hide their disability. In a qualitative study, affected young adults talked about the impact of this disability on their lifes. All interviewees started to hide their condition sometime in older childhood and early adolescents. After a struggling process, torn between fears of discovery and rejection all of them found ways to communicate their condition. All interviewees described revealing their condition in stages and only to certain social groups. Trust is the main prerequisite for revelation. Trust has two aspects, first the person needs to trust that the information will not be spread and second there needs to be trust that the other person will be able to understand and accept the person despite their condition. Support through family, friends, and peers in a support group are helpful. Important in this process is once ability to accept their own condition. PMID:20229841

  2. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  3. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women’s HIV risks in addition to conventional HIV risk- taking behaviors are urgently needed. PMID:22697147

  4. What is in a text and what does it do: Qualitative Evaluations of an NLG system the BT-Nurse using content analysis and discourse analysis.

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Ehud

    -Nurse ­ using content analysis and discourse analysis. Rahul Sambaraju Queen Margaret Univ, UK rsambaraju different methodologies (content analysis and discourse analysis). The outcomes of such evaluations. In this paper we describe how we used two qualitative methodologies, content analysis and discourse analysis

  5. A detection of microevolutionary changes by the analysis of qualitative dermatoglyphic traits: an example of Albanians from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Temaj, Gazmend; Petranovi?, Matea Zajc; Skari?-Juri?, Tatjana; Behluli, Ibrahim; Naranci?, Nina Smolej; Xharra, Shefki; Sopi, Ramadan; Milici?, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the qualitative dermatoglyphic traits in the Albanians from three Kosovo distinct regions. We aimed to detect possible microevolutionary changes, which could have happened as a consequence of geographical and cultural isolation. The dermatoglyphic traits were analyzed for total 641 Albanians of both sexes. The analysis included 4 variables on fingers, 8 on palms and terminations of A, B, C, D and T main-lines. The differences in patterns incidence were tested using the chi-square test. The frequencies of several pattern types varied to a great extent between distinct groups with statistically significant difference in most of the cases. Our results indicated that the Albanians from South Morava valley and from Kosovo plain were genetically close, and the population from Dukagjini valley is less close to any of them. The analysis of qualitative dermatoglyphic patterns may be utilized effectively to track the microevolutionary changes. This is especially useful in a developing country like Kosovo, since it is an inexpensive and effective tool for screening and studying the patterns influenced by the divergence of population. PMID:23350157

  6. A qualitative analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing a cognitive-behavioral treatment with education

    PubMed Central

    Day, Melissa A.; Thorn, Beverly E.; Kapoor, Shweta

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a widely accepted psychosocial treatment for chronic pain. However, the efficacy of CBT has not been investigated within a rural setting. Furthermore, few studies have utilized first-person accounts to qualitatively investigate the key treatment elements and processes of change underlying the well-documented quantitative improvements associated with CBT. To address these gaps, we conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the efficacy of group CBT compared to an active education condition (EDU) within a rural, low-literacy population. Post-treatment semi-structured interviews of 28 CBT and 24 EDU treatment completers were qualitatively analyzed. Emerging themes were collated to depict a set of finalized thematic maps to visually represent the patterns inherent in the data. Patterns were separated into procedural elements and presumed change processes of treatment. Key themes, subthemes, and example extracts for CBT and EDU are presented; unique and shared aspects pertaining to the thematic maps are discussed. Results indicate that while both groups benefited from the program, the CBT group described more breadth and depth of change as compared to the EDU group. Importantly, this study identified key treatment elements and explored possible processes of change from the patients’ perspective. Perspective This qualitative article describes patient-identified key procedural elements and change process factors associated with psychosocial approaches for chronic pain management. Results may guide further adaptations to existing treatment protocols for use within unique, underserved chronic pain populations. Continued development of patient-centered approaches may help reduce health, treatment and ethnicity disparities. PMID:21839689

  7. The impact of vascular comorbidities on qualitative error analysis of executive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lamar, Melissa; Libon, David J; Ashley, Angela V; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Goldstein, Felicia C

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular comorbidities (VC) perform worse across measures of verbal reasoning and abstraction when compared to patients with AD alone. We performed a qualitative error analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Similarities zero-point responses in 45 AD patients with varying numbers of VC, including diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Errors were scored in set if the answer was vaguely related to how the word pair was alike (e.g., dog-lion: "they can be trained") and out of set if the response was unrelated ("a lion can eat a dog"). AD patients with 2-3 VC did not differ on Similarities total score or qualitative errors from AD patients with 0-1 VC. When analyzing the group as a whole, we found that increasing numbers of VC were significantly associated with increasing out of set errors and decreasing in set errors in AD. Of the vascular diseases investigated, it was only the severity of diastolic blood pressure that significantly correlated with out of set responses. Understanding the contribution of VC to patterns of impairment in AD may provide support for directed patient and caregiver education concerning the presentation of a more severe pattern of cognitive impairment in affected individuals. PMID:19835657

  8. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study – Near Death Experiences, or NDE – we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  9. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  10. Sense of presence experiences and meaning-making in bereavement: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Edith; Coyle, Adrian

    2011-08-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the potential role that might be played by the reported experience of "sensing the presence of the deceased" in meaning-making processes in bereavement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 participants who reported having had such an experience and the transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Seven overarching themes were identified, 3 of which were considered central: finding benefit in the continuation of the deceased, finding benefit in the continued relationship, and finding meaning through existential, spiritual, and religious sense-making. While participants found many benefits in what they experienced, finding meaning beyond immediate coping seemed to require the availability of spiritual/religious frameworks that could be adopted or, if available but discrepant, could meaningfully accommodate the experience. PMID:24501839

  11. Rotation parameters and shapes of 19 asteroids. Qualitative analysis and interpretation of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungalag, N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Lupishko, D. F.

    2003-10-01

    Using the combined method (amplitude-magnitude method plus the epoch method), we determined pole coordinates, sidereal rotation periods, senses of rotation and axial ratios of threeaxial ellipsoid figures for asteroids 158 Koronis, 167 Urda, 208 Lacrimosa, 211 Isolda, 263 Dresda, 268 Adorea, 277 Elvira, 311 Claudia, 321 Florentina, 344 Desiderata, 347 Pariana, 369 Aeria, 462 Eriphyla, 480 Hansa, 534 Nassovia, 631 Philippina, 720 Bohlina, 1223 Neckar, and 4954 Eric. For nine of them the determination was obtained for the first time. Using all available data on pole coordinates, sense of rotation and parameters of asteroid shapes, the qualitative analysis and interpretation of data on axis orientation, retrograde rotation and semi-axial ratios of asteroids were carried out.

  12. Women's lives in transition: a qualitative analysis of the fertility decline in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R

    1996-01-01

    The fertility decline that began in Bangladesh in the late 1980s and continues has prompted diverse theories to explain it. In this qualitative analysis of 21 focus-group sessions with rural women ranging in age from the teens to late 40s and living in the villages of the Matlab area, the women's perceptions of their changing society and of the influence of the family planning program are examined. The women's statements reveal their awareness of the social and economic transition they are undergoing and their interest in family-size limitation, which is bolstered by a strong family planning program. Although the shifts in economic and social circumstances are not large, in conjunction with the strong family planning program they constitute a powerful force for change in attitudes, ideas, and behavior among these women. PMID:8923653

  13. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research. PMID:22592885

  14. Parents' decision-making about the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters: II. Qualitative results.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Perez, Samara; King, Leonora; Vivion, Maryline; Dubé, Eve; Rosberger, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the reasons given by parents who accepted or refused the HPV vaccine for their daughters in the context of a free provincial school-based vaccination program. A random sample of parents of 9-10 y old girls completed a mail-in questionnaire. Parents' responses to 2 open-ended questions were assessed using content analysis. Coding themes were derived from the Health Belief Model. 806 parents returned and answered the relevant items. 88% of these parents decided to vaccinate their daughter. The primary reasons for parents' acceptance was the perceived benefits (e.g., health protection, cancer/HPV prevention) and cues to action (e.g., physician recommendation, trusting the school vaccine program). Reasons for parental refusal included barriers (e.g., fear of side effects) and low susceptibility (e.g., their daughter is not at risk). Both groups of parents had unanswered questions, doubts and often inaccurate information. This study provides unique insight into parents' perspectives concerning the decision making process for their daughter. There appears to be a need for accurate and complete information to assure informed HPV vaccine decision-making by parents and to increase HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25692507

  15. Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (inventor); Harris, Richard A. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

  16. Importance of Relationship Context in HIV Transmission: Results From a Qualitative Case-Control Study in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health. PMID:24524490

  17. Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty’s eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Results Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the “Attitudes and Traits” or “Beliefs and Values” dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). Conclusion We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan. PMID:24726054

  18. Fantasized recipient-donor relationships following lung transplantations: a qualitative case analysis based on patient narratives.

    PubMed

    Neukom, Marius; Corti, Valentina; Boothe, Brigitte; Boehler, Annette; Goetzmann, Lutz

    2012-02-01

    The present study examines the relationships between lung transplant recipients and their unknown, deceased donors. Out of 20 semi-structured interviews, eight narratives, by three female and three male recipients respectively, were identified in which the figure of the donor played a role. These narratives were examined using JAKOB, a qualitative research tool that analyses relational configurations and diagnoses psychodynamic conflicts. Analysis revealed a broad range of varying themes and relationships with equally varying wish and fear themes. All the narrators dealt either explicitly or implicitly with whether and how they are connected to their donors. In five narratives, specific personality traits were attributed to the figure of the donor; in four narratives, latent feelings of guilt concerning the donor's death were expressed. Indeed, the figure of the donor was not always perceived as an independent person, separate from the narrator's self: in two cases, the donor appears as part of the recipient's self, while in another case, the donor is presented as a transitional object for the recipient. The findings of the narrative analysis are discussed within a theoretical model of psychical organ integration. PMID:22320138

  19. From Print to Pixels: Practitioners' Reflections on the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Linda S.

    This paper studied how individual qualitative researchers perceive that their research procedures and perspectives have been influenced by the adoption of computer assisted qualitative data software. The study focused on Nud*Ist software (non-numerical Unstructured Data; Indexing, Searching, and Theorizing). The seven participants ranged from new…

  20. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  1. Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Goulding

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

  2. UROLOGIC CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME FLARES AND THEIR IMPACT: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS IN THE MAPP NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Clemens, J. Quentin; James, Aimee S.; Konkle, Katy S.; Kreder, Karl J.; Lai, H. Henry; Mackey, Sean C.; Ashe-McNalley, Cody P.; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Barrell, Edward; Hou, Xiaoling; Robinson, Nancy A.; Mullins, Chris; Berry, Sandra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although in-depth qualitative information is critical for understanding patients’ symptom experiences and for developing patient-centered outcome measures, only one previous qualitative study has assessed urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) symptom exacerbations (“flares”). Methods We conducted eight focus groups of female UCPPS (interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome) patients at four sites of the MAPP Research Network (n=57, mean=7/group) to explore the full spectrum of flares and their impact on patients’ lives. Results Flare experiences were common and varied widely in terms of UCPPS symptoms involved, concurrent non-pelvic symptoms (e.g., diarrhea), symptom intensity (mild to severe), duration (minutes to years), and frequency (daily to

  3. Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the ways in which African American women use religion/spirituality to cope and to construct meaning in times of adversity. Content analysis of the narratives of a sample of African American women respondents (n = 23) revealed a set of eight nonoverlapping themes that explicate religiosity/spirituality's role in…

  4. Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of Scaffolding Use in a Resource-based Learning Environment Involving the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; Land, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a qualitative analysis of 18 college students using different types of scaffolding (instructional supports) while working on a World Wide Web project. Examines four support mechanisms: Web resources, procedural guidelines, student-student interaction, and instructor-student interaction. Considers the utility of scaffolds, learner's…

  6. Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff T. Williams; Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz; Howard J. Edenberg; Tatiana Foroud; Theodore Reich; Alison Goate; Paul Van Eerdewegh; Laura Almasy; John Blangero

    1999-01-01

    Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological mark- ers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phe- notypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psy- chiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multi- variate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on

  7. Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H[subscript 2]S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures is an essential experiment carried out in high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels all over the world especially in India and South Asia. The classical technique uses H[subscript 2]S, which is highly toxic and has adverse effects on humans and the environment. Increasing awareness…

  8. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  9. Stressors and coping strategies for HIV-test counselors giving rapid HIV-test results: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Grafsky, Erika L; Miller, Katye; Love, Randi

    2011-08-01

    Stress has been extensively researched in the HIV services field. Yet, research regarding stress related to HIV-test counseling has solely focused on stressors related to giving results, even though stress on the HIV test counselor can occur at many points within a counseling session. This exploratory, qualitative study examines the stressors faced and coping mechanisms utilized by HIV-test counselors at AIDS service organizations (ASOs) during rapid HIV-test counseling sessions. Forty-two HIV test counselors were interviewed regarding HIV-test counseling sessions in which they provided preliminary-positive/reactive, negative/nonreactive, and invalid results. Regardless of the test result, HIV test counselors faced stressors, including giving HIV test results; dealing with emotions; difficult clients; self-doubt; and systemic stressors. Most stress was managed through social support, preparatory coping strategies, respite, and putting things into perspective. Despite the exploratory nature of the study, the findings suggest that strengthening support bases and improving current training standards will increase the well-being of HIV test counselors. PMID:21745119

  10. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

  11. Qualitative analysis of end user computing strategy and experiences in promoting nursing informatics in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hou, I-Ching; Chang, Polun; Wang, Tsen-Yung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse end user computing strategy and experiences in promoting nursing informatics in Taiwan. In February 2004, an 8-day NI technology training campaign was held in Taipei for 60 clinical nurses. Excel VBA was used as the tool to teach the clinical nurses, who had never written any programs, but were very interested in informatics. Three projects were determined after detailed discussion and evaluation of clinical needs and technical feasibility between the nurses and the technical support team, which was composed of one experienced informatics professor and one clinical NI assistant. A qualitative analysis was used to interview the three pairs of programming clinical nurses and their direct supervisors with a structured but open questionnaire. Representative concepts were categorized from the data until all were categorized. The concepts were organized under three categories: the purposes, the benefits and the challenges of system development. According to this study, end user computing strategy with Excel VBA was successful so far. PMID:17102334

  12. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B. [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Manurung, M. [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia)] [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, K. H. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)] [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-03

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

  13. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B.; Manurung, M.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative environmental analysis by capillary column gas chromatography/lightpipe Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gurka, D.F.; Pyle, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    A new state-of-art commercial gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared (GC/FT-IR) lightpipe-containing system has been evaluated for its applicability to qualitative and quantitative environmental analysis of typical environmental contaminants. This system exhibited minimum identifiable quantities, for many compounds, in the 10-50-ng range. On a wide-bore capillary column, quantitation curves generated from chromatogram peak areas were linear over the 10-250-ng range. The mean correlation coefficient for 38 quantitation calibration curves on 24 standards was 0.976. The selectivity of the new system was evaluated with standards, soil, and still-bottom samples. It was demonstrated with 27 standards that no discernible loss in identification selectivity occurred when a narrow-band infrared detector (spectral cutoff 750 cm/sup -1/) was used in place of a midband detector (cutoff 700 cm/sup -1/). This allows the meaningful utilization of the extra sensitivity associated with narrower frequency range infrared detectors.

  15. Multiphase modeling and qualitative analysis of the growth of tumor cords

    E-print Network

    Andrea Tosin

    2009-06-27

    In this paper a macroscopic model of tumor cord growth is developed, relying on the mathematical theory of deformable porous media. Tumor is modeled as a saturated mixture of proliferating cells, extracellular fluid and extracellular matrix, that occupies a spatial region close to a blood vessel whence cells get the nutrient needed for their vital functions. Growth of tumor cells takes place within a healthy host tissue, which is in turn modeled as a saturated mixture of non-proliferating cells. Interactions between these two regions are accounted for as an essential mechanism for the growth of the tumor mass. By weakening the role of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as a rigid non-remodeling scaffold, a system of two partial differential equations is derived, describing the evolution of the cell volume ratio coupled to the dynamics of the nutrient, whose higher and lower concentration levels determine proliferation or death of tumor cells, respectively. Numerical simulations of a reference two-dimensional problem are shown and commented, and a qualitative mathematical analysis of some of its key issues is proposed.

  16. Qualitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinary Interaction between Data Analysis Specialists and Novice Clinical Researchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilherme Roberto Zammar; Jatin Shah; Ana Paula Bonilauri Ferreira; Luciana Cofiel; Kenneth W. Lyles; Ricardo Pietrobon; Erik von Elm

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe inherent complexity of statistical methods and clinical phenomena compel researchers with diverse domains of expertise to work in interdisciplinary teams, where none of them have a complete knowledge in their counterpart's field. As a result, knowledge exchange may often be characterized by miscommunication leading to misinterpretation, ultimately resulting in errors in research and even clinical practice. Though communication has

  17. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID:20056568

  18. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  19. Analysis of EUVE Experiment Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    A series of tests to validate an antenna pointing concept for spin-stabilized satellites using a data relay satellite are described. These tests show that proper antenna pointing on an inertially-stabilized spacecraft can lead to significant access time through the relay satellite even without active antenna pointing. We summarize the test results, the simulations to model the effects of antenna pattern and space loss, and the expected contact times. We also show how antenna beam width affects the results.

  20. System monitoring and diagnosis with qualitative models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    A substantial foundation of tools for model-based reasoning with incomplete knowledge was developed: QSIM (a qualitative simulation program) and its extensions for qualitative simulation; Q2, Q3 and their successors for quantitative reasoning on a qualitative framework; and the CC (component-connection) and QPC (Qualitative Process Theory) model compilers for building QSIM QDE (qualitative differential equation) models starting from different ontological assumptions. Other model-compilers for QDE's, e.g., using bond graphs or compartmental models, have been developed elsewhere. These model-building tools will support automatic construction of qualitative models from physical specifications, and further research into selection of appropriate modeling viewpoints. For monitoring and diagnosis, plausible hypotheses are unified against observations to strengthen or refute the predicted behaviors. In MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), multiple hypothesized models of the system are tracked in parallel in order to reduce the 'missing model' problem. Each model begins as a qualitative model, and is unified with a priori quantitative knowledge and with the stream of incoming observational data. When the model/data unification yields a contradiction, the model is refuted. When there is no contradiction, the predictions of the model are progressively strengthened, for use in procedure planning and differential diagnosis. Only under a qualitative level of description can a finite set of models guarantee the complete coverage necessary for this performance. The results of this research are presented in several publications. Abstracts of these published papers are presented along with abtracts of papers representing work that was synergistic with the NASA grant but funded otherwise. These 28 papers include but are not limited to: 'Combined qualitative and numerical simulation with Q3'; 'Comparative analysis and qualitative integral representations'; 'Model-based monitoring of dynamic systems'; 'Numerical behavior envelopes for qualitative models'; 'Higher-order derivative constraints in qualitative simulation'; and 'Non-intersection of trajectories in qualitative phase space: a global constraint for qualitative simulation.'

  1. Qualitative analysis of the elliptical centric technique and the TRICKS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and elliptical centric MRA according to the type of cerebral disease. From February 2010 to January 2012, elliptical centric MRA and TRICKS MRA images were acquired from 50 normal individuals and 50 patients with cerebral diseases by using 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The images were analyzed qualitatively by examining areas such as the presence or absence of artifacts on the images, the distinctness of boundaries of blood vessels, accurate representation of the lesions, and the subtraction level. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction rate, negative prediction rate and accuracy were assessed by comparing the diagnostic efficacy of the two techniques. The results revealed TRICKS MRA to have superior image quality to elliptical centric MRA. Regarding each disease, TRICKS MRA showed higher diagnostic efficacy for artery venous malformation (AVM) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass patients whereas elliptical centric MRA was more suitable for patients with brain tumors, cerebral infarction, cerebral stenosis or sinus mass.

  2. Talking to Children about Maternal BRCA1/2 Genetic Test Results: A Qualitative Study of Parental Perceptions and Advice

    PubMed Central

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Garber, Judy E.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Hewitt, Larissa; Hamilton, Jennifer; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Family communication is the primary, initial means of educating the next, at-risk generation about hereditary cancer risk. In this study, in-depth parent narratives provided self-report of motivations, planning, satisfactions and regrets associated with sharing or not sharing maternal BRCA1/2 test results with young children and advice for parents considering disclosure and for genetic counselors. Interviews were conducted with 32 mothers tested for BRCA1/2 with children ages 8–21 years and 24 of their co-parents; interview narratives were analyzed qualitatively. Parents were concerned with both protecting and educating children about hereditary cancer risk. They expressed confidence that parents can constructively convey genetic information to minor children. Telling relieved most parents and satisfied a sense of parental duty. Parents strongly advised child-specific, age-appropriate tailoring of genetic information and emphasized conveying the positive, preventive utility of genetic information to children. Immunizing effects of disclosure were viewed as providing forewarning about and preparation for possible later family cancer diagnoses. Parents choosing not to tell children were advised to consider future disclosure. Narratives about parental sharing of BRCA1/2 test results with minor children support the feasibility of parental discussion of maternal genetic test results to the next at-risk generation. Results suggest development of intervention tools for parents would support decision-making and family communication and potentially reduce parental worry and regret. Recommendations are made for more active involvement by genetic counselors with tested parents around the topic of delivery of genetic information to children. PMID:23093334

  3. Interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain in Québec’s private sector: results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Collaboration and interprofessional practices are highly valued in health systems, because they are thought to improve outcomes of care for persons with complex health problems, such as low back pain. Physiotherapists, like all health providers, are encouraged to take part in interprofessional practices. However, little is known about these practices, especially for private sector physiotherapists. This study aimed to: 1) explore how physiotherapists working in the private sector with adults with low back pain describe their interprofessional practices, 2) identify factors that influence their interprofessional practices, and 3) identify their perceived effects. Methods Participants were 13 physiotherapists, 10 women/3 men, having between 3 and 21 years of professional experience. For this descriptive qualitative study, we used face-to-face semi-structured interviews and conducted content analysis encompassing data coding and thematic regrouping. Results Physiotherapists described interprofessional practices heterogeneously, including numerous processes such as sharing information and referring. Factors that influenced physiotherapists’ interprofessional practices were related to patients, providers, organizations, and wider systems (e.g. professional system). Physiotherapists mostly viewed positive effects of interprofessional practices, including elements such as gaining new knowledge as a provider and being valued in one’s own role, as well as improvements in overall treatment and outcome. Conclusions This qualitative study offers new insights into the interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain, as perceived by the physiotherapists’ themselves. Based on the results, the development of strategies aiming to increase interprofessionalism in the management of low back pain would most likely require taking into consideration factors associated with patients, providers, the organizations within which they work, and the wider systems. PMID:24884757

  4. Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider. PMID:25804178

  5. “Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rofail, Diana; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H.; Berardo, Carmen Galani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

  6. "Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gater, Adam; Rofail, Diana; Tolley, Chloe; Marshall, Chris; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H; Berardo, Carmen Galani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding "caregiver burden" in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

  7. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-05-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

  8. Who should decide? Qualitative analysis of panel data from public, patients, healthcare professionals, and insurers on priorities in health care.

    PubMed Central

    Stronks, K.; Strijbis, A. M.; Wendte, J. F.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the arguments underlying the choices of patients, the public, general practitioners, specialists, and health insurers regarding priorities in health care. DESIGN: A qualitative analysis of data gathered in a series of panels. Members were asked to economise on the publicly funded healthcare budget, exemplified by 10 services. RESULTS: From a medical point of view, both panels of healthcare professionals thought most services were necessary. The general practitioners tried to achieve the budget cuts by limiting access to services to those most in need of them or those who cannot afford to pay for them. The specialists emphasised the possibilities of reducing costs by increasing the efficiency within services and preventing inappropriate utilisation. The patients mainly economised by limiting universal access to preventive and acute services. The "public" panels excluded services that are relatively inexpensive for individual patients. Moreover, they emphasised the individual's own responsibility for health behaviour and the costs of health care, resulting in the choice for copayments. The health insurers emphasised the importance of including services that relate to a risk only, as well as feasibility aspects. CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial differences in the way the different groups approached the issue of what should be included in the basic package. Healthcare professionals seem to be most aware of the importance of maintaining equal access for everyone in need of health care. PMID:9240048

  9. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. PMID:22902052

  10. A Qualitative Analysis of Career Transitions Made by Internal Medicine–Pediatrics Residency Training Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Harriett; Auvergne, Lauriane; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey E.; Liles, E. Allen; Perrin, Eliana M.; Steiner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physicians who complete combined residency training in internal medicine and pediatrics (med-peds) have a variety of career options after training. Little is known about career transitions among this group or among other broadly trained physicians. METHODS To better understand these career transitions, we conducted semistructured, in-depth, telephone interviews of graduates of the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill School of Medicine med-peds program who self-identified as having had a career transition since completing training. We qualitatively analyzed interview transcripts, to develop themes describing their career transitions. RESULTS Of 106 physicians who graduated during 1980–2007, 20 participated in interviews. Participants identified factors such as personality, work environment, lifestyle, family, and finances as important to career transition. Five other themes emerged from the data; the following 4 were confirmed by follow-up interviews: (1) experiences during residency were not sufficient to predict future job satisfaction; work after the completion of training was necessary to discover career preferences; (2) a major factor motivating job change was a perceived lack of control in the workplace; (3) participants described a sense of regret if they did not continue to see both adult and pediatric patients as a result of their career change; (4) participants appreciated their broad training and, regardless of career path, would choose to pursue combined residency training again. LIMITATIONS We included only a small number of graduates from a single institution. We did not interview graduates who had no career transitions after training. CONCLUSIONS There are many professional opportunities for physicians trained in med-peds. Four consistent themes surfaced during interviews about med-peds career transitions. Future research should explore how to use these themes to help physicians make career choices and employers retain physicians. PMID:21901912

  11. Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeff T.; Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Reich, Theodore; Goate, Alison; Van Eerdewegh, Paul; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

    1999-01-01

    Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological markers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phenotypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psychiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multivariate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, in a bivariate analysis of qualitative alcoholism phenotypes and quantitative event-related potentials. Joint consideration of the DSM-IV diagnosis of alcoholism and the amplitude of the P300 component of the Cz event-related potential significantly increases the evidence for linkage of these traits to a chromosome 4 region near the class I alcohol dehydrogenase locus ADH3. A likelihood-ratio test for complete pleiotropy is significant, suggesting that the same quantitative-trait locus influences both risk of alcoholism and the amplitude of the P300 component. PMID:10486334

  12. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works. Engineers need more quantitative information. In order to apply geophysical methods to engineering design works, quantitative interpretation is very important. The presentation introduces several case studies from different countries around the world (Fig. 2) from the integrated and quantitative points of view.

  13. Perspectives about Family Meals from Single-Headed and Dual-Headed Households: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- versus dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. Additionally, parents’ perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more wide-spread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents’ perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in sub-study of two linked multi-level studies—EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (e.g., provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (e.g., single-headed=cost vs. dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (e.g., single-headed=give fewer options vs. dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings may help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID:24238144

  14. Tobacco Use and Its Treatment Among Young People in Mental Health Settings: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Youth with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of tobacco use. Outpatient mental health settings have received little investigation for delivering tobacco treatment. This study obtained formative data to guide development of a tobacco cessation program for transitional age youth with co-occurring psychiatric disorders with a focus on outpatient mental health settings. Methods: Applying qualitative methods, we analyzed transcripts from interviews with 14 mental health clients (aged 16–23) and 8 mental health providers. Results: The youth identified internal (nicotine addiction and mood), social, parental, and media influences to their use of tobacco. Providers’ viewed youth tobacco use as a normative developmental process, closely tied to management of psychiatric symptoms, supported by parents, and of lower priority relative to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Youth and providers believed that clinicians can do more to address tobacco use in practice and emphasized nonjudgmental support and nondirective approaches. Top recommended quitting strategies, however, differed notably for the youth (cold turkey, support from friends, physical activity, hobbies) and providers (cessation pharmacotherapy, cessation groups, treatment referrals). Conclusions: Mental health providers’ greater prioritization of other substances and view of youth smoking as developmentally normative and a coping strategy for psychopathology are likely contributing to the general lack of attention to tobacco use currently. Integrating care within mental health settings would serve to reach youth in an arena where clinical rapport is already established, and study findings suggest receptivity for system improvements. Of consideration, however, is the apparent disconnect between provider and youth recommended strategies for supporting cessation. PMID:23322765

  15. Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID:24238144

  16. Developmental Challenges, Stressors, and Coping in Medical Residents: A Qualitative Analysis of Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Satterfield, Jason M.; Becerra, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Stress and burnout are endemic to post-graduate medical training but little research is available to guide supportive interventions. The identification of longitudinal emotional and developmental coping needs of internal medicine residents could assist in better designing and implementing supportive interventions. Methods In this retrospective, exploratory study, six internal medicine resident support groups (n = 62 PGY1-3 residents) were followed for a period of two years. Qualitative data were extracted from monthly support group process notes to identify common themes, stressors, emotions, coping strategies, and developmental challenges faced during training. Quantitative questionnaire data were collected on burnout, group attendance, and resident satisfaction. Results Using professional identity development models and classic stress and coping theory as a starting point, a derivation of Grounded Theory was used to identify common themes and emotions contained in support group process notes. The most common themes included understanding resident roles and responsibilities, developing an identity as a resident and physician, building professional confidence, cognitive and behavioral responses to stress, and concerns about flaws in local and national health care training and delivery systems. Anxiety and guilt were the most commonly reported emotions, followed by positive emotions and anger. Burnout scores were highest for the second half of the PGY1 year, but improved over subsequent training years. Support group attendance and satisfaction were both high. Residents overwhelmingly pointed to peer relationships as the most critical source of support throughout postgraduate training. Conclusions Developmentally-informed programmatic adaptations could better support the emotional growth and personal/professional development of postgraduate medical trainees. Future directions should include a controlled trial of resident support groups, assessments of “active ingredients” (i.e. what supportive interventions are most effective), and/or evaluations of programmatic adaptations. PMID:20716101

  17. Qualitative analysis of seized synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones by gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Seongshin; Arroyo-Mora, Luis E; Almirall, José R

    2015-02-01

    Designer drugs are analogues or derivatives of illicit drugs with a modification of their chemical structure in order to circumvent current legislation for controlled substances. Designer drugs of abuse have increased dramatically in popularity all over the world for the past couple of years. Currently, the qualitative seized-drug analysis is mainly performed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) in which most of these emerging designer drug derivatives are extensively fragmented not presenting a molecular ion in their mass spectra. The absence of molecular ion and/or similar fragmentation pattern among these derivatives may cause the equivocal identification of unknown seized-substances. In this study, the qualitative identification of 34 designer drugs, mainly synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, were performed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques, including electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) only focusing on qualitative seized-drug analysis, not from the toxicological point of view. The implementation of CI source facilitates the determination of molecular mass and the identification of seized designer drugs. Developed multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode may increase sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of seized designer drugs. In addition, CI mass spectra and MRM mass spectra of these designer drug derivatives can be used as a potential supplemental database along with EI mass spectral database. PMID:24827678

  18. Qualitative holographic-interferometric analysis of T-incisions of different length in vitro-A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Werner; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Manstein, Dieter; von Bally, Gert; Busse, H.

    1993-06-01

    Concepts including the length of T-incisions are mainly based on empirical evaluation of the surgeons. We report on a holographic interferometric study of the effects of straight T- incisions of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm length using double-exposure holographic interferometry. A new classification of the central holographic interferometric fringe pattern including cross-like, parallel and convex fringes allows an objective qualitative analysis of 48 holographic interferograms of the corneas of six bovine eyes. The intraocular pressure is 1340 Pa with 10 Pa and 20 Pa pressure increase. T-incisions of 5 mm length of incision (incision depth 95%) change the holographic interferometric fringe pattern completely. An increase to 10 mm length of incision results in a change of holographic fringe pattern in 50% of the cases. With 15 mm length of incision only two types of holographic interferometric fringe pattern of the cornea can be seen: parallel fringes and irregular fringes indicating an instability of the cornea. This might be a reason for paradox flattening of the cornea in the unincised meridian.

  19. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling. PMID:26102246

  20. Let Our Voices Be Heard: Qualitative Analysis of an Internet Discussion Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Sabina Remmers; Valadez, Albert A.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an online discussion board referencing a domestic violence related murder trial. Findings from qualitative analyses based on narrative and grounded theory suggest that online discussion boards can help survivors of domestic violence to tell their stories and support each other. The perceived anonymity of Internet discussion…

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Syntactic Structure in the Written Language of Hearing Imparied Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, William J. A.; Quigley, Stephen P.

    The purpose of the study was to apply various quantitative and qualitative indices of grammatical complexity proposed by Hunt (1965) to written language samples of hearing impaired students. Hunt studied grammatical structures of normal students at three grade levels, and found that the minimal terminal syntactic unit, or T-Unit, more reliably…

  2. Fostering Social Work Gerontological Competencies: Qualitative Analysis of an Intergenerational Service-Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Debra Fromm; Dauenhauer, Jason A.; Steitz, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development and qualitative student outcomes of an intergenerational service-learning course designed to promote social work gerontological competencies. Efforts focused on creating a learning environment to actively promote learning opportunities for students and older adults. The course was hosted at a local, private,…

  3. Qualitative Analysis of the Performance of Introverts and Extraverts on Standard Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Vidhu; Kumar, Dalip

    1976-01-01

    Does measurement of intelligence through a concolidated score imply that two or more subjects obtaining the same score are also undergoing the same mental process? Introverts are supposed to opt for accuracy and extraverts for speed. Attempts to investigate the qualitative differences between extraverts and introverts on an intelligence test.…

  4. The Processes Distinguishing Stable from Unstable Stepfamily Couples: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Robitaille, Caroline; Godbout, ELisabeth; Parent, Claudine; Drapeau, Sylvie; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Second marriages are known to be more fragile than first marriages. To better understand the factors that contribute to this fragility, this qualitative study compared stepfamilies that stayed together with those that separated by collecting interview data from one adult in each of the former (n = 31) and latter (n = 26) stepfamilies. Data were…

  5. A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident: A Pilot Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Maynes, Sonya M.; Kellner, Maria; Clark, Marilyn S.; Bourgeois, James A.; Servis, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The topic "A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident" is an opportunity to explore residents' experiences to inform the delivery of education. Methods: An open-ended, qualitative approach was used in a pilot project to explore contemporary residents' experiences with education, similar to a patient-centered model of health care.…

  6. Community College Transfer Students' Adjustment to a Four-Year Institution: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Karen R.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents findings from a qualitative study investigating the perceptions of students engaged in the transfer process. Fifty-seven community college transfer students were interviewed through e-journaling during fall 2006 and spring 2007 in an effort to learn what students perceive as a successful transfer process, supports needed to…

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  8. Understanding the Experience of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring: An Analysis of Quantitative and Qualitative Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy R. Gainey; Brian K. Payne

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the authors use both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate the experiences of offenders on house arrest with electronic monitoring. The data suggest that offenders, for the most part, do not view house arrest with electronic monitoring as particularly problematic, and most cite positive aspects of their program in comparison to jail. However, some aspects of the

  9. Qualitative Analysis of Animation versus Reading for Pre-Class Preparation in a "Flipped" Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    The "flipped" classroom model, including such approaches as team-based learning (TBL), stresses pre-class preparation. For three years in a pharmacokinetics course within a pharmacy curriculum, students had the choice of using reading material or a fully animated module to prepare for class. Qualitative methods were used to analyze…

  10. Transitions through Pastoral Peer Mentoring: A Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenedy, Robert; Monty, Vivienne; Lambert-Drache, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Pastoral peer mentoring often benefits both mentors and mentees through promoting a successful academic postsecondary transition. Based on interviews and focus groups with 36 York University mentors and mentees, this qualitative study highlights the successes and challenges of university pastoral peer mentoring and leadership. Major findings…

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Distributed Leadership and Teacher Perspective of Principal Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizotte, Jane O'Connor

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, expectations for schools have increased to the point where they are now expected to ensure that "all" students are learning at high levels. This is a daunting, complex, and ambitious aspiration that requires leadership beyond that provided by the principal. The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze…

  12. Combining Qualitative Evaluation and Social Network Analysis for the Study of Classroom Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, A.; Dimitriadis, Y.; Rubia, B.; Gomez, E.; de la Fuente, P.

    2003-01-01

    Studying and evaluating real experiences that promote active and collaborative learning is a crucial field in CSCL. Major issues that remain unsolved deal with the merging of qualitative and quantitative methods and data, especially in educational settings that involve both physical and computer-supported collaboration. In this paper we present a…

  13. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  14. A Qualitative Analysis of Sources of Teacher Stress: Consequences for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph J.

    1986-01-01

    Data drawn from a qualitative study of teachers' perceptions of work stress is presented. Linkages between teacher stress and teacher performance are firmly established. Study data are discussed in terms of the Performance Adaptation Syndrome, a term used to describe the deleterious effects of prolonged work stress on instructional ability.…

  15. Transcription and Analysis of Qualitative Data in a Study of Women Who Sexually Offended against Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Research on sexual violence is often conducted within the qualitative paradigm. However, many writers have described the lack of specific detail provided with regard to decisions and processes involved in transcribing and analyzing this type of data. In this article, I will provide a description and discussion of the organization, categorization,…

  16. Elements of Supervision in Sexual Violence Counselors' Narratives: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Carol A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2005-01-01

    The literature on vicarious traumatization has suggested that trauma-sensitive supervision may help to minimize the effect of vicarious exposure to trauma; however, nothing from the perspective of trauma counselors was noted. The present qualitative study involved 1 male and 8 female sexual violence counselors who had worked with sexual violence…

  17. Sense of Presence Experiences and Meaning-Making in Bereavement: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Edith; Coyle, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the potential role that might be played by the reported experience of "sensing the presence of the deceased" in meaning-making processes in bereavement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 participants who reported having had such an experience and the transcripts were subjected to thematic…

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  19. Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudoin, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity…

  20. Exploring the Interpersonal Relationships in Street-Based Male Sex Work: Results from an Australian Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Leary; Victor Minichiello

    2007-01-01

    While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the

  1. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  2. Perceptions of heatwave risks to health: results of an qualitative interview study with older people and their carers in Freiburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Stößel, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives: Heatwaves can pose a severe threat to health, especially to older people. However, warnings do not necessarily lead to preventive action. This study aims at exploring individual risk perception and adaptive measures of older people and their carers. Their views are explored, taking into account personal backgrounds. Methods: Questionnaire-based interviews were administered to 20 men and women (64–94 years, living in their own homes or nursing homes) and 13 carers. A qualitative analysis following a framework approach was performed. Results: The majority of respondents stated that older people might be compromised by heatwaves; however, a large proportion of respondents saw themselves as less affected than the average population. Most respondents adopted preventive measures during heatwaves and a majority received warnings or pieces of information. The role of general practitioners in direct warning situations was judged controversial. Survey respondents displayed resistance to the use of technical devices to monitor potentially dangerous situations. In addition, the results support many previous findings. In particular, the relative concepts of ageing, variety of information channels used, and control orientations could be confirmed. Conclusions: General practitioners hold a position of trust and play a central role in the promotion of preventive action, but there are also limitations to their outreach. Many respondents could be classified as socially active, which has implications for preventive information campaigns. Information campaigns using different channels and targeting a larger audience should be considered. The degree of information of carers can partly be improved. PMID:23082104

  3. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  4. A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. Methods A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Results Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Conclusions Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to information can act as a solution. PMID:24981205

  5. Qualitative and quantitative top-down mass spectral analysis of crustacean hyperglycemic hormones in response to feeding.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chenxi; Yu, Qing; Wang, Jingxin; Li, Lingjun

    2014-05-01

    An efficient pipeline for peptide discovery accelerates peptidomic analysis and facilitates a better understanding of the functional roles of neuropeptides. However, qualitative and quantitative analysis of large neuropeptides is challenging due to the bigger molecular sizes, multiple PTMs, and interference by homologous isoforms. Herein, we refined two methodologies in the pipeline for highly confident and efficient MS-based peptide discovery. For the qualitative analysis, the so-called "high resolution/accurate mass" measurement on Orbitrap mass spectrometers was integrated with computer-assisted homology search, which was successfully applied to decipher the substituted amino acid residues in large neuropeptides by referring to homologous sequences. For the quantitative analysis, a new isotopic labeling-assisted top-down MS strategy was developed, which enabled direct monitoring of the abundance changes of endogenous large neuropeptides. By using the refined peptide discovery pipeline, one novel crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the Dungeness crab sinus glands was confidently identified and de novo sequenced, and its relative abundance was quantified. Comparative analysis of CHHs in unfed and fed crabs revealed that the peptide abundance in the sinus glands was significantly increased after food intake, suggesting that the release of CHHs might be altered by feeding behavior. PMID:24532205

  6. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michailof, Chrysoula; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Stefanidis, Stylianos; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos; Theodoridis, Georgios; Lappas, Angelos

    2014-11-21

    Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis are efficient processes for the transformation of biomass to bio-oil, a liquid energy carrier and a general source of chemicals. The elucidation of the bio-oil's composition is essential for a rational design of both its production and utilization process. However, the complex composition of bio-oils hinders their complete qualitative and quantitative analysis, and conventional chromatographic techniques lack the necessary separation power. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) is considered a suitable technique for bio-oil analysis due to its increased separation and resolution capacity. This work presents the tentative qualitative and quantitative analysis of bio-oils resulting from the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of standard xylan, cellulose, lignin and their mixture by GC×GC-ToFMS. Emphasis is placed on the development of the quantitative method using phenol-d6 as internal standard. During the method development, a standard solution of 39 compounds was used for the determination of the respective Relative Response Factors (RRF) employing statistical methods, ANOVA and WLSLR, for verification of the data. The developed method was applied to the above mentioned bio-oils and their detailed analysis is presented. The different compounds produced and their diverse concentration allows for an elucidation of the pyrolysis mechanism and highlight the effect of the catalyst. PMID:25441082

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on chemical constituents from Curculigo orchioides using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjing; Dong, Xin; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Li, Mei; Yuan, Tingting; Xu, Hongtao; Qin, Luping; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative determination of constituents in the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. Qualitative analysis was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UHPLC @ HSS T3 column (1.8 ?m 100 × 2.1mm) using gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Quantitative analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse plus C18 column (1.7 ?m 100 × 2.1mm) using gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile for at least 20 min. Quadrupole TOF/MS in either full scan mode or extracted ion mode was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents. According to the mass spectrometric fragmentation mechanism and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS data, chemical structures of 45 constituents in the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides, including 19 phenols and phenolic glycosides, 16 lignans and lignan glycosides, 8 triterpenoid saponins, one flavone and one sesquiterpene, were identified tentatively on-line without the time-consuming process of isolation. In addition, 8 phenolic glycosides including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), 2-hydroxy-5-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (HPG), anacardoside (ACD), orcinol glucoside (OGD), orcinol-1-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (OAG), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (DBA), curculigoside (CUR) and curculigine A (CCL) were quantitated in 11 collected samples and 10 commercial samples from different providers. The results show that UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS is a viable method for analysis and quality evaluation of the constituents from the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. PMID:25305598

  8. Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations. PMID:21943401

  9. Qualitative analysis of gain spectra of InGaAlAs/InP lasing nano-heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Pyare; Yadav, Rashmi; Sharma, Meha; Rahman, F.; Dalela, S.; Alvi, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies of lasing characteristics along with the gain spectra of compressively strained and step SCH based In0.71Ga0.21Al0.08As/InP lasing nano-heterostructure within TE polarization mode, taking into account the variation in well width of the single quantum well of the nano-heterostructure. In addition, the compressive conduction and valence bands dispersion profiles for quantum well of the material composition In0.71Ga0.21Al0.08As at temperature 300 K and strain 1.12% have been studied using 4 × 4 Luttinger Hamiltonian. For the proposed nano-heterostructure, the quantum well width dependence of differential gain, refractive index change and relaxation oscillation frequency with current density have been studied. Moreover, the G-J characteristics of the nano-heterostructure at different well widths have also been investigated, that provided significant information about threshold current density, threshold gain and transparency current density. The results obtained in the study of nano-heterostructure suggest that the gain and relaxation oscillation frequency both are decreased with increasing quantum well width but the required lasing wavelength is found to shift towards higher values. On behalf of qualitative analysis of the structure, the well width of 6 nm is found more suitable for lasing action at the wavelength of 1.55 ?m due to minimum optical attenuation and minimum dispersion within the waveguide. The results achieved are, therefore, very important in the emerging area of nano-optoelectronics.

  10. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  11. All students majoring in Sociology must successfully complete one of three courses in Sociological Analysis: SYA 4510 (Quantitative Methods), SYA 4310 (Qualitative and/or

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    All students majoring in Sociology must successfully complete one of three courses in Sociological Analysis: SYA 4510 (Quantitative Methods), SYA 4310 (Qualitative and/or Comparative Historical project on an issue central to contemporary sociology. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills): Students

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of low molecular weight phenols by high pressure liquid chromatography 

    E-print Network

    Hahn, David Henry

    1981-01-01

    1on of Low Molecular We1ght Phenols from Tannins . Separation by HPLC MATERIALS AND METHODS Sorghum Samples . Chemicals Instrumentat1on, Separation Procedure Sample Extraction for Free Phenolic Ac1ds Sample Extraction for Bound Phenolic... Acids Calculations RESULTS AND DISCUSSION HPLC Separat1on of Subst1tuted Benzoic and and Cinnamic Acids . Extraction Eff1c1ency . Statist1cal Analysis Chromatographic Separat1on of Sorghum Extracts Benzoic and Ci nnami c Ac1d Present in Seven...

  13. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor digestive complaints. Conclusion This represents the first documented qualitative investigation of participants’ experience of chronic administration of a multivitamin. Results uncovered a range of subjective beneficial effects that are consistent with quantitative data from previously published randomised controlled trials examining the effects of multivitamins and B vitamin complexes on mood and well-being. Trial registration Prior to commencement this trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.anzctr.org.au) ACTRN12611000092998 PMID:23241329

  14. The challenges of including sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a qualitative survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic review methodology includes the rigorous collection, selection, and evaluation of data in order to synthesize the best available evidence for health practice, health technology assessments, and health policy. Despite evidence that sex and gender matter to health outcomes, data and analysis related to sex and gender are frequently absent in systematic reviews, raising concerns about the quality and applicability of reviews. Few studies have focused on challenges to implementing sex/gender analysis within systematic reviews. Methods A multidisciplinary group of systematic reviewers, methodologists, biomedical and social science researchers, health practitioners, and other health sector professionals completed an open-ended survey prior to a two-day workshop focused on sex/gender, equity, and bias in systematic reviews. Respondents were asked to identify challenging or ‘thorny’ issues associated with integrating sex and gender in systematic reviews and indicate how they address these in their work. Data were analysed using interpretive description. A summary of the findings was presented and discussed with workshop participants. Results Respondents identified conceptual challenges, such as defining sex and gender, methodological challenges in measuring and analysing sex and gender, challenges related to availability of data and data quality, and practical and policy challenges. No respondents discussed how they addressed these challenges, but all proposed ways to address sex/gender analysis in the future. Conclusions Respondents identified a wide range of interrelated challenges to implementing sex/gender considerations within systematic reviews. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to identify these challenges from the perspectives of those conducting and using systematic reviews. A framework and methods to integrate sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews are in the early stages of development. A number of priority items and collaborative initiatives to guide systematic reviewers in sex/gender analysis are provided, based on the survey results and subsequent workshop discussions. An emerging ‘community of practice’ is committed to enhancing the quality and applicability of systematic reviews by integrating considerations of sex/gender into the review process, with the goals of improving health outcomes and ensuring health equity for all persons. PMID:24720875

  15. QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students construct qualitative models of an ecosystem and use the models to evaluate the direct and indirect effects that may result from perturbations to the ecosystem. Qualitative modeling is described for use in two procedures, each with different educational goals and student backgrounds in min...

  16. Social influences on mental health help-seeking after interpersonal traumatization: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite frequent and serious mental health problems after interpersonal traumatization, only a fraction of those affected by interpersonal violence seek formal help after the event. Reasons for this mismatch can be found in the individual help-seeking process but also in the individual's social environment. These social factors are explored based on a model describing the survivor's help-seeking process. Method Survivors of interpersonal traumatization and professionals providing help for this population were asked about factors influencing the ease of seeking and receiving professional help after interpersonal traumatization. A deductive and inductive content analysis of the experiences of 43 survivors of interpersonal traumatization and 16 professionals providing help for this population was carried out. Results The analysis suggested a clear distinction of an individual and a social system level of influencing variables. At the system level three main factors were identified: factors of the help-system, dominant attitudes in society and public knowledge about traumatization and available help. Conclusions The results confirmed a complex interaction of variables on the individual and system level in the help-seeking process. The system level affects the individual's help-seeking through multiple pathways, especially through the individual's representation of the traumatization, through the reactions of the individual's social network and through barriers the individual perceives or experiences in the formal help-system. PMID:20964871

  17. Multiple fluorophore-analysis (MFA) for qualitative tissue diagnosis in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Romana; Betz, Christian; Havel, Miriam; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Leunig, Andreas; Assmann, Walter

    2007-07-01

    Early diagnosis of head and neck tumors is usually achieved via surgical tissue biopsy. By measuring the specific autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores with tumor-specific distributions, it might be possible to non-invasively judge tissue dignities ("optical biopsy"). A total of 22 patients with suspicious lesions of the oral cavity and 7 healthy volunteers were included into the study. Using a mercury vapour lamp as a light source, excitation and detection of endogenous fluorophores (tryptophan, NADH, FAD) was achieved using corresponding filter sets in an automated system. By including simultaneously recorded remission spectra into the analysis, it was possible to calculate "intrinsic" fluorescence spectra. Subsequently, the histopathological results of the lesions were compared to the spectroscopic findings. In a quantitative analysis, the intrinsic fluorescence spectra from (pre)malignant mucosal lesions regularly differed in fluorescence intensities when compared to healthy tissue. Whereas NADH and FAD yielded tumor specific intensity profiles with statistically significant differences in Student's t-test (p<=0.05), no definite spectral differences were found for tryptophan (p=0.22). The mucosa of the healthy volunteers showed a similar spectral pattern as the non-cancerous control areas in tumor patients. With regards to the results in this pilot study, MFA might serve as a helpful tool in early diagnosis of malignant lesions of head and neck.

  18. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Green, Carla A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  19. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

  20. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  1. Content-Driven Analysis of an Online Community for Smoking Cessation: Integration of Qualitative Techniques, Automated Text Analysis, and Affiliation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We identified content-specific patterns of network diffusion underlying smoking cessation in the context of online platforms, with the aim of generating targeted intervention strategies. Methods. QuitNet is an online social network for smoking cessation. We analyzed 16?492 de-identified peer-to-peer messages from 1423 members, posted between March 1 and April 30, 2007. Our mixed-methods approach comprised qualitative coding, automated text analysis, and affiliation network analysis to identify, visualize, and analyze content-specific communication patterns underlying smoking behavior. Results. Themes we identified in QuitNet messages included relapse, QuitNet-specific traditions, and cravings. QuitNet members who were exposed to other abstinent members by exchanging content related to interpersonal themes (e.g., social support, traditions, progress) tended to abstain. Themes found in other types of content did not show significant correlation with abstinence. Conclusions. Modeling health-related affiliation networks through content-driven methods can enable the identification of specific content related to higher abstinence rates, which facilitates targeted health promotion. PMID:25880942

  2. Exploration the Supportive Needs and Coping Behaviors of Daughter and Daughter in-Law Caregivers of Stroke Survivors, Shiraz-Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gholamzadeh, Sakineh; Tengku Aizan, Hamid; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Hamidon, Basri; Rahimah, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background The period of hospital stay and the first month after discharge have been found to be the most problematic stages for family caregivers of stroke survivors. It is just at home that patients and caregivers actually understand the whole consequences of the stroke. The adult offspring often have more different needs and concerns than spousal caregivers. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the needs of this particular group of caregivers. Therefore, this qualitative content analysis study aimed to explore the supportive needs and coping behaviors of daughter and daughter in-law caregivers (DILs) of stroke survivors one month after the patient’s discharge from the hospital in Shiraz, Southern of Iran. Methods This is a qualitative content analysis study using semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling of seventeen daughter and daughter in-law caregivers. Results The data revealed seven major themes including information and training, financial support, home health care assistance need, self-care support need, adjusting with the cultural obligation in providing care for a parent in-law, and need for improving quality of hospital care. Also, data from the interview showed that daughter and daughter in-law caregivers mostly used emotional-oriented coping strategies, specially religiosity, to cope with their needs and problems in their care-giving role. Conclusion The results of this qualitative study revealed that family caregivers have several unmet needs in their care-giving role. By providing individualized information and support, we can prepare these family caregivers to better cope with the home care needs of stroke survivors and regain control over aspects of life. PMID:26171409

  3. Exploring the interpersonal relationships in street-based male sex work: results from an Australian qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Leary, David; Minichiello, Victor

    2007-01-01

    While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the complexity of their relationships and how their interactions with others shape their engagement in sex work. The data also offer insight into how exit pathways are influenced by money and relationships that occur within this particular male sex work setting. Implications for health policy and intervention are considered. PMID:18019070

  4. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 ?M, 29.40 ?M, and 26 ?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

  5. The role of endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis in qualitative and quantitative data analysis.

    PubMed

    Schöffel, Norman; Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A; Quarcoo, David

    2009-12-01

    The current study is the first scientometric analysis of research activity and output in the field of inflammatory disorders of the heart (endo-, myo- and pericarditis). Scientometric methods are used to compare scientific performance on national and on international scale to identify single areas of research interest. Interest and research productivity in inflammatory diseases of the heart have increased since 1990. The majority of publications about inflammatory heart disorders were published in Western Europe and North America. The United States of America had a leading position in terms of research productivity and quality; half of the most productive authors in this study came from American institutions. The analysis of international cooperation revealed research activity in countries that are less established in the field of inflammatory heart disorder research, such as Brazil, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. These results indicate that future research of heart inflammation may no longer be influenced predominantly by a small number of countries. Furthermore, this study revealed weaknesses in currently established scientometric parameters (i.e., h-index, impact factor) that limit their suitability as measures of research quality. In this respect, self-citations should be generally excluded from calculations of h-index and impact factor. PMID:20049235

  6. Qualitative and quantitative determination of micro-inclusions by automated SEM/EDX analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuspl, Markus; Wegscheider, Wolfhard; Angeli, Johann; Posch, Wilhelm; Mayr, Michael

    2004-06-01

    With the help of an automated SEM/EDX analysis system non-metallic micro-inclusions in steel can be detected on a metallographically prepared surface area. The system makes it possible to determine position, size, shape and composition of each particle. Usually more than 1000 inclusions are found on one scan area. Therefore a new offline evaluation method has been developed to classify the large amount of inclusions and calculate specific size and shape data. A summary sheet is created to show the area contents and the mean values of all important properties for each class. Size and XY distributions as well as binary and ternary phase diagrams are drawn to depict the results. The strengths of this analytical technique are demonstrated by evaluation of an LC (low-carbon) steel. Alumina, common spinel, sulfide and oxisulfide inclusions could be identified as dominant inclusion types in LC steel. PMID:14985907

  7. Early childhood educators’ perceptions of preschoolers' mental health problems: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood education services create potentially optimal opportunities to identify and respond effectively to preschoolers' mental health problems. However, little is known about the knowledge, skills and competencies of early childhood educators in the area of mental health. The present study aimed to contribute to this field through conducting focus group interviews with professionals from public early childhood education centres in Greece. Methods Thirty-four educators attended five focus group meetings, with each group consisting of five to nine participants and two discussion facilitators. A thematic analysis was conducted using line-by-line open coding. Constructed codes from the wording used by the participants in the interviews were created, and constant comparisons for developing themes as well as seeking data not conforming to each theme were used independently by two researchers. At the end of this process, no new information was being provided and there was repetition in each of the categories. Results The analysis identified three themes in the data: risk factors for preschoolers' mental health problems, signs of preschoolers' mental health problems and practices of helping preschoolers with mental health problems. Results suggested that early childhood educators had satisfactory awareness of many preschoolers' mental health issues, although they showed a rather limited understanding in some domains. Moreover, they seemed to deliver inadequate practices in responding effectively to children's and families' mental health problems. Conclusions Best practice training in working with preschoolers, families and mental health services seems essential for helping young children receive the best level of support through early identification and intervention services for possible mental health problems. PMID:24386965

  8. A qualitative analysis of email interactions of children who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Anett; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce email as a form of interaction for a group of six children who used augmentative and alternative communication. In a 12-week exploratory study, aspects of the email messages sent were analyzed. The content of the messages was analyzed by an inductive qualitative method, and seven descriptive categories emerged. The most frequently occurring categories were Social Etiquette, Personal/Family Statistics and Personal Common Ground. The children utilized different email strategies that included use of most of the above-mentioned categories. Through the email writing practice, the children developed new social skills and increased their social participation. Email practice may be a good strategy to increase children's social networks. PMID:21091302

  9. Techniques of structural family assessment: a qualitative analysis of how experts promote a systemic perspective.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael; Tafuri, Sydney

    2013-06-01

    The trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identified patient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the family. Minuchin, Nichols, & Lee (2007) developed a 4-step model for assessing couples and families consisting of: (1) broadening the definition of the presenting complaint to include its context, (2) identifying problem-maintaining interactions, (3) a structurally focused exploration of the past, and (4) developing a shared vision of pathways to change. To study how experts actually implement this model, judges coded video recordings of 10 initial consultations conducted by three widely recognized structural family therapists. Qualitative analyses identified 25 distinct techniques that these clinicians used to challenge linear thinking and move families toward a systemic understanding of their problems. We discuss and locate these techniques in the framework of the 4-step model. PMID:23763681

  10. The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

  11. Modeling approaches for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of cellular signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of systems biology is the construction of predictive models of bio-molecular networks. Cellular networks of moderate size have been modeled successfully in a quantitative way based on differential equations. However, in large-scale networks, knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is often too limited to allow for the set-up of predictive quantitative models. Here, we review methodologies for qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. In particular, we focus on three different but related formalisms facilitating modeling of signaling processes with different levels of detail: interaction graphs, logical/Boolean networks, and logic-based ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Albeit the simplest models possible, interaction graphs allow the identification of important network properties such as signaling paths, feedback loops, or global interdependencies. Logical or Boolean models can be derived from interaction graphs by constraining the logical combination of edges. Logical models can be used to study the basic input–output behavior of the system under investigation and to analyze its qualitative dynamic properties by discrete simulations. They also provide a suitable framework to identify proper intervention strategies enforcing or repressing certain behaviors. Finally, as a third formalism, Boolean networks can be transformed into logic-based ODEs enabling studies on essential quantitative and dynamic features of a signaling network, where time and states are continuous. We describe and illustrate key methods and applications of the different modeling formalisms and discuss their relationships. In particular, as one important aspect for model reuse, we will show how these three modeling approaches can be combined to a modeling pipeline (or model hierarchy) allowing one to start with the simplest representation of a signaling network (interaction graph), which can later be refined to logical and eventually to logic-based ODE models. Importantly, systems and network properties determined in the rougher representation are conserved during these transformations. PMID:23803171

  12. Conflicts and conflict regulation in hospices: nurses' perspectives. Results of a qualitative study in three German hospices.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andreas; Breitsameter, Christof

    2013-11-01

    The present article considers conflicts and conflict regulation in hospices. The authors carried out a qualitative study in three hospices in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to explore how conflicts arise and how conflict regulation proceeds. Hospice nurses should act according to a set of ethical codes, to mission statements of the institution and to professional standards of care. In practice the subjective interpretations of codes and/or models concerning questions of care are causes of conflicts among nurses, with doctors, patients and family members. The management has two choices to react to these conflicts. It can either tolerate the conflicts, as long as they do not disturb the daily routine. Or it can increase the degree of organisation by integrating the different viewpoints into its own program and/or by restructuring its organisational units. PMID:23264046

  13. Comparison of face-to-face and telephone consultations in primary care: qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Heather; Gafaranga, Joseph; McKinstry, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that telephone consultations in general practice are typically shorter than face-to-face consultations and that fewer problems are presented in them. Aim To compare the communicative practices of doctors and patients in face-to-face and telephone consultations, in order to understand the contrasts between the two consulting modes. Design of study Conversation analysis. Setting Eight NHS GP surgeries in Scotland. Method Transcription and conversation analysis of 32 face-to-face and 33 telephone consultations. Participants Eighteen GPs and 65 patients. Results There are no underlying contrasts between the communicative practices used in face-to-face and telephone consultations. Telephone consultations are typically used by patients to deal with a limited range of single-issue concerns, whereas a wide range of different problem types is dealt with in face-to-face consultations. Most telephone consultations for new problems lead to a face-to-face meeting rather than a diagnosis, making them shorter than equivalent face-to-face consultations. Interaction in telephone consultations is continuous and orderly, but in face-to-face consultations there are periods of silence that facilitate the introduction of additional topics, including social speech and rapport building. Doctors on the telephone are less likely to elicit additional concerns than in face-to-face consultations, and ask fewer questions when patients present self-diagnosed problems or describe problems with treatment. Conclusion Doctors in general practice do not substantially change their communicative behaviour on the telephone. Telephone consultations are shorter and include less problem disclosure than face-to-face meetings, partly because they are typically mono-topical and partly because of intrinsic differences between the two channels. PMID:20423575

  14. Interacting oscillations in neural control of breathing: modeling and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bacak, Bartholomew J.; Molkov, Yaroslav I.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Rybak, Ilya A.

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian respiration, late-expiratory (late-E, or pre-inspiratory) oscillations emerge in abdominal motor output with increasing metabolic demands (e.g., during hypercapnia, hypoxia, etc.). These oscillations originate in the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) and couple with the respiratory oscillations generated by the interacting neural populations of the Bötzinger (BötC) and pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) complexes, representing the kernel of the respiratory central pattern generator. Recently, we analyzed experimental data on the generation of late-E oscillations and proposed a large-scale computational model that simulates the possible interactions between the BötC/pre-BötC and RTN/pFRG oscillations under different conditions. Here we describe a reduced model that maintains the essential features and architecture of the large-scale model, but relies on simplified activity-based descriptions of neural populations. This simplification allowed us to use methods of dynamical systems theory, such as fast-slow decomposition, bifurcation analysis, and phase plane analysis, to elucidate the mechanisms and dynamics of synchronization between the RTN/pFRG and BötC/pre-BötC oscillations. Three physiologically relevant behaviors have been analyzed: emergence and quantal acceleration of late-E oscillations during hypercapnia, transformation of the late-E activity into a biphasic-E activity during hypercapnic hypoxia, and quantal slowing of BötC/pre-BötC oscillations with the reduction of pre-BötC excitability. Each behavior is elicited by gradual changes in excitatory drives or other model parameters, reflecting specific changes in metabolic and/or physiological conditions. Our results provide important theoretical insights into interactions between RTN/pFRG and BötC/pre-BötC oscillations and the role of these interactions in the control of breathing under different metabolic conditions. PMID:20927576

  15. SWECS tower dynamics analysis methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. D.; Sexton, J. H.; Butterfield, C. P.; Thresher, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Several different tower dynamics analysis methods and computer codes were used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both guyed and freestanding wind turbine towers. These analysis methods are described and the results for two types of towers, a guyed tower and a freestanding tower, are shown. The advantages and disadvantages in the use of and the accuracy of each method are also described.

  16. Implementing successful interprofessional communication opportunities in health care education: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Terry L.; Belkowitz, Julia; Sarsekeyeva, Mira; Zito, Amalinnette R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experience of an interprofessional communication educational intervention among nursing and medical students. Methods Forty-five medical students and 50 nursing students participated in two-hour-long interprofessional communication skills education sessions with interprofessional groups of 6-8 students each. The sessions were based on the Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPSTM) curriculum. Problematic communication scenarios were presented and then reenacted by the students with role plays that depicted improvements in interprofessional communication. Afterward, narratives describing their experience were collected from a focus group interview. Using the conventional content analysis approach, key phrases and statements were coded into themes. Results The study found that students felt increased competence and confidence when responding to conflict after practicing communication in a safe environment. Based on the opportunity to come to know their colleagues, students recognized that patient safety was a shared goal. Six themes were extracted from the narratives describing their experiences: support for process, patient safety, coming to know colleague, support for tools, respectful collaboration, and barriers to communication. Conclusions TeamSTEPPSTM provided a framework for effective and respectful collaboration. A significant barrier identified by students was that these communication techniques were not consistently demonstrated during their clinical experiences. An emphasis on interprofessional communication skills and teamwork should begin in the academic setting and be reinforced in both the formal and hidden curricula.

  17. Communicating about cancer through Facebook: a qualitative analysis of a breast cancer awareness page.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Karley; Keefe, Brian; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Social media channels are increasingly being used for health communication and promotion. Social networking sites such as Facebook have become popular platforms for organizations to communicate health messages and encourage user participation around health topics. While the evaluation of social media's effectiveness in health promotion is beginning to emerge in the literature, few studies have examined actual interactions and user behaviors on Facebook Pages hosted by health organizations. The authors present a qualitative case study of a popular Facebook Page from a nonprofit organization devoted to raising awareness about breast cancer. With the goal of identifying the functions and uses of the Page, our study analyzes the content of Wall posts during Breast Cancer Awareness Month, October 2010. Common themes and characteristics are identified, including open mic communication, scarcity of health information, the commodification of breast cancer, unpredictable locations of conversation, and the use of gendered images and language. The findings have potential implications for health promotion efforts using social media platforms. PMID:25495200

  18. The investigation of deaths in custody: a qualitative analysis of problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Ruiz, Géraldine; Sinclair, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-07-01

    The right to be treated humanely when detained is universally recognized. Deficiencies in detention conditions and violence, however, subvert this right. When this occurs, proper medico-legal investigations are critical irrespective of the nature of death. Unfortunately, the very context of custody raises serious concerns over the effectiveness and fairness of medico-legal examinations. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and discuss the practical and ethical difficulties encountered in the medico-legal investigation following deaths in custody. Data for this manuscript come from a larger project on Death in Custody that examined the causes of deaths in custody and the conditions under which these deaths should be investigated and prevented. A total of 33 stakeholders from forensic medicine, law, prison administration or national human rights administration were interviewed. Data obtained were analyzed qualitatively. Forensic experts are an essential part of the criminal justice process as they offer evidence for subsequent indictment and eventual punishment of perpetrators. Their independence when investigating a death in custody was deemed critical and lack thereof, problematic. When experts were not independent, concerns arose in relation to conflicts of interest, biased perspectives, and low-quality forensic reports. The solutions to ensure independent forensic investigations of deaths in custody must be structural and simple: setting binding standards of practice rather than detailed procedures and relying on preexisting national practices as opposed to encouraging new practices that are unattainable for countries with limited resources. PMID:24931858

  19. Client aggression toward social workers and social services in Israel--a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Enosh, Guy; Tzafrir, Shay S; Gur, Amit

    2013-04-01

    The aggressive behavior of clients toward employees in service organizations is an alarming phenomenon, which harms employees and damages the organization itself. Employees all over the public sector, especially in social service departments, are continuously exposed to aggressive behavior by clients. The focus of the current study is on understanding the short- and long-term implications of aggressive client behavior on social workers and the organization in which they operate. A qualitative approach was used to understand the perspective of the workers exposed to aggressive client behavior as well as its organizational implications. In-depth interviews were conducted with the 40 participants between February and May, 2009. The participants included district managers, agency managers, supervisors, social workers, and administrators, in 17 agencies all over the country. The study findings identified negative impacts of client aggression on several levels and on several focal areas. On the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral levels, both short-term and long-term consequences can be seen, which affect not only the attacked individual but also resonate throughout the organization. Individual events may diffuse to affect other levels of the service process by role-learning, imitation of behavior, and by noticing that the organization provides incentives for client aggression, while providing disincentives for assertiveness and self-protective actions on the part of workers. PMID:23262826

  20. The Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Cohorts' Early Enrollment in Physics: concurrent with enrollment in mathematics, biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Robert Bruce Rodes

    Cohorts of 48 entering biological science majors was recruited in the fall of 2007 and again in 2008 and 2009 for the Interdisciplinary Science Experience (ISE). These ISE students enrolled in their own sections of standard courses of physics, chemistry, and biology. In these courses average ISE student out-performed their non-cohort peers by up to a full letter grade. A qualitative analysis of ISE student interviews illuminates the student experience and shows how the ISE students perceived themselves to be different than their non-cohort peers. Quantitative modeling of student performance shows that higher grades are correlated with multiple factors. These factors includes admissions characteristics such as high school GPA, and SAT scores, as well as demographic information. These trends support and elaborate on the selection narratives told by participants. Additionally the quantitative model found that higher student performance is predicted by structural aspects of the ISE program, specifically the timing of course, enrolling as a freshmen in many of their courses, and the sequencing of physics and chemistry courses. There is a statistically significant benefit to student performance in general and organic chemistry courses associated with completing the first quarter of the Physics for Bio-Science majors prior to enrollment. Further the combination of quantitative and qualitative data suggest that there is a epistemological transfer of problem solving skills and outlook from the physics to the chemistry courses.

  1. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Holmberg, Christine; Dokova, Klara G; Milevska-Kostova, Neda; Chicin, Gratiana; Ulrichs, Timo; Rechel, Bernd; Willich, Stefan N; Powles, John; Tinnemann, Peter

    2012-04-26

    , tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion...

  2. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  3. VANAVANI MATRICULATION HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL RESULT ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Bhashyam, Srikrishna

    VANAVANI MATRICULATION HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL RESULT ANALYSIS S.S.L.C EXAMINATION MARCH 2012 10 C 10 A 10 C 10 C 10 C 10 A 10 C 10 A 99% #12;SCIENCE POSITION NAME OF THE STUDENT CLASS & SECTION SCIENCE POSITION NAME OF THE STUDENT CLASS & SECTION MARKS OBTAINED FIRST PARVATHY.G KAVYA SHREE N

  4. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Results Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. Conclusions This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial. PMID:24438471

  5. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

  6. Why physicians and nurses ask (or don’t) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1) explore physicians’ and nurses’ experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2) determine the variations by discipline; and 3) identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Methods Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher’s Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Results Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated) provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The experiences of these nurses and physicians suggest that more supports (e.g., supportive work environments, training, mentors, consultations, community resources, etc.) are needed by practitioners. These findings reflect the results of previous research yet offer perspectives on why barriers persist. Multifaceted and intersectoral approaches that address individual, interpersonal, workplace and systemic issues faced by nurses and physicians when inquiring about IPV are required. Comprehensive frameworks are needed to further explore the many issues associated with IPV inquiry and the interplay across these issues. PMID:22721371

  7. Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Ed

    In this paper the role of qualitative research in special education is examined. The implications of an earlier naturalistic study are cited, an important one being the tendency in the literature to oversimplify the naturalistic paradigm; and the case is made that implementing such a paradigm is a "labor intensive" approach to research in which no…

  8. Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: final qualitative results from prospective national evaluation in “early adopter” hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the implementation and adoption of the NHS detailed care records service in “early adopter” hospitals in England. Design Theoretically informed, longitudinal qualitative evaluation based on case studies. Setting 12 “early adopter” NHS acute hospitals and specialist care settings studied over two and a half years. Data sources Data were collected through in depth interviews, observations, and relevant documents relating directly to case study sites and to wider national developments that were perceived to impact on the implementation strategy. Data were thematically analysed, initially within and then across cases. The dataset consisted of 431 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders, including hospital staff, developers, and governmental stakeholders; 590 hours of observations of strategic meetings and use of the software in context; 334 sets of notes from observations, researchers’ field notes, and notes from national conferences; 809 NHS documents; and 58 regional and national documents. Results Implementation has proceeded more slowly, with a narrower scope and substantially less clinical functionality than was originally planned. The national strategy had considerable local consequences (summarised under five key themes), and wider national developments impacted heavily on implementation and adoption. More specifically, delays related to unrealistic expectations about the capabilities of systems; the time needed to build, configure, and customise the software; the work needed to ensure that systems were supporting provision of care; and the needs of end users for training and support. Other factors hampering progress included the changing milieu of NHS policy and priorities; repeatedly renegotiated national contracts; different stages of development of diverse NHS care records service systems; and a complex communication process between different stakeholders, along with contractual arrangements that largely excluded NHS providers. There was early evidence that deploying systems resulted in important learning within and between organisations and the development of relevant competencies within NHS hospitals. Conclusions Implementation of the NHS Care Records Service in “early adopter” sites proved time consuming and challenging, with as yet limited discernible benefits for clinicians and no clear advantages for patients. Although our results might not be directly transferable to later adopting sites because the functionalities we evaluated were new and untried in the English context, they shed light on the processes involved in implementing major new systems. The move to increased local decision making that we advocated based on our interim analysis has been pursued and welcomed by the NHS, but it is important that policymakers do not lose sight of the overall goal of an integrated interoperable solution. PMID:22006942

  9. Preparing for Rural Ministry: A Qualitative Analysis of Curriculum Used in Theological Education to Prepare Clergy for Ministry in a Rural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Kenneth Mark

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of rural clergy through their educational preparation is important. Unfortunately, there is lack of research and understanding about the educational preparation of clergy to work in rural communities. This qualitative content analysis of course descriptions, goals and objectives and an analysis of the content covered in the…

  10. Factors Supporting and Inhibiting Adherence to HIV Medication Regimen in Women: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, Oluwakemi; Oluwasanjo, Adetokunbo; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; Fairchild, Rebecca; Shin, Ann; Donato, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy reduces morbidity and mortality; however rates of non-adherence are variable among women for unclear reasons. This study was a single-center qualitative analysis of interviews with 18 female HIV-positive non-adherent patients (defined by virologic failure) to explore psychosocial factors impacting adherence. Factors identified were categorized as promoting, inhibiting or having no effect on adherence. Three themes, characterized as social factors, illness factors and other societal pressures, were identified. Medical systems support, family support and compliance for children were most commonly identified as promoting adherence, while psychiatric comorbidities, lack of medical systems support and side effects were identified most often as inhibitors of adherence. While stigma was frequently identified, it was not seen as a barrier to adherence. Enhancing relationships between patients and their providers as well as their community support systems are critical avenues to pursue in improving compliance. Interventions to promote compliance are important avenues of future research.

  11. A qualitative analysis of factors influencing middle school students' use of skills taught by a violence prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista R; Kramer-Kuhn, Alison M; Mays, Sally A; Sullivan, Terri N

    2015-06-01

    This study examined factors that influenced the use of skills taught in a school-based universal violence prevention program. Interviews were conducted with 91 students from two urban schools (83% were African American and 12% multiracial) and 50 students from a nearby county school (52% were White, 32% African American, and 12% multiracial). About half the sample (54%) was male. All had been in sixth grade classrooms where the Second Step (Committee for Children, 1997b) violence prevention curriculum had been implemented earlier in the school year or in the preceding school year. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts suggested that participants' use of intervention skills was influenced by their beliefs and values, perceived relevance and effectiveness of the skill, issues related to enacting the behavior, and contextual factors. These findings highlight the need for a more intensive and comprehensive effort to address barriers and supports that influence the relevance and impact of school-based violence prevention programs. PMID:26054813

  12. Correlative fractography: combining scanning electron microscopy and light microscopes for qualitative and quantitative analysis of fracture surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hein, Luis Rogerio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, José Alberto; de Campos, Kamila Amato

    2013-04-01

    Correlative fractography is a new expression proposed here to describe a new method for the association between scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of fracture surfaces. This article presents a new method involving the fusion of one elevation map obtained by extended depth from focus reconstruction from LM with exactly the same area by SEM and associated techniques, as X-ray mapping. The true topographic information is perfectly associated to local fracture mechanisms with this new technique, presented here as an alternative to stereo-pair reconstruction for the investigation of fractured components. The great advantage of this technique resides in the possibility of combining any imaging methods associated with LM and SEM for the same observed field from fracture surface. PMID:23402567

  13. Multivariate processing strategies for enhancing qualitative and quantitative analysis based on infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Boyong

    2007-12-01

    Airborne passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry is gaining increased attention in environmental applications because of its great flexibility. Usually, pattern recognition techniques are used for automatic analysis of large amount of collected data. However, challenging problems are the constantly changing background and high calibration cost. As aircraft is flying, background is always changing. Also, considering the great variety of backgrounds and high expense of data collection from aircraft, cost of collecting representative training data is formidable. Instead of using airborne data, data generated from simulation strategies can be used for training purposes. Training data collected under controlled conditions on the ground or synthesized from real backgrounds can be both options. With both strategies, classifiers may be developed with much lower cost. For both strategies, signal processing techniques need to be used to extract analyte features. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are applied either in interferogram or spectral domain for features extraction. Then, pattern recognition methods are applied to develop binary classifiers for automated detection of air-collected methanol and ethanol vapors. The results demonstrate, with optimized signal processing methods and training set composition, classifiers trained from ground-collected or synthetic data can give good classification on real air-collected data. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry is emerging as a promising tool for noninvasive blood glucose detection. In combination with multivariate calibration techniques, NIR spectroscopy can give quick quantitative determinations of many species with minimal sample preparation. However, one main problem with NIR calibrations is degradation of calibration model over time. The varying background information will worsen the prediction precision and complicate the multivariate models. To mitigate the needs for frequent recalibration and improve robustness of calibration models, signal processing methods can be used to decrease the influence of such non-constant background variation. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are also applied to NIR single-beam spectra collected during short-term and long-term studies. The prediction performance of the calibration models demonstrates, with suppression of non-constant background information by optimal wavelet processing procedures, robustness of calibration models with time can be significantly improved.

  14. Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for rapid qualitative screening of toxic glycols in glycerin-containing products.

    PubMed

    Self, Randy L

    2013-06-01

    In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration released guidance recommending testing of glycerin used in regulated consumer products, such as cough syrup preparations, toothpaste, and other pharmaceutical and food products, for the toxic compounds ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Regulatory laboratories routinely test glycerin, and products containing glycerin or related compounds for these toxic glycols, using an official gas chromatographic method, to ensure the safety of these products. The current work describes a companion technique to compliment this GC-FID method utilizing Orbitrap mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time ionization to rapidly screen these samples qualitatively, with results in as little as five seconds, with no sample preparation required. This allows the more time and resource intensive method to be reserved for those rare cases when these compounds are detected, potentially greatly improving laboratory efficiency. The technique was evaluated for qualitative sensitivity and repeatability, and compared against the GC-FID method. The method appears to perform well against these metrics. PMID:23584076

  15. Illumination with a Dim Bulb? What do social scientists learn by employing qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) in the service of multi-method designs?

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Judd, Maya D; Poliandri, Simone

    2012-08-01

    Although there has been much optimistic discussion of integrating quantitative and qualitative findings into sociological analysis, there remains a gap regarding the application of mixed approaches. We examine the potential gains and pitfalls of such integration in the context of the growing analytic power of contemporary qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) programs. We illustrate the issues with our own research in a mixed-methods project examining low fertility in Italy, a project that combines analysis of large nationally representative survey data with qualitative in-depth interviews with women across four (4) cities in Italy. Despite the enthusiasm for mixed-methods research, the available software appears to be underutilized. In addition, we suggest that the sociological research community will want to address several conceptual and inferential issues with these approaches. PMID:23543938

  16. Relay and forward in free space optical communication - A qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyarani, J.; Kumar, D. Sriram, Dr.

    2014-10-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication systems have attracted great attention due to their ability to achieve high data rates. To increase the coverage area, multi-antenna systems were proposed, which failed to achieve diversity gains due to limitations of the feasible number of antennas per terminal and turbulent induced fading. Cooperative communication can overcome these drawbacks and this paper reviews relay assisted communication. The performance of Amplify and forward (AF), Decode and Forward (DF) and selective relaying protocols are analyzed and compared based on the metrics of outage analysis, BER analysis and communicating distance(s).

  17. A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vetiver essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2013-05-01

    Vetiver essential oils (VEO) are important raw ingredients used in perfume industry, entering the formula of numerous modern fragrances. Vetiver oils are considered to be among the most complex essential oils, resulting most of the time in highly coeluted chromatograms whatever the analytical technique. In this context, conventional gas chromatography has failed to provide a routine tool for the accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of their constituents. Applying comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography techniques (GC×GC-FID/MS) afforded the mean to separate efficiently vetiver oil constituents in order to identify them in a more reliable way. Moreover, this is the first time that a complete true quantitation of each constituent is carried out on such complex oils by means of internal calibration. Finally, we have studied the influence of the injection mode on the determined chemical composition, and showed that several alcohols underwent dehydration under defined chromatographic conditions (splitless mode) usually recommended for quantitation purposes. PMID:23522261

  19. Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a structurally complex and bioactive group of tannins. Detailed analysis of PA concentration, composition, and structure typically requires the use of one or more time-consuming analytical methods. For example, the commonly employed thiolysis and phloroglucinolysis method...

  20. A qualitative analysis of GHB use among gay men: Reasons for use despite potential adverse outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Palamar; Perry N. Halkitis

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) among a sample of gay men in New York City, who identify GHB as their most frequently used club drug. The sample was drawn from a larger longitudinal investigation of club drug using men. Thematic analysis yielded findings regarding perceived stigma for GHB use, tolerance of potential adverse side effects, and reasons

  1. Reconstructing Their Lives: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Analysis of the Transition to Biological Childlessness for Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a three-year, longitudinal study conducted to determine how infertile couples make the transition to biological childlessness after medical treatment fails. Phenomenological analysis of data indicated progressive adaptation by the participants to their biological childlessness over time, with greater overall life satisfaction being most…

  2. Analysis of Superintendent Longevity in Large School Districts: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Nikki Golar

    2013-01-01

    School district leadership matters, as evidenced by a meta-analysis of 27 reports and 1,210 districts conducted by Waters and Marzano (2006) which highlights a statistically significant correlation between district leadership and student achievement. Because this relationship is significant, it is important for school districts to have effective…

  3. Strategic Business Alliances: Qualitative Analysis of Specific Factors of Business Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Jemala

    2009-01-01

    Global corporations and companies with international portfolios increasingly concentrate their activities not only on the international expansion of their products or services and global diversifi cation of their capital portfolios, but also on an effective integration in the global value chain in all areas of their activities. This article focuses on the specific analysis of strategic business alliances, which are

  4. The Use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis for Critical Event Research in Alcohol and HIV in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S. K.; Berg, Marlene; Singh, Sharad; Gupta, Kamla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in critical event analysis to identify under what conditions alcohol is necessary in contributing to unprotected sex. The paper is based on a set of in-depth interviews with 84 men aged 18 = 29 from three typical low income communities in Mumbai who reported using alcohol and having sex with at least one nonspousal partner once or more in the 30 days prior to the interview. The interviews included narratives of critical events defined as recent (past 30–60 day) events involving sexual behavior with or without alcohol. The paper identifies themes related to alcohol, sexuality and condom use, uses QCA to identify and explain configurations leading to protected and unprotected sex, and explains the differences. The analysis shows that alcohol alone is not sufficient to explain any cases involving unprotected sex but alcohol in combination with partner type and contextual factors does explain unprotected sex for subsets of married and unmarried men. PMID:20563636

  5. Using EOF analysis to qualitatively analyze, and identify inhomogeneities in, data from ground-based aerosol monitoring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianelli, S. M.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

    2007-10-01

    Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is performed on ground-based shadowband radiometer and Sun photometer data. The data come from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) instruments located at the central and extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) research site of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, as well as the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) 102 and 105 and the CIMEL Sun photometer CSPHOT located at the central facility at SGP. The EOFs show the variability in total aerosol optical depth and provide some qualitative information on the separation of the coarse and fine aerosol modes. In addition, as has been demonstrated previously with satellite data, EOF analysis also exposes several flaws and inconsistencies within the ground-based data sets. These inhomogeneities include optical depth anomalies in some MFRSR filters, wavelength shifts in the RSS, and problems with the data transmitter of the CIMEL instrument. Therefore EOF analysis is shown to be a quick and effective means not only of assessing the general aerosol behavior in the air above a particular monitoring instrument, but also of identifying both known and unanticipated influences on the data coming from within the instrument itself.

  6. A qualitative analysis of information dissemination through twitter in a digital library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae Min Kim; Christopher C. Yang; Eileen G. Abels; Mi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of Twitter in a digital library, the Internet Public Library (ipl2), to understand the content and dissemination patterns of Twitter messages posted by the ipl2. We conducted a content analysis on ipl2's messages on Twitter to develop a categorization of the type of tweets, and examined retweets and the active users who retweeted ipl2 tweets.

  7. Rapid qualitative phase analysis in highly textured thin films by x-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Borgia; Sven Olliges; Ralph Spolenak

    2008-01-01

    Phase analysis of highly out-of-plane textured specimens using x-ray diffraction is usually complicated due to the disappearance of most of the x-ray peaks in a common theta\\/2theta diffraction geometry. In this paper, we propose a technique, where powderlike spectra of textured samples are obtained by multiaxial x-ray diffraction scans. This technique is a simple, yet powerful method which allows for

  8. The Effect of BRCA Gene Testing on Family Relationships: A Thematic Analysis of Qualitative Interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather A. Douglas; Rebekah J. Hamilton; Robin E. Grubs

    2009-01-01

    Discovery of mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 can have emotional consequences for both the tested individual and his or her relatives. This secondary analysis study investigated\\u000a how BRCA testing impacts family dynamics and relationships. For the original study, a grounded theory inquiry, participants were recruited\\u000a from a hereditary breast\\/ovarian cancer syndrome support website

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex temperature-programmed desorption data by multivariate curve resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.; Brown, Steven D.

    2010-10-01

    The substantial amount of information carried in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments is often difficult to mine due to the occurrence of competing reaction pathways that produce compounds with similar mass spectrometric features. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is introduced as a tool capable of overcoming this problem by mathematically detecting spectral variations and correlations between several m/z traces, which is later translated into the extraction of the cracking pattern and the desorption profile for each desorbate. Different from the elegant (though complex) methods currently available to analyze TPD data, MCR analysis is applicable even when no information regarding the specific surface reaction/desorption process or the nature of the desorbing species is available. However, when available, any information can be used as constraints that guide the outcome, increasing the accuracy of the resolution. This approach is especially valuable when the compounds desorbing are different from what would be expected based on a chemical intuition, when the cracking pattern of the model test compound is difficult or impossible to obtain (because it could be unstable or very rare), and when knowing major components desorbing from the surface could in more traditional methods actually bias the quantification of minor components. The enhanced level of understanding of thermal processes achieved through MCR analysis is demonstrated by analyzing three phenomena: i) the cryogenic desorption of vinyltrimethylsilane from silicon, an introductory system where the known multilayer and monolayer components are resolved; ii) acrolein hydrogenation on a bimetallic Pt-Ni-Pt catalyst, where a rapid identification of hydrogenated products as well as other desorbing species is achieved, and iii) the thermal reaction of Ti[N(CH 3) 2] 4 on Si(100), where the products of surface decomposition are identified and an estimation of the surface composition after the thermal reaction is afforded. Since this work constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first effort to introduce multivariate analysis to TPD data, the procedures, algorithms and strategies employed are described in full detail.

  10. Quantitative and qualitative image quality analysis of super resolution images from a low cost scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Sergio; Echegaray, Sebastian; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter; Bauman, Wendall

    2011-03-01

    The lurking epidemic of eye diseases caused by diabetes and aging will put more than 130 million Americans at risk of blindness by 2020. Screening has been touted as a means to prevent blindness by identifying those individuals at risk. However, the cost of most of today's commercial retinal imaging devices makes their use economically impractical for mass screening. Thus, low cost devices are needed. With these devices, low cost often comes at the expense of image quality with high levels of noise and distortion hindering the clinical evaluation of those retinas. A software-based super resolution (SR) reconstruction methodology that produces images with improved resolution and quality from multiple low resolution (LR) observations is introduced. The LR images are taken with a low-cost Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO). The non-redundant information of these LR images is combined to produce a single image in an implementation that also removes noise and imaging distortions while preserving fine blood vessels and small lesions. The feasibility of using the resulting SR images for screening of eye diseases was tested using quantitative and qualitative assessments. Qualitatively, expert image readers evaluated their ability of detecting clinically significant features on the SR images and compared their findings with those obtained from matching images of the same eyes taken with commercially available high-end cameras. Quantitatively, measures of image quality were calculated from SR images and compared to subject-matched images from a commercial fundus imager. Our results show that the SR images have indeed enough quality and spatial detail for screening purposes.

  11. Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral flow dipstick immunoassay for rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking. In this study a lateral flow dipstick immunoassay was developed for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate (ATS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in anti-malarial drugs. Methods This assay was based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against ATS. ATS-bovine serum albumin and goat anti-mouse IgG, used as the test capture reagent and the control capture reagent, were coated on the nitrocellulose membrane to form the test line and control line, respectively. The conjugate pad was saturated with the gold-labelled anti-ATS mAb. Results The indicator range of the dipsticks, defined as lowest concentration of the target analytes between which the test line was not visible, were 100-200 and 200-500 ng mL-1 for ATS and DHA, respectively. No competitive inhibition was observed up to 5,000 ng mL-1 of quinine, chloroquine diphosphate salt, primaquine phosphate, pyrimethamine, lumefantrine, amodiaquine, piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate or pyronaridine tetraphosphate. Semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials with the dipsticks produced result agreeable with those determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Storage test showed that the indicator range for artemisinins remained unchanged after a week at 37°C and increased four-folds after six months of storage at 4°C or ambient temperature. Conclusions The new selected mAb 3D82G7 with high avidity and broad cross reactivity for artemisinins was used to develop and optimize a dipstick immunoassay for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in anti-malarial drugs. The semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials, and the specificity test of the artemisinin-related drugs both proved the accurate performance of the developed dipsticks for semi-quantitation of ACT samples. The dipstick may be used as a point-of-care device for identifying substandard and counterfeit ATS- and DHA-containing anti-malarial drugs. PMID:24678609

  12. Qualitative Analysis of College Students' Ideas about the Earth: Interviews and Open-Ended Questionnaires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Libarkin

    2005-01-01

    NOTE: This is a large file, 165.8 mb in size! This article describes a study in which students' conceptual understanding about the Earth was examined. In the study, students enrolled in introductory science courses at four institutions, completed open-ended questionnaires, and participated in interviews. The institutions consisted of a small private university, two large state schools, and one small public liberal arts college. Students were probed on a variety of topics related to the Earth's crust and interior, and to geologic time. Analysis of questionnaire and interview responses indicates that students hold a number of non-scientific ideas about the Earth. Additionally, students apply a range of ontological categories to geologic phenomena, with significant implications for teaching geosciences from a systems perspective.

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Power Differentials in Ethical Situations in Academia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Carter; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Giorgini, Vincent; Mecca, Jensen T.; Devenport, Lynn D.; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Power and organizational hierarchies are ubiquitous to social institutions that form the foundation of modern society. Power differentials may act to constrain or enhance people's ability to make good ethical decisions. However, little scholarly work has examined perceptions of this important topic. The present effort seeks to address this issue by interviewing academics about hypothetical ethical problems that involve power differences among those involved. Academics discussed what they would do in these scenarios, often drawing on their own experiences. Using a think-aloud protocol, participants were prompted to discuss their reasoning and thinking behind their ethical decisions. These interview data were content analyzed using a semantic analysis program that identified a number of distinct ways that academics think about power differences and abuses in ethical situations. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25356066

  14. A supramolecular sensing array for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organophosphates in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanli; Bonizzoni, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The organophosphate class of compounds includes common herbicides as well as highly toxic nerve gases whose detection is important from an environmental and a public safety perspective. We describe here a fluorescence turn-on sensor array for the rapid detection and quantitation of relevant organophosphates in neutral water. The array elements self-assemble from commercially available dyes and PAMAM dendrimers, and sensing is based on an indicator displacement assay. Data interpretation through pattern recognition methods (PCA, LDA) showed excellent cluster separation and sample classification. In addition, we were also able to use this system for simultaneous differentiation and quantitative analysis of methylphosphonate (a nerve gas byproduct), glyphosate (a ubiquitous herbicide), and inorganic phosphate over a wide range of concentrations (10 ?M to 2 mM). PMID:25246316

  15. Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or…

  16. A Generalized Qualitative-Response Model and the Analysis of Management Fraud

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Hansen; J. B. McDonald; W. F. Messier Jr.; T. B. Bell

    1996-01-01

    Management fraud has become a topic of increasing interest to the public accounting profession. Prior research indicates that management fraud is seldom experienced by audiGtors. As a result, it is doubtful that auditors have a well-developed cognitive model for making fraud risk assessments as part of the audit planning process. Early research studies attempted to identify factors that could be

  17. CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Colombo, O. L.; Ray, Richard D.; Thompson, B.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, Teresa A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) to be launched in the later part of '01) that combine a new generation of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a high precision three axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and SLR tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the surface forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies. Gravity field modeling status and plans will be discussed.

  18. The experiences of unpartnered men with prostate cancer: a qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Wallace Kazer; Janet Harden; Matthew Burke; Martin G. Sanda; Jill Hardy; Donald E. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to examine how men without partners make decisions about prostate cancer treatment, manage treatment\\u000a side effects, and obtain information and support.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  In 2009, it was projected that over 230,000 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. While treatment options vary, these options\\u000a result in changes within the man that can affect his quality of life.

  19. Disclosure of Genetics Research Results after the Death of the Patient Participant: A Qualitative Study of the Impact on Relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ormondroyd; C. Moynihan; M. Watson; C. Foster; S. Davolls; A. Ardern-Jones; R. Eeles

    2007-01-01

    When a gene mutation is identified in a research study following the death of the study participant, it is not clear whether\\u000a such information should be made available to relatives. We report here an evaluation of the impact on relatives of being informed\\u000a of study results that detected pathogenic BRCA2 mutations in a male relative, now deceased, who had early

  20. Assessment Accommodations on Tests of Academic Achievement for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of the research on assessment accommodations for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. There were 16 identified studies that analyzed the impact of factors related to student performance on academic assessments across different educational settings, content areas, and types of assessment…

  1. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the response of the retinal ganglion cell soma after stretch injury to the adult guinea-pig optic nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Maxwell; M. N. Islam; D. I. Graham; T. A. Gennarelli

    1994-01-01

    Summary The development of a model for focal axonal injury in the optic nerve of the adult guinea-pig has allowed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the response of the retinal ganglion cell soma to this type of injury. Large and medium sized retinal ganglion cells show classic ‘central chromatolysis’ in about 30% of ganglion cells between three and seven

  2. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  3. Divide and rule: A qualitative analysis of the debriefing process in elite team sports.

    PubMed

    Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A

    2015-11-01

    This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. PMID:26154201

  4. Axial and radial water flow in the trunks of oak trees: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Granier, A; Anfodillo, T; Sabatti, M; Cochard, H; Dreyer, E; Tomasi, M; Valentini, R; Bréda, N

    1994-12-01

    Axial water flow in the trunks of mature oak trees (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Q. robur L.) was studied by four independent techniques: water absorption from a cut trunk, sap flowmeters, heat pulse velocity (HPV) and thermoimaging. Estimation of the total water flow with sap flowmeters, HPV and water absorption yielded comparable results. We concluded from dye colorations, thermograms and axial profiles of sap flow and heat pulse velocity that, in intact trunks, most of the flow occurred in the current-year ring, where early-wood vessels in the outermost ring were still functional. Nevertheless, there was significant flow in the older rings of the xylem. Total water flow through the trunk was only slightly reduced when air embolisms were artificially induced in early-wood vessels, probably because there was little change in hydraulic conductance in the root-leaf sap pathway. Embolization of the current-year vessels reactivated transport in the older rings. PMID:14967611

  5. Brief Report: A Qualitative Analysis of Discussions about HIV in Families of Parents with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cowgill, Burton O.; Bogart, Laura M.; Parra, Michelle T.; Ryan, Gery; Elliott, Marc N.; Park, Susan K.; Patch, Jennifer; Schuster, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective?To explore communication about HIV prevention, risk behaviors, and transmission in families affected by HIV.?Methods?Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 parents with HIV, 27 children (9- to 17-years old), and 19 adult children (?18-years old) across the U.S. Coders reviewed transcripts, identified themes, and coded transcripts.?Results?Youth felt uncomfortable discussing HIV with their parent who has HIV because they worried about upsetting and reminding the parent of his/her illness. Adult children reported learning about HIV prevention by watching how the illness affected their parents. Few siblings reported talking with one another about HIV because they worried about upsetting their brother/sister and about their sibling unintentionally disclosing the parent's illness to others.?Conclusions?Discussions between youth and their parent with HIV and their siblings vary, highlighting the need for further research in this area. PMID:19028715

  6. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

  7. Phase Plane Analysis of the Undamped Pendulum Phase plane analysis is a commonly used technique for determining the qualitative

    E-print Network

    Feldman, Joel

    Phase Plane Analysis of the Undamped Pendulum Phase plane analysis is a commonly used technique pendulum. We first convert this second order equation into a first order system by introducing of the pendulum and y represents its angular velocity. But I find it useful to temporarily ignore this physical

  8. How Strategies for Managing Patient Visit Time Affect Physician Job Satisfaction: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is much physician discontent regarding policies that limit time for patient visits and contribute to physician dissatisfaction with the medical profession as a whole. Yet little is known about how physician strategies for managing time limits correspond to job satisfaction. OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to identify strategies physicians use for managing time with patients and the effects these strategies have on job satisfaction. DESIGN In-depth interviews with primary care providers in various clinical settings (academic medical centers, community-based centers, solo practices, nonacademic group practices) were audiorecorded. PARTICIPANTS Primary care physicians (n?=?25). APPROACH Transcribed audiorecordings of physician interviews were coded using a modified grounded theory approach. An open coding process was used to identify major themes, subthemes, and the interrelationships among them. RESULTS Three main themes emerged. (1) Study physicians disregarded time limits despite the known financial consequences of doing so and justified their actions according to various ethical- and values-based frameworks. (2) Disregarding time limits had a positive impact on job satisfaction in the realm of direct patient care. (3) The existence of time limits had a negative impact on overall job satisfaction. CONCLUSION For the study physicians, disregarding time limits on patient visits is an adaptive short-term strategy that enhances satisfaction with direct patient care. It is unlikely that such a strategy alone will help physicians cope with their broader—and growing—dissatisfaction with the profession. PMID:18365288

  9. A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since Mexico's joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1994, it has witnessed rapid industrialization. A byproduct of this industrialization is increasing population exposure to environmental pollutants, of which some have been associated with childhood disease. We therefore identified and assessed the adequacy of existing international and Mexican governance instruments and policy tools to protect children from environmental hazards. Methods We first systematically reviewed PubMed, the Mexican legal code and the websites of the United Nations, World Health Organization, NAFTA and OECD as of July 2007 to identify the relevant governance instruments, and analyzed the approach these instruments took to preventing childhood diseases of environmental origin. Secondly, we interviewed a purposive sample of high-level government officials, researchers and non-governmental organization representatives, to identify their opinions and attitudes towards children's environmental health and potential barriers to child-specific protective legislation and implementation. Results We identified only one policy tool describing specific measures to reduce developmental neurotoxicity and other children's health effects from lead. Other governance instruments mention children's unique vulnerability to ozone, particulate matter and carbon monoxide, but do not provide further details. Most interviewees were aware of Mexican environmental policy tools addressing children's health needs, but agreed that, with few exceptions, environmental policies do not address the specific health needs of children and pregnant women. Interviewees also cited state centralization of power, communication barriers and political resistance as reasons for the absence of a strong regulatory platform. Conclusions The Mexican government has not sufficiently accounted for children's unique vulnerability to environmental contaminants. If regulation and legislation are not updated and implemented to protect children, increases in preventable exposures to toxic chemicals in the environment may ensue. PMID:20331868

  10. Chinese immigrant parents’ vaccination decision making for children: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization coverage rates for childhood routine vaccines in Hong Kong are almost 100%, the uptake rates of optional vaccines remain suboptimal. Understanding parental decision-making for children’s vaccination is important, particularly among minority groups who are most vulnerable and underserved. This study explored how a subsample of new immigrant mothers from mainland China, a rapidly-growing subpopulation in Hong Kong, made decisions on various childhood and adolescent vaccines for their offspring, and identified key influences affecting their decision making. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 Chinese new immigrant mothers recruited by purposive sampling. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results Participants’ conversation revealed five underlying themes which influenced parents’ vaccination decision-making: (1) Institutional factors, (2) Insufficient vaccination knowledge and advice, (3) Affective impacts on motivation, (4) Vaccination barriers, and (5) Social influences. The role of social norms appeared overwhelmingly salient influencing parents’ vaccination decision making. Institutional factors shaped parent’s perceptions of vaccination necessity. Fear of vaccine-targeted diseases was a key motivating factor for parents adopting vaccination. Insufficient knowledge about vaccines and targeted diseases, lack of advice from health professionals and, if provided, suspicions regarding the motivations for such advice were common issues. Vaccination cost was a major barrier for many new immigrant parents. Conclusions Social norms play a key role influencing parental vaccination decision-making. Insight gained from this study will help inform healthcare providers in vaccination communication and policymakers in future vaccination programme. PMID:24507384

  11. Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4%) were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG); diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support. PMID:23249410

  12. Why Strong Tobacco Control Measures “Can’t” Be Implemented in the U.S. Military: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently called for a tobacco-free military, citing evidence that high rates of tobacco use harm readiness and create enormous costs for the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration. The pro-tobacco activities of the tobacco industry and others, sometimes supported by military authorities even when prohibited by policy, have created a culture highly hospitable to smoking. Through qualitative secondary analysis of data from interviews and focus groups, this article explores the reasons enlisted personnel and their supervisors, installation tobacco control managers, and service policy leaders give for why tobacco control policy change “cannot” effectively be achieved. Three primary reasons were given: policies would impinge on the “right to smoke,” policies would be unenforceable and lead to disciplinary breakdown, and the rights of civilian workers on military installations precluded policy enforcement. Yet evidence suggests that these reasons are not only invalid, but inconsistent with military policies addressing other threats to the health of personnel. This pervasive tobacco “exceptionalism” is a significant barrier to achieving a tobacco-free military. The military, Congress, and the President should re-evaluate the “can’ts” that have prevented effective action, and act to regulate and eventually abolish tobacco use in the armed forces. PMID:23113448

  13. Quality of life of adult long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation: a qualitative analysis of narrative data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, M; Bush, N; Young, K; Sullivan, K M

    1993-01-01

    Recently, clinicians and researchers alike have challenged the long-standing impression that survivors of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) experience a less than optimal quality of life (QOL). Despite the accumulating evidence suggesting that most adult survivors adjust relatively well within two to five years after BMT, little is known about the growing population of recipients living well beyond five years. This paper reports the design and qualitative components of a large study that used a cross-sectional, descriptive, mailed survey design. The aim of the study was to document systematically how 125 adult survivors of BMT (6-18.4 years post-transplant) perceived the quality of their lives. An eight-item, open-ended questionnaire was used to gather information on the reestablishment of life after BMT, demands of recovery, coping strategies, limitations imposed by BMT, current health problems, QOL, and concerns for the future. Content analysis of the verbatim responses indicated that most long-term survivors, despite the persistence of lingering side effects, perceive themselves as cured and well, leading full and meaningful lives. Nursing therapeutics can focus on providing accurate and timely information about the known long-range complications of BMT. Further research is needed to examine the entire issue of social support following BMT and to identify the special care requirements of the recipients (5%) who reported poor physical and mental health. PMID:8278280

  14. Evaluation of some carotenoids in grapes by reversed- and normal-phase liquid chromatography: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria Manuela; Ferreira, A C Silva; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2004-05-19

    Carotenoids in grapes of three Port winemaking cultivars were investigated. Extracts were obtained with n-hexane/diethyl ether mixtures (0/100; 20/80; 50/50; 100/0) and analyzed by normal and reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Selection and identification of peaks were based on spectroscopic characteristics - lambda(max), (%III/II) and k' values, leading to 28 probable carotenoids. Using pure standards, it was possible to identify seven compounds previously described (neochrome, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, flavoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and beta-carotene), one more type of neochrome reported here, for the first time, and in addition, two geometrical isomers of lutein and beta-carotene were tentatively described. The remaining 17 need to be further identified. High polarity solvent mixtures lead to qualitatively richer chromatograms. Reversed-phase separations allowed the detection of flavoxanthin and the possible geometrical isomer(s) of beta-carotene. Under normal phase, zeaxanthin was detected, and neochromes were better separated from neoxanthin. Extraction with 50/50 n-hexane/diethyl ether mixtures and reversed-phase conditions was the best combination for analysis of the carotenoids, known as precursors of compounds with high aroma impact in wines. PMID:15137873

  15. Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people. PMID:24460955

  16. “Completely out-at-sea” with “two-gender medicine”: A qualitative analysis of physician-side barriers to providing healthcare for transgender patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Members of the transgender community have identified healthcare access barriers, yet a corresponding inquiry into healthcare provider perspectives has lagged. Our aim was to examine physician perceptions of barriers to healthcare provision for transgender patients. Methods This was a qualitative study with physician participants from Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were used to capture a progression of ideas related to barriers faced by physicians when caring for trans patients. Qualitative data were then transcribed verbatim and analysed with an emergent grounded theory approach. Results A total of thirteen (13) physician participants were interviewed. Analysis revealed healthcare barriers that grouped into five themes: Accessing resources, medical knowledge deficits, ethics of transition-related medical care, diagnosing vs. pathologising trans patients, and health system determinants. A centralising theme of “not knowing where to go or who to talk to” was also identified. Conclusions The findings of this study show that physicians perceive barriers to the care of trans patients, and that these barriers are multifactorial. Access barriers impede physicians when referring patients to specialists or searching for reliable treatment information. Clinical management of trans patients is complicated by a lack of knowledge, and by ethical considerations regarding treatments—which can be unfamiliar or challenging to physicians. The disciplinary division of responsibilities within medicine further complicates care; few practitioners identify trans healthcare as an interest area, and there is a tendency to overemphasise trans status in mental health evaluations. Failure to recognise and accommodate trans patients within sex-segregated healthcare systems leads to deficient health policy. The findings of this study suggest potential solutions to trans healthcare barriers at the informational level—with increased awareness of clinical guidelines and by including trans health issues in medical education—and at the institutional level, with support for both trans-focused and trans-friendly primary care models. PMID:22559234

  17. A qualitative analysis of the impact of the reform of the College of Science undergraduate core curriculum at State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballotti, Dean

    The Dean of the College of Science at State University, a large public Midwestern research university, in a memo to the faculty and staff initiated what he called a "review" of the undergraduate science core curriculum. He formed a task force that was to investigate on three issues; a reassessment of the undergraduate core curriculum, the recruitment and retention of qualified undergraduate students with an emphasis on diversity, and strategies that would address these issues. The age of the curriculum, 40 years since the last significant change, was an important factor in the review of the curriculum. This qualitative study seeks to understand how a group of four administrators and five faculty, all from the College of Science, participated in the task force, perceived the old curriculum, and perceived the changes made and the resulting new curriculum. They were also asked to rank both the prior and new curricula. As part of an ongoing theme in higher education they were also asked if they thought the changes made to the curriculum qualified as reform and why or why not. This resulted in a discussion of what a reform might look like at State University and ultimately a definition of reform.

  18. From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, Judea

    1994-01-01

    The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

  19. Natural Time Analysis of Seismicity: Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, P.; Uyeda, S.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Nagao, T.; Kamogawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    Natural time analysis introduced almost a decade ago[1] may uncover novel dynamic features hidden in the time series of complex systems and has been applied[2] to diverse fields. For a time series comprising N events, the natural time for the occurrence of the k-th event of energy Qk is defined by ?k=k/N and the analysis is made by studying the evolution of the pair (?k,pk ), where pk=Qk/?Qn is the normalized energy. In natural time analysis of seismicity, the variance ?1 of natural time ? weighted for pk calculated from seismic catalogues serves as an order parameter [2]. The Japan seismic catalog was analyzed in natural time by employing a sliding natural time window of fixed length comprised of the number of events that would occur in a few months. This is a crucial time scale since it corresponds to the average lead time of the observed Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activities [2]. The following results are obtained: First, the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibit [3] a clearly detectable minimum approximately at the time of the initiation of the pronounced SES activity observed [4] almost two months before the onset of the volcanic-seismic swarm activity in 2000 in the Izu Island region, Japan. This is the first time that before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two different geophysical observables. Second, these two phenomena were shown to be also linked in space[3]. Third, minima of the order parameter fluctuations of seismicity were observed [5] a few months before all shallow earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger that occurred from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the M9 Tohoku earthquake) in Japanese area. Among these minima, the minimum before the M9 Tohoku earthquake was the deepest. Additional recent results are forwarded which shed more light on the importance of the aforementioned minima for earthquake prediction purposes. [1] Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V. and Skordas, E. S. Phys. Rev. E (2002) 66, 011902 [2] Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V. and Skordas, E. S. Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series Springer-Verlag (2011) [3] Varotsos P.A.; Sarlis N.V.; Skordas E.S. and Lazaridou M.S., Tectonophysics (2013) 589, 116-125 [4] Uyeda, S.; Kamogawa, M; and Tanaka, H. J. Geophys. Res., (2009) 114, B02310 [5] Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P. A.; Nagao, T.; Kamogawa, M.; Tanaka, H. and Uyeda, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2013) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312740110

  20. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy: a powerful technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic and organic compounds including explosives.

    PubMed

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Ramer, Georg; Hobro, Alison; Chrysostom, Engelene T H; Lendl, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    A pulsed stand-off Raman system has been built and optimised for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic and organic samples including explosives. The system consists of a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 Hz, 4.4 ns pulse length), aligned coaxially with a 6? Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope for the collection of Raman scattered light. The telescope was coupled via a fibre optic bundle to an Acton standard series SP-2750 spectrograph with a PI-MAX 1024RB intensified CCD camera equipped with a 500-ps gating option for detection. Gating proved to be essential for achieving high signal-to-noise ratios in the recorded stand-off Raman spectra. In some cases, gating also allowed suppression of disturbing fluorescence signals. For the first time, quantitative analysis of stand-off Raman spectra was performed using both univariate and multivariate methods of data analysis. To correct for possible variation in instrumental parameters, the nitrogen band of ambient air was used as an internal standard. For the univariate method, stand-off Raman spectra obtained at a distance of 9 m on sodium chloride pellets containing varying amounts of ammonium nitrate (0-100%) were used. For the multivariate quantification of ternary xylene mixtures (0-100%), stand-off spectra at a distance of 5 m were used. The univariate calibration of ammonium nitrate yielded R (2) values of 0.992, and the multivariate quantitative analysis yielded root mean square errors of prediction of 2.26%, 1.97% and 1.07% for o-, m- and p-xylene, respectively. Stand-off Raman spectra obtained at a distance of 10 m yielded a detection limit of 174 ?g for NaClO(3). Furthermore, to assess the applicability of stand-off Raman spectroscopy for explosives detection in "real-world" scenarios, their detection on different background materials (nylon, polyethylene and part of a car body) and in the presence of interferents (motor oil, fuel oil and soap) at a distance of 20 m was also investigated. PMID:21336938

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Weina; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Yuefei; Pan, Guixiang; Jiang, Miaomiao; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC) is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC. PMID:25654135

  2. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative

  3. Computational analysis of vertebrate phototransduction: Combined quantitative and qualitative modeling of dark- and light-adapted responses in amphibian rods

    PubMed Central

    HAMER, RUSSELL D.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the generality of two models of vertebrate phototransduction. The approach was to quantitatively optimize each model to the full waveform of high-quality, dark-adapted (DA), salamander rod flash responses. With the optimal parameters, each model was then used to account for signature, qualitative features of rod responses from three experimental paradigms (stimulus/response, “S/R suite”): (1) step responses; (2) the intensity dependence of the period of photocurrent saturation (Tsat vs. ln(I)); and (3) light-adapted (LA) incremental flash sensitivity as a function of background intensity. The first model was the recent successful model of Nikonov et al. (1998). The second model replaced the instantaneous Ca2+ buffering used in the Nikonov et al. model with a dynamic buffer. The results showed that, in the absence of the dynamic Ca2+ buffer, the Nikonov et al. model does not have sufficient flexibility to provide a good fit to the flash responses, and, using the same parameters, reproduce the salient features of the S/R suite—critical features at step onset and offset are absent; the Tsat function has too shallow a slope; and the model cannot generate the empirically observed I-range of Weber-Fechner LA behavior. Some features could be recovered by changing parameters, but only at the expense of the fit to the reference (Ref) data. When the dynamic buffer is added, the model is able to achieve an acceptable fit to the Ref data while reproducing several features of the S/R suite, including an empirically observed Tsat function, and an extended range of LA flash sensitivity adhering to Weber’s law. The overall improved behavior of the model with a dynamic Ca2+ buffer indicates that it is an important mechanism to include in a working model of phototransduction, and that, despite the slow kinetics of amphibian rods, Ca2+ buffering should not be simulated as an instantaneous process. However, neither model was able to capture all the features with the same parameters yielding the optimal fit to the Ref data. In addition, neither model could maintain a good fit to the Ref data when five key biochemical parameters were held at their current known values. Moreover, even after optimization, a number of important parameters remained outside their empirical estimates. We conclude that other mechanisms will need to be added, including additional Ca2+-feedback mechanisms. The present research illustrates the importance of a hybrid qualitative/quantitative approach to model development, and the limitations of modeling restricted sets of data. PMID:11153649

  4. Assisting a child with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a qualitative deep analysis of parents’ experience and caring needs

    PubMed Central

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Bosio, Caterina; Cecchini, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to explore parents’ experience of assisting children affected by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) manifestation, in order to understand their caring needs and expectation of support. Setting and procedure The study was designed according to the qualitative method of interpretative description and implied two sequential phases of data collection. The first phase was based on in-depth interviews with 18 Italian caregivers of children living with TSC. The second phase of the research was based on an online forum with 30 caregivers of children living with TSC. Participants 48 Italian caregivers, assisting patients with TSC with SEGA manifestation have been involved in the study. Results When a TSC diagnosis is made, the whole family is affected psychologically. TSC has a great impact on families’ quality of life and on their ability to cope with the disease and support the child's ability to recover and reach an acceptable level of well-being. Caregivers report the experience of losing control and the feeling of loneliness and abandon from the healthcare system. Conclusion and practice implications Families of children affected by TSC need targeted psychosocial assistance in order to support patients and caregivers and facilitate their social integration. PMID:24319280

  5. Analysis of the qualitative dermatoglyphics of the digito-palmar complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Novak-Laus, Katia; Milici?, Jasna; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Ivekovi?, Renata; Korsi?, Jadranka; Zrins?ak, Ognjen; Mandi?, Zdravko

    2006-03-01

    The primary open-angle glaucomas are a group of diseases that have in common characteristic morphological changes at the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, progressive retinal ganglion cells death and characteristic visual field loss. The risk for primary open angle glaucoma rises continuously with the level of the intraocular pressure. The disease advances slowly and there are no symptoms. Primary open angle glaucoma is caused by abnormal aqueous humour outflow in the trabecular meshwork in the open angle. Etiopathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma is unclear. The increased risk of glaucoma in relatives has long been recognized. Frequency for manifestation of the disease is 10-30% in family members. The discovery of the specific gene loci responsible for the manifestation of glaucoma has helped us to understand its mechanism of origin and definitely confirmed the hereditary nature of this disease. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of many diseases and it was the reason for investigation of their qualitative patterns in patients with glaucoma (22 males and 23 females), their immediate relatives (19 males and 23 females) in comparison to a group of phenotypically healthy population (52 males and 56 females). The results pointed a connection with the dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex between patients with glaucoma and their immediate relatives. There is a possible discrimination of patients and their immediate relatives from phenotypically healthy population, too. PMID:16617592

  6. “A little on the heavy side”: a qualitative analysis of parents' and grandparents' perceptions of preschoolers' body weights

    PubMed Central

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Parents’ difficulties in perceiving children's weight status accurately pose a barrier for family-based obesity interventions; however, the factors underlying weight misinterpretation still need to be identified. This study's objective was to examine parents and grandparents’ perceptions of preschoolers’ body sizes. Interview questions also explored perceptions of parental responsibility for childhood obesity and appropriate contexts in which to discuss preschoolers’ weights. Design Semistructured interviews, which were videotaped, transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Setting Eugene and the Springfield metropolitan area, Oregon, USA Participants Families of children aged 3–5?years were recruited in February—May 2011 through advertisements about the study, published in the job seekers’ sections of a classified website (Craigslist) and in a local newspaper. 49 participants (22 parents and 27 grandparents, 70% women, 60% with overweight/obesity) from 16 low-income families of children aged 3–5?years (50% girls, 56% with overweight/obesity) were interviewed. Results There are important gaps between clinical definitions and lay perceptions of childhood obesity. While parents and grandparents were aware of their preschoolers’ growth chart percentiles, these measures did not translate into recognition of children's overweight or obesity. The participants spoke of obesity as a problem that may affect the children in the future, but not at present. Participants identified childhood obesity as being transmitted from one generation to the next, and stigmatised it as resulting from ‘lazy’ parenting. Parents and grandparents avoided discussing the children's weights with each other and with the children themselves. Conclusions The results suggest that clinicians should clearly communicate with parents and grandparents about the meaning and appearance of obesity in early childhood, as well as counteract the social stigma attached to obesity, in order to improve the effectiveness of family-based interventions to manage obesity in early childhood. PMID:25500371

  7. USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

  8. Qualitative Analysis of Association of Research Libraries' E-Metrics Participant Feedback about the Evolution of Measures for Networked Electronic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha; Giersch, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) E-Metrics Project is an ongoing effort to develop new measures that describe and measure networked electronic resources and also to underscore the need for measuring the value of such resources. This article presents results from an ongoing iterative qualitative study with the following goals: (a) to…

  9. Development and validation of a methodology to qualitatively screening veterinary drugs in porcine muscle via an innovative extraction\\/clean-up procedure and LCMS\\/MS analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Lopes; D. V. Augusti; A. G. M. Oliveira; F. A. S. Oliveira; E. A. Vargas; R. Augusti

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative multiresidue method that facilitates rapid monitoring of veterinary drugs in porcine muscle is described. The method comprises the application of an innovative extraction\\/clean-up procedure, namely liquid–liquid extraction with partition at very low temperature (LLE-FPVLT), and analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS). Besides the high selectivity, sensitivity and specificity, this high-throughput method proved to be

  10. Qualitative Metabolome Analysis of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by 13C-/12C-Isotope Dansylation Labeling Combined with Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kevin; Bamforth, Fiona; Li, Liang

    2011-02-01

    Metabolome analysis of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is challenging because of low abundance of metabolites present in a small volume of sample. We describe and apply a sensitive isotope labeling LC-MS technique for qualitative analysis of the CSF metabolome. After a CSF sample is divided into two aliquots, they are labeled by 13C-dansyl and 12C-dansyl chloride, respectively. The differentially labeled aliquots are then mixed and subjected to LC-MS using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Dansylation offers significant improvement in the performance of chromatography separation and detection sensitivity. Moreover, peaks detected in the mass spectra can be readily analyzed for ion pair recognition and database search based on accurate mass and/or retention time information. It is shown that about 14,000 features can be detected in a 25-min LC-FTICR MS run of a dansyl-labeled CSF sample, from which about 500 metabolites can be profiled. Results from four CSF samples are compared to gauge the detectability of metabolites by this method. About 261 metabolites are commonly detected in replicate runs of four samples. In total, 1132 unique metabolite ion pairs are detected and 347 pairs (31%) matched with at least one metabolite in the Human Metabolome Database. We also report a dansylation library of 220 standard compounds and, using this library, about 85 metabolites can be positively identified. Among them, 21 metabolites have never been reported to be associated with CSF. These results illustrate that the dansylation LC-FTICR MS method can be used to analyze the CSF metabolome in a more comprehensive manner.

  11. Growth phase-dependent proteomes of the Malaysian isolated Lactococcus lactis dairy strain M4 using label-free qualitative shotgun proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MS(E)) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications. PMID:24982972

  12. A resilience assessment framework for infrastructure and economic systems : quantitative and qualitative resilience analysis of petrochemical supply chains to a hurricane.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vugrin, Eric D.; Warren, Drake E.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the nation has recognized that critical infrastructure protection should consider not only the prevention of disruptive events, but also the processes that infrastructure systems undergo to maintain functionality following disruptions. This more comprehensive approach has been termed critical infrastructure resilience (CIR). Given the occurrence of a particular disruptive event, the resilience of a system to that event is the system's ability to efficiently reduce both the magnitude and duration of the deviation from targeted system performance levels. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has developed a comprehensive resilience assessment framework for evaluating the resilience of infrastructure and economic systems. The framework includes a quantitative methodology that measures resilience costs that result from a disruption to infrastructure function. The framework also includes a qualitative analysis methodology that assesses system characteristics that affect resilience in order to provide insight and direction for potential improvements to resilience. This paper describes the resilience assessment framework. This paper further demonstrates the utility of the assessment framework through application to a hypothetical scenario involving the disruption of a petrochemical supply chain by a hurricane.

  13. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design provides an overview of the five main traditions of qualitative research. The author explains the uniqueness of each approach and its applicability to different types of inquiry. Illustrative examples from public health and social science fields are provided. The book details study design, question development, data collection and analysis, and summarizing and interpreting results, and how the research process differs according to each approach. This resource can serve as a useful guide for public health practitioners and graduate-level students interested in the theory and practice of rigorous qualitative research. PMID:25835019

  14. Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

  15. Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortes, and Francisco Pizzaro: A Qualitative Content Analysis Examining Cultural Bias in World History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillejord, Jebadiah Serril

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent contemporary high school world history textbooks portray Christopher Columbus, Hernán Cortés, and Francisco Pizarro within the context of being "sacred," "profane," or someplace in between. To evaluate for existence of content bias this study employed qualitative

  16. Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Ormondroyd; Louise Donnelly; Clare Moynihan; Cornelie Savona; Elizabeth Bancroft; D Gareth Evans; Rosalind Eeles; Stuart Lavery; Maggie Watson

    2012-01-01

    The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in

  17. A Qualitative Study of Fibre Drop Traces on Mechanically Excited Damped Vibrations of Drops of Pure Liquids Using Fft Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. McMillan; F. E. Feeney; M. J. P. Power; S. M. Kinsella; M. P. Kelly; C. Hammil; K. W. Thompson; J. P. ODea

    1994-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into the viscoelastic-surface properties of pendant drops has been conducted using a new instrumental technique, the fibre drop analyser (FDA), by means of measurement of the damped vibrations in mechanically excited pendant drop for a series of pure liquids. The study reveals a range of processes in the damped vibrations of pendant drops and could open up

  18. How a qualitative approach to concept map analysis can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Kinchin; David B. Hay; Alan Adams

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative approach to analysing students' concept maps. The classification highlights three major patterns which are referred to as 'spoke', 'chain' and 'net' structures. Examples are given from Year 8 science classes. The patterns are interpreted as being indicators of progressive levels of understanding. It is proposed that identification of these differences may help the classroom teacher

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of the Alberta Learning Removing Barriers to High School Completion Report. System Improvement and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    The purpose of this document is to compare and contrast "Removing Barriers to High School Completion--Final Report" (2001) with the qualitative study entitled "Early School Leaving: A Young Offender Perspective" (2001). The study is organized into four sections. The first section presents an overview of early school leaving within a Canadian…

  20. "Emotions Are a Window into One's Heart": A Qualitative Analysis of Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alison E.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred, Jr.; Thompson, Julie A.; Beale, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents' beliefs about the role of emotions in the…

  1. Analyzing large free-response qualitative data sets — a novel quantitative-qualitative hybrid approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Light; Ken Yasuhara

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative analysis tends to be unwieldy for large data sets yet is an indispensable tool for understanding how and why phenomena occur. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a method that is credible yet economical for large, specific, qualitative data sets. The strength of our hybrid, qualitative-quantitative method comes from using automated text analysis techniques to focus

  2. Be known, be available, be mutual: a qualitative ethical analysis of social values in rural palliative care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although attention to healthcare ethics in rural areas has increased, specific focus on rural palliative care is still largely under-studied and under-theorized. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the values informing good palliative care from rural individuals' perspectives. Methods We conducted a qualitative ethnographic study in four rural communities in Western Canada. Each community had a population of 10, 000 or less and was located at least a three hour travelling distance by car from a specialist palliative care treatment centre. Data were collected over a 2-year period and included 95 interviews, 51 days of field work and 74 hours of direct participant observation where the researchers accompanied rural healthcare providers. Data were analyzed inductively to identify the most prevalent thematic values, and then coded using NVivo. Results This study illuminated the core values of knowing and being known, being present and available, and community and mutuality that provide the foundation for ethically good rural palliative care. These values were congruent across the study communities and across the stakeholders involved in rural palliative care. Although these were highly prized values, each came with a corresponding ethical tension. Being known often resulted in a loss of privacy. Being available and present created a high degree of expectation and potential caregiver strain. The values of community and mutuality created entitlement issues, presenting daunting challenges for coordinated change. Conclusions The values identified in this study offer the opportunity to better understand common ethical tensions that arise in rural healthcare and key differences between rural and urban palliative care. In particular, these values shed light on problematic health system and health policy changes. When initiatives violate deeply held values and hard won rural capacity to address the needs of their dying members is undermined, there are long lasting negative consequences. The social fabric of rural life is frayed. These findings offer one way to re-conceptualize healthcare decision making through consideration of critical values to support ethically good palliative care in rural settings. PMID:21955451

  3. FociCounter: a freely available PC programme for quantitative and qualitative analysis of gamma-H2AX foci.

    PubMed

    Jucha, Anna; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Koza, Zbigniew; Lisowska, Halina; Wojcik, Andrzej; Wojewodzka, Maria; Lankoff, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Gamma-H2AX foci are sensitive and specific indicator for the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and an immunocytochemical assay with antibodies recognizing gamma-H2AX has become the gold standard for the detection of this type of DNA lesion. Quantification of gamma-H2AX foci can be achieved by various methods such as Western blotting, flow cytometry, visual analysis and computational analysis with a fluorescence microscope. The best sensitivity is achieved by computer analysis. Since no freeware programme for the analysis of gamma-H2AX foci exists for a PC platform, the aim of our study was to develop a simple and user-friendly public-domain software. The algorithm applied in our programme allows determination of the number of foci in a single cell, a focus intensity per cell, as well as a cell intensity. Its graphical user interface is based on a GTK+ library and the whole application can be run under a variety of operating systems, including MS Windows and Linux. The programme called FociCounter is publicly available at http://focicounter.sourceforge.net. Application of the programme was tested by analysing gamma-H2AX foci in CHO and MO59K cells irradiated in vitro with X-rays and validated by comparing the results obtained with the outcome of automated image analysis and flow cytometry. PMID:20018253

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Michailof, Chrysa; Lappas, Angelos; Li, Qiangyi; Kneale, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Pyrolysis oils have attracted a lot of interest, as they are liquid energy carriers and general sources of chemicals. In this work, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) techniques were used to provide both qualitative and quantitative results of the analysis of three different pyrolysis oils. The chromatographic methods and parameters were optimized and solvent choice and separation restrictions are discussed. Pyrolysis oil samples were diluted in suitable organic solvent and were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. An average of 300 compounds were detected and identified in all three samples using the ChromaToF (Leco) software. The deconvoluted spectra were compared with the NIST software library for correct matching. Group type classification was performed by use of the ChromaToF software. The quantification of 11 selected compounds was performed by means of a multiple-point external calibration curve. Afterwards, the pyrolysis oils were extracted with water, and the aqueous phase was analyzed both by GC-FID and, after proper change of solvent, by GC×GC-TOFMS. As previously, the selected compounds were quantified by both techniques, by means of multiple point external calibration curves. The parameters of the calibration curves were calculated by weighted linear regression analysis. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation and linearity range for each standard compound with each method are presented. The potency of GC×GC-TOFMS for an efficient mapping of the pyrolysis oil is undisputable, and the possibility of using it for quantification as well has been demonstrated. On the other hand, the GC-FID analysis provides reliable results that allow for a rapid screening of the pyrolysis oil. To the best of our knowledge, very few papers have been reported with quantification attempts on pyrolysis oil samples using GC×GC-TOFMS most of which make use of the internal standard method. This work provides the ground for further analysis of pyrolysis oils of diverse sources for a rational design of both their production and utilization process. PMID:21036362

  5. Linking HIV-positive jail inmates to treatment, care, and social services after release: results from a qualitative assessment of the COMPASS Program.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Fu, Jeannia; Bazerman, Lauri; Loewenthal, Helen; Beckwith, Curt

    2010-12-01

    Approximately 17% of individuals living with HIV/AIDS pass through the correctional system each year. Jails provide a unique opportunity to diagnose and treat HIV infection among high-risk, transient populations with limited access to medical services. In 2007, the US Health Resources and Services Administration funded a multi-site demonstration project entitled Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care in Jail Settings that aims to improve diagnosis and treatment services for HIV-positive jail detainees and link them to community-based medical care and social services upon release. We performed an evaluation of the Rhode Island demonstration site entitled Community Partnerships and Supportive Services for HIV-Infected People Leaving Jail (COMPASS). Through in-depth qualitative interviews among 20 HIV-positive COMPASS participants in Rhode Island, we assessed how COMPASS impacted access to health care and social services utilization. Most individuals were receiving HIV treatment and care services upon enrollment, but COMPASS enhanced linkage to medical care and follow-up visits for HIV and other co-morbidities for most participants. Several participants were successfully linked to new medical services as a result of COMPASS, including one individual newly diagnosed with HIV and another who had been living with HIV for many years and was able to commence highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While many individuals reported that COMPASS support prevented substance abuse relapse, ongoing substance abuse nevertheless remained a challenge for several participants. Most participants enrolled in one or more new social services as a result of COMPASS, including Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, food assistance, and housing programs. The primary unmet needs of COMPASS participants were access to mental health services and stable housing. Intensive case management of HIV-positive jail detainees enhances access to medical and social support services and helps prevent relapse to substance abuse. Expanding intensive case management programs, public housing, and mental health services for recently released HIV-positive detainees should be public health priorities. PMID:21046470

  6. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  7. Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion

    SciTech Connect

    Semrau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

  8. Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Czachowski, Slawomir; Piszczek, Elwira

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation plays a crucial role in reducing preventable morbidity and mortality and is a recognized public-health-policy issue in many countries. Two of the most important factors that affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability to cope with situations causing relapse. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate former and current smokers’ motivations for smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting. Methods We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants (twelve current and twelve former smokers) and eleven semi-structured interviews (five current and six former smokers) with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking cessation. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods. Results Three main themes were identified: (1) motivations to quit smoking, (2) reasons why smokers sometimes relapse, and (3) modes of quitting smoking. Within the first theme, the following six subthemes surfaced: (1) a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, (2) the high cost of cigarettes, (3) the unpleasant smell, (4) health concern, (5) pregnancy and breastfeeding, and (6) a variety of other factors. The second theme encompassed the following subthemes: (1) stress and the need to lessen it by smoking a cigarette, (2) the need to experience the pleasure connected with smoking, and (3) the smoking environment both at home and at work. Participants presented different smoking-cessation modes, but mainly they were unplanned attempts. Conclusion Two very important motivations for smoking cessation were a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, and the high cost of cigarettes. The most common smoking-cessation mode was a spontaneous decision to quit, caused by a particular trigger factor. Relapse causes encompassed, most notably: stress, lack of the pleasure previously obtained from smoking, and the smoking environment. PMID:25336926

  9. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    PubMed

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls. PMID:25439873

  10. ITRF2014 status, data analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamimi, Zuheir; Collilieux, Xavier; Rebiscung, Paul; Metivier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    This paper will address key questions regarding the ITRF2014 elaboration: frame specifications (origin, scale, orientation and their time evolution) and how they will relate to ITRF2008; non-linear station motions (seasonal signals and post seismic deformations) and how they will be modeled; local ties and station co-motions and how they will be weighted, taking into account technique discrepancies at co-location sites. A particular emphasis will be given to assess the stability of origins and scales over the entire observation history of the four techniques and how they compare to each other. Final or early results of ITRF2014 will be discussed.

  11. LENS: ?LENS Simulations, Analysis, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Simulations of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectrometer prototype, ?LENS, have been performed in order to benchmark the first measurements of the ?LENS detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF). ?LENS is a 6x6x6 celled scintillation lattice filled with Linear Alkylbenzene based scintillator. We have performed simulations of ?LENS using the GEANT4 toolkit. We have measured various radioactive sources, LEDs, and environmental background radiation measurements at KURF using up to 96 PMTs with a simplified data acquisition system of QDCs and TDCs. In this talk we will demonstrate our understanding of the light propagation and we will compare simulation results with measurements of the ?LENS detector of various radioactive sources, LEDs, and the environmental background radiation.

  12. Scalable analysis tools for sensitivity analysis and UQ (3160) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Fabian, Nathan; Scott, W. Alan; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2009-09-01

    The 9/30/2009 ASC Level 2 Scalable Analysis Tools for Sensitivity Analysis and UQ (Milestone 3160) contains feature recognition capability required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks focused around sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ). These feature recognition capabilities include crater detection, characterization, and analysis from CTH simulation data; the ability to call fragment and crater identification code from within a CTH simulation; and the ability to output fragments in a geometric format that includes data values over the fragments. The feature recognition capabilities were tested extensively on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including the ability to visualize CTH tracer particles and the ability to visualize output from within an S3D simulation.

  13. RTPP Analysis Results: Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrotis, Loukis; Alfaro Sanz, Pedro; Svehla, Drazen; Dow, John; Zandbergen, Rene

    2010-05-01

    One of the key objectives of the IGS Real Time Pilot Project is the establishment of an experimental IGS Real Time Clock Service comprising individual Analysis Centre (AC) solutions and the investigation of strategies for generating a Real Time combination product. The latter is intended to provide a stable, reliable and high quality GNSS product. Currently there are 4 ACs (BKG, DLR, ESA and NRCan) generating individual real time products, and a fifth (GMV) that is producing a product based on one-hour predictions. This paper will cover the evolution in the accuracies of the individual solutions and will show the impact that the participation in the RTPP has had on the ACs, serving not only as an external benchmark, but also as a discussion forum that has prompted their continued evolution and improvement. In its role as RTPP AC coordinator, ESOC has been computing and disseminating a daily combination clock product since July 2008, based on daily submissions of clock RINEX and SP3 orbit files by the individual ACs. This exercise has helped to develop and validate the combination techniques and the RTPP products are stored at the CDDIS, IGN and KASI data centres with the designation "igt". The current satellite clock quality, of better than 0.2 ns RMS compared to the IGS rapids, comfortably exceeds the initial RTPP goal of 0.5 ns and gives a high confidence on the implemented method. ESOC is currently working on the implementation of a Real Time combination product, from RTCM orbit and clock streams received in real time via BKG's NTRIP system. This service is expected to be ready in the March-April timeframe and be operational by mid 2010. As well as discussing the status and evolution of the Real Time products, this paper will also focus on specific problems and challenges in the Real Time processing. For example, it has been found that GPS Block IIA satellites exhibit occasional glitches, where most receivers loose lock simultaneously. These events cause clock jumps in some of the Real Time AC solutions (and occasionally also in the IGS batch solutions), unless specific steps are taken to identify them. The high quality of the RT combination product is demonstrated in several scenarios that represent typical applications of RT products. First of all, the performance of the PPP for IGS stations is shown, using a study of the accuracy curve as a function of the averaging time. Kinematic PPP for an IGS ground station is also performed and compared with the double-difference approach, typically used in RTK methods. The last application is POD of LEO satellites, with the use GPS measurements from the GOCE satellite in a very low Earth orbit and the JASON-2 satellite in a high LEO orbit.

  14. JUSTIFICATION OF WIFE BEATING IN RURAL BANGLADESH: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSES TO SURVEY QUESTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Yount, Kathryn M.; Lenzi, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) in cultural context is important for developing interventions to reduce IPV and its effects. This paper presents qualitative findings from research conducted in rural Bangladesh to understand men’s and women’s responses to attitudinal questions about IPV. Both men and women often responded as if the questions were about their personal behavior. A few women said that their opinion did not matter. Women’s responses were more sensitive than men's to contextual nuances in the questions, and men more often than women described their own attitudes as consistent with community norms. PMID:23136180

  15. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  16. A qualitative analysis of acute care surgery in the United States: It’s more than just “a competent surgeon with a sharp knife and a willing attitude”

    PubMed Central

    Santry, Heena P.; Pringle, Patricia L.; Collins, Courtney E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since acute care surgery (ACS) was conceptualized a decade ago, the specialty has been adopted widely; however, little is known about the structure and function of ACS teams. Methods We conducted 18 open-ended interviews with ACS leaders (representing geographic [New England, Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, South, West, Midwest] and practice [Public/Charity, Community, University] diversity). Two independent reviewers analyzed transcribed interviews using an inductive approach (NVivo qualitative analysis software). Results All respondents described ACS as a specialty treating “time-sensitive surgical disease” including trauma, emergency general surgery (EGS), and surgical critical care (SCC); 11 of 18 combined trauma and EGS into a single clinical team; 9 of 18 included elective general surgery. Emergency orthopedics, emergency neurosurgery, and surgical subspecialty triage were rare (1/18 each). Eight of 18 ACS teams had scheduled EGS operating room time. All had a core group of trauma and SCC surgeons; 13 of 18 shared EGS due to volume, human resources, or competition for revenue. Only 12 of 18 had formal signout rounds; only 2 of 18 had prospective EGS data registries. Streamlined access to EGS, evidence-based protocols, and improved education were considered strengths of ACS. ACS was described as the “last great surgical service” reinvigorated to provide “timely,” cost-effective EGS by experts in “resuscitation and critical care” and to attract “young, talented, eager surgeons” to trauma/SCC; however, there was concern that ACS might become the “wastebasket for everything that happens at inconvenient times.” Conclusion Despite rapid adoption of ACS, its implementation varies widely. Standardization of scope of practice, continuity of care, and registry development may improve EGS outcomes and allow the specialty to thrive. (Surgery 2014;155:809-25.) PMID:24787108

  17. A qualitative analysis of coronary heart disease patient views of dietary adherence and web-based and mobile-based nutrition tools

    PubMed Central

    Yehle, Karen S.; Chen, Aleda M. H.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Yi, Ji Soo; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Dietary adherence can be challenging for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), as they may require multiple dietary changes. Choosing appropriate food items may be difficult or take extensive amounts of time without the aid of technology. The objective of this project was to (1) examine the dietary challenges faced by patients with CHD, (2) examine methods of coping with dietary challenges, (3) explore the feasibility of a web-based food decision support system, and (4) explore the feasibility of a mobile-based food decision support system. METHODS Food for the Heart (FFH), a website-based food decision support system, and Mobile Magic Lens (MML), a mobile-based system, were developed to aid in daily dietary choices. Three CHD patient focus groups were conducted and focused on CHD-associated dietary changes as well as the FFH and MML prototypes. A total of 20 CHD patients and 7 informal caregivers participated. Qualitative, content analysis was performed to find themes grounded in the responses. RESULTS Five predominant themes emerged: 1) decreasing carbohydrate intake and portion control are common dietary challenges, 2) clinician and social support makes dietary adherence easier, 3) FFH could make meal-planning and dietary adherence less complicated, 4) MML could save time and assist with healthy choices, and 5) additional features need to be added to make both tools more comprehensive. CONCLUSIONS FFH and MML may be tools that CHD patients would value in making food choices and adhering to dietary recommendations, especially if additional features are added to assist patients with changes. PMID:22760245

  18. "It's safer to …" parent consulting and clinician antibiotic prescribing decisions for children with respiratory tract infections: An analysis across four qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Christie; Lucas, Patricia J; Ingram, Jenny; Hay, Alastair D; Horwood, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a cross-study analysis of four studies, aiming to understand the drivers of parental consulting and clinician prescribing behaviour when children under 12 years consult primary care with acute respiratory tract infections (RTI). Qualitative data were obtained from three primary studies and one systematic review. Purposeful samples were obtained for (i) a focus group study of parents' information needs and help seeking; (ii) an interview study of parents' experiences of primary health care (60 parents in total); and (iii) an interview study of clinicians' experiences of RTI consultations for children (28 clinicians). The systematic review synthesised parent and clinician views of prescribing for children with acute illness. Reoccurring themes and common patterns across the whole data set were noted. Through an iterative approach involving re-examination of the primary data, translation of common themes across all the studies and re-organisation of these themes into conceptual groups, four overarching themes were identified. These were: the perceived vulnerability of children; seeking safety in the face of uncertainty; seeking safety from social disapproval; and experience and perception of safety. The social construction of children as vulnerable and normative beliefs about the roles of parents and clinicians were reflected in parents' and clinicians' beliefs and decision making when a child had an RTI. Consulting and prescribing antibiotics were both perceived as the safer course of action. Therefore perception of a threat or uncertainty about that threat tended to lead to parental consulting and clinician antibiotic prescribing. Clinician and parent experience could influence the perception of safety in either direction, depending on whether previous action had resulted in perceived increases or decreases in safety. Future interventions aimed at reducing unnecessary consulting or antibiotic prescribing need to consider how to make the desired action fit with social norms and feel safer for parents and clinicians. PMID:26004209

  19. A nationwide survey on the expectation of public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists in Malaysia—a qualitative analysis of 623 written comments

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Ismail, Mastura; Hamzah, Zuhra; A-Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan; Md-Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Ali, Norsiah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the expectation of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) who are working closely with family medicine specialists (FMSs) at public health clinics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting This study is part of a larger national study on the perception of the Malaysian public healthcare professionals on FMSs. Participants PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely hospitals, health clinics and health offices. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of written comments of respondents’ expectation of FMSs. Results The participants’ response rate was 58% (780/1345) with an almost equal proportion from each public healthcare facility. We identified 21 subthemes for the 623 expectation comments. The six emerging themes are (1) need for more FMSs, (2) clinical roles and functions of FMSs, (3) administrative roles of FMSs, (4) contribution to community and public health, (5) attributes improvement and (6) research and audits. FMSs were expected to give attention to clinical duty. Delivering this responsibility with competence included having the latest medical knowledge in their own and others’ medical disciplines, practising evidence-based medicine in prehospital and posthospital care, better supervision of staff and doctors under their care, fostering effective teamwork, communicating more often with hospital specialists and making appropriate referral. Expectations ranged from definite and strong for more FMSs at the health clinics to low expectation for FMSs’ involvement in research; to mal-expectation on FMSs’ involvement in community and public health programmes. Conclusions There were some remarkable differences in expectations on FMSs from the three different PHCPs. These ranged from being clinically competent and administratively available for patients and staff at the health clinics, to mal-expectations on FMSs to engage in public health affairs. Relevant parties, including FMSs themselves, could take appropriate self-improvement initiatives to enhance public practice of family medicine and patient care. Trial registration number NMRR ID: 08-12-1167. PMID:24919639

  20. The influence of friends and siblings on the physical activity and screen viewing behaviours of children aged 5–6?years: a qualitative analysis of parent interviews

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M J; Jago, R; Sebire, S J; Kesten, J M; Pool, L; Thompson, J L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study uses qualitative data to explore parental perceptions of how their young child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's friends and siblings. Design Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of year 1 children (age 5–6?years). Interviews considered parental views on a variety of issues related to their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours, including the influence that their child's friends and siblings have over such behaviours. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using deductive content analysis. Data were organised using a categorisation matrix developed by the research team. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Data were entered into and coded within N-Vivo. Setting Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in Bristol and the surrounding area that took part in the B-ProAct1v study. Participants Fifty-three parents of children aged 5–6?years. Results Parents believe that their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's siblings and friends. Friends are considered to have a greater influence over the structured physical activities a child asks to participate in, whereas the influence of siblings is more strongly perceived over informal and spontaneous physical activities. In terms of screen viewing, parents suggest that their child's friends can heavily influence the content their child wishes to consume, however, siblings have a more direct and tangible influence over what a child watches. Conclusions Friends and siblings influence young children's physical activity and screen viewing behaviours. Child-focused physical activity and screen viewing interventions should consider the important influence that siblings and friends have over these behaviours. PMID:25976759

  1. “Home is where the patient is”: a qualitative analysis of a patient-centred model of care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ambulatory, community-based care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been found to be effective in multiple settings with high cure rates. However, little is known about patient preferences around models of MDR-TB care. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has delivered home-based MDR-TB treatment in the rural Kitgum and Lamwo districts of northern Uganda since 2009 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the National TB and Leprosy Programme. We conducted a qualitative study examining the experience of patients and key stakeholders of home-based MDR-TB treatment. Methods We used semi-structured interviews and focus-group discussions to examine patients’ perceptions, views and experiences of home-based treatment and care for MDR-TB versus their perceptions of care in hospital. We identified how these perceptions interacted with those of their families and other stakeholders involved with TB. Participants were selected purposively following a stakeholder analysis. Sample size was determined by data saturation being reached within each identified homogenous category of respondents: health-care receiving, health-care providing and key informant. Iterative data collection and analysis enabled adaptation of topic guides and testing of emerging themes. The grounded theory method of analysis was applied, with data, codes and categories being continually compared and refined. Results Several key themes emerged: the perceived preference and acceptability of home-based treatment and care as a model of MDR-TB treatment by patients, family, community members and health-care workers; the fear of transmission of other infections within hospital settings; and the identification of MDR-TB developing through poor adherence to and inadequate treatment regimens for DS-TB. Conclusions Home-based treatment and care was acceptable to patients, families, communities and health-care workers and was seen as preferable to hospital-based care by most respondents. Home-based care was perceived as safe, conducive to recovery, facilitating psychosocial support and allowing more free time and earning potential for patients and caretakers. These findings could contribute to development of an adaptation of treatment approach strategy at national level. PMID:24559177

  2. Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

  3. Designing a multifaceted survivorship care plan to meet the information and communication needs of breast cancer patients and their family physicians: results of a qualitative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following the completion of treatment and as they enter the follow-up phase, breast cancer patients (BCPs) often recount feeling ‘lost in transition’, and are left with many questions concerning how their ongoing care and monitoring for recurrence will be managed. Family physicians (FPs) also frequently report feeling ill-equipped to provide follow-up care to BCPs. In this three-phase qualitative pilot study we designed, implemented and evaluated a multi-faceted survivorship care plan (SCP) to address the information needs of BCPs at our facility and of their FPs. Methods In Phase 1 focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 35 participants from three stakeholder groups (BCPs, FPs and oncology specialist health care providers (OHCPs)), to identify specific information needs. An SCP was then designed based on these findings, consisting of both web-based and paper-based tools (Phase 2). For Phase 3, both sets of tools were subsequently evaluated via focus groups and interviews with 26 participants. Interviews and focus groups were audio taped, transcribed and content analysed for emergent themes and patterns. Results In Phase 1 patients commented that web-based, paper-based and human resources components were desirable in any SCP. Patients did not focus exclusively on the post-treatment period, but instead spoke of evolving needs throughout their cancer journey. FPs indicated that any tools to support them must distill important information in a user-friendly format. In Phase 2, a pilot SCP was subsequently designed, consisting of both web-based and paper-based materials tailored specifically to the needs of BCPs as well as FPs. During Phase 3 (evaluation) BCPs indicated that the SCP was effective at addressing many of their needs, and offered suggestions for future improvements. Both patients and FPs found the pilot SCP to be an improvement from the previous standard of care. Patients perceived the quality of the BCP-FP relationship as integral to their comfort with FPs assuming follow-up responsibilities. Conclusions This pilot multi-component SCP shows promise in addressing the information needs of BCPs and the FPs who care for them. Next steps include refinement of the different SCP components, further evaluation (including usability testing), and planning for more extensive implementation. PMID:23883430

  4. What do you think overdiagnosis means? A qualitative analysis of responses from a national community survey of Australians

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Ray; Nickel, Brooke; Hersch, Jolyn; Doust, Jenny; Barratt, Alexandra; Beller, Elaine; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Objective Overdiagnosis occurs when someone is diagnosed with a disease that will not harm them. Against a backdrop of growing evidence and concern about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with certain screening activities, and recognition of the need to better inform the public about it, we aimed to ask what the Australian community understood overdiagnosis to mean. Design, setting and participants Content analysis of verbatim responses from a randomly sampled community telephone survey of 500 Australian adults, between January and February 2014. Data were analysed independently by two researchers. Main outcome measures Analysis of themes arising from community responses to open-ended questions about the meaning of overdiagnosis. Results The sample was broadly representative of the Australian population. Forty per cent of respondents thought overdiagnosis meant exaggerating a condition that was there, diagnosing something that was not there or too much diagnosis. Twenty-four per cent described overdiagnosis as overprescribing, overtesting or overtreatment. Only 3% considered overdiagnosis meant doctors gained financially. No respondents mentioned screening in conjunction with overdiagnosis, and over 10% of participants were unable to give an answer. Conclusions Around half the community surveyed had an approximate understanding of overdiagnosis, although no one identified it as a screening risk and a quarter equated it with overuse. Strategies to inform people about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with screening and diagnostic tests, in clinical and public health settings, could build on a nascent understanding of the nature of the problem. PMID:25991454

  5. Qualitative and morphometric analysis of the ultrastructure of human oocytes cryopreserved by two alternative slow cooling protocols

    PubMed Central

    Borini, Andrea; Distratis, Vincenzo; Maione, Marta; Scaravelli, Giulia; Bianchi, Veronica; Macchiarelli, Guido; Nottola, Stefania A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To ascertain possible cell damage from cryopreservation, the ultrastructure of human oocytes cryopreserved by slow cooling was assessed. Materials and methods Cryopreservation was performed through two protocols with one-step or two-step propanediol. Fresh control oocytes were examined for comparison. Samples were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results By light microscopy, both fresh and frozen-thawed oocytes appeared regularly rounded, with intact zona pellucida, and homogeneous cytoplasm. By electron microscopy observation, organelles were abundant and uniformly dispersed. Mitochondria-smooth endoplasmic reticulum associations appeared regular. However, both the amount and density of cortical granules appeared abnormally reduced in frozen-thawed samples. Slight to moderate vacuolization was also found in the ooplasm of oocytes of both frozen groups. Conclusions Slow cooling ensures a good overall preservation of human oocytes. However, cytoplasmic vacuolization and cortical granule loss appears associated with cryopreservation, irrespective of the protocol used. PMID:20177770

  6. Unrealistic optimism, fatalism, and risk-taking in New Zealand farmers' descriptions of quad-bike incidents: a directed qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Clay, Lynne; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Treharne, Gareth J; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on farms warranting health and safety attention. As part of a larger study, we carried out a face-to-face survey with 216 farmers in New Zealand. We quantitatively identified farmers' propensity for risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism as risk factors in quad-bike loss-of-control events (LCEs). The purpose of the analysis presented in this article was to use these same farmers' recollections of LCEs to explore the a priori constructs in more detail using qualitative methods. Participants reporting one or more LCEs described their first LCE and any experienced in the previous 12 months. Participants provided open-text responses about what occurred at each LCE, their reflections, and general thoughts on LCE risk factors. Directed qualitative content analysis (QCA) was used to "unpack" risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism whilst also delineating any additional concepts that farmers associate with LCEs. Risk-taking elements were more evident than unrealistic optimism or fatalism and more suggestive of farmers finding themselves in risky situations rather than engaging in risk-seeking behavior per se. Additional inductively derived categories of fatigue/stress, multitasking, inexperience, and quad-bike faults highlight the complex nature of LCEs and the importance of risk assessment covering these concepts as well as risky situations. PMID:25635739

  7. Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-03-20

    This work illustrates the potential of liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier Transform Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. The developed methodology consisted of automatic solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges, chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs, full-scan accurate mass data acquisition under positive electrospray ionization mode over an m/z range of 50-600Da at a resolution of 30,000 FWHM and simultaneous MS(n) measurements to obtain information of fragment ions generated in the linear ion trap. Accurate mass of the protonated molecule, together with at least one nominal mass product ion and retention time allowed the confident identification of the compounds detected in these complex matrices. In addition to the highly reliable qualitative analysis, Orbitrap analyzer also proved to have satisfactory potential for quantification at sub-ppb analyte levels, a possibility that has been very little explored in the literature until now. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 68ngL(-1) in influent sewage water, and from 2 to 35ngL(-1) in effluent, with the exception of MDA, morphine and THC that presented higher values as a consequence of the high ionization suppression in this type of samples. Satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and precision (<30%) for the overall procedure were obtained for all compounds with the exception of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine, methylphenidate and ketamine. Isotope-labelled internal standards were added to sewage samples as surrogates in order to correct for matrix effects and also for possible losses during sample treatment. The methodology developed was applied to sewage water samples from the Netherlands (influent and effluent), and the results were compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS with triple quadrupole. Several drugs of abuse could be identified and quantified, mainly MDMA, benzoylecgonine, codeine, oxazepam and temazepam. Orbitrap also showed potential for retrospective investigation of ketamine metabolites in the samples without the need of additional analysis. PMID:23473256

  8. Analysis of SAGE Results with Combined Learning Techniques

    E-print Network

    Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

    Analysis of SAGE Results with Combined Learning Techniques Hsuan-Tien Lin and Ling Li Learning. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) experiments could provide us the expression level of thousands, and evaluate the performance of the combined techniques on the SAGE dataset. Our results show that a novel

  9. Pulsed thermographic inspection of CFRP structures: experimental results and image analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakeas, P.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Koui, M.; Maldague, X.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, three different CFRP specimens with internal artificial delaminations of various sizes and located at different depths were investigated by means of Pulsed Thermography (PT) under laboratory conditions. The three CFRP panels, having the same thickness and defects characteristics but with a different shape (planar, trapezoid and curved), were assessed after applying various signal processing tools on the acquired thermal data (i.e. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction, Pulsed Phase Thermography and Principal Component Thermography). The effectiveness of the above processing tools was initially evaluated in a qualitative manner, comparing the imaging outputs and the information retrieval in terms of defect detectability enhancement and noise reduction. Simultaneously, the produced defect detectability was evaluated through Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) computations, quantifying the image quality and the intensity contrast produced between the defected area and the adjacent background area of the test panel. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the implementation of PT along with the application of advanced signal processing algorithms can be a useful technique for NDT assessment, providing enhanced qualitative information. Nevertheless, SNR analysis showed that despite the enhanced visibility resulting from these algorithms, these can be properly applied in order to retrieve the best possible information according to the user's demands.

  10. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of T2-weighted MRI scans in chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Simone; Koziol, James A.

    1998-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), and for objective assessment of the extent of disease as a marker of treatment efficacy in MS clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to compare the evaluation of T2-weighted MRI scans in MS patients using a semi-automated quantitative technique with an independent assessment by a neurologist. Baseline, 6- month, and 12-month T2-weighted MRI scans from 41 chronic progressive MS patients were examined. The lesion volume ranged from 0.50 to 51.56 cm2 (mean: 8.08 cm2). Reproducibility of the quantitative technique was assessed by the re-evaluation of a random subset of 20 scans, the coefficient of variation of the replicate determinations was 8.2%. The reproducibility of the neurologist evaluations was assessed by the re-evaluation of a random subset of 10 patients. The rank correlation between the results of the two methods was 0.097, which did not significantly differ from zero. Disease-related activity in T2-weighted MRI scans is a multi-dimensional construct, and is not adequately summarized solely by determination of lesion volume. In this setting, image analysis software should not only support storage and retrieval as sets of pixels, but should also support links to an anatomical dictionary.

  11. A Qualitative Physics Confluences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan De Kleer; John Seely Brown

    A qualitative physics predicts and explains the behavior of mechanisms in qualitative terms. The goals for the qualitative physics are (1) to be far simpler than the classical physics and yet retain all the important distinctions (e.g., state, oscillation, gain, momentum) without invoking the mathematics of continuously varying quantities and differential equations, (2) to produce causal accounts of physical mechanisms

  12. Primary and Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remesal, Ana

    2011-01-01

    A particular framework of teachers' conceptions about assessment in school is presented. Fifty teachers of primary and secondary school were interviewed. Results of a qualitative analysis allowed building a model of conceptions of assessment. This model comprises four dimensions about the effects of assessment on: teaching, learning,…

  13. Retrospective qualitative analysis of ecological networks under environmental perturbation: a copper-polluted intertidal community as a case study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Garay-Narváez, Leslie; Medina, Matías H

    2012-01-01

    The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped into trophic groups) belonging to the Chañaral intertidal community that, being directly affected by copper pollution, contributed primarily to the generation of the observed changes in community structure. These groups of species were called initiators. We applied a qualitative modelling approach based only on the sign and direction of effects among species, and present a formula for predicting changes in equilibrium abundances considering stress on multiple variables simultaneously. We then applied this technique retrospectively to identify the most likely set of initiators. Our analyses allowed identification of a unique set of four initiators in the studied intertidal system (a group of algae, sessile invertebrates, a group of herbivores and starfish), which were hypothesized to be the primary drivers of the observed changes in community structure. In addition, a hypothesis was derived about how the perturbation affected these initiators. The hypothesis is that pollution affected negatively the population growth rate of both algae and sessile invertebrates and suppressed the interaction between herbivores and starfish. Our analytic approach, focused on identifying initiators, constitutes an advance towards understanding the mechanisms underlying human-driven ecosystem disruption and permits identifying species that may serve as a focal point for community management and restoration. PMID:21877226

  14. A quantitative analysis of the effects of qualitatively different reinforcers on fixed ratio responding in inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of inbred mouse strains have shown reinforcer-strain interactions that may potentially mask differences among strains in memory performance. The present research examined the effects of two qualitatively different reinforcers (heterogeneous mix of flavored pellets and sweetened-condensed milk) on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement in three inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, & DBA/2). Responses rates for all strains were a bitonic (inverted U) function of the size of the fixed-ratio schedule and were generally higher when responding was maintained by milk. For the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 and to a lesser extent the BALB/c, milk primarily increased response rates at moderate fixed ratios, but not at the largest fixed ratios tested. A formal model of ratio-schedule performance, Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR), was applied to the response rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, the differences in response rates maintained by pellets and milk were mostly due to changes in motoric processes as indicated by changes in the minimum response time (?) produced by each reinforcer type and not specific activation (a), a model term that represents value and is correlated with reinforcer magnitude and the break point obtained under progressive ratio schedules. In addition, MPR also revealed that, although affected by reinforcer type, a parameter interpreted as the rate of saturation of working memory (?), differed among the strains. PMID:23357283

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Round-Table Discussions on the Business Case and Procurement Challenges for Hospital Electronic Prescribing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin M.; Slee, Ann; Coleman, Jamie; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W.; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is a pressing need to understand the challenges surrounding procurement of and business case development for hospital electronic prescribing systems, and to identify possible strategies to enhance the efficiency of these processes in order to assist strategic decision making. Materials and Methods We organized eight multi-disciplinary round-table discussions in the United Kingdom. Participants included policy makers, representatives from hospitals, system developers, academics, and patients. Each discussion was digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and, together with accompanying field notes, analyzed thematically with NVivo9. Results We drew on data from 17 participants (approximately eight per roundtable), six hours of discussion, and 15 pages of field notes. Key challenges included silo planning with systems not being considered as part of an integrated organizational information technology strategy, lack of opportunity for interactions between customers and potential suppliers, lack of support for hospitals in choosing appropriate systems, difficulty of balancing structured planning with flexibility, and the on-going challenge of distinguishing “wants” and aspirations from organizational “needs”. Discussion and conclusions Development of business cases for major investments in information technology does not take place in an organizational vacuum. Building on previously identified potentially transferable dimensions to the development and execution of business cases surrounding measurements of costs/benefits and risk management, we have identified additional components relevant to ePrescribing systems. These include: considerations surrounding strategic context, case for change and objectives, future service requirements and options appraisal, capital and revenue implications, timescale and deliverability, and risk analysis and management. PMID:24260213

  16. Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women, BRCA testing was motivated by risk management decisions; for some, BRCA status has affected their later decisions about having children. The perceived severity of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) influences thoughts about passing on the mutation to children and willingness to consider reproductive genetic testing, but most participants do not believe HBOC is a condition for which pregnancy termination is justified. PGD is considered more acceptable and advantageous because it would prevent transmission to future generations, but women have concerns about selecting embryos and the fact that they and affected family members would not have been selected. Women would also be deterred by the need to undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and ovarian stimulation for PGD. Awareness of reproductive testing options was very variable among the cohort. The findings highlight the complexities of reproductive decision making for young women who knowingly carry a BRCA mutation, and the dilemmas inherent to reproductive genetic testing when the condition being tested for also affects a prospective parent. Counselling and psychological support for BRCA-positive women and couples concerning reproductive options are strongly indicated. PMID:21811309

  17. TEST RESULT ANALYSIS WITH RESPECT TO FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS

    E-print Network

    von Bochmann, Gregor

    TEST RESULT ANALYSIS WITH RESPECT TO FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS Gregor v. BOCHMANN and Omar B. BELLAL Université de Montréal Montréal, Canada Abstract: There are two aspects to testing: (1) the selection of appropriate test inputs and (2) the analysis of the observed interactions of the implementation under test

  18. Current Results from a Rover Science Data Analysis System

    E-print Network

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    1 Current Results from a Rover Science Data Analysis System Rebecca Castano, Michele Judd, Tara by a planetary rover. This analysis is used to prioritize the data for transmission, so that the data to identify science opportunities. A planning and scheduling component of the system enables the rover to take

  19. Qualitative visual environment retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara; Prabhudesai, Amit B; Chaudhuri, Subhasis

    2006-12-01

    A system for retrieval of an unstructured environment under static and dynamic scenarios is proposed. The use of cylindrical mosaics or omnidirectional images is exploited for providing a rich description about the surrounding environment spanning 360 degrees. The environment description is based on defining the attributes of the nodes of a graph derived from the angular partitions of the captured images. Content-based image retrieval for each of these partitions is performed on an exemplar image database to annotate the nodes of the graph. The complete environment description is recovered by collating the retrieval results over all the partitions based on a simple voting scheme. This offers a qualitative description of the location in a totally natural and unstructured surrounding. The experiments yield quite promising results. PMID:17186813

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors in counterfeit medicines and dietary supplements by HPLC-UV using sildenafil as a sole reference.

    PubMed

    Fej?s, Ida; Neumajer, Gábor; Béni, Szabolcs; Jankovics, Péter

    2014-09-01

    Due to their popularity, medicinal products containing the phophodiesterase type 5 enzyme (PDE-5) inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil are often subject to counterfeiting. In addition, illicit herbal dietary supplements adulterated with these substances or their analogs have appeared on the market offering an easy and anonymous sale. This paper describes an analytical method for qualitative and quantitative screening of sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil and 11 of their designer analogs in illegal erectile dysfunction products by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Sildenafil served as a single external standard for both identification and quantification of all analytes. Relative retentions and reference UV spectra were used for qualitative, and correction factors for quantitative analyses, respectively. The separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 reverse-phased column at 25°C using gradient elution. Mobile phase A consisted of 200mM ammonium acetate solution while mobile phase B was a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of methanol and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 0.5ml/min and injection volume of 5?l. Detection wavelength was set to 290nm. The method was validated in accordance with the appropriate guideline of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) in terms of specificity, selectivity, precision, linearity, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, accuracy, robustness and stability, and was successfully applied to the analysis of natural dietary supplements and herbal remedies with an indication for enhanced male sexual potency. The proposed method offers a cheap and simple alternative to LC-MS screening used by control laboratories for routine analysis of suspicious products. PMID:24996004

  1. Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images: initial results for liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnaz, Alexander S.; Snider, James; Chibuzor, Eneh; Esposito, Giuseppe; Wilson, Emmanuel; Yaniv, Ziv; Cohen, Emil; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images is increasingly being proposed for monitoring patient response during chemotherapy trials. An integrated MATLAB GUI has been developed for an oncology trial at Georgetown University Hospital. This GUI allows for the calculation and visualization of the volume of a lesion. The GUI provides an estimate of the volume of the tumor using a semi-automatic segmentation technique. This software package features a fixed parameter adaptive filter from the ITK toolkit and a tumor segmentation algorithm to reduce inter-user variability and to facilitate rapid volume measurements. The system also displays a 3D rendering of the segmented tumor, allowing the end user to have not only a quantitative measure of the tumor volume, but a qualitative view as well. As an initial validation test, several clinical cases were hand-segmented, and then compared against the results from the tool, showing good agreement.

  2. Baryon spin-flavor structure from an analysis of lattice QCD results of the baryon spectrum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fernando, I. P. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Goity, J. L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The excited baryon masses are analyzed in the framework of the 1/Nc expansion using the available physical masses and also the masses obtained in lattice QCD for different quark masses. The baryon states are organized into irreducible representations of SU(6) x O(3), where the [56,l^P=0^+] ground state and excited baryons, and the [56,2^+] and [70}},1^-] excited states are analyzed. The analyses are carried out to order 1/Nc} and first order in the quark masses. The issue of state identifications is discussed. Numerous parameter independent mass relations result at those orders, among them the well known Gell-Mann-Okubo and Equal Spacing relations, as well as additional relations involving baryons with different spins. It is observed that such relations are satisfied at the expected level of precision. The main conclusion of the analysis is that qualitatively the dominant physical effects are similar for the physical and the lattice QCD baryons.

  3. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  4. Implementation of a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety in a community health center: results from a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Eghaneyan, Brittany H; Sanchez, Katherine; Mitschke, Diane B

    2014-01-01

    Background The collaborative care model is a systematic approach to the treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care settings that involves the integration of care managers and consultant psychiatrists, with primary care physician oversight, to more proactively manage mental disorders as chronic diseases, rather than treating acute symptoms. While collaborative care has been shown to be more effective than usual primary care in improving depression outcomes in a number of studies, less is known about the factors that support the translation of this evidence-based intervention to real-world program implementation. The purpose of this case study was to examine the implementation of a collaborative care model in a community based primary care clinic that primarily serves a low-income, uninsured Latino population, in order to better understand the interdisciplinary relationships and the specific elements that might facilitate broader implementation. Methods An embedded single-case study design was chosen in order to thoroughly examine the components of one of several programs within a single organization. The main unit of analysis was semi-structured interviews that were conducted with seven clinical and administrative staff members. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the interviews. Line-by-line initial coding resulted in over 150 initial codes, which were clustered together to rebuild the data into preliminary categories and then divided into four final categories, or main themes. Results Four unique themes about how the implementation of a collaborative care model worked in this setting emerged from the interviews: organizational change, communication, processes and outcomes of the program, and barriers to implementation. Each main theme had a number of subthemes that provided a detailed description of the implementation process and how it was unique in this setting. Conclusion The results indicated that adequate training and preparation, acceptance and support from key personnel, communication barriers, tools for systematic follow-up and measurement, and organizational stability can significantly impact successful implementation. Further research is necessary to understand how organizational challenges may affect outcomes for patients. PMID:25395860

  5. The latest results/analysis from Double Chooz Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Precise measurement of the neutrino mixing angle theta13 is the primary goal of the Double Chooz Experiment. Inverse beta decay process provides a unique signature of anti-neutrino interaction from the reactors, giving prompt signals from positron annihilation and delayed signals from neutron capture by either Gadolinium (Gd) or Hydrogen (H). In this talk, the latest Gd- and H-based analysis results from Double Chooz will be presented, including the detection efficiency evaluation, background estimates, energy calibration and oscillation results. The latest analysis/results from Double Chooz experiment.

  6. Qualitative fusion technique based on information poor system and its application to factor analysis for vibration of rolling bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xintao; Wang, Zhongyu

    2008-10-01

    For some methods of stability analysis of a system using statistics, it is difficult to resolve the problems of unknown probability distribution and small sample. Therefore, a novel method is proposed in this paper to resolve these problems. This method is independent of probability distribution, and is useful for small sample systems. After rearrangement of the original data series, the order difference and two polynomial membership functions are introduced to estimate the true value, the lower bound and the supper bound of the system using fuzzy-set theory. Then empirical distribution function is investigated to ensure confidence level above 95%, and the degree of similarity is presented to evaluate stability of the system. Cases of computer simulation investigate stable systems with various probability distribution, unstable systems with linear systematic errors and periodic systematic errors and some mixed systems. The method of analysis for systematic stability is approved.

  7. "Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y

    1994-01-01

    Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing. PMID:8038622

  8. Qualitative Evaluation Audits in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jennifer C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Field experiences with external (qualitative) evaluation audits based on the work of E. G. Guba and Y. S. Lincoln (1981, 1985) are detailed, including evaluation contexts and purposes, procedures, and findings. Such audits represent a viable meta-evaluative tool for assessing the quality of naturalistic evaluation results. (SLD)

  9. Quality in Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive Seale

    1999-01-01

    A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

  10. Explanation and Qualitative Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Bouwer; Bert Bredeweg

    1999-01-01

    Qualitative Reasoning is often seen as a powerful basis for generating explanations, because the behaviour of interest is explicitly modelled in terms of relevant com- ponents, processes, causality relations, quantity spaces, assumptions, states and transitions, while neglecting unnecessary details like quantitative values. However, the link between qualitative reasoning and explanation is often seen as a direct one-to-one mapping, whereas studies

  11. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  12. ToF-SIMS as an alternative tool for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polar herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botreau, Marc; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Migeon, Henri-Noël

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is evaluated as a direct method for quantitative analysis of glyphosate (GLY) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). In contrast to other pesticides, glyphosate and 2,4,5-T are highly polar and water-soluble; therefore they are not easily detected with classical procedures. Quantifications of the two pesticides based on ToF-SIMS spectra from standard solutions deposited on gold and aluminium are researched. Only negative secondary ion fingerprints of the two pesticides should be used for quantification. Limits of detection and limits of quantification of both pesticides largely depend on chemical background and contamination level. Special attention was given to molecular mass peak fingerprints and main fragments evolution in order to detect a potential cross contamination or mass peak interferences.

  13. Human rights and universal access for men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs: a qualitative analysis of the 2010 UNGASS narrative country progress reports.

    PubMed

    Persson, Asha; Ellard, Jeanne; Newman, Christy; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John

    2011-08-01

    All UN member states have endorsed a commitment to protect human rights in the global fight against HIV and to ensure universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. To assess progress towards fulfilling this commitment, countries submit reports to UNAIDS biennially, known as UNGASS reports. Our quantitative analyses show that core indicators relating to most-at-risk populations, particularly men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID) are limited or absent from many UNGASS reports, particularly those submitted by countries in developing regions. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of the narrative part of the 2010 UNGASS country progress reports, an important yet under-explored part of the reporting process, to consider how signatory countries in developing regions address the issue of MSM and PWID in a written form. Our analysis identified a repertoire of narrative approaches to MSM and PWID which revealed fault lines between countries' endorsement of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS and programmatic responses to MSM and PWID. Our findings raise questions about the relationship between "universal" human rights and "local" cultures, and about the UNGASS reporting process itself. Through critical engagement with these questions, our article aims to contribute to international dialogues on how to better recognise and respond to shortcomings in the global commitment to human rights and universal access for people vulnerable to HIV. PMID:21764488

  14. Enhanced Trace-Fiber Color Discrimination by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Quantitative and Qualitative Tool for the Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Sub-millimeter Nylon Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2002-09-26

    The application of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to trace-fiber color analysis is explored using acidic dyes commonly employed to color nylon-based fibers, as well as extracts from dyed nylon fibers. Qualitative information about constituent dyes and quantitative information about the relative amounts of those dyes present on a single fiber become readily available using this technique. Sample requirements for establishing the color-identity of different samples (i.e., comparative trace-fiber analysis) are shown to be sub-millimeter. Absolute verification of dye-mixture identity (beyond the comparison of molecular weights derived from ESI-MS) can be obtained by expanding the technique to include tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). For dyes of unknown origin, the ESI-MS/MS analyses may offer insights into the chemical structure of the compound--information not available from chromatographic techniques alone. This research demonstrates that ESI-MS is viable as a sensitive technique for distinguishing dye constituents extracted from a minute amount of trace fiber evidence. A protocol is suggested to establish/refute the proposition that two fibers--one of which is available in minute quantity only--are of the same origin.

  15. Correlative Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, Light Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and X-ray Microanalysis for Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Colloidal Gold Spheres in Biological Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyer, Julián F.; Albrecht, Ralph M.

    1998-10-01

    : Colloidal gold, conjugated to ligands or antibodies, is routinely used as a label for the detection of cell structures by light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). To date, several methods to count the number of colloidal gold labels have been employed with limited success. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a physical method for the analysis of the elemental composition of materials, can be used to provide a quantitative index of gold accumulation in bulk specimens. Given that gold is not naturally found in biological specimens in any substantial amount and that colloidal gold and ligand conjugates can be prepared to yield uniform bead sizes, the amount of label can be calculated in bulk biological samples by INAA. Here we describe the use of INAA, LM, transmission EM, and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in a model to determine both distribution (localization) and amount of colloidal gold at the organ, tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels in whole animal systems following administration. In addition, the sensitivity for gold in biological specimens by INAA is compared with that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The correlative use of INAA, LM, TEM, and EDX can be useful, for example, in the quantitative and qualitative tracking of various labeled molecular species following administration in vivo.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) expression in bovine somatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Oscar A; Eyestone, Willard H

    2009-01-01

    The host encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is an N-linked glycoprotein tethered to the cell membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Under certain conditions, PrP(C) can undergo conversion into a conformationally-altered isoform (PrP(Sc)) widely believed to be the pathogenic agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Understanding the tissue-specific expression of PrP(C) is crucial considering that cells expressing high levels of PrP(C) bear a risk for conversion and accumulation of PrP(Sc). In the present study, fifteen bovine somatic tissues were analyzed for PrP(C) expression by quantitative western blot and immunohistochemistry. Quantitative western blot analysis revealed highest expression of PrP(C) in cerebellum, obex and spinal cord. Intermediate levels were detected in thymus, intestine, nerve, heart and spleen, and lower levels in lung, muscle, kidney, lymph node, skin, pancreas and liver. Immunohistochemical analysis detected intense cellular-specific PrP(C) staining in neurons, thymocytes and lymphocytes. PrP(C) was also detected in the enteric wall, pancreatic islets of langerhans, myocardium, pulmonary alveolar sacs, renal glomeruli and dermal epithelial cells. This study demonstrated the quantitatively varied, wide-spread, tissue- and cell-specific expression pattern of PrP(C) in bovine somatic tissues. The importance of this study is to lay the foundation for understanding the tissue-specific expression of PrP(C) and to consider the potential participation of more bovine tissues in the transmission of BSE infection. PMID:19806026

  17. How a Qualitative Approach to Concept Map Analysis Can Be Used To Aid Learning by Illustrating Patterns of Conceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.; Hay, David B.; Adams, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Classification of concept maps made in British science classes resulted in three patterns that indicate students' progressive levels of understanding. The classification method analyzes hierarchy, processes, complexity, conceptual development, and representation. It suggests teaching approaches based on students' existing concept structures. (SK)

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. PMID:25244512

  19. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it. PMID:25851124

  20. Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta M. Cysneiros; Danuza Ferrari; Ricardo M. Arida; Vera C. Terra; Antonio-Carlos G. de Almeida; Esper A. Cavalheiro; Fulvio A. Scorza

    2010-01-01

    Studies have provided evidence of the important effects of omega-3 fatty acid on the brain in neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Previous data have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids lead to prevention of status epilepticus-associated neuropathological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats with epilepsy. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has resulted in extensive preservation of GABAergic cells in animals with epilepsy.

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of the Effects of Depression and Antidepressants on Physical and Work Functioning among ART Clients in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Victoria K.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Huynh, Alexis; Ryan, Gery; Musisi, Seggane

    2013-01-01

    Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, little is known about how depression influences physical health and socioeconomic well-being in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Semi-structured interviews with 40 adult HIV clients receiving ART in Uganda were conducted to assess experiences prior to and after HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART. Content analysis revealed themes that were suggestive of the following patterns: 1) functioning decreased after patients were diagnosed with HIV, but improved following ART, 2) depression is associated with lower physical health functioning and work status levels after both HIV diagnosis and ART, and 3) antidepressant medication is associated with better functioning compared to depressed patients not receiving depression treatment. These findings suggest that depression plays a role in the deleterious effects of HIV on functioning, and that antidepressant treatment provided alongside ART may serve to help individuals regain functioning, particularly employment. These findings highlight the potential value of integrating depression treatment into HIV care. PMID:23442495

  2. Causes of unnatural deaths among children and adolescents in northern India - a qualitative analysis of postmortem data.

    PubMed

    Debata, Pradeep K; Deswal, Shivani; Kumath, Manish

    2014-08-01

    Aim of the study was to ascertain the various causes of unnatural deaths among 1-19 years analysing the postmortem data in a regional referral centre of northern India. A retrospective observational study from the data base was done for the same. All unnatural deaths in children aged 1-19 years from April 2010 to March 2011 were identified from the postmortem database. The children were classified into 3 groups-1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-19 years separately for males and females. The various modes of unnatural deaths were identified and analysed. Retrospective analysis of Postmortem data during one year revealed total of 434 unnatural deaths in children aged 1-19 years. The most vulnerable age group included children between 11-19 years (74.5%). Females (51.6%) marginaly outnumbered the males (48.4%). Flame Burns (58.3%) was the commonest cause of death in all age followed by road traffic accidents 15%, electrocution 7.8% & Poisoning accounted for 6%. The most frequent victims were adolescents (74%) almost 3 times that of other age group. This study showed Adolescents were the most common victims of the unnatural death with flame burn being the most common cause followed by RTA, electrocution and poisoning. PMID:25066174

  3. Dermatoglyphic analysis in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia--results of a Croatian study.

    PubMed

    Jelovac, N; Milici?, J; Milas, M; Dodig, G; Turek, S; Ugrenovi?, Z

    1998-06-01

    Dermatoglyphic features of 52 male patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were compared with those of 200 male controls (control group-CG) and 195 males with schizophrenia (SCH). Quantitative analysis showed statistically significant differences between BPD-CG and between BPD-SCH, mainly regarding the palmar traits, but also the 5th, the 4th and the 1st finger of the right hand as well as the 5th and the 4th finger of the left hand between BPD and SCH patients. The canonical discriminant analysis permitted correct classification with 69.84% probability between the BPD and CG and with 76.11% probability between the BPD and the SCH group. Qualitative finger and palmar traits analysis showed differences between the BPD and SCH groups on the 3rd finger of the left hand, total frequency for all fingers and in the III interdigital space. Significant differences between the BPD and CG were found on the 3rd finger of the left hand. Our results show that the dermatoglyphic features of BPD differ from those of schizophrenia and from those of control subjects. The possible significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:10097430

  4. plantDARIO: web based quantitative and qualitative analysis of small RNA-seq data in plants

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Deblina; Fasold, Mario; Langenberger, David; Steger, Gerhard; Grosse, Ivo; Stadler, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing techniques have made it possible to assay an organism's entire repertoire of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The moderate size of small RNA-seq datasets makes it feasible to provide free web services to the research community that provide many basic features of a small RNA-seq analysis, including quality control, read normalization, ncRNA quantification, and the prediction of putative novel ncRNAs. DARIO is one such system that so far has been focussed on animals. Here we introduce an extension of this system to plant short non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). It includes major modifications to cope with plant-specific sncRNA processing. The current version of plantDARIO covers analyses of mapping files, small RNA-seq quality control, expression analyses of annotated sncRNAs, including the prediction of novel miRNAs and snoRNAs from unknown expressed loci and expression analyses of user-defined loci. At present Arabidopsis thaliana, Beta vulgaris, and Solanum lycopersicum are covered. The web tool links to a plant specific visualization browser to display the read distribution of the analyzed sample. The easy-to-use platform of plantDARIO quantifies RNA expression of annotated sncRNAs from different sncRNA databases together with new sncRNAs, annotated by our group. The plantDARIO website can be accessed at http://plantdario.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/. PMID:25566282

  5. Dimensional analysis of impulse loading resulting from detonation

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    . Design/methodology/approach ­ In the present work, a critical assessment is carried out of some for the problem of impulse loading experienced by target structures (e.g. vehicle hull) due to detonation products takes place). Once the dimensional analysis is reformulated, a variety of experimental results

  6. Effects of hip joint centre mislocation on gait analysis results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Stagni; Alberto Leardini; Aurelio Cappozzo; Maria Grazia Benedetti; Angelo Cappello

    2000-01-01

    Methods to determine the hip joint centre (HJC) location are necessary in gait analysis. It has been demonstrated that the methods proposed in the literature involve large mislocation errors. The choice should be made according to the extent by which HJC location errors distort the estimates of angles and resultant moments at the hip and knee joints. This study aimed

  7. Using a source–receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Badol; Nadine Locoge; Thierry Léonardis; Jean-Claude Galloo

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of this two part study was (1) to conduct VOC measurements in order to further understand VOC behaviour in an urban area influenced by industrial emissions and (2) to evaluate the role of these specific sources relative to urban sources. In this first paper a thorough descriptive and qualitative analysis is performed. A second article will be

  8. Qualitative Analysis for a New Integrable Two-Component Camassa-Holm System with Peakon and Weak Kink Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kai; Qiao, Zhijun; Yin, Zhaoyang

    2015-06-01

    This paper is devoted to a new integrable two-component Camassa-Holm system with peaked solitons (peakons) and weak-kink solutions. It is the first integrable system that admits weak kink and kink-peakon interactional solutions. In addition, the new system includes both standard (quadratic) and cubic Camassa-Holm equations as two special cases. In the paper, we first establish the local well-posedness for the Cauchy problem of the system, and then derive a precise blow-up scenario and a new blow-up result for strong solutions to the system with both quadratic and cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, its peakon and weak kink solutions are discussed as well.

  9. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  10. Food intake and energy protein adequacy of children from an urban slum in mysore, India - a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulsum, A; Lakshmi, J A; Prakash, J

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the investigation was to analyse energy protein adequacy of the diets of Indian children residing in an urban slum. The subjects numbering 271 between the ages of 4-14 years resided in a slum in Mysore city in South India. Nutritional status of children and mothers were determined by standard procedures. Background information was obtained using questionnaire method. Dietary intake data was collected using the 24-hour recall method and analysed for adequacy of food intake, energy protein ratio of diet, sources of protein in diet and associated factors. Results indicate that intake of cereals and pulses is inadequate in younger children but improves with age. Intake of other vegetables is higher than the recommended levels, but that of green leafy vegetables is extremely low. Consumption of fats, oils and milk is very low while protein is derived from plant sources for the majority of the children. Only 22% of children enjoyed a diet adequate in protein and calories. Protein calorie adequacy is influenced by age and gender of children and significantly by literacy or economic status of mothers. Mother's nutritional status influenced protein energy adequacy of diets significantly. Thus, intervention efforts should not only aim at improving the socio-economic conditions of slum dwellers in general, but should also address nutritional needs of mothers and children. PMID:22691773

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Dibenzofuran, Alkyldibenzofurans, and Benzo[b]naphthofurans in crude oils and source rock extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meijun Li; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzofuran (DBF), its alkylated homologues, and benzo[b]naphthofurans (BNFs) are common oxygen-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. A series of positional isomers of alkyldibenzofuran and benzo[b]naphthofuran were identified in mass chromatograms by comparison with internal standards and standard retention indices. The response factors of dibenzofuran in relation to internal standards were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of a set of mixed solutions with different concentration ratios. Perdeuterated dibenzofuran and dibenzothiophene are optimal internal standards for quantitative analyses of furan compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. The average concentration of the total DBFs in oils derived from siliciclastic lacustrine rock extracts from the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea, was 518 ?g/g, which is about 5 times that observed in the oils from carbonate source rocks in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China. The BNFs occur ubiquitously in source rock extracts and related oils of various origins. The results of this work suggest that the relative abundance of benzo[b]naphthofuran isomers, that is, the benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]furan} ratio, may be a potential molecular geochemical parameter to indicate oil migration pathways and distances.

  12. A Novel Large-scale Mentoring Program for Medical Students based on a Quantitative and Qualitative Needs Analysis

    PubMed Central

    von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Störmann, Sylvère; Meinel, Felix G.; Moder, Stefan; Reincke, Martin; Tekian, Ara; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mentoring plays an important role in students' performance and career. The authors of this study assessed the need for mentoring among medical students and established a novel large-scale mentoring program at Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich School of Medicine. Methods: Needs assessment was conducted using a survey distributed to all students at the medical school (n=578 of 4,109 students, return rate 14.1%). In addition, the authors held focus groups with selected medical students (n=24) and faculty physicians (n=22). All students signing up for the individual mentoring completed a survey addressing their expectations (n=534). Results: Needs assessment revealed that 83% of medical students expressed overall satisfaction with the teaching at LMU. In contrast, only 36.5% were satisfied with how the faculty supports their individual professional development and 86% of students voiced a desire for more personal and professional support. When asked to define the role of a mentor, 55.6% "very much" wanted their mentors to act as counselors, arrange contacts for them (36.4%), and provide ideas for professional development (28.1%). Topics that future mentees "very much" wished to discuss included research (56.6%), final year electives (55.8%) and experiences abroad (45.5%). Conclusions: Based on the strong desire for mentoring among medical students, the authors developed a novel two-tiered system that introduces one-to-one mentoring for students in their clinical years and offers society-based peer mentoring for pre-clinical students. One year after launching the program, more than 300 clinical students had experienced one-to-one mentoring and 1,503 students and physicians were involved in peer mentoring societies. PMID:21818236

  13. Meta-Analysis: Drawing Conclusions When Study Results Vary

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Leslie; Schisterman, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Summary Low-dose aspirin has been suggested to positively impact a number of clinical outcomes associated with oxidative stress; however, results of clinical trials surrounding its effect on a woman’s ability to achieve and sustain pregnancy have been inconclusive. A meta-analysis is an advantageous tool in this situation. Meta-analyses allow researchers to formally and systematically pool together all relevant research in order to clarify findings and form conclusions based on all currently available information. The purpose of this chapter is to describe how to perform a meta-analysis, clarify the impact of model selection, and provide examples of implementation. PMID:20072935

  14. How you screen is as important as whether you screen: a qualitative analysis of violence screening practices in reproductive health clinics.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Daesha V; Covarrubias, Laura; Watson, Catherine; Decker, Michele R

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent and young adult women are disproportionately burdened by violence at the hands of dating and intimate partners. Evidence supports routine screening in clinical settings for detection and intervention. Although screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health care settings is widely endorsed, little is known about screening practices. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with healthcare providers (n = 14) in several urban reproductive health clinics in Baltimore City, Maryland to understand screening practices, including related barriers and motivations. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Findings demonstrated substantial variation in screening practices as well as related referral and follow-up, despite the existence of a screening tool. Factors that appeared to undermine consistent and successful screening implementation included lack of a common goal for screening, lack of clarity in staff roles, a gap in on-site support services, as well as lack of time and confidence. Findings affirm the value of applying a systems model to intimate partner violence (IPV) screening programs. This research advances the understanding of the implementation challenges for violence-related screening for high-risk populations such as adolescents and young adults in reproductive health care settings and is particularly relevant given the recent endorsement by the DHHS to cover IPV screening under the Affordable Care Act. PMID:23645349

  15. Product Design Schemes Evaluation Method with Qualitative Weight Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Yingping

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate product design schemes with qualitative information on indices weights, we introduce data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analyze its disadvantages in processing qualitative weight information, and then propose a modified DEA model. In the method, first, evaluation indices are normalized. Secondly, based on the normalized indices and qualitative weight information, we present a DEA model with outputs only and

  16. How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of a group of volatile organic compounds in biological samples by HS-GC/FID: application in practical cases.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C; Franco, J M; Proença, P; Castañera, A; Claro, A; Vieira, D N; Corte-Real, F

    2014-10-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure, using n-propanol as internal standard (IS), was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a group of 11 volatile organic substances with different physicochemical properties (1-butanol, 2-propanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile, chloroform, diethyl ether, methanol, toluene and p-xylene) in whole blood, urine and vitreous humor. Samples were prepared by dilution with an aqueous solution of internal standard followed by Headspace Gas Chromatography with a Flame-ionization Detector (HS GC-FID) analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed using two capillary columns with different polarities (DB-ALC2: 30m×0.320mm×1.2?m and DB-ALC1: 30m×0.320mm×1.8?m), thus providing a change in the retention and elution order of volatiles. This dual column confirmation increases the specificity, since the risk of another substance co-eluting at the same time in both columns is very small. The method was linear from 5 to 1000mg/L for toluene and p-xylene, 50-1000mg/L for chloroform, and 50-2000mg/L for the remaining substances, with correlation coefficients of over 0.99 for all compounds. The limits of detection (LOD) ranged 1 to 10mg/L, while the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 2 to 31mg/L. The intra-day precision (CV<6.4%), intermediate precision (CV<7.0%) and accuracy (relative error ±10%) of the method were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. The method developed has been applied to forensic cases, with the advantages that it uses a small sample volume and does not require any extraction procedure as it makes use of a headspace injection technique. PMID:25124884

  18. Getting to the Heart of Being the Match: A Qualitative Analysis of Bone Marrow Donor Recruitment and Retention Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Jeon, Kwon Chan; Rosen, Brittany

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For those with certain blood or bone cancers, bone marrow donation can mean the difference between life and death. The National Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP) operates the largest bone marrow registry of potential donors; however, at times when potential matches are identified, many donors opt not to donate. The purpose of this study was to describe perspectives from college-aged students on recruitment to a bone marrow donation registry and retention to the registry/follow-through with the donation process. Methods Researchers employed a one-time qualitative study using 7 focus groups comprised of 10 – 11 college students each (n = 76). Results Results yielded three overarching themes: donor recruitment, donor retention, and factors contributing to the overall donation process. More specifically, this study identified key factors affecting bone marrow donation in an essential population: facilitators, barriers, knowledge, and ‘goodness’. Additionally, marketing and communication were found to be major determinants of potential donors staying with the NMDP. Conclusion Better explanations and awareness/promotion campaigns are necessary for recruiting potential donors to the NMDP and to increase the likelihood that the donor will follow through with the donation should a potential match be identified. Recommendations from this study may improve recruitment and retention rates among the NMDP campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25632376

  19. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 19F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  20. SCD1 thermal design and test result analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, Humberto Pontes; Muraoka, Issamu; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Leite, Rosangela M. G.

    1990-01-01

    The SCD 01 (Satelite de Coleta de Dados 01) is a spin stabilized low Earth orbit satellite dedicated to the collection and distribution of environmental data. It was completely developed at the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) and is scheduled to be launched in 1992. The SCD 01 passive thermal control design configuration is presented and the thermal analysis results are compared with the temperatures obtained from a Thermal Balance Test. The correlation between the analytical and experimental results is considered very good. Numerical flight simulations show that the thermal control design can keep all the subsystem temperatures within their specified temperature range.

  1. Qualitative interviewing as measurement.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2010-04-01

    The attribution of beliefs and other propositional attitudes is best understood as a form of measurement, however counter-intuitive this may seem. Measurement theory does not require that the thing measured should be a magnitude, or that the calibration of the measuring instrument should be numerical. It only requires a homomorphism between the represented domain and the representing domain. On this basis, maps measure parts of the world, usually geographical locations, and 'belief' statements measure other parts of the world, namely people's aptitudes. Having outlined an argument for this view, I deal with an obvious objection to it: that self-attribution of belief cannot be an exercise in measurement, because we are all aware, from introspection, that our beliefs have an intrinsically semantic form. Subsequently, I turn to the philosophical and methodological ramifications of the measurement theoretic view. I argue, first, that it undermines at least one version of constructivism and, second, that it provides an effective alternative to the residually Cartesian philosophy that underpins much qualitative research. Like other anti-Cartesian strategies, belief-attribution-as-measurement implies that the objective world is far more knowable than the subjective one, and that reality is ontologically prior to meaning. I regard this result as both plausible and welcome. PMID:20415963

  2. The Contribution of Computer Software to Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data and Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pat Bazeley

    2006-01-01

    In published mixed methods studies, qualitative and quantitative approaches have typically been combined by using them side-by-side or sequentially, until the point when the separately generated results are interpreted and conclusions drawn. Integration of different forms of data during analysis, or of different approaches within a single analysis, is much less commonly reported. In this paper, integration of these types

  3. Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A. Judge; Joyce E. Bono; Remus Ilies; Megan W. Gerhardt

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a qualitative review of the trait perspective in leadership research, followed by a meta-analysis. The authors used the five-factor model as an organizing framework and meta-analyzed 222 correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism .24, Extraversion .31, Openness to Experience .24, Agreeableness .08, and Conscientiousness .28. Results indicated that the relations of Neuroticism,

  4. Peri-abortion contraception: a qualitative study of users' experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha Kumar; Paula Baraitser; Sheila Morton; Helen Massil

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundContraceptive counselling is an essential element of induced abortion services but concerns remain about its effectiveness.ObjectiveThe issues that influence peri-abortion contraception were explored as part of a study on the experiences of women undergoing induced abortion.MethodIn-depth interviews with 21 women of varying ages, gestations and ethnicity, 3-9 weeks after termination of their pregnancy, with qualitative analysis of data.ResultsContraceptive risk-taking was

  5. Recent Results from CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Nerem, R. S.; Thompson, B.; Pavlis, E.; Williams, T. A.; Colombo, O. L.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE to be launched in the early part of 02') that combine a new generation of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a high precision three-axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the non-gravitational forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three-axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies.

  6. An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

  7. PERCEPTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY FOOD ENVIRONMENT AND RELATED INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICE AMONG MIDLIFE WOMEN RESIDING IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS1

    PubMed Central

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Qualitative research on food choice has rarely focused on individuals’ perceptions of the community food environment. Women remain gatekeepers of the family diet and food purchasing. Therefore we assessed midlife, Southern women's perceptions of the food environment. Related influences on food choices at work and at home were also examined. Methods We recruited 28 low- and moderate-income, midlife (37?67 years) women from rural and urban areas of southeastern North Carolina, using typical case and snowball sampling. They responded to questions about multilevel influences on food choice in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Results Women perceived differences between urban and rural food environments, with rural areas having fewer supermarkets and fast food restaurants compared to urban areas, which had fewer produce stands. Workplace food choices were affected by the social environment (co-workers), personal health concerns, and the surrounding food environment. Food chosen at home was primarily influenced by family members, health concerns, and convenient food sources. Discussion While future studies should explore findings in more representative populations, potential intervention strategies can be inferred, including emphasizing healthful aspects of the food environment. Intervention and advocacy efforts are needed to improve aspects of the food environment that make healthy choices difficult. PMID:19533508

  8. What is the prevalence of health-related searches on the World Wide Web? Qualitative and quantitative analysis of search engine queries on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, G.; Kohler, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    While health information is often said to be the most sought after information on the web, empirical data on the actual frequency of health-related searches on the web are missing. In the present study we aimed to determine the prevalence of health-related searches on the web by analyzing search terms entered by people into popular search engines. We also made some preliminary attempts in qualitatively describing and classifying these searches. Occasional difficulties in determining what constitutes a “health-related” search led us to propose and validate a simple method to automatically classify a search string as “health-related”. This method is based on determining the proportion of pages on the web containing the search string and the word “health”, as a proportion of the total number of pages with the search string alone. Using human codings as gold standard we plotted a ROC curve and determined empirically that if this “co-occurance rate” is larger than 35%, the search string can be said to be health-related (sensitivity: 85.2%, specificity 80.4%). The results of our “human” codings of search queries determined that about 4.5% of all searches are “health-related”. We estimate that globally a minimum of 6.75 Million health-related searches are being conducted on the web every day, which is roughly the same number of searches that have been conducted on the NLM Medlars system in 1996 in a full year. PMID:14728167

  9. Results of the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis project

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been conducted to assess the probability of a future volcanic event disrupting the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The methodology for the PVHA project is summarized in Coppersmith and others (this volume). The judgments of ten earth scientists who were members of an expert panel were elicited to ensure that a wide range of approaches were considered. Each expert identified one or more approaches for assessing the hazard and they quantified their uncertainties in models and parameter values. Aggregated results are expressed as a probability distribution on the annual frequency of intersecting the proposed repository block. This paper presents some of the key results of the PVHA assessments. These results are preliminary; the final report for the study is planned to be submitted to DOE in April 1996.

  10. Using programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) to set priorities: reflections from a qualitative assessment in an English Primary Care Trust.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Elizabeth; Frew, Emma J

    2013-12-01

    In England from 2002 to 2013, Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) were responsible for commissioning healthcare for their local populations. The NHS has recently undergone rapid organisational change whereby clinicians have assumed responsibility for local commissioning decisions. This change in commissioning arrangements alongside the current financial pressures facing the NHS provides an impetus for considering the use of technical prioritisation methods to enable the identification of savings without having a detrimental effect on the health of the population. This paper reports on the design and implementation of a technical prioritisation method termed PBMA applied within NHS Plymouth, an English PCT responsible for commissioning services for a population of approximately 270,000. We evaluated the effectiveness of the process, the extent to which it was appropriate for local healthcare commissioning and whether it identified budget savings. Using qualitative research methodology, we found the process produced clear strategic and operational priorities for 2010/11, providing staff with focus and structure, and delivered a substantial planned reduction in hospital activity levels. Participants expressed satisfaction with the process. NHS Plymouth adhered to the PBMA process, although concerns were raised about the evidence for some priorities, decibel rationing, and a lack of robust challenge at priority-setting meetings. Further work is required to enhance participants' understanding of marginal analysis. Participants highlighted several external benefits, particularly in terms of cultural change, and felt the process should encompass the whole local health and social care community. This evaluation indicates that the prioritisation method was effective in producing priorities for NHS Plymouth, and that PBMA provides an appropriate method for allocating resources at a local level. In order for PBMA to identify savings, cultural and structural barriers to disinvestment must be addressed. These findings will interest other healthcare commissioners in developing their own approaches to priority-setting. PMID:24331895

  11. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  12. aCORN Data Analysis and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darius, Guillaume; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    After a thorough commissioning period during which, among other things, the magnetic field was tuned, the collimator assembly was precisely aligned and the proton detector and beta spectrometer were tested and characterized, aCORN is now taking quality data that will be used for the determination of little ``a,'' the electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient. In this talk, I will briefly present the data acquisition system and data processing. I will then discuss the latest data, describe our analysis thus far, and show preliminary results. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  13. Global sensitivity analysis used to interpret biological experimental results.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Angela M; Liu, Yaning; Cogan, N G; Hussaini, M Yousuff

    2015-07-01

    Modeling host/pathogen interactions provides insight into immune defects that allow bacteria to overwhelm the host, mechanisms that allow vaccine strategies to be successful, and illusive interactions between immune components that govern the immune response to a challenge. However, even simplified models require a fairly high dimensional parameter space to be explored. Here we use global sensitivity analysis for parameters in a simple model for biofilm infections in mice. The results indicate which parameters are insignificant and are 'frozen' to yield a reduced model. The reduced model replicates the full model with high accuracy, using approximately half of the parameter space. We used the sensitivity to investigate the results of the combined biological and mathematical experiments for osteomyelitis. We are able to identify parts of the compartmentalized immune system that were responsible for each of the experimental outcomes. This model is one example for a technique that can be used generally. PMID:25059426

  14. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  15. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Sharif, Farkhondeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems. PMID:25276724

  16. Improvement of virtual screening results by docking data feature analysis.

    PubMed

    Arciniega, Marcelino; Lange, Oliver F

    2014-05-27

    In this study, we propose a novel approach to evaluate virtual screening (VS) experiments based on the analysis of docking output data. This approach, which we refer to as docking data feature analysis (DDFA), consists of two steps. First, a set of features derived from the docking output data is computed and assigned to each molecule in the virtually screened library. Second, an artificial neural network (ANN) analyzes the molecule's docking features and estimates its activity. Given the simple architecture of the ANN, DDFA can be easily adapted to deal with information from several docking programs simultaneously. We tested our approach on the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD), a well-established and highly accepted VS benchmark. Outstanding results were obtained by DDFA not only in comparison with the conventional rankings of the docking programs used in this work but also with respect to other methods found in the literature. Our approach performs with similar good results as the best available methods, which, however, also require substantially more computing time, economic resources, and/or expert intervention. Taken together, DDFA represents an automatic and highly attractive methodology for VS. PMID:24796936

  17. Four Textbooks on Assessment: A Qualitative Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the assessment chapters from four popular educational psychology texts. Teacher knowledge about assessment tools and how they support learning is critical to improving student outcomes. The goals of the analysis are to (a) differentiate author "voices" by looking at style and content choices, (b)…

  18. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed, and the results of this analysis are reported. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogenous across composite samples.

  19. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed in Appendix A, and the results of this analysis are reported in Appendix B. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogenous across composite samples.

  20. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 5 FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E.

    2012-03-14

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed in Appendix A, and the results of this analysis are reported in Appendix B. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogeneous across composite samples.

  1. Elderly self-management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The population of elderly in Iran and in the world is increasing. It is predicted that the population of elderly reaches to 10 millions in Iran by the year 2019. Elders more than other age groups are at risk of chronic diseases and health problems; and elderly affects their self-management and makes them feel disabled. Since the knowledge of self-management for Iranian elderly is not well developed, this paper aimed to determine the concept of self-management for Iranian elders. METHODS: This was a qualitative study with grounded theory approach on Iranian elderly self-management. Data were collected through deep interviews with 26 participants in a period of one year and were analyzed using a Strauss Corbin analysis method. RESULTS: Self-management in the context of power means using different managing methods in dealing with daily life needs, especially in interactions with others in a way that accelerates affairs with efficiency and satisfaction. The main categories emerged from this qualitative study included: managing plans, managing life goals and policies, persuading the desired goals, managing self-care, directing others, coordinating and consulting with others. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provided a deep understanding of elderly perceptions of self-management in their lives. These findings can be a baseline for future researches on developing effective health interventions such as developing a nursing model for increasing the elderly self-management abilities in Iran. Such a model can provide a strong basis for nursing care. PMID:21589781

  2. A rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents of the flower of Trollius ledibouri Reichb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqin Li; Zhili Xiong; Xixiang Ying; Lanchong Cui; Wenliang Zhu; Famei Li

    2006-01-01

    A rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC–ESI-MS\\/MS) method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the constituents of the flower of Trollius ledibouri Reichb. The analysis was performed on an AcQuity UPLC™ BEH C18 column using gradient elution with a mobile phase of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile over 20min. A tandem quadrupole spectrometer operating

  3. Individualised Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses student evaluation in relation to adult and continuing education programs offered by the Department of Adult Education, University College, Cork. He highlights the need for a more individualized and interactive approach to evaluation, allowing the student to benefit from qualitative feedback in the process of being evaluated.…

  4. Qualitative Research Methodology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Robert G.

    Intended to evoke discussion in the research community about the research trend of the 21st century, this paper provides a broad, general definition of qualitative research that covers the many terms currently used under this heading, and discusses seven issues that the research community should address in some manner: (1) new or fad; (2) too many…

  5. Qualitative Viscous Cosmology

    E-print Network

    A. A. Coley; R. J. van den Hoogen; R. Maartens

    1996-05-28

    The Full (non--truncated) Israel--Stewart theory of bulk viscosity is applied to dissipative FRW spacetimes. Dimensionless variables and dimensionless equations of state are used to write the Einstein--thermodynamic equations as a plane autonomous system and the qualitative behaviour of this system is determined. Entropy production in these models is also discussed.

  6. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis - Results for the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, H.; Polet, J.; Somerville, P.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a series of probabilistic tsunami hazard maps for the coasts of western North America based on fault source characterizations of the circum-Pacific subduction zones as well as local offshore faults. The maps show the probabilistic offshore exceedance waveheights at 72, 475, 975 and 2475 year return periods, which are the return periods typically used in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). Our method follows along similar lines as (PSHA) which has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense complexities, variability and uncertainties of seismic activity into a manageable set of ground motion parameters greatly facilitates the planning and design of effective seismic resistant buildings and infrastructure. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can rapidly synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual weighted subfault tsunami waveforms. This Green's function summation provides accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically integrates over thousands of earthquake scenarios. We have carried out tsunami hazard calculations for western North America and Hawaii based on a comprehensive source model around the Pacific Ocean including both subduction zone sources as well as local offshore faults. We will present the tsunami hazard maps and discuss how these results are used for probabilistic inundation mapping, including a follow-up inundation study of the San Francisco Bay area that is based on disaggregation results of the probabilistic analysis. We will also show that even for tsunami sources with large uncertainties (e.g. submarine landslides) a probabilistic framework can yield meaningful and consistent results.

  7. Baryon spin-flavor structure from an analysis of lattice QCD results of the baryon spectrum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fernando, I. P.; Goity, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    The excited baryon masses are analyzed in the framework of the 1/Nc expansion using the available physical masses and also the masses obtained in lattice QCD for different quark masses. The baryon states are organized into irreducible representations of SU(6) x O(3), where the [56,l^P=0^+] ground state and excited baryons, and the [56,2^+] and [70}},1^-] excited states are analyzed. The analyses are carried out to order 1/Nc} and first order in the quark masses. The issue of state identifications is discussed. Numerous parameter independent mass relations result at those orders, among them the well known Gell-Mann-Okubo and Equal Spacing relations,more »as well as additional relations involving baryons with different spins. It is observed that such relations are satisfied at the expected level of precision. The main conclusion of the analysis is that qualitatively the dominant physical effects are similar for the physical and the lattice QCD baryons.« less

  8. Supervised DNA Barcodes species classification: analysis, comparisons and results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Specific fragments, coming from short portions of DNA (e.g., mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid sequences), have been defined as DNA Barcode and can be used as markers for organisms of the main life kingdoms. Species classification with DNA Barcode sequences has been proven effective on different organisms. Indeed, specific gene regions have been identified as Barcode: COI in animals, rbcL and matK in plants, and ITS in fungi. The classification problem assigns an unknown specimen to a known species by analyzing its Barcode. This task has to be supported with reliable methods and algorithms. Methods In this work the efficacy of supervised machine learning methods to classify species with DNA Barcode sequences is shown. The Weka software suite, which includes a collection of supervised classification methods, is adopted to address the task of DNA Barcode analysis. Classifier families are tested on synthetic and empirical datasets belonging to the animal, fungus, and plant kingdoms. In particular, the function-based method Support Vector Machines (SVM), the rule-based RIPPER, the decision tree C4.5, and the Naïve Bayes method are considered. Additionally, the classification results are compared with respect to ad-hoc and well-established DNA Barcode classification methods. Results A software that converts the DNA Barcode FASTA sequences to the Weka format is released, to adapt different input formats and to allow the execution of the classification procedure. The analysis of results on synthetic and real datasets shows that SVM and Naïve Bayes outperform on average the other considered classifiers, although they do not provide a human interpretable classification model. Rule-based methods have slightly inferior classification performances, but deliver the species specific positions and nucleotide assignments. On synthetic data the supervised machine learning methods obtain superior classification performances with respect to the traditional DNA Barcode classification methods. On empirical data their classification performances are at a comparable level to the other methods. Conclusions The classification analysis shows that supervised machine learning methods are promising candidates for handling with success the DNA Barcoding species classification problem, obtaining excellent performances. To conclude, a powerful tool to perform species identification is now available to the DNA Barcoding community. PMID:24721333

  9. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  10. A Qualitative Analysis of Post-Secondary Academic Support Services for Learning Disabled Students: A Study of Four Western Pennsylvania Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    According to Gilroy (2007) individuals with learning disabilities (LD) represent the fastest growing population of disabled college students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate and to report the types of support services offered to LD students enrolled in four Western Pennsylvania universities. The researcher conducted…

  11. Using Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) to Re-Examine Traditionally Analyzed Data: Expanding our Understanding of the Data and of Ourselves as Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rademaker, Linnea L.; Grace, Elizabeth J.; Curda, Stephen K.

    2012-01-01

    As diverse members of a college of education evaluation committee one of our charges is to support faculty as we document and improve our teaching. Our committee asked faculty to respond to three qualitative questions, documenting ways in which interdepartmental and cross-department conversations are used to promote reflective thinking about our…

  12. Genetics correlation and path coefficient analysis of cotton yield with some contributing quantitative and qualitative traits in Upland Cotton (Gosspypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many quantitative and qualitative traits interact to affect lint yield in upland cotton. Breeders should be aware of these traits and their interactions before embarking on a breeding program to improve lint yield. In this study, twelve diverse germplasm lines of upland cotton were used to investiga...

  13. Using Process Journals to Gain Qualitative Understanding of Beginning Programmers

    E-print Network

    Lewandowski, Gary - Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Xavier University

    with others in the course? Is the student's workstyle appropriate for long-term success? Are there obvious presents a qualitative analysis of the journals from a data structures course, categorizing the broad of this qualitative analysis is to answer the questions, "what sort of information do you see in a process journal

  14. Utilizing video animation to present FEA (Finite Element Analysis) results

    SciTech Connect

    Hayer, L.K.; Vossler, J.J. III.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element Analysis (FEA) technique are used to analyze forming, rolling, extrusion, and other continuous manufacturing processes to produce solutions at discrete points in time. These solutions are then displayed using a graphical post-processor. The post-processor displays one plot at a time making it difficult to follow events over the entire process. A means of linking these images that occur at discrete points in time and displaying them in a continuous fashion would aid in comprehending the significance of dynamic or time dependent events that evolve during the processes. Video recording of the graphics provides a means to link the graphical ouput at each discrete point in time and project the results in a continuous fashion upon playback. This presentation outlines the video hardware, the modifications to the pre- and post-processing software, and the process used to make video animation recording of FEA results. Several examples will be shown: Hydroforming of a Spherical Aluminum Shell'' and Three-Stage Forging.'' 5 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Freeway Traffic Qualitative Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente R. Tomás; Luís A. García

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a A new freeway traffic simulator based on a deep model behaviour is proposed. This simulator is defined and developed for helping\\u000a human traffic operators in taking decisions about predictive control actions in situations prior to congestion. The simulator\\u000a uses qualitative tags and cognitive events to represent the traffic status and evolution and the temporal knowledge base produced\\u000a by its execution

  16. Aerosol analysis techniques and results from micro pulse lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Reagan, John A.; Powell, Donna

    1998-01-01

    The effect of clouds and aerosol on the atmospheric energy balance is a key global change problem. Full knowledge of aerosol distributions is difficult to obtain by passive sensing alone. Aerosol and cloud retrievals in several important areas can be significantly improved with active remote sensing by lidar. Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is an aerosol and cloud profilometer that provides a detailed picture of the vertical structure of boundary layer and elevated dust or smoke plume aerosols. MPL is a compact, fully eyesafe, ground-based, zenith pointing instrument capable of full-time, long-term unattended operation at 523 nm. In October of 1993, MPL began taking full-time measurements for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and has since expanded to ARM sites in the Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Other MPL's are moving out to some of the 60 world-wide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites which are already equipped with automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers providing total column optical depth measurements. Twelve additional MPL's have been purchased by NASA to add to the aerosol and cloud database of the EOS ground validation network. The original MPL vertical resolution was 300 meters but the newer versions have a vertical resolution of 30 meters. These expanding data sets offer a significant new resource for atmospheric radiation analysis. Under the direction of Jim Spinhirne, the MPL analysis team at NASA/GSFC has developed instrument correction and backscatter analysis techniques for ARM to detect cloud boundaries and analyze vertical aerosol structures. A summary of MPL applications is found in Hlavka (1997). With the aid of independent total column optical depth instruments such as the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at the ARM sites or sun photometers at the AERONET sites, the MPL data can be calibrated, and time-resolved vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth as well as aerosol extinction can be calculated. The techniques used to calibrate the lidar, calculate the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, and produce profiles of aerosol extinction and aerosol optical depths, will be described. Results using these techniques will be presented for case studies at the ARM site in the Tropical West Pacific and later in the Southern Great Plains.

  17. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690

  18. Qualitative Physiology: from Qualitative Processes to Virtual Patients 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Cavazza; Altion Simo

    In this paper, we describe an implementation of qualitative physiology in the field of cardiac emergencies, which is integrated to a 3D virtual patient. . The system integrates qualitative simulation techniques with a realistic visual simulation of the patient in a 3D environment representing an ER room. We have adapted Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) to the representation of physiological processes

  19. Are stone analysis results different with repeated sampling?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Terence T. N.; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Andonian, Sero

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed differences in results of stone analyses on subsequent sampling. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with stone analyses at a tertiary stone centre between March 2006 and July 2012 was performed. All stones were analyzed at a centralized laboratory using infrared spectroscopy. Patients were grouped according to the first predominant stone type on record, as defined by the predominant stone component of at least 60%. Stone groups included calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), uric acid (UA), cystine, struvite, mixed CaOx-CaP and mixed CaOx-UA. All patients had a full metabolic stone workup. Results: Of the 303 patients with stone analyses, 118 (38.9%) patients had multiple stone analyses. The mean age was 53.4 ± 15.1 years, and 87 (73.7%) were males. Of the 118, the initial stone analysis showed 43 CaOx, 38 CaP, 21 UA, 4 CaOx-CaP, 2 CaOx-UA, 6 cystine, and 4 struvite. There was a different stone composition in 25 (21.2%) patients with a median time delay of 64.5 days. Different compositions were found in 7 CaOx (to 3 CaP, 2 CaOx-CaP, and 2 UA), 5 CaP (to 3 CaOx and 2 CaOx-CaP), 3 UA (to 3 CaOx), 4 CaOx-CaP (to 2CaOx, 1 UA and 1 CaP), 2 CaOx-UA (to 2 CaOx) and 4 struvite (to 3 CaP and 1 UA). Conclusions: Stone composition was different in 21.2% of patients on subsequent analyses. PMID:24940457

  20. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  1. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  2. Perceptions of the Community Food Environment and Related Influences on Food Choice Among Midlife Women Residing in Rural and Urban Areas: A Qualitative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie B. Jilcott; Barbara A. Laraia; Kelly R. Evenson; Alice S. Ammerman

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Qualitative research on food choice has rarely focused on individuals' perceptions of the community food environment. Women remain gatekeepers of the family diet and food purchasing. Therefore we assessed midlife, Southern women's perceptions of the food environment. Related influences on food choices at work and at home were also examined.Methods: We recruited 28 low- and moderate-income, midlife (37–67 years)

  3. An exploration of the relationships between the quality of the sport, social, and academic experiences of college student-athletes and their adjustment to college: A qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics at major universities provide a variety of opportunities and challenges for student-athletes who choose to participate. This qualitative project studies the quality of interactions in the sport, the social, and the academic experiences for freshman football and male soccer student-athletes and their adjustment to college.\\u000aThe five research questions under review were as follows: Is there a relationship

  4. Program LESSA (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) automated linear image features analysis—experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatopolsky, Alexandre A.

    1992-10-01

    The LESSA program for automated linear image features extraction and analysis is presented. The main experimental results of LESSA testing and of its application to aerial and satellite imagery processing are discussed. It is shown that the description of texture orientation properties obtained reflects the image pattern and scarcely depends on applied procedures and their parameters.

  5. Comparison of 2D Finite Element Modeling Assumptions with Results From 3D Analysis for Composite Skin-Stiffener Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isbelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of two-dimensional finite element modeling assumptions on the debonding prediction for skin-stiffener specimens was investigated. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses using two-dimensional plane-stress and plane-strain elements as well as three different generalized plane strain type approaches were performed. The computed skin and flange strains, transverse tensile stresses and energy release rates were compared to results obtained from three-dimensional simulations. The study showed that for strains and energy release rate computations the generalized plane strain assumptions yielded results closest to the full three-dimensional analysis. For computed transverse tensile stresses the plane stress assumption gave the best agreement. Based on this study it is recommended that results from plane stress and plane strain models be used as upper and lower bounds. The results from generalized plane strain models fall between the results obtained from plane stress and plane strain models. Two-dimensional models may also be used to qualitatively evaluate the stress distribution in a ply and the variation of energy release rates and mixed mode ratios with delamination length. For more accurate predictions, however, a three-dimensional analysis is required.

  6. Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    This paper explores the variety of qualitative methods available, in the context of a larger quantitative-qualitative debate in the field of educational evaluation. Each approach is reviewed in terms of the work of its major proponents. The dominant forms of qualitative evaluation include: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic inquiry; (3) generic…

  7. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for elemental analysis in environmental, cultural heritage and space applications: a review of methods and results.

    PubMed

    Gaudiuso, Rosalba; Dell'Aglio, Marcella; De Pascale, Olga; Senesi, Giorgio S; De Giacomo, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Analytical applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), namely optical emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas, have been constantly growing thanks to its intrinsic conceptual simplicity and versatility. Qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed by LIBS both by drawing calibration lines and by using calibration-free methods and some of its features, so as fast multi-elemental response, micro-destructiveness, instrumentation portability, have rendered it particularly suitable for analytical applications in the field of environmental science, space exploration and cultural heritage. This review reports and discusses LIBS achievements in these areas and results obtained for soils and aqueous samples, meteorites and terrestrial samples simulating extraterrestrial planets, and cultural heritage samples, including buildings and objects of various kinds. PMID:22163611

  8. Qualitative Methodology in Counseling Research: Recent Contributions and Challenges for a New Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrios, Reinaldo; Lucca, Nydia

    2006-01-01

    For the past 10 years, qualitative research methodology has become more visible in counseling studies. Results from a content analysis of articles published between 1997 and 2002 in 4 professional journals in the field (Counseling and Values, Journal of Counseling & Development, Professional School Counseling, and The Counseling Psychologist)…

  9. Intellectual work of the critical care nurse: applications from a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Chaboyer; Julie Creamer

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide shortages of critical care (CC) nurses have resulted in efforts targeted at understanding this unique area of nursing practice. This paper describes the findings of a qualitative study in which interviews with 17 CC nurses were conducted and provides insight into the support and continuing education required by both novice and experienced CC nurses. Analysis of the transcripts, field

  10. Qualitatively different modes of manual lifting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Burgess-Limerick; Bruce Abernethy

    1997-01-01

    The question of whether qualitatively different modes of manual lifting exist is addressed via an ideographic analysis of data from an experiment in which 39 subjects lifted loads of varying mass. Angular motion in the sagittal plane of ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar vertebral joints was estimated from video images collected while each subject performed 100 lifts. Bimodality in the

  11. The mathematical bases for qualitative reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalagnanam, Jayant; Simon, Herbert A.; Iwasaki, Yumi

    1991-01-01

    The practices of researchers in many fields who use qualitative reasoning are summarized and explained. The goal is to gain an understanding of the formal assumptions and mechanisms that underlie this kind of analysis. The explanations given are based on standard mathematical formalisms, particularly on ordinal properties, continuous differentiable functions, and the mathematics of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  12. Using Qualitative Methods to Study Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William; Lisboa, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    Basic concepts and procedures of qualitative analysis are discussed, especially as they relate to the study of the features, processes, and effects of friendships. The contributions of the previous chapters are presented according to theory and research on friendship as a developmental process.

  13. A case study of qualitative change in system dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAVIER ARACIL; MIGUEL TORO

    1984-01-01

    The application of dynamical systems qualitative analysis techniques to the study of models of socio-economical systems showing abrupt changes in its qualitative behaviour is proposed. The approach is based on the multiple time-scale properties of a class of non-linear perturbed systems. The change of qualitative behaviour produced in the system can be explained through the singularities of a properly defined

  14. The Utah thyroid cohort study: Analysis of the dosimetry results

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J.E. [Radiological Assessments Corp., Nesses, SC (United States); Simon, S.L. [Nationwide Radiological Study, Majuro (Marshall Islands); Kerber, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Above ground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950s created radioactive fallout that was dispersed into the atmosphere and deposited over a large geographical area of the U.S. One area believed to have received a considerable amount of exposure to radio-iodines ({sup 131}I and {sup 133}I) in the fallout was southwest Utah and southeast Nevada. This paper describes the estimates of doses to the thyroid for a cohort of 3,545 subjects who were children during the atmospheric testing period. This group was examined for thyroid disease during 1965-1970 and again in 1985-1986. The cohort was made up of children who lived in three counties in 1965: Washington County, Utah; Lincoln County, Nevada; and Graham County, Arizona. Pathway analysis was used in the dosimetry, considering exposures through the ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation of iodine during the passage of the fallout cloud, and external exposure. Specific data were obtained on diet (including sources and levels of milk and vegetables consumed, residence history, and lifestyle) by interviewing the parents or nearest living relative of subjects. The final dosimetry file for each member of the cohort contained specific doses to the thyroid glands and uncertainties (reported as geometric standard deviations, GSD) related to each dose estimate. The mean absorbed dose to the thyroid for subjects living in Washington County, Utah, was 170 mGy; for Lincoln County, Nevada, 50 mGy; and for those living in Graham County, Arizona, 13 mGy. The maximum dose to any subject was 4,610 mGy. There were 10 subjects who had doses greater than 1 Gy. The majority of uncertainty values calculated in this study were GSD values between 2.0 and 4.0. The results of the dosimetry were combined with the results of clinical examinations of the cohort to determine if a causal relationship exists between dose to thyroid from NTS generated radioactive iodines and the incidence of thyroid disease.

  15. The Utah Thyroid Cohort Study: analysis of the dosimetry results.

    PubMed

    Till, J E; Simon, S L; Kerber, R; Lloyd, R D; Stevens, W; Thomas, D C; Lyon, J L; Preston-Martin, S

    1995-04-01

    Above ground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950s created radioactive fallout that was dispersed into the atmosphere and deposited over a large geographical area of the U.S. One area believed to have received a considerable amount of exposure to radioiodines (131I and 133I) in the fallout was southwest Utah and southeast Nevada. This paper describes the estimates of doses to the thyroid for a cohort of 3,545 subjects who were children during the atmospheric testing period. This group of children was examined for thyroid disease during 1965-1970 and again in 1985-1986. The cohort was made up of children who lived in three counties in 1965: Washington County, Utah; Lincoln County, Nevada; and Graham County, Arizona (originally thought to be an unexposed group). Pathway analysis was used in the dosimetry, considering exposures through the ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation of iodine during the passage of the fallout cloud, and external exposure. Specific data were obtained on diet (including sources and levels of milk and vegetables consumed, residence history, and lifestyle) by interviewing the parents or nearest living relative of subjects. The final dosimetry file for each member of the cohort contained specific doses to the thyroid glands and uncertainties (reported as geometric standard deviations, GSD) related to each dose estimate. The mean absorbed dose to the thyroid for subjects living in Washington County, Utah, was 170 mGy; for Lincoln County, Nevada, 50 mGy; and for those living in Graham County, Arizona, 13 mGy. The maximum dose to any subject was 4,610 mGy. There were 10 subjects who had doses greater than 1 Gy. The majority of uncertainty values calculated in this study were GSD values between 2.0 and 4.0. The results of the dosimetry were combined with the results of clinical examinations of the cohort to determine if a causal relationship exists between dose to thyroid from NTS generated radioactive iodines and the incidence of thyroid disease. PMID:7883559

  16. Breastfeeding Twins: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, ?nstructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care. PMID:24592592

  17. Some results of analysis of source position time series

    E-print Network

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2015-01-01

    Source position time series produced by International VLBI Service for Geodesy and astrometry (IVS) Analysis Centers were analyzed. These series was computed using different software and analysis strategy. Comparison of this series showed that they have considerably different scatter and systematic behavior. Based on the inspection of all the series, new sources were identified as sources with irregular (non-random) position variations. Two statistics used to estimate the noise level in the time series, namely RMS and ADEV were compared.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhixiang; Yang, Xinghao; Wu, Jianbo; Su, Huai; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yin

    2011-04-01

    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, has efficient effects on treatment of the diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS), a disease with high incidence worldwide. However, the active principles for this complex formula have not been fully explored so far. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major chemical constituents in TXYF. Two monoterpene glycosides, one chromone and five polymethoxylated flavones were tentatively characterized based on the retention times, UV spectra and MS data. Fifteen compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. Constituents such as lactone and steroidal, which could not be found by single HPLC method due to the low content in the formula, were identified in this paper. Seven compounds (gallic acid, prim-O-?-D-glucosylcimifugin, paeoniflorin, cimifugin, naringin, hesperidin and 4'-O-?-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol) were quantified by HPLC-DAD using a C18 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile and water-0.1% formic acid. The method exhibited intra- and inter-day precision of less than 2.35% and 3.14%, respectively. The LODs and the LOQs for the analytes were less than 0.47 and 1.82 ?g ml(-1), respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.82% to 102.47%, with the R.S.D. ranging from 1.17% to 3.94%. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of TXYF. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. PMID:21458639

  19. Development of Test-Analysis Models (TAM) for correlation of dynamic test and analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelucci, Filippo; Javeed, Mehzad; Mcgowan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of structural analysis of aerospace applications is to obtain a verified finite element model (FEM). The verified FEM can be used for loads analysis, evaluate structural modifications, or design control systems. Verification of the FEM is generally obtained as the result of correlating test and FEM models. A test analysis model (TAM) is very useful in the correlation process. A TAM is essentially a FEM reduced to the size of the test model, which attempts to preserve the dynamic characteristics of the original FEM in the analysis range of interest. Numerous methods for generating TAMs have been developed in the literature. The major emphasis of this paper is a description of the procedures necessary for creation of the TAM and the correlation of the reduced models with the FEM or the test results. Herein, three methods are discussed, namely Guyan, Improved Reduced System (IRS), and Hybrid. Also included are the procedures for performing these analyses using MSC/NASTRAN. Finally, application of the TAM process is demonstrated with an experimental test configuration of a ten bay cantilevered truss structure.

  20. Classification of cassava genotypes based on qualitative and quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Oliveira Filho, O S; Santos, V S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages. According to the pseudo-F, pseudo-t2, and maximum likelihood criteria, we identified five and four groups based on quantitative trait and joint analysis, respectively. The smaller number of groups identified based on joint analysis may be related to the nature of the data. On the other hand, quantitative data are more subject to environmental effects in the phenotype expression; this results in the absence of genetic differences, thereby contributing to greater differentiation among accessions. For most of the accessions, the maximum probability of classification was >0.90, independent of the trait analyzed, indicating a good fit of the clustering method. Differences in clustering according to the type of data implied that analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in cassava germplasm might explore different genomic regions. On the other hand, when joint analysis was used, the means and ranges of genetic distances were high, indicating that the Ward-MLM method is very useful for clustering genotypes when there are several phenotypic traits, such as in the case of genetic resources and breeding programs. PMID:25730029