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1

Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

2010-01-01

2

Ayahuasca in Adolescence: Qualitative Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research was conducted in Brazil among 28 ayahuasca-consuming adolescents members of the Uni?o do Vegetal Church, and 28 adolescents who never used ayahuasca. They were compared on a number of qualitative variables, including vignettes measuring moral and ethical concerns. Psychocultural studies utilizing co-occurences of variables in the realm of qualitative studies are useful in understanding and complementing quantitative studies

Marlene Dobkin de Rios; Charles S. Grob; Enrique Lopez; Dartiu Xavier da Silviera; Luisa K. Alonso; Evelyn Doering-Silveira

2005-01-01

3

Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. Purpose To provide insights into students’ experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. Methods A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. Results The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students’ anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. Conclusion On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students’ support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians. PMID:25278789

Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

2014-01-01

4

Comparative Analysis and Qualitative Integral Representations \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Intelligence Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin. Research of the Qualitative Reasoning GroupComparative Analysis and Qualitative Integral Representations \\Lambda Charles Chiu y Benjamin Kuipers z December, 1991 Abstract Comparative analysis is applied to a qualitative behavior

Kuipers, Benjamin

5

Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

2012-01-01

6

Perceptions of knowledge management: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study of middle managers’ perceptions of knowledge management (KM) implementation in NZ organizations. Data were collected in a survey of 71 attendees of a KM presentation. The data were analyzed using qualitative coding principles. Two core issues were examined – barriers and drivers of KM. Subcategories under barriers were primarily concerned

David Mason; David J. Pauleen

2003-01-01

7

Data fusion qualitative sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. The data fusion software developed by CRC was initially demonstrated on a data set collected at the Hanford Site where three types of data were combined. These data were (1) seismic reflection, (2) seismic refraction, and (3) depth to geologic horizons. The fused results included a contour map of the top of a low-permeability horizon. This report discusses the results of a sensitivity analysis of data fusion software to variations in its input parameters. The data fusion software developed by CRC has a large number of input parameters that can be varied by the user and that influence the results of data fusion. Many of these parameters are defined as part of the earth model. The earth model is a series of 3-dimensional polynomials with horizontal spatial coordinates as the independent variables and either subsurface layer depth or values of various properties within these layers (e.g., compression wave velocity, resistivity) as the dependent variables.

Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

1995-09-01

8

Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.  

PubMed

Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use. PMID:24769596

Cope, Diane G

2014-05-01

9

Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: qualitative analysis of interim results from a prospective national evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe and evaluate the implementation and adoption of detailed electronic health records in secondary care in England and thereby provide early feedback for the ongoing local and national rollout of the NHS Care Records Service. Design A mixed methods, longitudinal, multisite, socio-technical case study. Setting Five NHS acute hospital and mental health trusts that have been the focus of early implementation efforts and at which interim data collection and analysis are complete. Data sources and analysis Dataset for the evaluation consists of semi-structured interviews, documents and field notes, observations, and quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed thematically with a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. Main results Hospital electronic health record applications are being developed and implemented far more slowly than was originally envisioned; the top-down, standardised approach has needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice, which hospital trusts want in order to support local activity. Despite considerable delays and frustrations, support for electronic health records remains strong, including from NHS clinicians. Political and financial factors are now perceived to threaten nationwide implementation of electronic health records. Interviewees identified a range of consequences of long term, centrally negotiated contracts to deliver the NHS Care Records Service in secondary care, particularly as NHS trusts themselves are not party to these contracts. These include convoluted communication channels between different stakeholders, unrealistic deployment timelines, delays, and applications that could not quickly respond to changing national and local NHS priorities. Our data suggest support for a “middle-out” approach to implementing hospital electronic health records, combining government direction with increased local autonomy, and for restricting detailed electronic health record sharing to local health communities. Conclusions Experiences from the early implementation sites, which have received considerable attention, financial investment and support, indicate that delivering improved healthcare through nationwide electronic health records will be a long, complex, and iterative process requiring flexibility and local adaptability both with respect to the systems and the implementation strategy. The more tailored, responsive approach that is emerging is becoming better aligned with NHS organisations’ perceived needs and is, if pursued, likely to deliver clinically useful electronic health record systems. PMID:20813822

2010-01-01

10

Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

2008-01-01

11

Blogging Medical Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students’ learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners. PMID:23467720

Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Alig, Stefan K.; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen

2013-01-01

12

An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

1983-01-01

13

Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

2002-01-01

14

Filtrates and Residues: Qualitative Analysis of Some Transition Metals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a qualitative analysis laboratory in which students examine specific precipitates that can be used to identify copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron cations. The objective of the laboratory is to determine which test or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each cation and to use the results to identify several unknowns. (JN)

Kilner, Cary

1985-01-01

15

Qualitative versus Quantitative Results: An Experimental Introduction to Data Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a qualitative test by performing a more sensitive quantitative test on the same sample. Methodology for testing urinary glucose with a spectrophotometer at 630 nm and with commercial assaying glucose strips is presented. (MVL)

Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula

1989-01-01

16

Sharing the Load Exploring Collaborative Qualitative Analysis  

E-print Network

@shaw.ca Glen Gatin Brandon University Brandon, Canada glen.gatin@gmail.com ABSTRACT Qualitative research involving geographically distributed researchers. Software tool support for analyzing qualitative data to the interpretive nature of qualitative research it is only appropriate for and individual researcher or a small

Sillito, Jonathan

17

Amateur Spectroscopy: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy is a new field of study for the amateur. This type of explor- ation by an amateur is the result of the availability of several types of off-the-shelf spectrometers, which can be coupled to a CCD camera. For the most part, amateurs pursuing this area have done so more from a qualitative standpoint: stellar classification and identification of the more prominent emission and absorption lines in stars and gas clouds. However, a spectrum contains much more valuable information about the physics of the region under survey. My talk will describe my initial efforts in the use of synthetic spectroscopy and how it can be used to determine a variety of stellar para- meters such as temperature and abundances. The process involves the creation of stellar atmospheric models where a variety of variables can be altered and the resulting spectrum fitted to the actual spectrum obtained at the tele- scope to find the best fit.

Mais, D. E.

2002-05-01

18

Benchmarking Qualitative Spatial Calculi for Video Activity Analysis  

E-print Network

, this work draws from a body of research in qualitative spatial relations [11][2], and proposesBenchmarking Qualitative Spatial Calculi for Video Activity Analysis Muralikrishna Sridhar, Anthony qualitative spatio- temporal relations between interacting objects. A wide range of spatio-temporal relations

Leeds, University of

19

Mixture interpretation: Experimental and simulated reevaluation of qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

We present here analytical data using the 15 STR typing (Identifiler) kit regarding heterozygote balance in experimental DNA samples including one or two persons. Surprisingly, the allelic imbalance was observed even in samples consisting of only one person but adequate DNA for the standard protocol. The variance of heterozygote balance was more expanded in two-person mixtures than in one-person samples. Therefore, it is not suitable to use allelic peak heights/areas for estimating the genotypes of the contributors such as the quantitative analysis. We also reevaluated the effectiveness of qualitative analysis by simulation, i.e. consideration of the probability of all possible genotype combinations from the typing results of a mixed DNA sample. As demonstrated, the qualitative analysis using 15 STR loci is still extremely effective even in a mixture from two or three individuals. PMID:23089142

Manabe, Sho; Mori, Yuki; Kawai, Chihiro; Ozeki, Munetaka; Tamaki, Keiji

2013-03-01

20

Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to characterize the maintenance environment and processes in order to collect suitable and cost-effective data. Also, enacting such a program and getting usable data sets takes time. A short term substitute is therefore needed. We propose in this paper a characterization process aimed specifically at maintenance and based on a general qualitative analysis methodology. This process is rigorously defined in order to be repeatable and usable by people who are not acquainted with such analysis procedures. A basic feature of our approach is that actual implemented software changes are analyzed in order to understand the flaws in the maintenance process. Guidelines are provided and a case study is shown that demonstrates the usefulness of the approach.

Brand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

1996-01-01

21

Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

22

Qualitative content analysis of suicidal ideation in Korean college students.  

PubMed

The suicide rate for ages 15-24 increased recently in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicidal ideation using the qualitative content analysis in South Korean college students. The data were collected with non-structured open questions in 134 college students and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified 2 categories, 6 themes, and 21 theme clusters. Two categories are emerged: (1) facilitators of suicidal ideation, and (2) inhibitors of suicidal ideation. This study identified that the facilitators of suicidal ideation are physical, psychological and societal concerns, and suggested that the inhibitors of suicidal ideation are influenced by religious and cultural context. These results presented that Buddhism and Confucianism had influence on reasons to not attempting suicide behavior as the inhibitor of suicidal ideation. In conclusion, cultural context should be considered to develop strategies for the suicide prevention in South Korean college student. PMID:21706996

Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong Ju; Sohn, Ki-Cheul

2011-01-01

23

Qualitative Analysis of Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study observation-based strategies for partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with parity objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on partial information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. We consider qualitative analysis problems: given a POMDP with a parity objective, decide whether there exists an observation-based strategy to achieve the objective with probability 1 (almost-sure winning), or with positive probability (positive winning). Our main results are twofold. First, we present a complete picture of the computational complexity of the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives and its subclasses: safety, reachability, Büchi, and coBüchi objectives. We establish several upper and lower bounds that were not known in the literature. Second, we give optimal bounds (matching upper and lower bounds) for the memory required by pure and randomized observation-based strategies for each class of objectives.

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.

24

Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

2008-01-01

25

Qualitative Data as an Attractive Nuisance: The Problem of Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the issues and problems in analysis of qualitative data through a review of experiences in a four-year project that relied centrally on such data. Asserts that the attractive aspects of qualitative research are real and that the nuisances can be reduced by thoughtful methodological inquiry. (Author/IRT)

Miles, Matthew B.

1979-01-01

26

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2008-01-01

27

Harmonic Analysis and Qualitative Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the mathematical nature of qualitative uncertainty principle (QUP), which plays an important role in mathematics, physics and engineering fields. Consider a 3-tuple (K, H1, H2) that K: H1 -> H2 is an integral operator. Suppose a signal f in H1, {\\Omega}1 and {\\Omega}2 are domains on which f, Kf define respectively. Does this signal f vanish if |{\\Sigma}(f)|uncertainty principle, nonlinear method and sparse representation, are thus suggested. The notion of operator family is developed and is applied to understand remarkable performances of recent sparse representation.

Ji King

2010-08-09

28

Database Organization for Qualitative Analysis: The NUDIST System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative data analysis is an approach to the use of unstructured data that is widely practised (and studied) in the social sciences, history and literary studies. It is used in many areas derivative from social sciences, such as market analysis, legal evidence analysis, health and demographic studies, education, journalism, etc. It is also coming to be recognised as significant in

Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

1991-01-01

29

Professional socialization in nursing: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Being a nurse is more than just a series of business activities and skills. In fact, it is a part of the process of socialization, which is internalization and development of professional identity. Professional socialization is necessary for involving the students in professional practices. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative research was to increase the understanding of professional socialization in nursing and explore the related factors from the perspective of registered nurses and nursing students. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative design, data were collected on 43 nurses with a variety of experiences using semi-structured interviews and focus groups in the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results: The data analysis revealed two main categories: (1) sense of belonging with three sub-categories of theory-practice incongruence, educational experiences and tacit knowledge and (2) forming professional identity consisting of three sub-categories of relatedness, internal motivation and role model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that in nursing, sense of belonging and professional identity contributes to professional socialization; it is suggested that these factors, which improve socialization in nurses, be taken into account by authorities. PMID:25183987

Zarshenas, Ladan; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Khayyer, Mohammad; Zare, Najaf; Ebadi, Abbas

2014-01-01

30

Suicide and prostitution among street youth: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants and the analysis revealed themes of isolation, rejection/betrayal, lack of control, and most centrally, low self-worth as forming the basis of their experiences concerning suicide. Additionally it was found that trading sex, in which most participants had been or were currently involved, was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high attempt rate. Finally, variables related to suicide were found that have not been examined previously in the literature on street youth, including loss of control, assault during prostituted sex, drug abuse as a "slow suicide," and breakups in intimate relationships. PMID:12144168

Kidd, Sean A; Kral, Michael J

2002-01-01

31

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacterial aerosols.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the bacterial aerosols before, during, and after clinical work sessions in different areas within a multichair dental clinic, an isolation clinic, the sterilization center, and the prosthetic laboratory in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Also, the contributions of aerosols generated by different types of dental procedures were investigated. Air sampling using blood and heart infusion agar plates at four selected areas was performed three times per day over a 2-week period before, during, and after clinical sessions. The concentration of total bacterial aerosols was 5 times higher in the multichair clinic, 3.6 times higher in the prosthetic laboratory, 2 times higher in the sterilization center and isolation clinic during working sessions as compared to before the working sessions. At the end of the working day, aerosols decreased 50-70% in all areas. Staphylococcus epidermidis had the highest prevalence (37.12q%) of colony composition of bacteria examined. This study demonstrates that aerosols increase during and after work sessions and, therefore, increase the chance for infectious agent transmission. Preventive measures should be instituted to reduce or disrupt aerosols as a transmission route in the multichair dental clinic, sterilization center, prosthetic laboratory, and isolation clinic. PMID:15558094

Al Maghlouth, Adnan; Al Yousef, Yousef; Al Bagieh, Nasir

2004-11-15

32

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

33

Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis  

E-print Network

and the capturing of additional profits is the only force behind the growth machine's actions. The historical development of Clear Lake City, Texas and the analysis of a major land developer (Friendswood Development Company) responsible for the city's growth...

Smith, Gavin Paul

1993-01-01

34

Data analysis in health-relateD qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, coding was done manually, by use of coloured pens to categorise data, and consequently cutting and sorting the data. With the advent of software technology, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), such as NUDIST, NVivo and Atlas-ti, the process has been greatly simplified from the traditional tedious one. The software enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the analysis process

35

Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

36

A Qualitative Analysis of Collaborative Knowledge Construction through Shared Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes one step towards addressing the question of how activity mediated by shared representations—notations that are manipulated by more than one person during a collaborative task—might constitute knowledge construction activity, and how the shared representations are appropriated for this purpose. The primary contribution of this paper is a methodology for qualitative analysis of activity in a workspace built

Daniel D. Suthers

2006-01-01

37

Modal-style Operators in Qualitative Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We explore the modal possibility operator and its dual necessity operator in qualitative data anal- ysis, and show that it (quite literally) complements the derivation operator of formal concept analysis; we also propose a new generalisation of the rough set approximation operators. As an example for the applicability of the concepts we investigate the Morse data set which has

Ivo Diintsch; Giinther Gediga

2002-01-01

38

A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets  

PubMed Central

In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

Evans, Michael S.

2014-01-01

39

Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

2010-01-01

40

Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data  

PubMed Central

Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

2014-01-01

41

Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.  

PubMed

Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. PMID:21091920

Fade, S A; Swift, J A

2011-04-01

42

Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials in grant proposals: a documentary analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and important methodological details. Acknowledging the space restrictions faced by researchers writing grant proposals, we suggest a starting point for providing practical guidance to help researchers write proposals and research commissioners assess proposals of qualitative research with trials. PMID:24533771

2014-01-01

43

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within a 2-week period in all units (n = 53) in nursing homes located in New York City. Narrative reconstructions were created for each event based on information from residents and staff who were involved as well as other sources. The event reconstructions were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common features of RRA events. Results: Analysis of the 122 event reconstructions identified 13 major forms of RRA, grouped under five themes. The resulting framework demonstrated the heterogeneity of types of RRA, the importance of considering personal, environmental, and triggering factors, and the potential emotional and physical harm to residents. Implications: These results suggest the need for person-centered and environmental interventions to reduce RRA, as well as for further research on the topic. PMID:22048811

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

44

Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.  

PubMed

An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

2004-11-01

45

Driven and No Regrets: A Qualitative Analysis of Students Earning Baccalaureate Degrees in Three Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using rigorous qualitative research methodology, twenty-four college students receiving their undergraduate degrees in three years were interviewed. Following analysis of the semi-structured interview transcripts and coding, themes emerged, indicating that these students possessed self-discipline, self-motivation, and drive. Overall, the results

Firmin, Michael W.; Gilson, Krista Merrick

2007-01-01

46

Major Sources of Difficulty in Students' Understanding of Basic Inorganic Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the major sources of students' difficulties in qualitative analysis (QA), 51 grade 10 students (15 to 17 year old) from three secondary schools were interviewed. The results found that the major sources of students' difficulties in understanding QA are formation of precipitates, formation of complex salts and addition of acid.

Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

2004-01-01

47

System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

Reifman, Jaques (Lisle, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01

48

Development of an Automated Microscope for Supporting Qualitative Asbestos Analysis by Dispersion Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces automated microscopic obser- vation supporting qualitative asbestos analysis. Visual qualitative asbestos evaluation generally involves dis- persion staining. Operators conventionally check and count asbestos fibers visually by microscope. We are developing automated microscopic observation to sup- port qualitative asbestos analysis. The system images fibers by microscope and saves them automatically to a database. We introduce system concepts and

Kuniaki Kawabata; Soichiro Morishita; Kazuhiro Hott; Taketoshi Mishima; Hiroshi Mizoguchi; Haruhisa Takahashi

2009-01-01

49

Computer analysis of qualitative data: a comparison of three packages.  

PubMed

This article describes and compares three computer programs designed to assist in the analysis of narrative text. Ethnograph, GATOR, and Martin were compared in the context of a qualitative study of women and their husbands following mastectomy in order to (a) describe the fit between research purpose and program capabilities and (b) explore the influence, if any, of particular program features on research methods or analysis. The comparison suggests that methodological assistance provided by the programs involves differences in approach sufficient to make prior consideration of the fit between program capabilities and research purposes, methods, and style an important research decision. Descriptions of the programs and their application provide guidelines for comparison of these and other computer programs. PMID:8457794

Walker, B L

1993-02-01

50

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of fibrosis in the kidney.  

PubMed

Renal fibrosis results from an excess accumulation of connective tissue, primarily collagen, in response to tissue injury-associated aberrant wound healing, which is over-expressed in the renal vascular, glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Despite being the final common pathway of end stage kidney disease, there is a lack of consensus on standardized approaches to measure fibrosis. In this article we therefore describe how a combination of immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measurement of hydroxyproline can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the different forms of fibrosis. These techniques provide measures of both the composition of fibrosis, and a means of evaluating interventions in this significant process. PMID:25196487

Hewitson, Tim D; Smith, Edward R; Samuel, Chrishan S

2014-11-01

51

Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

52

Building an Exploratory Visual Analysis Tool for Qualitative Researchers Tanuka Bhowmick  

E-print Network

Building an Exploratory Visual Analysis Tool for Qualitative Researchers Tanuka Bhowmick Geo, Vancouver, WA, June 26-28, 2006 #12;Abstract Qualitative research is an integral part of both academic research in various disciplines, newer and more sophisticated exploratory tools that assist qualitative

Klippel, Alexander

53

A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative

Tierney, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

54

Researchers’ views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results. PMID:23807616

Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

55

Caring for an Individual with Autism Disorder: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Caregivers in this qualitative study reported the multidimensional implications of having a child with autism on their family's lives and overall functioning. Method: The Effects of the Situation Questionnaire (Yatchmenoff, Koren, Friesen, Gordon, & Kinney, 1998) was used to gather qualitative data from 80 caregivers. Colaizzi's (1978)…

Phelps, Kenneth W.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.; McCammon, Susan L.; Lamson, Angela L.

2009-01-01

56

Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor

1988-01-01

57

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

2004-01-01

58

Development of an automatic polarized microscopic imaging system for asbestos qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes about an automated microscopic imaging system for supporting asbestos qualitative analysis. By JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards), the dispersion staining method is designated as a visual qualitative analysis for asbestos in the construction materials. In the analysis process using the microscope, the expert monitors the particles including asbestos fibers and count them. For supporting such observation process, we

Kuniaki KAWABATA; Yugo TSUBOTA; Hirokazu YAMAZAKI; Taketoshi MISHIMA; Kazuhiro HOTTA; Hajime ASAMA; Hiroshi MIZOGUCHI; Haruhisa TAKAHASHI

2009-01-01

59

Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).  

PubMed

The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created. PMID:25336172

Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

2014-01-01

60

Advanced predoctoral implant program at UIC: description and qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Dental implant education has increasingly become an integral part of predoctoral dental curricula. However, the majority of implant education emphasizes the restorative aspect as opposed to the surgical. The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry has developed an Advanced Predoctoral Implant Program (APIP) that provides a select group of students the opportunity to place implants for single-tooth restorations and mandibular overdentures. This article describes the rationale, logistics, experiences, and perspectives of an innovative approach to provide additional learning experiences in the care of patients with partial and complete edentulism using implant-supported therapies. Student and faculty perspectives on the APIP were ascertained via focus group discussions and a student survey. The qualitative analysis of this study suggests that the select predoctoral dental students highly benefited from this experience and intend to increase their knowledge and skills in implant dentistry through formal education following graduation. Furthermore, the survey indicates that the APIP has had a positive influence on the students' interest in surgically placing implants in their future dental practice and their confidence level in restoring and surgically placing implants. PMID:24789837

Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Quimby, Anastasiya; Harlow, Rand; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

2014-05-01

61

Utilization of Morning Report by Acute Care Surgery Teams: Results from a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background The rigor of hand-offs is increasingly scrutinized in the era of shift-based patient care. Acute Care Surgery (ACS) embraced such a model of care; however, little is known about hand-offs in ACS programs. Methods We conducted 18 open-ended interviews with ACS leaders representing diverse geographic and practice settings. Two independent reviewers analyzed interviews using an inductive approach to elucidate themes regarding use of morning report (NVivo qualitative analysis software). Results 12/18 respondents reported a morning report but only 6/12 included attending-to-attending hand-offs. 1/12 incentivized attendings to participate, 2/12 included nursing staff, and 2/12 included physician extenders. Cited benefits of morning report were safe and effective information exchange (2/12), quality improvement (2/12), multidisciplinary discussion (1/12), and resident education (2/12). 3/12 respondents cited time commitment as the main limitation of morning report. Conclusions Morning report is under-utilized among ACS programs; however, if implemented strategically, it may improve patient care and resident education. PMID:24157348

Pringle, Patricia L.; Collins, Courtney; Santry, Heena P.

2013-01-01

62

Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

2014-01-01

63

An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

64

Qualitative analysis of mycotoxins using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring mycotoxins are separated using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Trends in the retention of these toxins, resulting from changes in mobile-phase composition and pH, are reported and presented as a means of alleviating coelution problems. Two sets of mobile-phase conditions are determined that provide unique separation selectivity. The facile manner by which mobile-phase conditions can be altered, without changes in instrumental configuration, allowed the acquisition of two distinctive, fully resolved chromatograms of 10 mycotoxins in a period of approximately 45 min. By adjusting retention times, using indigenous or added components in mycotoxin samples as normalization standards, it is possible to obtain coefficients of variation in retention time that average less than 1%. The qualitative capabilities of this methodology are evaluated by separating randomly generated mycotoxin-interferent mixtures. In this study, the utilization of normalized retention times applied to separations obtained with two sets of mobile-phase conditions permitted the identification of all the mycotoxins in five unknown samples without any misidentifications. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Holland, R.D.; Sepaniak, M.J. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1993-05-01

65

Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

66

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

67

Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved.Design: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews.Setting: Australian gynaecology clinics.Subjects: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist.Main outcome measures: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs.Results: Most

Anne M Kavanagh; Dorothy H Broom

1997-01-01

68

Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

69

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS  

PubMed Central

Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats.

Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

2015-01-01

70

Using Cannabis Therapeutically in the UK: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three therapeutic cannabis users in England were interviewed about their experiences using an illegal drug for therapeutic purposes. Interviews were semi-structured, and responses highly qualitative. Particular issues included how and why cannabis was used therapeutically; what problems its illegality posed in terms of access, cost, reliability of supply, and quality of the product; the perceived beneficial effects of its use;

Ross Coomber; Michael Oliver; Craig Morris

2003-01-01

71

A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

2013-01-01

72

Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive

A M Gotham; R G Brown; C D Marsden

1986-01-01

73

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Annotators' Agreement in the Development of  

E-print Network

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Annotators' Agreement in the Development of Cast3LB M@fil.ub.es ¡TALP Research Centre (UPC) Jordi Girona no 3 08034 Barcelona ageno@lsi.upc.es ¢ Departamento de a qualitative and quantitative analy- sis of disagreement among annotators in the development of the syntactic

Ageno, Alicia

74

A Simple Card Trick: Teaching Qualitative Data Analysis Using a Deck of Playing Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yet today, despite recent welcome additions, relatively little is written about teaching qualitative research. Why is that? This article reports out a relatively simple, yet appealing, pedagogical move, a lesson the author uses to teach qualitative data analysis. Data sorting and categorization, the use of tacit and explicit theory in data…

Waite, Duncan

2011-01-01

75

Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare information systems (HISs) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care and the degree to which it is patient-centered,\\u000a as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of services. However, the outcomes of HIS implementations have not met expectations.\\u000a We set out to organize the knowledge gained in qualitative studies performed in association with HIS implementations and

Bahlol Rahimi; Vivian Vimarlund; Toomas Timpka

2009-01-01

76

Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

2011-01-01

77

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the adult Drosophila melanogaster proteome.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model organisms in life sciences. Mapping its proteome is of great significance for understanding the biological characteristics and tissue functions of this species. However, the comprehensive coverage of its proteome remains a challenge. Here, we describe a high-coverage analysis of whole fly through a 1D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS approach. By combining the datasets of two types of SDS-PAGE and two kinds of tagmata, the high-coverage analysis resulted in the identification of 5262 genes, which correspond to 38.23% of the entire coding genes. Moreover, we found that the fly head and body have different molecular weight distributions of their proteomes when the proteins were resolved with SDS-PAGE and image analysis of the stained gel. This phenomenon was further confirmed by both label-free and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative approaches. The consistent results of the two different quantitation methods also demonstrated the stability and accuracy of the LC-MS/MS platform. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000454 and PXD000455 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000454; (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000455). PMID:24259522

Xing, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Ning; Zhai, Linhui; Zhu, Yunping; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Ping

2014-02-01

78

Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

2015-02-01

79

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

Flores, T.; Ponce, L. [CICATA- IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico); Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Cno. Parque Centenario e/505 y 508 Gonnet C.C. 124 (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-04-15

80

Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science_Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster presents findings from the qualitative analysis of data from a long-term investigation into the science literacy and attitudes toward science of University of Arizona non-science major undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting). The qualitative analysis centered on student responses to four open-ended questions probing science process and content knowledge, derived from measures of adults' science literacy as

Jessie Antonellis; C. Impey; E. Johnson; C. King

2009-01-01

81

A qualitative analysis of non-Darcy flow effects in hydraulically fractured gas wells  

E-print Network

A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NON-DARCY FLOW EFFECTS IN HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED GAS WELLS A Thesis by JOANNE CAROL HRESKO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 5 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NON-DARCY FLOW EFFECTS IN HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED GAS WELLS A Thesis by JOANNE CAROL HRESKO Approved as to style and content by: W. J. Lee (Chairman...

Hresko, Joanne Carol

2012-06-07

82

Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency before and after unilateral pallidotomy.  

PubMed

This study examined qualitative aspects of phonemic and semantic fluency before and after unilateral pallidotomy in patients with intractable Parkinson's Disease (PD). Specifically, clustering (number of similar words generated sequentially) and switching (number of changes or switches from one cluster to another) were evaluated for both fluency tasks. Twenty-five PD patients participated and were grouped according to whether they improved or declined on each of the fluency measures after surgery. Decliners evidenced decreased switching, but not clustering, suggesting difficulties with set-shifting and cognitive flexibility rather than a diminished semantic store of information or retrieval difficulties. Though consistent with hypotheses about difficulties with executive processing after pallidotomy, a series of correlational analyses with composite measures of neuropsychological functioning (attention, language, executive processing, and memory) suggest caution in interpreting these findings. In these analyses, clustering was not meaningfully related to any of the composites whereas switching was significantly and positively related to the composites; this pattern emerged, for the most part, on both fluency measures before and after surgery. Switching, but not clustering, was also significantly and positively correlated with total words generated on both semantic and phonemic fluency. Switching changes across time were also related to DRS changes post-pallidotomy. These correlational analyses challenge the specificity of the switching variable and, more broadly, the validity of these qualitative measures of verbal fluency. PMID:14704883

Demakis, George J; Mercury, Michael G; Sweet, Jerry J; Rezak, Michael; Eller, Theodore; Vergenz, Sandy

2003-08-01

83

Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

2011-01-01

84

The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

2014-01-01

85

A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed…

Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

2012-01-01

86

Natural language processing and information extraction: qualitative analysis of financial news articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative financial data are today largely analyzed by automatic computer programs based on traditional or artificial intelligence techniques. Differently, qualitative data and, in particular, articles from on-line news agencies or from financial newspapers are not yet successfully processed. As a result, financial operators suffer from qualitative data-overload. The paper addresses the issue of the use of natural language processing and,

M. Costantino; R. G. Morgan; R. J. Collingham; R. Carigliano

1997-01-01

87

Patient satisfaction with teledermatology: quantitative and qualitative results from a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

As part of a randomized controlled trial involving 208 dermatology patients, a quantitative and qualitative study was undertaken to explore patients' satisfaction with a specialist dermatological opinion and further management obtained through either a traditional outpatient consultation (control group) or an asynchronous teleconsultation (telemedicine group). There was a response rate of 71% to the quantitative patient satisfaction survey (148 replies from 208 distributed questionnaires). The responders comprised 80 of the 111 telemedicine patients (72%) and 68 of the 97 control patients (70%). Overall levels of patient satisfaction were high in both groups, and there was no significant difference between them. Ninety per cent of patients in the control group were satisfied with their overall care, compared with 81% in the telemedicine group, and 87% of patients in the control group were satisfied with their overall management, compared with 84% in the telemedicine group. Follow-up qualitative interviews with 30 of the participants also suggested that patients were generally positive about their care and management, regardless of group, age or gender. Receiving a diagnosis, treatment and cure, receiving adequate information and explanations, the need to be taken seriously, the need for individualized personal care, and the importance of a short waiting time for an appointment and treatment were all aspects of care and management most likely to result in patient satisfaction, regardless of modality. PMID:15006213

Collins, Karen; Walters, Stephen; Bowns, Ian

2004-01-01

88

Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in hospices: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

There has been little research into pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in hospices. In this study, interviews with hospice directors of clinical services and direct-care nurses were analyzed using qualitative methods. Several general themes were found. Both pressure ulcer prevention and treatment can be painful to hospice patients. Comfort may supersede prevention and wound care when patients are actively dying or have conditions causing them to have a single position of comfort. Family caregivers must face additional burdens when a pressure ulcer develops. In conclusion, hospice providers, patients, and family caregivers together must balance patient comfort with pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, which often leads to decisions to accept death with a pressure ulcer. Future studies should clarify how these parties can best work together, especially to identify when prevention or treatment has become futile. PMID:12710110

Eisenberger, Andrew; Zeleznik, Jomarie

2003-01-01

89

Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

90

Mass Spectrometer Analysis Results  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. After undergoing initial separation ...

2010-05-25

91

A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.  

PubMed

A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay. PMID:25127598

Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

2014-11-01

92

Initiation and Continuation of Smoking in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is the cause for many preventable deaths worldwide. The rate of smoking has not increased in Iran in the past two decades, but its increase among adolescents and young adults is a concern. This study investigates the risk factors of initiation and continuation of smoking in Iran using a qualitative approach. Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers and 6 non-smokers in 4 selected cities in Iran. Data were collected with deep and semi-structured interviews, verbatim transcription and simultaneously coding. Then, they were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three themes and 16 subcategories emerged. The themes were personal inefficacy with 6 subgroups included inadequate information, low age, curiosity, consideration of smoking not as a major problem, wrong beliefs, and making reasons. Family inefficacy with 4 subgroups included poor authority, lack of reaction, existence of stressors, and history of smoking. Vulnerable social environment with 6 subgroups included poverty, social stressors, magnification of smoking, network of cigarette smoking, smoking as a norm and convenience of access. Conclusion: Recognition of smoking among children, modification of wrong beliefs about smoking, empowerment of the individuals against smoking from the very childhood, consideration of familial stress and crisis, and ultimately, paying attention to the role of social variables will play a major role in prevention of smoking and encouraging individuals to quit smoking. PMID:25349865

Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jafar

2014-01-01

93

Pharmacist educators in family medicine residency programs: A qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background 25-29% of North American family medicine residency programs utilize a pharmacist to teach residents. Little is known about the impact that these pharmacist educators have on residency training. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of residents, residency directors and pharmacists within Canadian family medicine residency programs that employ a pharmacist educator to better understand the impact of the role. Methods Recruitment from three cohorts (residents, residency directors, pharmacists) within family medicine residency programs across Canada for one-on-one semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis of anonymized transcript data. Results 11 residents, 6 residency directors and 17 pharmacist educators participated in interviews. Data themes were: (1) strong value of the teaching with respect to improved resident knowledge, confidence and patient care delivery; (2) lack of a formal pharmacotherapy curriculum; (3) desire for expansion of pharmacist teaching; (4) impact of teaching on collaboration; (5) impact of teaching on residency program faculty; and (6) lack of criticism of the role. Conclusions The pharmacist educator role is valued within residency programs across Canada and the role has a positive impact on several important aspects of family medicine resident training. Suggestions for improvement focused on expanding the teaching role and on implementing a formal curriculum for pharmacist educators to follow. PMID:22883928

2012-01-01

94

Qualitative Spatial Reasoning with theALCI RCC Family - First Results and Unanswered Questions y  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Introduction and Motivation In this report we introduce a family of description logics (DLs) suitable for qualitative spatial representation and reasoning tasks. We demonstrate the usefulness of the pro- posed DLs for representing and reasoning about qualitative spatial phenomena with an example from the realm of deductive Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The main contribution of this report is the

Michael Wessel

95

Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

96

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.  

PubMed

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication. PMID:14769454

Graneheim, U H; Lundman, B

2004-02-01

97

Software Safety Analysis of Digital Protection System Requirements Using a Qualitative Formal Method  

SciTech Connect

The safety analysis of requirements is a key problem area in the development of software for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When specifying requirements for software of the digital protection systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers find that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault-tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. A framework for the requirements engineering process is proposed that consists of a qualitative method for requirements specification, called the qualitative formal method (QFM), and a safety analysis method for the requirements based on causality information, called the causal requirements safety analysis (CRSA). CRSA is a technique that qualitatively evaluates causal relationships between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending the qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and the relationship among them. The QFM and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital protection system example.

Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kee-Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sung-Deok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2004-08-15

98

A Qualitative Analysis of the Decision-Making Process for Patients with Severe Lower Leg Trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Choosing the appropriate treatment for grade IIIB and IIIC open tibial fractures is a difficult decision for both the patient and the physician. Current research shows that the functional outcomes for reconstruction are similar to those for below-knee amputation, but little investigation of the qualitative outcomes of either treatment option has been done from the patient perspective. This study was designed to perform a qualitative analysis of patient preferences for amputation or reconstruction. Methods 20 patients with type IIIB or IIIC open tibial fractures participated in the study. These patients had undergone either amputation or reconstruction between 1997 and 2007. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and qualitative outcomes were assessed. Results Interviews highlighted several issues involved with medical decision-making. Participants described not having a role in deciding which medical treatment to choose. Family and spouses played a greater role, often due to patients’ being medicated when needing to make a treatment choice. Both amputation and reconstruction patients described being satisfied with the outcomes of their surgical treatments, but also expressed second thoughts about their treatment choices. Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize how difficult it is to assign preference to one medical treatment over another. The study reveals how the role of the patient is limited in making a decision about pursuing amputation or reconstruction. Instead there is a continued need for physicians to discuss treatment options and risks with family members who act on the patient’s behalf, as well as incorporating the patient’s preference in this complex decision. PMID:20697318

Aravind, Maya; Shauver, Melissa J.; Chung, Kevin C.

2010-01-01

99

Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

2007-01-01

100

Age-related decline in prostacyclin synthesis by human aortic endothelial cells. Qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the functional alteration of human aortic endothelial cells with aging, prostacyclin synthesis was qualitatively and quantitatively examined. The endothelial cells of human aortas and umbilical veins or inferior vena cavae were immunohistochemically examined and found positive for prostacyclin, but the intensity of aortic endothelial cells from older subjects was low. In addition to the endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells in the thickened intima, not the media, of the aorta were also immunoreactive. Endothelial cells were successfully cultured from human aortas obtained from infants through aged subjects and were subdivided into three groups: young, middle, and old. Prostacyclin synthesis by endothelial cells from all types of blood vessels was extremely great at the primary culture, but decreased abruptly in the following subcultures. Among the aortic endothelial cells, the young group synthesized the largest amount of prostacyclin in a conventional culture condition, with synthesis progressively decreasing in the older groups. The in vitro prostacyclin biosynthesis was supported by the qualitative analysis on the tissue sections. These results indicate that prostacyclin synthesis of the aortic endothelial cells decreases with age, but intimal smooth muscle cells potentially have a back-up mechanism and substitute this synthesis to some extent. The decreased synthesis of prostacyclin with age may play an important role in the development and advancement of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1707240

Tokunaga, O.; Yamada, T.; Fan, J. L.; Watanabe, T.

1991-01-01

101

A Qualitative Analysis of User Experiences With a Self-Tracker for Activity, Sleep, and Diet  

PubMed Central

Background The recent increase in chronic diseases and an aging population warrant the necessity of health self-management. As small electronic devices that track one’s activity, sleep, and diet, called self-trackers, are being widely distributed, it is prudent to investigate the user experience and the effectiveness of these devices, and use the information toward engineering better devices that would result in increased efficiency and usability. Objective The aim of this study was to abstract the constructs that constitute the user experiences of the self-tracker for activity, sleep, and diet. Additionally, we aimed to develop and verify the Health Information Technology Acceptance Model-II (HITAM-II) through a qualitative data analysis approach. Methods The study group consisted of 18 female college students who participated in an in-depth interview after completing a 3-month study of utilizing a self-tracker designed to monitor activity, sleep, and diet. The steps followed in the analysis were: (1) extraction of constructs from theoretical frameworks, (2) extraction of constructs from interview data using a qualitative methodology, and (3) abstraction of constructs and modeling of the HITAM-II. Results The constructs that constitute the HITAM-II are information technology factors, personal factors, social factors, attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior. These constructs are further divided into subconstructs to additionally support the HITAM-II. Conclusions The HITAM-II was found to successfully describe the health consumer’s attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior from another perspective. The result serves as the basis for a unique understanding of the user experiences of HIT. PMID:24594898

2014-01-01

102

Visual Education Textbooks in the 1920s: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploration of the origins of educational communications and technology as a field focuses on the 1920s when the visual education movement first appeared. An explanation of the study precedes separate reviews of 13 primary sources--i.e., visual education textbooks--and draws on them to provide evidence for an analysis of the ideas and forces…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

103

Information technology repositories and knowledge management processes : A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of information technology repositories (ITR) in the implementation of KM processes, i.e. knowledge storage and retrieval. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study design is used. Data are collected through the use of individual semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Findings – This study found that three factors were likely

Massimo Franco; Stefania Mariano

2007-01-01

104

A Qualitative Analysis of the Lesbian Connection's Discussion Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letters submitted to the discussion forum of the Lesbian Connection between 2000 and 2002 were analyzed to identify issues of importance to lesbians. The analysis revealed 5 discussion categories: (a) isolation, safety, and aging; (b) children; (c) lesbian relationships and sexuality; (d) physical and mental health; and (e) political issues. The…

Erwin,Terry McVannel

2006-01-01

105

Library Research as Fieldwork: A Strategy for Qualitative Content Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops Glaser and Strauss' (1967) suggestion that fieldwork techniques may be successfully adapted for content analysis research. Discusses relative advantages of literature and traditional fieldwork sites, and initial stages of doing fieldwork at literature sites; demonstrates method used through an evaluation of the hypothesis that prejudice…

Glassner, Barry; Corzine, Jay

1982-01-01

106

Thematic Analysis of Iranian Female Adolescents’ Perceptions About HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate common opinions and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Iranian teenager girls. Methods: This Qualitative study (face-to-face interviews with tape recording) was conducted among fifty female teenager school students in Urmia-Iran. Results: The thematic analysis indicated the main information sources for HIV/AIDS among teenage girls to be their mother and teachers. The participants had little concern about the dissemination of HIV/AIDS in Iran. Using a common syringe is mentioned as the main risk factor for HIV transmission. There were some misconceptions about the at-risk group among teenage girls. Conclusions: Considering the misconceptions among the teenage girls, their beliefs should be reformed and reorganized in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV. The best practice is training life skills in the school level. PMID:23671782

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; FayyazJahani, Farshid; Ahmadnezhad, Somayyeh; Karamyyar, Mohammad; BazarganHejazi, Shahrzad

2013-01-01

107

Experiences of disability consumer-directed care users in Australia: results from a longitudinal qualitative study.  

PubMed

The rapidly growing body of literature suggests that Consumer-directed Care (CDC) has the potential to empower consumers and improve the flexibility and quality of care. However, reports highlighting quality and risk concerns associated with CDC focusing on a longer time frame have been few. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative longitudinal evaluation of an Australian CDC programme. Focusing on the period between 2003 and 2008, it reports on the experiences of 12 families caring for a dependent family member. It is based on two external evaluations completed 6 and 36 months after enrollment, and one internal evaluation completed 48 months after enrollment. The findings were triangulated with internal memos, reports and minutes of meetings, as well as with the theoretical literature. The study demonstrates that CDC harbours considerable benefits for people with disabilities and their carers. However, the study also suggests that, over time, carers may experience an increased sense of isolation and lack of support as a result of their involvement in the CDC programme. The paper argues that the development of safeguards addressing these weaknesses is crucial for the sustainability of CDC programmes in contexts where risk cannot be simply transferred onto consumers. PMID:19689678

Ottmann, Goetz; Laragy, Carmel; Haddon, Michelle

2009-09-01

108

Gravitational microlensing of a reverberating quasar broad-line region - I. Method and qualitative results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission-line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a 'flare') passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disc - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensing, while not strong, can produce significant observable effects that will help in differentiating the properties of BELRs. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI: ), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.

Garsden, H.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.

2011-12-01

109

Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

Lüdecke, Daniel

2014-01-01

110

An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a revised laboratory set-up for performing flame tests that enables students to pay more attention to the results of the tests and less attention to the manipulation of equipment. Employs a watch glass to add the analytical solutions to the flame. (DDR)

Bare, William D.; Bradley, Tom; Pulliam, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

111

PRODIAG -- Dynamic qualitative analysis for process fault diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a method for handling the dynamic effects of process component malfunctions through time-independent rule-based diagnostic systems. The method`s theory is discussed and a simplified version is implemented in the process diagnostic expert system PRODIAG. Simulation results from a full-scope operator training simulator of a nuclear power plant are used to illustrate the method.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1995-06-01

112

Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene  

E-print Network

We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

2014-05-11

113

Qualitative analysis and characterization of two cosmologies including scalar fields  

E-print Network

The problem of dark energy can be roughly stated as the proposition and validation of a cosmological model that can explain the phenomenon of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. This problem is an open discussion topic in modern physics. One of the most common approaches is that of the "Dark Energy" (DE), a matter component still unknown, with repulsive character (to explain the accelerated expansion), which fills about 2/3 of the total content of the Universe. In this thesis are investigated two cosmological models, a non-minimally coupled quintessence field, based on a Scalar-Tensor Theory of gravity, formulated in the Einstein's frame, and a quintom dark energy model, based on General Relativity. A normalization and parametrization procedure is introduced for each model, in order to investigate the flow properties of an associated autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. In our study are combined topological, analytical and numerical techniques. We are mainly interested in the past dynamics. However, some results concerning the intermediate and future dynamics are discussed. The mathematical results obtained have an immediate interpretation in the cosmological context.

Genly Leon

2014-12-17

114

Preservice Teacher Preparation for Managing Problem Behaviors: An Interpretive Qualitative Analysis of the Classroom Management Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the content of a required classroom management course to determine how preservice teachers are prepared for managing problem behaviors. Qualitative content analysis of interviews with four adjunct classroom management course instructors, their course syllabi, textbooks, assignments and projects, ancillary course…

Dunn, Sandra Hall

2009-01-01

115

Sensitivity analysis of a hierarchical qualitative model for sustainability assessment of cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity Analysis (SA) was performed on the MASC model (Multi-attribute Assessment of the Sustainability of Cropping systems), a hierarchical qualitative model built to assess the sustainability of cropping systems developed under a decision support tool called DEXi. Three approaches were tested to perform a first-order SA assuming a fixed model structure and no correlation among input variables: (i) factorial designs

Marta Carpani; Jacques-Eric Bergez; Hervé Monod

116

Combining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social interactions  

E-print Network

appropriate methods of evaluation that let Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science 3 September 2002 #12 on the individual rather than on the social perspective. Therefore, we are now completing the evaluation methodCombining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social

Boyer, Edmond

117

Development of a polarized microscopic image management system for supporting asbestos qualitative analysis utilizing dispersion staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes development of an automated polarized microscopic image management system for supporting qualitative analysis of asbestos. Dispersion staining is a visual observation method. Experts count all particles in the microscope view and also the number of the fibrous asbestos fibers. For supporting this work, we are developing an automated system to ease experts' burdens for efficient observation. The

Y. Tsubota; K. Kawabata; H. Yamazaki; K. Hotta; H. Asama; H. Mizoguchi; H. Takahashi; T. Mishima

2009-01-01

118

Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

Hauser, Laura

2013-01-01

119

Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

2003-01-01

120

Configural analysis of the drinking man: fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses.  

PubMed

The study here presents multiple configurations (i.e., causal recipes) of antecedents associating with heavy drinking using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Using national survey data (United States), intermediate solutions of fsQCA analyses yield high consistency and modest coverage in identifying heavy-drinking groups. PMID:22178601

Eng, Sereikhuoch; Woodside, Arch G

2012-04-01

121

On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

2010-01-01

122

Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition  

E-print Network

Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition Elena De Angelis(1. Moreover, competition with the immune system starts if tumor cells are recognized by immune cells to the immune response to the evolution of the progression of endothe- lial cells which have lost

Jabin, Pierre-Emmanuel

123

BioSystems xxx (2006) xxxxxx Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray  

E-print Network

BioSystems xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray data:10.1016/j.biosystems.2005.10.006 BIO-2511; No. of Pages 22 #12;2 A. Siegel et al. / BioSystems xxx (2006) xxx­xxx tinuous and discrete models is made by piecewise linear differential models (de Jong et

Radulescu, Ovidiu

124

Choosing Qualitative Data Analysis Software: Atlas\\/ti and Nudist Compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing between Nudist and Atlas\\/ti, the main qualitative data analysis software packages can be difficult. To assist researchers in making this choice, I have conceptualised their differences along two dimensions, related to the qualities of the software and of the research project. The software dimension is structural design, and the project dimension is complexity. Software structure is dichotomised between structured,

Christine Barry

1998-01-01

125

Constructing Differences: A Qualitative Analysis of Teachers' Perspectives on Linguistic and Cultural Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How teachers and students work together through discourse to construct their understanding of the context they live and work in will influence, in many different ways, the interaction within their classrooms. This article will describe a qualitative discourse analysis--involving three different groups of teachers--which focused on the way in which…

Dooly, Melinda

2007-01-01

126

A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

2011-01-01

127

A Qualitative Organic Analysis that Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then…

Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

2007-01-01

128

Qualitative Analysis of Distributed Physical Systems with Applications to Control Synthesis \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Qualitative Analysis of Distributed Physical Systems with Applications to Control Synthesis \\Lambda fields. Analyzing and controlling these physical processes and systems are common tasks in many and controllability. This paper develops an ontological abstraction and a structure­based design mechanism

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

129

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning.  

E-print Network

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine is the identification of solvents into chlorinated or non-chlorinated. In this work we have used Raman spectroscopy. Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, hazardous materials, chlorinated solvents, non-chlorinated solvents

Madden, Michael

130

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

1969-01-01

131

On qualitative and quantitative analysis in analyser-based imaging.  

PubMed

Using rigorous wave-optical formalism, a general expression is obtained for the image intensity distribution in combined analyser-based/propagation-based phase-contrast imaging. This expression takes into account partial coherence of the wave incident on the object as well as the finite resolution of the detector system. Using this general expression, two approaches based on the geometrical optics and weak-object approximations are applied to derive simple solutions to the inverse problem of reconstruction of the phase and amplitude of the object wave. With the help of numerical experiments, the two approaches are compared in terms of their validity conditions and are shown to impose certain restrictions on the properties of the object wave. In particular, it is shown that violation of the validity conditions of the geometrical optics or weak-object approximations results in the appearance of strong reconstruction artefacts in the transmitted intensity near the edges of the objects. The effect of the incident wavefront non-uniformity due to imperfections of the imaging set-up on image formation and phase/amplitude reconstruction is also discussed. A solution to this problem is proposed in the form of a multi-image phase/amplitude reconstruction algorithm based on the geometrical optics approximation. This algorithm and an algorithm based on the weak-object approximation are applied to simulated and experimental images of fibres. PMID:16788269

Nesterets, Ya I; Coan, P; Gureyev, T E; Bravin, A; Cloetens, P; Wilkins, S W

2006-07-01

132

Behavioral determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: A qualitative directed content analysis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. METHODS This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. RESULTS Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. CONCLUSION Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors. PMID:25161674

Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

133

Employing Online S-P Diagnostic Table for Qualitative Comments on Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major concerns of adaptive testing studies have concentrated on effectiveness and efficiency of the system built for the research experiments. It has been criticised that such general information has fallen short of providing qualitative descriptions regarding learning performance. Takahiro Sato of Japan proposed an analytical diagram called…

Wang, Chien-hwa; Chen, Cheng-ping

2013-01-01

134

Evidence-based Practice Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the strategies used to implement the evidence-based practices of supported employment and integrated\\u000a dual diagnosis treatment. Using qualitative research methods, the study uncovered eight strategies that contributed to successful\\u000a implementation in six sites.

Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Rob Whitley

2008-01-01

135

Exploring Dynamics of Abusive Lesbian Relationships: Preliminary Analysis of a Multisite, Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results from a multisite, qualitative study on violence in lesbian relationships. A framework for conducting community-based, empowerment research that draws on theories of community psychology, feminism, and postmodernism is presented. The study was designed to understand the dynamics of abusive lesbian relationships and social service providers' responses to the abuse. Results from 80 in-depth interviews with

Janice L. Ristock

2003-01-01

136

Including Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the 2008 CMS Payment Policy: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Research Summary Background With its 2008 reimbursement policy change, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sought to link payment and quality. CMS stopped reimbursing hospitals for additional treatment costs due to hospital-acquired conditions, such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Little is yet known about the impact of this policy. Objective To examine stakeholders’ views about the inclusion of CAUTIs in the 2008 CMS payment policy and its potential impact on hospital practices. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of infection preventionists. This included 36 infection preventionists from a purposive sample of non-federal, acute care U.S. hospitals. An interview guide refined through iterative development was used, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded thematically. Qualitative methodology employed grounded theory tools, including open coding and constant comparative analysis. Results Two main themes emerged: 1) participants’ attitudes toward the inclusion of CAUTIs in the CMS policy, including issues of the infection’s significance, opportunity costs, and financial incentives; and 2) participants’ views about advances in clinical organizational behaviors and limited defensive practice. Conclusions Equivocal attitudes toward CMS’ policy targeting CAUTIs were somewhat discordant with the reported improvements in CAUTI prevention in response to the policy. Perhaps “stick” pay-for-performance policies can complement “carrot” policies in coaxing quality improvement. To support such a conclusion, the field needs more research on multiple stakeholders’ views on other selected hospital-acquired conditions in the policy. CMS could also benefit from continued feedback from stakeholders on the policy and its perceived consequences. Level of Evidence – VI (Polit & Beck, 2012) PMID:23556374

Palmer, Jennifer A.; Lee, Grace M.; Dutta-Linn, M. Maya; Wroe, Peter; Hartmann, Christine W.

2014-01-01

137

Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in systematic reviews of complex interventions: a worked example  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews that address policy and practice questions in relation to complex interventions frequently need not only to assess the efficacy of a given intervention but to identify which intervention - and which intervention components - might be most effective in particular situations. Here, intervention replication is rare, and commonly used synthesis methods are less useful when the focus of analysis is the identification of those components of an intervention that are critical to its success. Methods Having identified initial theories of change in a previous analysis, we explore the potential of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to assist with complex syntheses through a worked example. Developed originally in the area of political science and historical sociology, a QCA aims to identify those configurations of participant, intervention and contextual characteristics that may be associated with a given outcome. Analysing studies in these terms facilitates the identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for the outcome to be obtained. Since QCA is predicated on the assumption that multiple pathways might lead to the same outcome and does not assume a linear additive model in terms of changes to a particular condition (that is, it can cope with ‘tipping points’ in complex interventions), it appears not to suffer from some of the limitations of the statistical methods often used in meta-analysis. Results The worked example shows how the QCA reveals that our initial theories of change were unable to distinguish between ‘effective’ and ‘highly effective’ interventions. Through the iterative QCA process, other intervention characteristics are identified that better explain the observed results. Conclusions QCA is a promising alternative (or adjunct), particularly to the standard fall-back of a ‘narrative synthesis’ when a quantitative synthesis is impossible, and should be considered when reviews are broad and heterogeneity is significant. There are very few examples of its use with systematic review data at present, and further methodological work is needed to establish optimal conditions for its use and to document process, practice, and reporting standards. PMID:24950727

2014-01-01

138

Experiences of Academic Members About their Professional Challenges: a Content Analysis Qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: University faculty members of different disciplines in any country, by giving better quality services, will further accelerate the development of their respective countries. This study aims to explore the experiences of faculty members about their professional challenges. Aim: In this qualitative study, which was conducted in 2013, fifteen faculty members in the departments of clinical and basic sciences of Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences in northern Iran were chosen for semi-structured in-depth interviews by purposive sampling method. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and content analysis was performed. Results: After immersion and data analysis, three main themes were emerged including: “Imbalances in academic members’ tasks in different areas”, “Weakness of evaluation and promotion system” and “Failure to provide the infrastructure educational facilities”. The main themes and sub-themes are explained by the help of participants’ direct quotations. Conclusions: This study suggested that it is better to take effective measures to improve the faculty members’ situation and therefore increase their efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. PMID:24825939

Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Danesh, Mahmonier

2014-01-01

139

Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner. PMID:25512837

Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

140

Race and Older Mothers’ Differentiation: A Sequential Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a process by which qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined to reveal patterns in the data that are unlikely to be detected and confirmed by either method alone. Specifically, we take a sequential approach to combining qualitative and quantitative data to explore race differences in how mothers differentiate among their adult children. We began with a standard multivariate analysis examining race differences in mothers’ differentiation among their adult children regarding emotional closeness and confiding. Finding no race differences in this analysis, we conducted an in-depth comparison of the Black and White mothers’ narratives to determine whether there were underlying patterns that we had been unable to detect in our first analysis. Using this method, we found that Black mothers were substantially more likely than White mothers to emphasize interpersonal relationships within the family when describing differences among their children. In our final step, we developed a measure of familism based on the qualitative data and conducted a multivariate analysis to confirm the patterns revealed by the in-depth comparison of the mother’s narratives. We conclude that using such a sequential mixed methods approach to data analysis has the potential to shed new light on complex family relations. PMID:21967639

Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Riffin, Catherine; Taylor-Watson, Kadari; Pillemer, Karl

2011-01-01

141

Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits  

SciTech Connect

Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-08-01

142

Content Analysis and Qualitative Study of Hemodialysis Patients, Family Experience and Perceived Social Support  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatments such as hemodialysis prolong the life of chronic renal failure disease patients who must tolerate many physical, emotional, social and economic difficulties. Therefore, social support is considered as a vital area of investigation for such patients. Objectives: In this qualitative research, a grounded theory approach was used and written as a content analysis form to study hemodialysis patients and family experience of perceived social support. Patients and Methods: Three nurses, 4 general practitioners, a specialist and two family members who participated were interviewed from April to September 2012 in Urmia, Iran. Interviews were guided to divulge the perception of changes in their lives, needs for social support for disease complications, and the type of treatment process. Purposive sampling continued up to data saturation. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin Method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: The research results are shown in 3 steps. In the first step, 113 categories and four main themes from 993 first codes were explored. Social support was explored based on the implications of five general themes including “Perceived Threats Caused by Disease Complications”, “Searching for Social Support”, “Accessible Social Support”, “Beliefs and Values”, and “Perceived Social Support”. Conclusions: The core variable of our research is acceptance of the reality of the conditions caused by the disease. The research finalized our knowledge about patient problems regarding social support and revealed many problems of supporting patients by Health Team Members, family members and organizations. The findings suggest that individual aspects of patient experiences must be considered if social support is to be given and Healthcare Providers have to facilitate positive health services. PMID:24829767

Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Habibzadeh, Hosein

2014-01-01

143

HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

Cimpoiu, Claudia

144

Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents’ and physicians’ experiences of stillbirth–a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate. In the months and years following a stillbirth, these parents continue to memorialize their children as part of their family. Conclusions Hospitals need to examine the physical environment for deliveries and, wherever possible, offer designated private areas with staff trained in stillbirth care. Training programs in obstetrics need to better address the bereavement needs of parents following a stillbirth, and research is needed to evaluate effective bereavement interventions, accounting for cultural variation. Critical improvements are also needed for mental health support beyond hospitalization. Finally, medical professionals and parents can play an important role in reversing the stigma that surrounds stillbirth. PMID:23181615

2012-01-01

145

A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32 months) had no significant effect on sanitation conditions. Conclusions Findings corroborate those from a similar study in Belize, and comparison suggests the need for financial community support and the possibly tenuous reliance on local champions in the absence of adequate government support for operations and maintenance. Sub-determinants to the necessary conditions are also discussed which have implications for school sanitation in Bangladesh and may have broader relevance for other low-income countries though further research is needed. PMID:24397540

2014-01-01

146

Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. Methods The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Results Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients’ perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Conclusions Patients’ perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially reduce access barriers for those who might not otherwise consider using acupuncture. In addition, the community acupuncture model may offer individuals the opportunity for increased frequency of treatments, which raises pertinent questions about the dose–response relationship of acupuncture and health outcomes. This study provides preliminary data for future evaluations of the quality and effectiveness of community acupuncture. Future studies should include the perspectives of patients who initiated, and subsequently, discontinued community acupuncture treatment. PMID:24168022

2013-01-01

147

Evidence-based health information from the users’ perspective – a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based information is a precondition for informed decision-making and participation in health. There are several recommendations and definitions available on the generation and assessment of so called evidence-based health information for patients and consumers (EBHI). They stress the importance of objectively informing people about benefits and harms and any uncertainties in health-related procedures. There are also studies on the comprehensibility, relevance and user-friendliness of these informational materials. But to date there has been little research on the perceptions and cognitive reactions of users or lay people towards EBHI. The aim of our study is to define the spectrum of consumers’ reaction patterns to written EBHI in order to gain a deeper understanding of their comprehension and assumptions, as well as their informational needs and expectations. Methods This study is based on an external user evaluation of EBHI produced by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), commissioned by the IQWiG. The EBHI were examined within guided group discussions, carried out with lay people. The test readers’ first impressions and their appraisal of the informational content, presentation, structure, comprehensibility and effect were gathered. Then a qualitative text analysis of 25 discussion transcripts involving 94 test readers was performed. Results Based on the qualitative text analysis a framework for reaction patterns was developed, comprising eight main categories: (i) interest, (ii) satisfaction, (iii) reassurance and trust, (iv) activation, (v) disinterest, (vi) dissatisfaction and disappointment, (vii) anxiety and worry, (viii) doubt. Conclusions Many lay people are unfamiliar with core characteristics of this special information type. Two particularly critical issues are the description of insufficient evidence and the attendant absence of clear-cut recommendations. Further research is needed to examine strategies to explain the specific character of EBHI so as to minimize unintended or adverse reaction patterns. The presented framework describes the spectrum of users’ reaction patterns to EBHI. It may support existing best practice models for editing EBHI. PMID:24112403

2013-01-01

148

Developing methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chelidonium majus herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure compound has been isolated and identified as coptisine on the basis of UV and NMR spectroscopy data using preparative\\u000a separation of the extract from greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) herbs by column chromatography over short columns of silica gel. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of the total\\u000a alkaloid contents in C. majus is performed using TLC analysis and spectrophotometry

E. S. Artamonova; V. A. Kurkin

2008-01-01

149

New ways in qualitative and quantitative protein analysis: Nano chromatography coupled to element mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which allows element-specific detection of heteroelements (e.g. Se and S) incorporated in protein structures, is highlighted for sensitive qualitative and quantitative protein analysis. ICP-MS coupled to separation techniques such as size exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis (via laser ablation) can be employed at different steps in the proteomic workflow. Special emphasis is

Dirk Schaumlöffel

2007-01-01

150

Managing menopause: a qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a qualitative social constructionist analysis that aims to examine the ways in which menopause and women's bodies are represented in self-help texts. In particular, we aim to compare texts with a more traditional ‘medical’ approach and others taking a more ‘woman-centred’ perspective. Four diverse self-help books on menopause and HRT available in England were analysed to

Antonia C. Lyons; Christine Griffin

2003-01-01

151

The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

2004-11-01

152

Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

2013-01-01

153

Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

2014-01-01

154

Qualitative Analysis of Herbs by Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry (GC\\/MS). An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory exercise to be used in an undergraduate instrumental methods course is presented for the qualitative analysis of interesting real-world herbal extracts. The objective of this experiment is to familiarize students with a modern experimental method gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS).

JEREMY TIPTON; TICIA BARNICKI; EUGENE T. SMITH

1998-01-01

155

A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

2014-01-01

156

A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

2012-01-01

157

The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

Anyan, Frederick

2013-01-01

158

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Systems and Synthetic Biology Constructs using P Systems.  

PubMed

Computational models are perceived as an attractive alternative to mathematical models (e.g., ordinary differential equations). These models incorporate a set of methods for specifying, modeling, testing, and simulating biological systems. In addition, they can be analyzed using algorithmic techniques (e.g., formal verification). This paper shows how formal verification is utilized in systems and synthetic biology through qualitative vs quantitative analysis. Here, we choose two well-known case studies: quorum sensing in P. aeruginosas and pulse generator. The paper reports verification analysis of two systems carried out using some model checking tools, integrated to the Infobiotics Workbench platform, where system models are based on stochastic P systems. PMID:25090609

Konur, Savas; Gheorghe, Marian; Dragomir, Ciprian; Mierla, Laurentiu; Ipate, Florentin; Krasnogor, Natalio

2015-01-16

159

Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

2014-05-01

160

Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for Advancing Criminological Knowledge.  

PubMed

The qualitative analysis of individual cases has a prominent place in the development of criminological theory, yet progression in the scientific study of crime has largely been viewed as a distinctly quantitative endeavor. In the process, much of the theoretical depth and precision supplied by earlier methods of criminological knowledge production have been sacrificed. The current work argues for a return to our criminological roots by supplementing quantitative analyses with the qualitative inspection of individual cases. We provide a specific example of a literature (i.e., criminal specialization/versatility) that has become increasingly quantitative and could benefit from the use of the proposed approach. We conclude by offering additional areas of research that might be advanced by our framework presented here. PMID:25185679

Wright, Kevin A; Bouffard, Leana A

2014-09-01

161

A qualitative analysis of a consensus process to develop quality indicators of injury care  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus methodologies are often used to create evidence-based measures of healthcare quality because they incorporate both available evidence and expert opinion to fill gaps in the knowledge base. However, there are limited studies of the key domains that are considered during panel discussion when developing quality indicators. Methods We performed a qualitative content analysis of the discussions from a two-day international workshop of injury control and quality-of-care experts (19 panel members) convened to create a standardized set of quality indicators for injury care. The workshop utilized a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness method. Workshop proceedings were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used constant comparative analysis to analyze the transcripts of the workshop to identify key themes. Results We identified four themes in the selection, development, and implementation of standardized quality indicators: specifying a clear purpose and goal(s) for the indicators to ensure relevant data elements were included, and that indicators could be used for system-wide benchmarking and improving patient outcomes; incorporating evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives to identify important clinical problems and potential measurement challenges; considering context and variations between centers in the health system that could influence either the relevance or application of an indicator; and contemplating data collection and management issues, including availability of existing data sources, quality of data, timeliness of data abstraction, and the potential role for primary data collection. Conclusion Our study provides a description of the key themes of discussion among a panel of clinical, managerial, and data experts developing quality indicators. Consideration of these themes could help shape deliberation of future panels convened to develop quality indicators. PMID:23594974

2013-01-01

162

Qualitative analysis of aphid and primary parasitoid trophic relations of genus Alloxysta (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Charipinae).  

PubMed

Charipinae hyperparasitoids affect effectiveness of the primary parasitoids of aphids by decreasing their abundance and modifying their behavior. As a result, increase of aphid populations can cause severe yield losses in some crops. Therefore, ecological studies on the subfamily Charipinae have a great economical and biological importance. Host specificity of these hyperparasitoids is still under debate and for many Charipinae species very little is known about their trophic relations. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of the trophic relationships between the Charipinae species of the genus Alloxysta Förster and their aphid and primary parasitoids hosts, worldwide. Within this subfamily, Alloxysta arcuata (Kieffer), Alloxysta brevis (Thomson), Alloxysta fuscicornis (Hartig), and Alloxysta victrix (Westwood) are the most generalist species sharing many aphid hosts, while for primary parasitoid hosts these are A. arcuata, A. brevis, Alloxysta pleuralis (Cameron), and A. victrix. Alloxysta citripes (Thomson), Alloxysta halterata (Thomson), Alloxysta leunisii (Hartig), and Alloxysta ramulifera (Thomson) appear, up to now, as the most specialized in relation to the primary parasitoid hosts. Primary parasitoids of the genera Aphidius Nees, Lysiphlebus Förster, Praon Haliday, and Trioxys Haliday are the most common hosts for Alloxysta species, and the common host aphid species belong to the genera Aphis L., Uroleucon Mordvilko, Myzus Passerini, and Sitobion Mordvilko. Host range is analyzed for each Alloxysta species, as well as the extent of overlap between them. We used Jaccard's distance and a hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the host range dissimilarity. A permutation test has been applied to analyze if the host range dissimilarity is significantly different from what is expected by chance. We have calculated additional qualitative measures that complement well the Alloxysta niche overlap analysis and evaluated their host specificity using different indices and bipartite networks. PMID:25291146

Ferrer-Suay, Mar; Jankovi?, Marina; Selfa, Jesús; Van Veen, F J Frank; Tomanovi?, Željko; Kos, Katarina; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2014-12-01

163

Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. Objectives: This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Results: Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. Conclusions: The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status. PMID:25031848

Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

164

Simple optical method of qualitative assessment of sperm motility: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of quality of the sperm ejaculate is one of the most important steps in artificial fertilization procedure. The main aim of semen storage centres is to characterise the best semen quality for fertilization. Reliable information about sperm motility is also one the most important parameters for in vitro laboratory procedures. There exist very expensive automated methods for semen analysis but they are unachievable for most of laboratories and semen storage centres. Motivation for this study is to elaborate a simple, cheap, objective and repeatable method for semen motility assessment. The method enables to detect even small changes in motility introduced by medical, physical or chemical factors. To test the reliability of the method we used cryopreserved bull semen from Lowicz Semen Storage Centre. The examined sperm specimen was warmed in water bath and then centrifuged. The best semen was collected by the swim-up technique and diluted to a proper concentration. Several semen concentrations and dilutions were tested in order to find the best probe parameters giving repeatable results. For semen visualization we used the phase-contrast microscope with a CCD camera. A PC computer was used to acquire and to analyse the data. The microscope table equipped with a microscope glass pool 0.7mm deep instead of some conventional plane microscope slides was stabilised at the temperature of 37°C. The main idea of our method is based on a numerical processing of the optical contrast of the sperm images which illustrates the dynamics of the sperm cells movement and on appropriate analysis of a grey scale level of the superimposed images. An elaborated numerical algorithm allows us to find the relative amount of motile sperm cells. The proposed method of sperm motility assessment seems to be objective and repeatable.

Sozanska, Agnieszka; Kolwas, Krystyna; Galas, Jacek; Blocki, Narcyz; Czyzewski, Adam

2005-09-01

165

Group medical visits can deliver on patient-centred care objectives: results from a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-centred care emerged in the late 1960s as a framework to guide providers and decision-makers towards the provision of more effective health care and better outcomes. An important body of literature has since emerged, reporting mixed results in terms of outcomes. To date, assessments of the effectiveness of patient-centred approaches have focused one-on-one consultations. The purpose of this article is to explore dimensions identified as key in the patient-centred literature in the context of primary health care services delivered in a group setting. Group Medical Visits (GMVs) offer a novel format for the delivery of patient-centred primary health care services, especially for patients living with complex morbidities. Methods Drawing on a large study of GMVs, we report on key format and process-oriented elements identified in GMVs, and on their link to improved outcomes. For the purpose of this study, we interviewed 34 providers and 29 patients who have been engaged in GMVs, delivered in rural, northern and First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Results Our analysis shows that the delivery of PHC in a group format results in a shift in the role of the provider, from that of an adjudicator involved in imparting norms of self-care, to that of a facilitator who assists the group in defining norms of self-care that are based on medical knowledge but also on the broader context of patients’ lived experience and on their pragmatic experience. In a group process, peer-patients take on the role of promoting these norms to other patients. This results in a significant shift in the role of the provider, increased trust, increased knowledge for the providers and the patients and better patient self-management. Our results also show increase satisfaction for patients and providers. Conclusions GMVs offer an alternative format for the provision of PHC that brings together the benefit of a group process and of a clinical encounter. This format can successfully deliver on the promises of patient-centred care. PMID:23627609

2013-01-01

166

Qualitative task analysis to enhance sports characterization: a surfing case study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports' structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals' behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities' characterization through the observation, surfer's opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave's components and constraints and the surfboards' qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

2014-09-29

167

Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

2014-01-01

168

Qualitative analysis of parents’ experience of hearing loss of their school going children of a rural area of Nagpur  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Qualitative research methods provide a means of collecting and interpreting narrative or observational data about such interactions, leading to a deeper understanding of the process of health care delivery. This approach was used to clarify key themes from parents’ comments about challenges on paths to detect hearing impairment. Materials and Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design is used. In-depth interviews by using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGD) were held with parents, and other study groups. A study was conducted in Deaf Dum Rural School, Saoner, Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India. Purposive voluntary sampling is utilized. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews and FGD were conducted in private rooms. A FGD guide covered open-ended comments to the set of questions. Results: Parents of 65 children (59%) replied to the questionnaire. Out of them, 55 (85.6%) were the parents of school children resides in the hostel. The majority of the children have profound hearing impairment (75.86%). Theme analysis revealed perceptions about causes, ways, and means of early detection, and powerful emotions experienced by parents at FGD. Conclusions: Reaching beyond numerical analyses, qualitative studies allow for expression of junior doctors, Deaf and Dump School teacher and parents’ thoughts, feelings, and experiences. This study provides a means of collecting and interpreting narrative or observational data. PMID:23798944

Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre, Sushama S.; Alone, Swapnil

2012-01-01

169

Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.  

PubMed

This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed. PMID:24830187

Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

2014-01-01

170

A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

2013-01-01

171

Shame and self-acceptance in continued flux: qualitative study of the embodied experience of significant weight loss and removal of resultant excess skin by plastic surgery.  

PubMed

This study explored the embodied experience of body change using a qualitative design. Eight previous plastic surgery patients of a London hospital took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews 1 year post a plastic surgery procedure to remove excess skin around their abdomen, resulting from weight loss. Participant interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two sub-themes titled 'Shame of the hidden body' and 'Lack of acceptance; the future focused body' are presented in this article. Findings are considered in relation to theories of 'Body Shame' and in the current cultural context. PMID:23104996

Smith, Fran; Farrants, Jacqui R

2013-09-01

172

Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values.

Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

1995-09-01

173

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-09-04

174

A qualitative analysis of health professionals’ job descriptions for surgical service delivery in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The ever increasing demand for surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa is creating a need to increase the number of health workers able to provide surgical care. This calls for the optimisation of all available human resources to provide universal access to essential and emergency surgical services. One way of optimising already scarce human resources for health is by clarifying job descriptions to guide the scope of practice, measuring rewards/benefits for the health workers providing surgical care, and informing education and training for health professionals. This study set out to determine the scope of the mandate to perform surgical procedures in current job descriptions of surgical care health professionals in Uganda. Methods A document review was conducted of job descriptions for the health professionals responsible for surgical service delivery in the Ugandan Health care system. The job descriptions were extracted and subjected to a qualitative content data analysis approach using a text based RQDA package of the open source R statistical computing software. Results It was observed that there was no explicit mention of assignment of delivery of surgical services to a particular cadre. Instead the bulk of direct patient related care, including surgical attention, was assigned to the lower cadres, in particular the medical officer. Senior cadres were assigned to perform predominantly advisory and managerial roles in the health care system. In addition, a no cost opportunity to task shift surgical service delivery to the senior clinical officers was identified. Conclusions There is a need to specifically assign the mandate to provide surgical care tasks, according to degree of complexity, to adequately trained cadres of health workers. Health professionals’ current job descriptions are not explicit, and therefore do not adequately support proper training, deployment, defined scope of practice, and remuneration for equitable surgical service delivery in Uganda. Such deliberate assignment of mandates will provide a means of increasing surgical service delivery through further optimisation of the available human resources for health.

2014-01-01

175

What Leads Indians to Participate in Clinical Trials? A Meta-Analysis of Qualitative Studies  

PubMed Central

Background With the globalization of clinical trials, large developing nations have substantially increased their participation in multi-site studies. This participation has raised ethical concerns, among them the fear that local customs, habits and culture are not respected while asking potential participants to take part in study. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable among Indian subjects, since despite the large number of participants, little is known regarding what factors affect their willingness to participate in clinical trials. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies evaluating the factors and barriers, from the perspective of potential Indian participants, contributing to their participation in clinical trials. We searched both international as well as Indian-specific bibliographic databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane, Openjgate, MedInd, Scirus and Medknow, also performing hand searches and communicating with authors to obtain additional references. We enrolled studies dealing exclusively with the participation of Indians in clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted by three researchers, with disagreement being resolved by consensus. Results Six qualitative studies and one survey were found evaluating the main themes affecting the participation of Indian subjects. Themes included Personal health benefits, Altruism, Trust in physicians, Source of extra income, Detailed knowledge, Methods for motivating participants as factors favoring, while Mistrust on trial organizations, Concerns about efficacy and safety of trials, Psychological reasons, Trial burden, Loss of confidentiality, Dependency issues, Language as the barriers. Conclusion We identified factors that facilitated and barriers that have negative implications on trial participation decisions in Indian subjects. Due consideration and weightage should be assigned to these factors while planning future trials in India. PMID:20505754

Shah, Jatin Y.; Phadtare, Amruta; Rajgor, Dimple; Vaghasia, Meenakshi; Pradhan, Shreyasee; Zelko, Hilary; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

176

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the media – a qualitative content analysis of Norwegian newspapers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a condition characterized by experiencing symptoms after perceived exposure to weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs). There is substantial debate concerning the aetiology of EHS, but experimental data indicate no association between EHS and actual presence of EMFs. Newspapers play a key role in shaping peoples’ understanding of health-related issues. The aim of this study was to describe the content of newspaper articles concerning aetiology and treatment of EHS. Design Qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles. Setting Norwegian newspaper articles were identified using a comprehensive electronic media archive. Participants Norwegian newspaper articles published between 1 February 2006 and 11 August 2010. Main outcome measures Statements coded according to source of information, whether it was pro or con scientific evidence on EHS aetiology, and type of intervention presented as treatment option for EHS. Results Of the statements concerning EHS aetiology (n?=?196), 35% (n?=?69) were categorized as pro evidence, 65% (n?=?127) as con evidence. Of the statements about EHS interventions assessed, 78% (n?=?99) were categorized as ‘radiance reduction’, 4% (n?=?5) as ‘complementary medicine’, and 18% (n?=?23) as ‘other’. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychotropic drugs were never presented as possible treatment options for EHS. Conclusions The newspaper media discourse of EHS aetiology and recommended treatment interventions is much in conflict with the current evidence in the field. The majority of statements concerning aetiology convey that EHS is related to the presence of weak EMFs, and radiance reduction as the most frequently conveyed measure to reduce EHS-related symptoms. PMID:24319582

Huiberts, Åshild; Hjørnevik, Mari; Mykletun, Arnstein; Skogen, Jens C

2013-01-01

177

Qualitative aspects in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assessment of qualitative results in analytical methods is needed to estimate selectivity and devise criteria for chemical identification, particularly for mass spectrometric analysis. Low-pressure gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS) has been demonstrated to increase the speed of anal...

178

The effect of sample treatment on separation profiles of tear fluid proteins: Qualitative and semi-quantitative protein determination by an automated analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Qualitative and quantitative determination of tear fluid components is of increasing interest in ophthalmology. Until now, for diagnosis and course control of some diseases of the anterior parts of the eye, different methods for tear fluid protein analysis are available. Results can be obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), immunochemistry, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A new method for

Otto Schmut; Jutta Horwath-Winter; Andrea Zenker; Gabriele Trummer

2002-01-01

179

Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT). Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring), were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method), and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT constructs 'coherence' and 'cognitive participation' appeared to be crucial drivers in the initial stage of the process. Conclusions Stepped care for depression is received positively in primary care. While it is difficult for the implementation of a full stepped-care approach to occur within a short time frame, clinicians can make progress towards achieving a stepped-care approach, particularly within the context of a QIC. Creating a shared understanding within multidisciplinary teams of what constitutes depression, reaching a consensus about the content of depression care, and the division of tasks are important when addressing the implementation process. PMID:22293362

2012-01-01

180

Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

Franck, Bruno M.

1990-01-01

181

The experience of implementing evidence-based practice change: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) and ONS Foundation worked together to develop the Institute for Evidence-Based Practice Change (IEBPC) program to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) change in nursing. This analysis describes the experience of 19 teams of nurses from various healthcare settings who participated in the IEBPC program. Qualitative analysis of verbatim narratives of activities and observations during the process of implementing an EBP project was used to identify key themes in the experience. EBP implementation enabled participants to learn about their own practice and to experience empowerment through the evidence, and it ignited the spirit of inquiry, team work, and multidisciplinary collaboration. Experiences and lessons learned from nurses implementing EBP can be useful to others in planning EBP implementation. PMID:24080054

Irwin, Margaret M; Bergman, Rosalie M; Richards, Rebecca

2013-10-01

182

How can the results of a qualitative process evaluation be applied in management, improvement and modification of a preventive community trial? The IHHP Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study reports the results of the qualitative process evaluation (PE) of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), an integrated community-based trial for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Iran. Methods The study explored the overall quality of program implementation. The participants, including designers of IHHP, stakeholders and community members (n = 60) were purposefully recruited from the intervention areas. Data collected from semi-structured interviews and field notes were analyzed using a modified thematic analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. Our findings highlighted the key role of the resources as both facilitating and hindering factors. IHHP directors faced incompatibilities arising from negative perceptions/attitudes which resulted in decreased adherence to the program. Hence various strategies were used to motivate, strengthen and organize the human workforce implementing the program. Conclusion Recommendations arising from evaluation of the program were used in subsequent stages of implementation. Qualitative research is an important component of community trials which can improve their implementation. PMID:22958679

2011-01-01

183

Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack of practical tools to encourage behavioural change was a key barrier for obese parents. Conclusions Well-funded, targeted social marketing campaigns will play an important role in the prevention and management of obesity. It is important that these campaigns are comprehensively evaluated and are backed up with structural supports to enable and encourage population subgroups to act upon messages. PMID:24517101

2014-01-01

184

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-03-01

185

[Qualitative and quantitative analysis of various elements in chromite ore by ICP-AES].  

PubMed

Kind of the elements in chromite ore was firstly determined by ICP-AES. Twenty nine elements, such as Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Zn, Ca and Ni, were contained in the chromite sample based on the qualitative analysis. Then the contents of main elements Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, T, Si, Mn and V were measured. The chromite samples processing procedures have two steps, the first is decomposition by nitrate carbonate and sodium tetraborate at 950 degrees C for 30 min, then leaching by dilute hydrochloric acid at 80 degrees C for 10 min. The method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy with the RSDs between 0.48% and 2.05% and the recovery rates between 90.5% and 111.3%. PMID:20302125

Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Shi-li; Wang, Xiao-hui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

186

Q-Squared in Policy: The Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Poverty Analysis in Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory essay for the journal Symposium presents an overview of issues related to ‘Q-Squared in Policy: the use of qualitative and quantitative methods of poverty analysis in decision-making’. We focus on issues raised on the supply side of data use, relating, inter alia to the informational content and policy usefulness of different types of data and analysis. These issues

Paul Shaffer; Ravi Kanbur; Nguyen Thu Hang; Ellen Bortei-Doku Aryeetey

2009-01-01

187

Systems-Level Lipid Analysis Methodologies for Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Lipid Signaling Events During Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating evidence implicates a prominent role for lipid signaling molecules in the regulation of wound healing. These lipids regulate hemostasis, onset and resolution of inflammation, migration and proliferation cells, angiogenesis, epithelialization, and remodeling of collagen. The objective of this overview is to demonstrate the applicability of systems level lipid analyses to identify and quantify lipid involved in events leading to wound healing. Approach Current advances in liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have provided the means for carrying out quantitative and qualitative analysis of lipids at a systems level. This emerging field is collectively referred to as lipidomics and its potential in wound healing research is largely ignored. Results While comprehensive applications of lipidomics in wound healing are limited, studies carried out by the authors as well as others demonstrate distinct changes in the lipidome during the wound healing process. Innovation Until recently, investigations into lipids were limited to the study of a few lipids at a time. Lipidomics approaches provide the capability to quantitatively and qualitatively assay almost the full complement of lipid signaling circuits at the same time. This allows obtaining a system level understanding of changes to the entire lipidome during the wound healing process. Conclusion The technology provides promising approach to understanding new signaling pathways based on lipids involved in wound healing. The understanding gained from such studies has the potential for the development of novel lipid based treatment strategies to promote wound healing. PMID:24527363

Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Chalfant, Charles E.

2013-01-01

188

[Comparative analysis of agronomic and qualitative characters in different lines of Dendrobium denneanum].  

PubMed

To provide theoretical basis for breeding good variety of Dendrobium denneanum, agronomic and qualitative characters of 4 different lines and relationships among them were studied. The stem length, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, length/ width ratio and leaf area were measured. The single fresh and dry stem was weighed and drying rate was calculated. The contents of polysaccharides and total alkaloids were determined by sulfuric acid-phenol colorimetry and acid-dye colorimetry, respectively. The correlations between characters were analyzed. The results showed that differences in major agronomic characters between four lines were significant. The plant types of dq-1 and dq-2 were higher, dq-3 was medium and dq-4 was lower. The fresh weigh of stem and content of polysaccharides were the highest in dq-2, 7.81 g and 14.33%. While the highest content of total alkaloids and was 0. 486% in dq-3. There were significant correlations between agronomic characters, but these characters had low or non correlations with qualitative characters such as polysaccharides and total alkaloids. It was shown that the content of polysaccharides and total alkaloids were significantly different among 4 lines of D. denneanum, which could be selected for different uses. PMID:21046745

He, Tao; Deng, Li; Lin, Yuan; Li, Bo; Yang, Xiaofan; Wang, Fang; Chun, Ze

2010-08-01

189

Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

2014-01-01

190

New ways in qualitative and quantitative protein analysis: nano chromatography coupled to element mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which allows element-specific detection of heteroelements (e.g. Se and S) incorporated in protein structures, is highlighted for sensitive qualitative and quantitative protein analysis. ICP-MS coupled to separation techniques such as size exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis (via laser ablation) can be employed at different steps in the proteomic workflow. Special emphasis is made on the couplings of capillary and nanoHPLC to ICP-MS that required the development of dedicated interfaces. Element-specific peptide mapping by nanoHPLC-ICP-MS has turned out to be a key technique in combination with peptide sequencing via nanoHPLC-electrospray MS. This could impressively be demonstrated for the identification of selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast. Furthermore the potential of sulfur isotope dilution analysis in nanoHPLC-ICP-MS is presented as generic tool for highly accurate, absolute protein quantification. PMID:18039489

Schaumlöffel, Dirk

2007-01-01

191

Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty’s eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Results Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the “Attitudes and Traits” or “Beliefs and Values” dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). Conclusion We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan. PMID:24726054

2014-01-01

192

Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

193

From Print to Pixels: Practitioners' Reflections on the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studied how individual qualitative researchers perceive that their research procedures and perspectives have been influenced by the adoption of computer assisted qualitative data software. The study focused on Nud*Ist software (non-numerical Unstructured Data; Indexing, Searching, and Theorizing). The seven participants ranged from new…

Gilbert, Linda S.

194

Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

Murakami, Yusuke

2013-01-01

195

Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

Christina Goulding

2005-01-01

196

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

197

Analysis of EUVE Experiment Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tests to validate an antenna pointing concept for spin-stabilized satellites using a data relay satellite are described. These tests show that proper antenna pointing on an inertially-stabilized spacecraft can lead to significant access time through the relay satellite even without active antenna pointing. We summarize the test results, the simulations to model the effects of antenna pattern and space loss, and the expected contact times. We also show how antenna beam width affects the results.

Horan, Stephen

1996-01-01

198

Functional MR imaging of the motor cortex in healthy volunteers and patients with brain tumours: qualitative and quantitative results.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the motor cortex in healthy volunteers and patients with brain tumours. Functional MR imaging was performed in 14 healthy volunteers and 14 patients with tumours in or near the primary motor cortex with groups being matched for age, sex, and handedness. Functional images were acquired during motion of the right and left hand. Time courses of signal intensity within the contralateral, ipsilateral, and supplementary motor cortex as well as z-maps were calculated, their quality being assessed visually. Mean signal increase between activation and rest were evaluated within the contralateral, ipsilateral, and supplementary motor cortex, the activated area in those regions of interest was measured using z-maps. The quality of functional MR experiments was generally lower in patients than in volunteers. The quantitative results showed a trend towards increased ipsilateral activation in volunteers during left hand compared to right hand motion and in patients during motion of the affected compared to the non-affected hand. Considering quantitative and qualitative results, significantly increased ipsilateral activation was found in patients compared to healthy volunteers. In conclusion, functional MR imaging quality was significantly reduced in patient studies compared to healthy volunteers, even if influences of age, sex, and handedness were excluded. Increased ipsilateral activation was found in patients with brain tumours which can be interpreted by an improved connectivity between both hemispheres. PMID:10321113

Fellner, C; Schlaier, J; Fellner, F; Held, P; Blank, M; Schwerdtner, J; Brawanski, A; Kalender, W A

1999-01-01

199

Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

2011-01-01

200

Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological mark- ers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phe- notypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psy- chiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multi- variate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on

Jeff T. Williams; Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz; Howard J. Edenberg; Tatiana Foroud; Theodore Reich; Alison Goate; Paul Van Eerdewegh; Laura Almasy; John Blangero

1999-01-01

201

Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H[subscript 2]S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures is an essential experiment carried out in high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels all over the world especially in India and South Asia. The classical technique uses H[subscript 2]S, which is highly toxic and has adverse effects on humans and the environment. Increasing awareness…

Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita

2008-01-01

202

“I Need to Talk About It”: A Qualitative Analysis of Trauma-Exposed Women’s Reasons for Treatment Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder do not seek or receive effective treatment. Understanding the reasons why an individual chooses to seek treatment or prefers one treatment to another is a critical step to improve treatment seeking. To begin to understand these reasons, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the reasons women gave for choosing a

Frank N. Angelo; Helen E. Miller; Lori A. Zoellner; Norah C. Feeny

2008-01-01

203

A Survey and Qualitative Analysis of Recent Advances in Drama Management David L. Roberts and Charles L. Isbell  

E-print Network

A Survey and Qualitative Analysis of Recent Advances in Drama Management David L. Roberts participants. One popular mechanism for addressing this need is through the use of a drama manager. A drama manager is a coordinator that tracks narrative progress in the environment and directs the roles and

Isbell, Charles L.

204

Relative charge density model on chitosan-fucoidan electrostatic interaction: Qualitative approach with element analysis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a relative charge density model of prepared chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (CFNs) to provide insight into an analysis of the ionic interactions in terms of polyelectrolyte complexes. Using the relative charge density model, the extent of the ionic interactions is predicted in terms of the pH (2 through 6) and used fucoidan to chitosan mass ratio (FCMR) (1:0.05 through 1:1), through which the formation of CFNs can be controlled to be ranked qualitatively according to size and stability. It was confirmed by the measurements of their zeta potentials and sizes and by the analysis of their decay with time. Moreover, the relative charge density model was validated to predict the isoelectric condition of a polyelectrolyte complexed suspension of CFNs. Elemental analysis with a proper mass-conversion showed that the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficients of sulfate groups to amino groups in CFNs formed were almost consistent to that of the sulfate groups to amino groups in a chitosan solution mixed with a fucoidan solution prior to the occurrence of polyelectrolyte complexation. In a pH 2-environment, there were locally intensive electrostatic interactions with a low yield to form sulfate group-rich CFNs. In contrast, in a pH 6-environment, extensive electrostatic interactions occurred to form sulfate group-poor CFNs with a high yield. In addition to the chitosan-amide groups, the separate yield-distribution of loaded chitosan indicated the possible involvement of positively charged amino groups in the electrostatic interactions among chitosan molecules. PMID:25091454

Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Kwang-Hee

2014-08-01

205

Participatory health research within a prison setting: a qualitative analysis of 'Paragraphs of passion'  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to engage, empower and enhance the health and well-being of incarcerated women. The integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion, and transformative action research guided the design of this study. A partnership between incarcerated women who became peer-researchers, correctional staff, and academic researchers facilitated the equitable contribution of expertise and decision-making by all partners. The study was conducted in a short sentence (two years or less), minimum/medium security Canadian women's correctional centre. Of the approximately 200 women that joined the research team, 115 participated in writing a 'paragraph of passion' while incarcerated between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Participatory, inductive qualitative, narrative and content analysis were used to illuminate four themes: expertise, transformation, building self-esteem, as well as access and support. The women organized monthly health forums in the prison to share their new knowledge and life experience with other incarcerated women, correctional staff, academics, and community members, and in doing so have built bridges and relationships, some of which have lasted to the present day. PMID:25312768

Ramsden, Vivian; Martin, Ruth; McMillan, Jennifer; Granger-Brown, Alison; Tole, Brenda

2014-10-13

206

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of surface-acoustic-wave-based ultraviolet photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with multiple optical sensing areas is presented by depositing patterned ZnO films on a LiNbO3 substrate. Two different types of electrodes, uniform interdigital transducer (IDT) and slanted finger interdigital transducer (SFIT), are designed and fabricated to analyze the performances of SAW array UV photodetectors. By tuning ultraviolet wavelengths, qualitative characteristics of SAW UV photodetectors are observed through the measurements of SAW attenuation. Quantitative analyses of the photodetectors are presented by varying light intensities. Moreover, dynamic responses of SAW array UV photodetectors under the illumination of different optical wavelengths are also demonstrated. Ultraviolet light of 350 nm with power densities of 8.46 and 18.34 ?W/cm2 is detectable from a UV photodetector with uniform IDT and SFIT, respectively. This study not only indicates that a SAW-based UV sensor is a potential candidate of array UV photodetectors but also provides a comprehensive analysis of SAW UV photodetectors.

Wang, Wei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Ju; Ma, Chein-Ching

2013-08-01

207

Qualitative analysis of bulk-heterojunction solar cells without device fabrication: an elegant and contactless method.  

PubMed

The enormous synthetic efforts on novel solar cell materials require a reliable and fast technique for the rapid screening of novel donor/acceptor combinations in order to quickly and reliably estimate their optimized parameters. Here, we report the applicability of such a versatile and fast evaluation technique for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) by utilizing a steady-state photoluminescence (PL) method confirmed by electroluminescence (EL) measurements. A strong relation has been observed between the residual singlet emission and the charge transfer state emission in the blend. Using this relation, a figure of merit (FOM) is defined from photoluminescence and also electroluminescence measurements for qualitative analysis and shown to precisely anticipate the optimized blend parameters of bulk heterojunction films. Photoluminescence allows contactless evaluation of the photoactive layer and can be used to predict the optimized conditions for the best polymer-fullerene combination. Most interestingly, the contactless, PL-based FOM method has the potential to be integrated as a fast and reliable inline tool for quality control and material optimization. PMID:25003533

Baran, Derya; Li, Ning; Breton, Anne-Catherine; Osvet, Andres; Ameri, Tayebeh; Leclerc, Mario; Brabec, Christoph J

2014-08-01

208

The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010  

PubMed Central

The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

2014-01-01

209

Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices–a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be aware that patients may not contact them about results, and they need to publicise their results handling processes to patients and take steps to reassure patients about confidentiality with regards to administrators. PMID:24885953

2014-01-01

210

“Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

Rofail, Diana; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H.; Berardo, Carmen Galani

2014-01-01

211

Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study  

SciTech Connect

Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

2012-05-01

212

"Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding "caregiver burden" in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

Gater, Adam; Rofail, Diana; Tolley, Chloe; Marshall, Chris; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H; Berardo, Carmen Galani

2014-01-01

213

A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID:20056568

Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

2010-01-01

214

A qualitative model structure sensitivity analysis method to support model selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection and identification of a suitable hydrological model structure is a more challenging task than fitting parameters of a fixed model structure to reproduce a measured hydrograph. The suitable model structure is highly dependent on various criteria, i.e. the modeling objective, the characteristics and the scale of the system under investigation and the available data. Flexible environments for model building are available, but need to be assisted by proper diagnostic tools for model structure selection. This paper introduces a qualitative method for model component sensitivity analysis. Traditionally, model sensitivity is evaluated for model parameters. In this paper, the concept is translated into an evaluation of model structure sensitivity. Similarly to the one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) methods for parameter sensitivity, this method varies the model structure components one at a time and evaluates the change in sensitivity towards the output variables. As such, the effect of model component variations can be evaluated towards different objective functions or output variables. The methodology is presented for a simple lumped hydrological model environment, introducing different possible model building variations. By comparing the effect of changes in model structure for different model objectives, model selection can be better evaluated. Based on the presented component sensitivity analysis of a case study, some suggestions with regard to model selection are formulated for the system under study: (1) a non-linear storage component is recommended, since it ensures more sensitive (identifiable) parameters for this component and less parameter interaction; (2) interflow is mainly important for the low flow criteria; (3) excess infiltration process is most influencing when focussing on the lower flows; (4) a more simple routing component is advisable; and (5) baseflow parameters have in general low sensitivity values, except for the low flow criteria.

Van Hoey, S.; Seuntjens, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Nopens, I.

2014-11-01

215

Preliminary Results of the Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary results of the photometry of CaII K spectroheliograms taken at the NationalSolar Observatory at Sacramento peak are presented in this paper. We have digitizedspectroheliograms for 1980 (maximum of SC21), 1985 (minimum of SC21), 1987 (beginning of theascending phase of SC22), 1988 and 1989 (ascending phase and maximum of SC22), and 1992(declining phase of SC22). We have analyzed images for 1992 and separated the plages, the magneticnetwork, internetwork elements and the chromospheric background using histogram method. Wehave derived the intensity and area of these features as well as the full disk intensity (Spatial KIndex). The Spatial K Index has been compared to the spectral Ca K index derived from the lineprofiles and total solar and UV irradiance measured by the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. Thecontribution of plages, the magnetic network and internetwork element to the changes observed intotal solar and UV irradiances are also estimated.

Pap, Judit

1995-01-01

216

Interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain in Québec’s private sector: results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Collaboration and interprofessional practices are highly valued in health systems, because they are thought to improve outcomes of care for persons with complex health problems, such as low back pain. Physiotherapists, like all health providers, are encouraged to take part in interprofessional practices. However, little is known about these practices, especially for private sector physiotherapists. This study aimed to: 1) explore how physiotherapists working in the private sector with adults with low back pain describe their interprofessional practices, 2) identify factors that influence their interprofessional practices, and 3) identify their perceived effects. Methods Participants were 13 physiotherapists, 10 women/3 men, having between 3 and 21 years of professional experience. For this descriptive qualitative study, we used face-to-face semi-structured interviews and conducted content analysis encompassing data coding and thematic regrouping. Results Physiotherapists described interprofessional practices heterogeneously, including numerous processes such as sharing information and referring. Factors that influenced physiotherapists’ interprofessional practices were related to patients, providers, organizations, and wider systems (e.g. professional system). Physiotherapists mostly viewed positive effects of interprofessional practices, including elements such as gaining new knowledge as a provider and being valued in one’s own role, as well as improvements in overall treatment and outcome. Conclusions This qualitative study offers new insights into the interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain, as perceived by the physiotherapists’ themselves. Based on the results, the development of strategies aiming to increase interprofessionalism in the management of low back pain would most likely require taking into consideration factors associated with patients, providers, the organizations within which they work, and the wider systems. PMID:24884757

2014-01-01

217

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

218

System monitoring and diagnosis with qualitative models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantial foundation of tools for model-based reasoning with incomplete knowledge was developed: QSIM (a qualitative simulation program) and its extensions for qualitative simulation; Q2, Q3 and their successors for quantitative reasoning on a qualitative framework; and the CC (component-connection) and QPC (Qualitative Process Theory) model compilers for building QSIM QDE (qualitative differential equation) models starting from different ontological assumptions. Other model-compilers for QDE's, e.g., using bond graphs or compartmental models, have been developed elsewhere. These model-building tools will support automatic construction of qualitative models from physical specifications, and further research into selection of appropriate modeling viewpoints. For monitoring and diagnosis, plausible hypotheses are unified against observations to strengthen or refute the predicted behaviors. In MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), multiple hypothesized models of the system are tracked in parallel in order to reduce the 'missing model' problem. Each model begins as a qualitative model, and is unified with a priori quantitative knowledge and with the stream of incoming observational data. When the model/data unification yields a contradiction, the model is refuted. When there is no contradiction, the predictions of the model are progressively strengthened, for use in procedure planning and differential diagnosis. Only under a qualitative level of description can a finite set of models guarantee the complete coverage necessary for this performance. The results of this research are presented in several publications. Abstracts of these published papers are presented along with abtracts of papers representing work that was synergistic with the NASA grant but funded otherwise. These 28 papers include but are not limited to: 'Combined qualitative and numerical simulation with Q3'; 'Comparative analysis and qualitative integral representations'; 'Model-based monitoring of dynamic systems'; 'Numerical behavior envelopes for qualitative models'; 'Higher-order derivative constraints in qualitative simulation'; and 'Non-intersection of trajectories in qualitative phase space: a global constraint for qualitative simulation.'

Kuipers, Benjamin

1991-01-01

219

Hybrid data acquisition and processing strategies with increased throughput and selectivity: pSMART analysis for global qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition strategies (DIA) have both resulted in improved understanding of proteomics samples. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages that are well-published, where DDA is typically applied for deep discovery and DIA may be used to create sample records. In this paper, we present a hybrid data acquisition and processing strategy (pSMART) that combines the strengths of both techniques and provides significant benefits for qualitative and quantitative peptide analysis. The performance of pSMART is compared to published DIA strategies in an experiment that allows the objective assessment of DIA performance with respect to interrogation of previously acquired MS data. The results of this experiment demonstrate that pSMART creates fewer decoy hits than a standard DIA strategy. Moreover, we show that pSMART is more selective, sensitive, and reproducible than either standard DIA or DDA strategies alone. PMID:25244318

Prakash, Amol; Peterman, Scott; Ahmad, Shadab; Sarracino, David; Frewen, Barbara; Vogelsang, Maryann; Byram, Gregory; Krastins, Bryan; Vadali, Gouri; Lopez, Mary

2014-12-01

220

Complex mixture analysis using protein expression as a qualitative and quantitative tool  

SciTech Connect

Some proteins in organisms exposed to chemicals in stressful amounts or toxic concentrations show increased expression; others show decreased expression. These inducible and repressible proteins together potentially provide qualitative and quantitative diagnoses of components in complex mixtures of chemicals. The authors examined sets of proteins synthesized by Daphnia magna after exposure to mixtures of a cationic polyamide epichlorhydrin adduct (Kymene) and a combined assortment of water-extractable substances from chemi-thermal-mechanical pulp (CTMP) in lab water. Proteins were identified, after extracting from Daphnia magna, by gel filtration and silver staining, or by radiolabeling and then gel separation. Patterns of proteins induced by Kymene[reg sign] and by CTMP extracts were distinguishable in lab water, but there was interaction between them. The method of identifying and quantifying Kymene, however, was successful using lab simulations of mixtures. The method was tested using wastewater samples from a paper manufacturing plant. Kymene could be detected against variable levels and types of additional substances. But, again, there was interference, perhaps due to Kymene binding to other anionic polymers sometimes present in the samples. Interpretation from analyses of protein expression were consistent with results from sublethal Ceriodaphnia dubia assays.

Bradley, B.P.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Bond, J.A. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences); Tepper, B.E. (Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Paper Products Division)

1994-07-01

221

A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of factors associated with trends in narrowing health inequalities in England.  

PubMed

This study explores why progress with tackling health inequalities has varied among a group of local authority areas in England that were set targets to narrow important health outcomes compared to national averages. It focuses on premature deaths from cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the local authority gap for these outcomes narrowed. Survey and secondary data were used to create dichotomised conditions describing each area. For cancers, ten conditions were found to be associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: presence/absence of a working culture of individual commitment and champions; spending on cancer programmes; aspirational or comfortable/complacent organisational cultures; deprivation; crime; assessments of strategic partnership working, commissioning and the public health workforce; frequency of progress reviews; and performance rating of the local Primary Care Trust (PCT). For CVD, six conditions were associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: a PCT budget closer or further away from target; assessments of primary care services, smoking cessation services and local leadership; presence/absence of a few major programmes; and population turnover. The method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis was used to find configurations of these conditions with either the narrowing or not narrowing outcomes. Narrowing cancer gaps were associated with three configurations in which individual commitment and champions was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with a group of conditions that had in common a high level of bureaucratic-type work. Narrowing CVD gaps were associated with three configurations in which a high assessment of either primary care or smoking cessation services was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with two configurations that both included an absence of major programmes. The article considers substantive and theoretical arguments for these configurations being causal and as pointing to ways of improving progress with tackling health inequalities. PMID:21640455

Blackman, Tim; Wistow, Jonathan; Byrne, David

2011-06-01

222

Model-Based Analysis for Qualitative Data: An Application in Drosophila Germline Stem Cell Regulation  

PubMed Central

Discovery in developmental biology is often driven by intuition that relies on the integration of multiple types of data such as fluorescent images, phenotypes, and the outcomes of biochemical assays. Mathematical modeling helps elucidate the biological mechanisms at play as the networks become increasingly large and complex. However, the available data is frequently under-utilized due to incompatibility with quantitative model tuning techniques. This is the case for stem cell regulation mechanisms explored in the Drosophila germarium through fluorescent immunohistochemistry. To enable better integration of biological data with modeling in this and similar situations, we have developed a general parameter estimation process to quantitatively optimize models with qualitative data. The process employs a modified version of the Optimal Scaling method from social and behavioral sciences, and multi-objective optimization to evaluate the trade-off between fitting different datasets (e.g. wild type vs. mutant). Using only published imaging data in the germarium, we first evaluated support for a published intracellular regulatory network by considering alternative connections of the same regulatory players. Simply screening networks against wild type data identified hundreds of feasible alternatives. Of these, five parsimonious variants were found and compared by multi-objective analysis including mutant data and dynamic constraints. With these data, the current model is supported over the alternatives, but support for a biochemically observed feedback element is weak (i.e. these data do not measure the feedback effect well). When also comparing new hypothetical models, the available data do not discriminate. To begin addressing the limitations in data, we performed a model-based experiment design and provide recommendations for experiments to refine model parameters and discriminate increasingly complex hypotheses. PMID:24626201

Pargett, Michael; Rundell, Ann E.; Buzzard, Gregery T.; Umulis, David M.

2014-01-01

223

A Qualitative Analysis of Career Transitions Made by Internal Medicine–Pediatrics Residency Training Graduates  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Physicians who complete combined residency training in internal medicine and pediatrics (med-peds) have a variety of career options after training. Little is known about career transitions among this group or among other broadly trained physicians. METHODS To better understand these career transitions, we conducted semistructured, in-depth, telephone interviews of graduates of the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill School of Medicine med-peds program who self-identified as having had a career transition since completing training. We qualitatively analyzed interview transcripts, to develop themes describing their career transitions. RESULTS Of 106 physicians who graduated during 1980–2007, 20 participated in interviews. Participants identified factors such as personality, work environment, lifestyle, family, and finances as important to career transition. Five other themes emerged from the data; the following 4 were confirmed by follow-up interviews: (1) experiences during residency were not sufficient to predict future job satisfaction; work after the completion of training was necessary to discover career preferences; (2) a major factor motivating job change was a perceived lack of control in the workplace; (3) participants described a sense of regret if they did not continue to see both adult and pediatric patients as a result of their career change; (4) participants appreciated their broad training and, regardless of career path, would choose to pursue combined residency training again. LIMITATIONS We included only a small number of graduates from a single institution. We did not interview graduates who had no career transitions after training. CONCLUSIONS There are many professional opportunities for physicians trained in med-peds. Four consistent themes surfaced during interviews about med-peds career transitions. Future research should explore how to use these themes to help physicians make career choices and employers retain physicians. PMID:21901912

Burns, Harriett; Auvergne, Lauriane; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey E.; Liles, E. Allen; Perrin, Eliana M.; Steiner, Michael J.

2012-01-01

224

Life impact of ankle fractures: Qualitative analysis of patient and clinician experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle fractures are one of the more commonly occurring forms of trauma managed by orthopaedic teams worldwide. The impacts of these injuries are not restricted to pain and disability caused at the time of the incident, but may also result in long term physical, psychological, and social consequences. There are currently no ankle fracture specific patient-reported outcome measures with a robust content foundation. This investigation aimed to develop a thematic conceptual framework of life impacts following ankle fracture from the experiences of people who have suffered ankle fractures as well as the health professionals who treat them. Methods A qualitative investigation was undertaken using in-depth semi-structured interviews with people (n=12) who had previously sustained an ankle fracture (patients) and health professionals (n=6) that treat people with ankle fractures. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Each phrase was individually coded and grouped in categories and aligned under emerging themes by two independent researchers. Results Saturation occurred after 10 in-depth patient interviews. Time since injury for patients ranged from 6 weeks to more than 2 years. Experience of health professionals ranged from 1 year to 16 years working with people with ankle fractures. Health professionals included an Orthopaedic surgeon (1), physiotherapists (3), a podiatrist (1) and an occupational therapist (1). The emerging framework derived from patient data included eight themes (Physical, Psychological, Daily Living, Social, Occupational and Domestic, Financial, Aesthetic and Medication Taking). Health professional responses did not reveal any additional themes, but tended to focus on physical and occupational themes. Conclusions The nature of life impact following ankle fractures can extend beyond short term pain and discomfort into many areas of life. The findings from this research have provided an empirically derived framework from which a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure can be developed. PMID:23171034

2012-01-01

225

Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. PMID:22902052

Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

226

A magic pill? A qualitative analysis of patients’ views on the role of antidepressant therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)  

PubMed Central

Background Studies with healthy volunteers have demonstrated that antidepressants can improve immunoregulatory activity and thus they may have a potential to positively impact the disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic and incurable condition. However, patients’ views on the role of antidepressants in the management of their IBD are unknown. Thus, this study aimed to explore patients’ experiences and opinions regarding the effect of antidepressants on IBD course before possibly undertaking future treatment trials with antidepressants. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with a randomly selected sample of IBD patients recruited at the Australian public hospital IBD clinic and currently receiving antidepressants. A qualitative content analysis was undertaken to summarise patients’ responses. A Visual Analogue Scale was used to provide a quantitative assessment of patients’ experiences with antidepressants. Results Overall, 15 IBD sufferers currently on antidepressants (nine females, six males) were interviewed. All 15 reported a positive response to antidepressants reporting they improved their quality of life, with minimal side-effects. Five patients (33.3%) felt the antidepressant had specifically improved their IBD course. Three patients noted how they believed the reduction in feelings of stress mediated the positive influence of the antidepressant on IBD course. Ten patients (66.7%) felt the antidepressants had not specifically influenced their IBD. Nine patients (60.0%) had a generally positive attitude towards antidepressants, four patients (26.7%) were ambivalent, and two patients (13.3%) held a negative view towards antidepressants. Twelve patients (80.0%) stated that they would be willing to participate in clinical trials. Conclusions Antidepressants seem to be well tolerated by IBD patients. One third of patients reported an observable improvement of their IBD under the influence of this treatment. The positive attitude towards antidepressants in these participants may make the conduct of clinical trials to further assess for any specific role on IBD course feasible. However, due to a small sample size, a qualitative nature of this study and in light of the results of studies on other populations indicating reluctance to taking antidepressants at least in some patients, these results should be interpreted with caution until confirmed in quantitative studies. PMID:22816728

2012-01-01

227

NPN fuzzy sets and NPN qualitative algebra: a computational framework for bipolar cognitive modeling and multiagent decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An NPN (Negative-Positive-Neutral) fuzzy set theory and an NPN qualitative algebra (Q-algebra) are proposed which form a computational framework for bipolar cognitive modeling and multiagent decision analysis. First a 6-valued NPN logic is introduced which extends the usual 4-valued Q-algebra (S,≈,?,?) and S={+,-,0,?} by adding one more level of specification; and then a real-valued NPN fuzzy logic is introduced which

Wen-Ran Zhang

1996-01-01

228

A Qualitative Analysis of Patient and Family Perspectives of Palliative Care.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: To provide truly patient-centered palliative care services, there is a need to better understand the perspectives and experiences of patients and families. Increased understanding will provide insight into the development of health care team competencies and organizational changes necessary to improve patient care. Objective: Our aim was to explore patient and family perceptions of palliative care services at the end of life or during serious illness and to identify facilitators and barriers to receipt of palliative care services. Methods: In-depth, semi-structured patient and family interviews were conducted, transcribed, and independently reviewed using grounded theory methodology and preliminary interpretations. A combined deductive and inductive iterative qualitative approach was used to identify recurring themes. The study was conducted in a physician-led, not-for-profit, multispecialty integrated health system serving three large, western, rural states. A purposive sample of 14 individuals who received palliative care services were interviewed alone or with their families for a total of 12 interviews. Results: Presence, Reassurance, and Honoring Choices emerged as central themes linked to satisfaction with palliative care services. Themes were defined as including health care professional attributes of respect, approachability, genuineness, empathy, connectedness, compassion, sensitivity, an ability to listen, good communication, provision of information, empowerment, and timeliness. Honoring Choices included those pertaining to treatment, spirituality, and family needs. Conclusions: At end of life or during times of serious illness, patients and families identified behaviors of Presence, Reassurance, and Honoring Choices as important. According to patients/families, health care providers must be compassionate and empathetic and possess skills in listening, connecting, and interacting with patients and families. PMID:25299983

Ciemins, Elizabeth L; Brant, Jeannine; Kersten, Diane; Mullette, Elizabeth; Dickerson, Dustin

2014-10-01

229

Developmental Challenges, Stressors, and Coping in Medical Residents: A Qualitative Analysis of Support Groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction Stress and burnout are endemic to post-graduate medical training but little research is available to guide supportive interventions. The identification of longitudinal emotional and developmental coping needs of internal medicine residents could assist in better designing and implementing supportive interventions. Methods In this retrospective, exploratory study, six internal medicine resident support groups (n = 62 PGY1-3 residents) were followed for a period of two years. Qualitative data were extracted from monthly support group process notes to identify common themes, stressors, emotions, coping strategies, and developmental challenges faced during training. Quantitative questionnaire data were collected on burnout, group attendance, and resident satisfaction. Results Using professional identity development models and classic stress and coping theory as a starting point, a derivation of Grounded Theory was used to identify common themes and emotions contained in support group process notes. The most common themes included understanding resident roles and responsibilities, developing an identity as a resident and physician, building professional confidence, cognitive and behavioral responses to stress, and concerns about flaws in local and national health care training and delivery systems. Anxiety and guilt were the most commonly reported emotions, followed by positive emotions and anger. Burnout scores were highest for the second half of the PGY1 year, but improved over subsequent training years. Support group attendance and satisfaction were both high. Residents overwhelmingly pointed to peer relationships as the most critical source of support throughout postgraduate training. Conclusions Developmentally-informed programmatic adaptations could better support the emotional growth and personal/professional development of postgraduate medical trainees. Future directions should include a controlled trial of resident support groups, assessments of “active ingredients” (i.e. what supportive interventions are most effective), and/or evaluations of programmatic adaptations. PMID:20716101

Satterfield, Jason M.; Becerra, Caroline

2010-01-01

230

Tobacco Use and Its Treatment Among Young People in Mental Health Settings: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Youth with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of tobacco use. Outpatient mental health settings have received little investigation for delivering tobacco treatment. This study obtained formative data to guide development of a tobacco cessation program for transitional age youth with co-occurring psychiatric disorders with a focus on outpatient mental health settings. Methods: Applying qualitative methods, we analyzed transcripts from interviews with 14 mental health clients (aged 16–23) and 8 mental health providers. Results: The youth identified internal (nicotine addiction and mood), social, parental, and media influences to their use of tobacco. Providers’ viewed youth tobacco use as a normative developmental process, closely tied to management of psychiatric symptoms, supported by parents, and of lower priority relative to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Youth and providers believed that clinicians can do more to address tobacco use in practice and emphasized nonjudgmental support and nondirective approaches. Top recommended quitting strategies, however, differed notably for the youth (cold turkey, support from friends, physical activity, hobbies) and providers (cessation pharmacotherapy, cessation groups, treatment referrals). Conclusions: Mental health providers’ greater prioritization of other substances and view of youth smoking as developmentally normative and a coping strategy for psychopathology are likely contributing to the general lack of attention to tobacco use currently. Integrating care within mental health settings would serve to reach youth in an arena where clinical rapport is already established, and study findings suggest receptivity for system improvements. Of consideration, however, is the apparent disconnect between provider and youth recommended strategies for supporting cessation. PMID:23322765

2013-01-01

231

Visualizing Qualitative Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

Slone, Debra J.

2009-01-01

232

Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

2014-01-01

233

Transitions through Pastoral Peer Mentoring: A Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges and Successes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pastoral peer mentoring often benefits both mentors and mentees through promoting a successful academic postsecondary transition. Based on interviews and focus groups with 36 York University mentors and mentees, this qualitative study highlights the successes and challenges of university pastoral peer mentoring and leadership. Major findings…

Kenedy, Robert; Monty, Vivienne; Lambert-Drache, Marilyn

2012-01-01

234

A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident: A Pilot Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The topic "A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident" is an opportunity to explore residents' experiences to inform the delivery of education. Methods: An open-ended, qualitative approach was used in a pilot project to explore contemporary residents' experiences with education, similar to a patient-centered model of health care.…

Hilty, Donald M.; Maynes, Sonya M.; Kellner, Maria; Clark, Marilyn S.; Bourgeois, James A.; Servis, Mark E.

2005-01-01

235

The Processes Distinguishing Stable from Unstable Stepfamily Couples: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second marriages are known to be more fragile than first marriages. To better understand the factors that contribute to this fragility, this qualitative study compared stepfamilies that stayed together with those that separated by collecting interview data from one adult in each of the former (n = 31) and latter (n = 26) stepfamilies. Data were…

Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Robitaille, Caroline; Godbout, ELisabeth; Parent, Claudine; Drapeau, Sylvie; Gagne, Marie-Helene

2011-01-01

236

A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

2012-01-01

237

Recounting the K-12 School Experiences of Adults Who Stutter: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study qualitatively explored the primary and secondary (K-12) school experiences of adults who stutter. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 participants, a first focus group interview with 6 participants, and a second focus group interview with 4 participants. Participants discussed the various ways in which…

Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.; Hughes, Stephanie

2012-01-01

238

Qualitative company performance evaluation: Linear discriminant analysis and neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a classification model to evaluate the performance of companies on the basis of qualitative criteria, such as organizational and managerial variables. The classification model evaluates the eligibility of the company to receive state subsidies for the development of high tech products. We furthermore created a similar model using the backpropagation learning algorithm and compare its

Koen Bertels; J. M. Jacques; Luc Neuberg; L. Gatot

1999-01-01

239

Theory and Methodology Qualitative company performance evaluation: Linear discriminant analysis and neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a classification model to evaluate the performance of companies on the basis of qualitative criteria, such as organizational and managerial variables. The classification model evaluates the eligibility of the company to receive state subsidies for the development of high tech products. We furthermore created a similar model using the backpropagation learning algorithm and compare its

K. Bertels; J. M. Jacques; L. Neuberg; L. Gatot

240

Self-Authoring a Civic Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Change-Oriented Service Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study explored how undergraduate students' involvement with change-oriented service-learning contributed to their civic-political development. Using Baxter Magolda's notion of self-authorship as an analytic lens, findings suggested that students' involvement with change-oriented service-learning led to (a)…

Iverson, Susan V.; James, Jennifer H.

2013-01-01

241

Rx for a Party: A Qualitative Analysis of Recreational Pharmaceutical Use in a Collegiate Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Using a qualitative methodology, the author examined the sociorecreational use of pharmaceuticals in a collegiate setting. Participants: In all, 91 college students from a public, 4-year institution for higher learning in the Southwest participated in this study. Methods: The author conducted semistructured interviews between May 2004…

Quintero, Gilbert

2009-01-01

242

Lean Production, Worker Empowerment, and Job Satisfaction: A Qualitative Analysis and Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many argue that increased employee involvement in manufacturing is central to lean production. Increasing the responsibilities and abilities of front-line workers has been labeled empowerment. Such empowerment is said to increase job satisfaction. Yet, there is surprisingly little qualitative research directly addressing the relationship between participatory work arrangements and job satisfaction, and the quantitative evidence is much less clear than

Matt Vidal

2007-01-01

243

Adolescent Psychosocial Maturity and Alcohol Use: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Longitudinal Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N=1,198) in Reykjavik, Iceland were followed from ages 15 to 17 to explore their levels of psychosocial maturity in relation to alcohol consumption. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to examine interpersonal understanding, skills, and personal meaning in relation to alcohol use. Adolescents' psychosocial maturity,…

Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

2002-01-01

244

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bovine, rabbit and human dental pulp glycosaminoglycans.  

PubMed

Bovine, rabbit and human dental pulp glycosaminoglycans were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The major components of bovine and rabbit dental pulp were chondroitin 4-sulphate and hyaluronic acid, while in the human dental pulp dermatan sulphate and chondroitin 4-sulphate were the major components. PMID:283097

Sakamoto, N; Okamoto, H; Okuda, K

1979-02-01

245

Sense of Presence Experiences and Meaning-Making in Bereavement: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to explore the potential role that might be played by the reported experience of "sensing the presence of the deceased" in meaning-making processes in bereavement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 participants who reported having had such an experience and the transcripts were subjected to thematic…

Steffen, Edith; Coyle, Adrian

2011-01-01

246

A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

Snyder, Catherine

2012-01-01

247

The Relationship between Internal Audit and Senior Management: A Qualitative Analysis of Expectations and Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, based upon Belgian case studies, provides a qualitative assessment of the relationship between internal audit and senior management, analysing the expectations and perceptions of both parties. We found that senior management's expectations have a significant influence on internal audit and that internal audit, generally, is able to meet most of these expectations. Senior management wants internal audit to

Gerrit Sarens; Ignace De Beelde

2006-01-01

248

Qualitative holographic-interferometric analysis of T-incisions of different length in vitro-A preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts including the length of T-incisions are mainly based on empirical evaluation of the surgeons. We report on a holographic interferometric study of the effects of straight T- incisions of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm length using double-exposure holographic interferometry. A new classification of the central holographic interferometric fringe pattern including cross-like, parallel and convex fringes allows an objective qualitative analysis of 48 holographic interferograms of the corneas of six bovine eyes. The intraocular pressure is 1340 Pa with 10 Pa and 20 Pa pressure increase. T-incisions of 5 mm length of incision (incision depth 95%) change the holographic interferometric fringe pattern completely. An increase to 10 mm length of incision results in a change of holographic fringe pattern in 50% of the cases. With 15 mm length of incision only two types of holographic interferometric fringe pattern of the cornea can be seen: parallel fringes and irregular fringes indicating an instability of the cornea. This might be a reason for paradox flattening of the cornea in the unincised meridian.

Foerster, Werner; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Manstein, Dieter; von Bally, Gert; Busse, H.

1993-06-01

249

Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

250

Quantitative analysis of spiny neurons in the adult human caudate nucleus: can it confirm the current qualitative cell classification?  

PubMed

The caudate nucleus, as a part of the striatum (neostriatum or dorsal striatum), is involved in the control of cognitive, motor and limbic functions. The majority of the caudate nucleus cells are projection spiny neurons, whose activity is determined by excitatory inputs from the cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and brainstem. A qualitative analysis of human caudate nucleus neurons involves the description of the structure and features of cells, and accordingly, their classification into an appropriate type. The aim of this study is to determine the justification of the current qualitative classification of spiny neurons in the precommissural head of the human caudate nucleus by quantifying morphological properties of neurons. After the qualitative analysis of microscopic images of the Golgi-impregnated caudate nucleus neurons, five morphological properties of cells were measured/quantified. In terms of the dendritic field area, caudate nucleus neurons were divided into two subgroups: small and large neurons. In our sample of 251 projection nerve cells, 58.17 % (146) were small and 41.83 % (105) were large neurons. These data show that suggested groups of spiny neurons in the human caudate nucleus differ in their morphology. Since the structure and function of cells are closely correlated, it is possible that these morphologically different types of neurons may represent different functional groups. PMID:25273896

Krstonoši?, Bojana; Miloševi?, Nebojša T; Mari?, Dušica L; Babovi?, Siniša S

2014-10-01

251

Negotiating identity: a qualitative analysis of stigma and support seeking for individuals with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The current research investigates how adults with cerebral palsy construct their personal and social identities in the face of stigma when support seeking, and considers the dilemmas they might face when doing so. Method: Participants were 28 adults with cerebral palsy who completed an online survey reporting on their identity as a person with cerebral palsy and their experiences of stigma when seeking and accessing support. Results: Qualitative analyses indicated that the majority of participants sought support to help manage their cerebral palsy. Of these, half reported experiencing stigma in these environments, although they largely continued seeking support despite this. The majority viewed both their personal identity (i.e. as a unique individual) and their social identity (i.e. as a person with cerebral palsy) as important to their sense of self. However, how participants constructed their identity also appeared to vary according to context. While they appeared to value being seen as an individual to receive support that was unique to their needs (their personal identity), they also reported valuing the group to facilitate coping with stigma (their social identity). Yet, despite their utilities, enacting their identity in each of these ways was associated with costs. In order to access desired support, they had to incorporate their social identity as similar to other disabled people, which led to stigmatization through feelings of difference to the non-disabled. Conversely emphasizing individuality and difference from the disabled stereotype was associated with concerns about the degree to which their suitability for support might be questioned by their care provider. Conclusions: As has been observed in many fields, stigma can complicate identity. In this domain, people with cerebral palsy face a number of threats in how they construe their identity, both in navigating stigma and maintaining access to needed support. Implications for Rehabilitation Stigma in help and support settings remains a significant problem for adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This creates dilemmas regarding how they view and construct their identity in the contexts of stigma and support-seeking. It is important for specialists to recognize that the needs of adults with CP are unique, and so provided services should be tailored to the individual. Healthcare providers should also encourage their patients to actively engage with online disability support groups in order to build a meaningful social identity with other people with CP. PMID:25176001

Read, Stuart A; Morton, Thomas A; Ryan, Michelle K

2014-09-01

252

A qualitative analysis of general receptive vocabulary of adolescents with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age=16.74 years, SD=3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age=16.20 years, SD=3.08) and 62 typical children (M age=5.32 years, SD=0.82). Item analyses using the transformed item difficulties method to detect differential item functioning across groups showed that the groups' rank orders of item difficulty were highly similar. It was concluded that the general receptive vocabulary of older children and adolescents with Down syndrome is not qualitatively distinguished when its overall size is held constant. Methodological and theoretical implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:22716266

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Thérèse

2012-05-01

253

A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations  

PubMed Central

Background Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. Methods A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Results Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Conclusions Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to information can act as a solution. PMID:24981205

2014-01-01

254

The effects of disseminating performance data to health plans: results of qualitative research with the Medicare Managed Care plans.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the information needs and responses of managed care plans to the Medicare Managed Care Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (MMC-CAHPS). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: One hundred sixty-five representatives of Medicare managed care plans participated in focus groups or interviews in the spring of 1998, 1999, and 2000. STUDY DESIGN: In 1998 focus groups were conducted with representatives of managed care plans to develop and test a print report of MMC-CAHPS results. After the reports were disseminated focus groups and interviews were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to identify perceptions, uses, and potential enhancements of the report. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The study team conducted a total of 23 focus groups and 12 telephone interviews and analyzed the transcripts to identify major themes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 1998 participants identified the report content and format that best enabled them to assess their performance relative to other Medicare managed care plans. In 1999 and 2000 participants described their responses to and uses of the report. They reported comparing the MMC-CAHPS results to internal surveys and presenting the results to senior managers, market analysts, and quality-improvement teams. They also indicated that the report's usefulness would be enhanced if it were received within six months of survey completion and if additional data analysis was presented. CONCLUSIONS: Focus group results suggest that the MMC-CAHPS report enhances awareness and knowledge of the comparative performance of Medicare managed care plans. However, participants reported needing additional analysis of survey results to target quality-improvement activities on the populations with the most reported problems. Images Figure 2 PMID:11482593

Smith, F; Gerteis, M; Downey, N; Lewy, J; Edgman-Levitan, S

2001-01-01

255

Parent–Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent–child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision-making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8–19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and

Victoria A. Miller

2009-01-01

256

The silicon-glass microreactor with embedded sensors—technology and results of preliminary qualitative tests, toward intelligent microreaction plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology and preliminary qualitative tests of silicon-glass microreactors with embedded pressure and temperature sensors are presented. The concept of microreactors for leading highly exothermic reactions, e.g. nitration of hydrocarbons, and design process-included computer-aided simulations are described in detail. The silicon-glass microreactor chip consisting of two micromixers (multistream micromixer), reaction channels, cooling/heating chambers has been proposed. The microreactor chip was equipped with a set of pressure and temperature sensors and packaged. Tests of mixing quality, pressure drops in channels, heat exchange efficiency and dynamic behavior of pressure and temperature sensors were documented. Finally, two applications were described.

Knapkiewicz, P.

2013-03-01

257

Personalized genomic results: analysis of informational needs.  

PubMed

Use of genomic information in healthcare is increasing; however data on the needs of consumers of genomic information is limited. The Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) is a longitudinal study investigating the utility of personalized medicine. Participants receive results reflecting risk of common complex conditions and drug-gene pairs deemed actionable by an external review board. To explore the needs of individuals receiving genomic information we reviewed all genetic counseling sessions with CPMC participants. A retrospective qualitative review of notes from 157 genetic counseling inquiries was conducted. Notes were coded for salient themes. Five primary themes; "understanding risk", "basic genetics", "complex disease genetics", "what do I do now?" and "other" were identified. Further review revealed that participants had difficulty with basic genetic concepts, confused relative and absolute risks, and attributed too high a risk burden to individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Despite these hurdles, counseled participants recognized that behavior changes could potentially mitigate risk and there were few comments alluding to an overly deterministic or fatalistic interpretation of results. Participants appeared to recognize the multifactorial nature of the diseases for which results were provided; however education to understand the complexities of genomic risk information was often needed. PMID:24488620

Schmidlen, Tara J; Wawak, Lisa; Kasper, Rachel; García-España, J Felipe; Christman, Michael F; Gordon, Erynn S

2014-08-01

258

Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations. PMID:21943401

2011-01-01

259

Qualitative and quantitative onchip analysis of circulating blood microparticles through combining SPRi and AFM approaches, and their functional studies on cells  

E-print Network

Qualitative and quantitative onchip analysis of circulating blood microparticles through combining SPRi and AFM approaches, and their functional studies on cells Offer type : PhD project (Bourse MESRD project description: Context : The qualification and quantification of circulating blood

Jeanjean, Louis

260

QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Students construct qualitative models of an ecosystem and use the models to evaluate the direct and indirect effects that may result from perturbations to the ecosystem. Qualitative modeling is described for use in two procedures, each with different educational goals and student backgrounds in min...

261

Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

2009-12-01

262

A Qualitative Content Analysis of Knowledge Storage in Nursing Education System  

PubMed Central

Background: The need for effective management of intellectual and academic assets is constantly growing. The nursing educational system should be considered as a storage of knowledge since it is deposited in the nursing educational system in the form of intellectual investment. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to explore nursing knowledge storage in the nursing educational system. Materials and Methods: The participants of this study consisted of eight nursing educators and five students. The inductive content analysis method was used in this research. Participants were interviewed through the semi-structured method. Data analysis was done by five stage framework approaches. The trustworthiness of the study was ensured through validity and acceptability criteria. Results: Data analysis showed that nursing educators and students were involve in teaching and learning activities by storing knowledge in subjective and objective forms. Knowledge was gained through the different educational activities of the nursing educators and through contact with their peers. Moreover, the nursing students gained knowledge for better learning and a more knowledgeable and advanced performance with the help of the educators. Conclusions: This study revealed the main components of knowledge storage. An enhanced preservation of explicit knowledge is recommended in the nursing educational system so that in the future, students and educators can easily access the same knowledge from storage sources and not from individuals who might be carrying only a single experience of the subject.

Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh

2014-01-01

263

The challenges of including sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a qualitative survey  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic review methodology includes the rigorous collection, selection, and evaluation of data in order to synthesize the best available evidence for health practice, health technology assessments, and health policy. Despite evidence that sex and gender matter to health outcomes, data and analysis related to sex and gender are frequently absent in systematic reviews, raising concerns about the quality and applicability of reviews. Few studies have focused on challenges to implementing sex/gender analysis within systematic reviews. Methods A multidisciplinary group of systematic reviewers, methodologists, biomedical and social science researchers, health practitioners, and other health sector professionals completed an open-ended survey prior to a two-day workshop focused on sex/gender, equity, and bias in systematic reviews. Respondents were asked to identify challenging or ‘thorny’ issues associated with integrating sex and gender in systematic reviews and indicate how they address these in their work. Data were analysed using interpretive description. A summary of the findings was presented and discussed with workshop participants. Results Respondents identified conceptual challenges, such as defining sex and gender, methodological challenges in measuring and analysing sex and gender, challenges related to availability of data and data quality, and practical and policy challenges. No respondents discussed how they addressed these challenges, but all proposed ways to address sex/gender analysis in the future. Conclusions Respondents identified a wide range of interrelated challenges to implementing sex/gender considerations within systematic reviews. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to identify these challenges from the perspectives of those conducting and using systematic reviews. A framework and methods to integrate sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews are in the early stages of development. A number of priority items and collaborative initiatives to guide systematic reviewers in sex/gender analysis are provided, based on the survey results and subsequent workshop discussions. An emerging ‘community of practice’ is committed to enhancing the quality and applicability of systematic reviews by integrating considerations of sex/gender into the review process, with the goals of improving health outcomes and ensuring health equity for all persons. PMID:24720875

2014-01-01

264

Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor digestive complaints. Conclusion This represents the first documented qualitative investigation of participants’ experience of chronic administration of a multivitamin. Results uncovered a range of subjective beneficial effects that are consistent with quantitative data from previously published randomised controlled trials examining the effects of multivitamins and B vitamin complexes on mood and well-being. Trial registration Prior to commencement this trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.anzctr.org.au) ACTRN12611000092998 PMID:23241329

2012-01-01

265

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

266

Social influences on mental health help-seeking after interpersonal traumatization: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite frequent and serious mental health problems after interpersonal traumatization, only a fraction of those affected by interpersonal violence seek formal help after the event. Reasons for this mismatch can be found in the individual help-seeking process but also in the individual's social environment. These social factors are explored based on a model describing the survivor's help-seeking process. Method Survivors of interpersonal traumatization and professionals providing help for this population were asked about factors influencing the ease of seeking and receiving professional help after interpersonal traumatization. A deductive and inductive content analysis of the experiences of 43 survivors of interpersonal traumatization and 16 professionals providing help for this population was carried out. Results The analysis suggested a clear distinction of an individual and a social system level of influencing variables. At the system level three main factors were identified: factors of the help-system, dominant attitudes in society and public knowledge about traumatization and available help. Conclusions The results confirmed a complex interaction of variables on the individual and system level in the help-seeking process. The system level affects the individual's help-seeking through multiple pathways, especially through the individual's representation of the traumatization, through the reactions of the individual's social network and through barriers the individual perceives or experiences in the formal help-system. PMID:20964871

2010-01-01

267

A qualitative analysis of prescription activity and alert usage in a computerized physician order entry system.  

PubMed

Medical alerts in CPOE are overridden in most cases. The need for alerting systems that are better adapted to physicians' needs and work processes is recognized. Our study aims to shed some light on how medical alerts are used and how they are integrated in the work process. Work analysis and interviews resulted in a hierarchical task analysis of prescription during ward rounds at the University Hospitals of Geneva. The results indicate that non-modal medical alerts are appreciated as an "insurance" for drugs that are out of the routine set. In the case of drugs that are often prescribed, alerts are ignored as physicians feel comfortable prescribing them. Non-interrupting alerts do not cognitively overcharge physicians, but the question is how to display the numerous alerts so that they are easily accessible when needed. Further, inexperienced physicians lack a mental representation of what evaluations the system is doing with the prescriptions and when alerts are triggered. This may lead to lack of trust or overconfidence, both of them potentially harmful. PMID:21893884

Wipfli, Rolf; Betrancourt, Mireille; Guardia, Alberto; Lovis, Christian

2011-01-01

268

A Qualitative Analysis of Stress and Coping in Korean Immigrant Women in Middle-age and Older-adulthood.  

PubMed

This qualitative grounded theory study explored stress-coping mechanisms in 14 Korean immigrant women (age ?40) in the USA, by analyzing existing focus group data about relevant concepts that had been collected in a parent study. Using content analysis, stressors related primarily to socioenvironmental changes following immigration: language barriers, lack of trusting human relationships, and role changes were identified. Both healthy (activities, church, staying busy) and unhealthy (being alone and keeping negative feelings inside) coping strategies were reported by participants. The findings reveal unique aspects of stress-coping among Korean women who had immigrated after being culturally engrained with Confucian influences. PMID:25517124

Sin, Mo-Kyung

2015-01-01

269

Mortality as an indicator of patient safety in orthopaedics: lessons from qualitative analysis of a database of medical errors  

PubMed Central

Background Orthopaedic surgery is a high-risk specialty in which errors will undoubtedly occur. Patient safety incidents can yield valuable information to generate solutions and prevent future cases of avoidable harm. The aim of this study was to understand the causative factors leading to all unnecessary deaths in orthopaedics and trauma surgery reported to the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) over a four-year period (2005–2009), using a qualitative approach. Methods Reports made to the NPSA are categorised and stored in the database as free-text data. A search was undertaken to identify the cases of all-cause mortality in orthopaedic and trauma surgery, and the free-text elements were used for thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated based on the incidents reported. This included presenting the number of times categories of incidents had the same or similar response. Superordinate and subordinate categories were created. Results A total of 257 incident reports were analysed. Four main thematic categories emerged. These were: (1) stages of the surgical journey – 118/191 (62%) of deaths occurred in the post-operative phase; (2) causes of patient deaths – 32% were related to severe infections; (3) reported quality of medical interventions – 65% of patients experienced minimal or delayed treatment; (4) skills of healthcare professionals – 44% of deaths had a failure in non-technical skills. Conclusions Most complications in orthopaedic surgery can be dealt with adequately, provided they are anticipated and that risk-reduction strategies are instituted. Surgeons take pride in the precision of operative techniques; perhaps it is time to enshrine the multimodal tools available to ensure safer patient care. PMID:22682470

2012-01-01

270

A Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing HPV Vaccine Uptake in Soweto, South Africa among Adolescents and Their Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa, the prevalence of oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) may be as high as 64%, and cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The development of efficacious prophylactic vaccines has provided an opportunity for primary prevention. Given the importance of psycho-social forces in vaccine uptake, we sought to elucidate factors influencing HPV vaccination among a sample of low-income South African adolescents receiving the vaccine for the first time in Soweto. Methods The HPV vaccine was introduced to adolescents in low-income townships throughout South Africa as part of a nationwide trial to understand adolescent involvement in future vaccine research targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews with purposively-sampled adolescents and their care providers to understand what forces shaped HPV vaccine uptake. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and examined using thematic analysis. Results Of 224 adolescents recruited, 201 initiated the vaccine; 192 (95.5%) received a second immunization; and 164 (81.6%) completed three doses. In our qualitative study of 39 adolescent-caregiver dyads, we found that factors driving vaccine uptake reflected a socio-cultural backdrop of high HIV endemnicity, sexual violence, poverty, and an abundance of female-headed households. Adolescents exercised a high level of autonomy and often initiated decision-making. Healthcare providers and peers provided support and guidance that was absent at home. The impact of the HIV epidemic on decision-making was substantial, leading participants to mistakenly conflate HPV and HIV. Conclusions In a setting of perceived rampant sexual violence and epidemic levels of HIV, adolescents and caregivers sought to decrease harm by seeking a vaccine targeting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Despite careful consenting, there was confusion regarding the vaccine’s target. Future interventions promoting STI vaccines will need to provide substantial information for participants, particularly adolescents who may exercise a significant level of autonomy in decision-making. PMID:24023613

Katz, Ingrid T.; Nkala, Busisiwe; Dietrich, Janan; Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pollenz, Kathryn; Bogart, Laura M.; Wright, Alexi A.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Gray, Glenda E.

2013-01-01

271

Moving the Barricades to Physical Activity: A Qualitative Analysis of Open Streets Initiatives Across the United States.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Ciclovía, or Open Streets initiatives, are events where streets are opened for physical activity and closed to motorized traffic. Although the initiatives are gaining popularity in the United States, little is known about planning and implementing them. The goals of this paper are to explore the development and implementation of Open Streets initiatives and make recommendations for increasing the capacity of organizers to enhance initiative success. Approach . Phenomenology with qualitative analysis of structured interviews was used. Setting . Study setting was urban and suburban communities in the United States. Participants . Study participants were organizers of Open Streets initiatives in U.S. cities. Method . Using a list of 47 events held in 2011, 27 lead organizers were interviewed by telephone about planning, implementation, and lessons learned. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. A phenomenologic approach was used, an initial coding tool was developed after reviewing a sample of transcripts, and constant comparative coding methodology was applied. Themes and subthemes were generated from codes. Results . The most common reasons for initiation were to highlight or improve health and transportation. Most initiatives aimed to reach the general population, but some targeted families, children, or specific neighborhoods. Getting people to understand the concept of Open Streets was an important challenge. Other challenges included lack of funding and personnel, and complex logistics. Conclusion . These initiatives democratize public space for citizens while promoting physical activity, social connectedness, and other broad agendas. There are opportunities for the research community to contribute to the expanse and sustainability of Open Streets, particularly in evaluation and dissemination. PMID:25162326

Eyler, Amy A; Hipp, J Aaron; Lokuta, Julie

2014-08-27

272

Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: state-of-the-art in qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) aims to enable direct analysis of gaseous, liquid, and/or solid samples under ambient conditions. In ADI-MS, different types of desorption/ionization sources are classified according to their basic method of operation, namely spray-based, laser-based, or plasma-based. This review discusses many of the plasma-based techniques coupled to mass spectrometry in terms of their current performance in fast qualitative screening and quantitative analysis. Critical aspects, for example sample preparation and introduction, quantification, and matrix effects, are addressed. Furthermore, the applicability of plasma-based sources to portable mass spectrometers and their capabilities in imaging experiments are summarized. The applications discussed are of two types. In one, direct screening is performed without any or with minimal sample pretreatment. Samples with low matrix content are qualitatively analyzed without interferences. The other, more challenging applications, namely samples with high matrix content and most quantitative analysis, typically require sample preparation ranging from simple dilution to extensive multi-step procedures. PMID:25069879

Albert, Anastasia; Shelley, Jacob T; Engelhard, Carsten

2014-10-01

273

d-Glucose, d-Galactose, and d-Lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.  

PubMed

Here, d-Glucose, d-Galactose, and d-Lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to d-Glucose, d-Galactose, and d-Lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18mM and 3.47mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79mAcm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57mAcm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64mAcm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30?M, 29.40?M, and 26?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

2015-05-15

274

Qualitative analysis of precipiation distribution in Poland with use of different data sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to integrate data from different sources and in different formats to perform innovative spatial and temporal analysis. GIS can be also applied for climatic research to manage, investigate and display all kinds of weather data. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate that GIS is a useful tool to examine and visualise precipitation distribution obtained from different data sources: ground measurements, satellite and radar data. Three selected days (30 cases) with convective rainfall situations were analysed. Firstly, scalable GRID-based approach was applied to store data from three different sources in comparable layout. Then, geoprocessing algorithm was created within ArcGIS 9.2 environment. The algorithm included: GRID definition, reclassification and raster algebra. All of the calculations and procedures were performed automatically. Finally, contingency tables and pie charts were created to show relationship between ground measurements and both satellite and radar derived data. The results were visualised on maps.

Walawender, J.; Dyras, I.; ?apeta, B.; Serafin-Rek, D.; Twardowski, A.

2008-04-01

275

Choosing engineering: Can I succeed and do I want to? A qualitative analysis framed in expectancy-value theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently published reports call for an increase in the number of engineering graduates and suggest appropriate characteristics that these graduates should embody. Accomplishing either objective requires first understanding why students choose to pursue engineering degrees. This research started addressing this knowledge gap using Eccles' expectancy-value model to qualitatively and longitudinally examine undergraduate student's choices to enroll and persist in engineering majors. Specifically, this study focused on identity within Eccles' model to answer the question: How do students' beliefs about being engineers in the future shape their choices to pursue engineering? Framed in Eccles' model, students' choices to pursue engineering majors are based on beliefs about their engineering-related competence and how much they value succeeding in an engineering major. Eccles posits that identity shapes both competence and value beliefs. This study defined identity as students' self-perceptions as future engineers then examined the roles these self-perceptions in shaping their choices to pursue engineering degrees. Gee's conception of four-interrelated aspects of identity (nature identity, institutional identity, affinity identity, and discourse identity) provided a lens to examine students' self-perceptions as future engineers. Multiple case study methods guided this research with each of ten students (five men and five women) representing a case. Results derive from the inductive analysis of longitudinal interviews triangulated with survey results---all data spanned the students' first through fourth undergraduate years. This study is part of a larger body of work, the Academic Pathways Study (APS), conducted by the Center for Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE). Results demonstrated that students' self-perceptions as future engineers are connected to both competence and value beliefs and to the choice to persist in engineering. Specifically, the results showed: (1) even in their fourth undergraduate year, three out of ten participants were uncertain about themselves as future engineers; (2) students choosing to pursue an engineering degree because they identify with the types of activities in which engineers engage experience the persistence choice process differently than students who choose engineering for other reasons; and (3) all students ultimately had positive competence beliefs, although two women participants continually renegotiated definitions of competence in engineering.

Matusovich, Holly Marie

276

Early childhood educators’ perceptions of preschoolers' mental health problems: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood education services create potentially optimal opportunities to identify and respond effectively to preschoolers' mental health problems. However, little is known about the knowledge, skills and competencies of early childhood educators in the area of mental health. The present study aimed to contribute to this field through conducting focus group interviews with professionals from public early childhood education centres in Greece. Methods Thirty-four educators attended five focus group meetings, with each group consisting of five to nine participants and two discussion facilitators. A thematic analysis was conducted using line-by-line open coding. Constructed codes from the wording used by the participants in the interviews were created, and constant comparisons for developing themes as well as seeking data not conforming to each theme were used independently by two researchers. At the end of this process, no new information was being provided and there was repetition in each of the categories. Results The analysis identified three themes in the data: risk factors for preschoolers' mental health problems, signs of preschoolers' mental health problems and practices of helping preschoolers with mental health problems. Results suggested that early childhood educators had satisfactory awareness of many preschoolers' mental health issues, although they showed a rather limited understanding in some domains. Moreover, they seemed to deliver inadequate practices in responding effectively to children's and families' mental health problems. Conclusions Best practice training in working with preschoolers, families and mental health services seems essential for helping young children receive the best level of support through early identification and intervention services for possible mental health problems. PMID:24386965

2014-01-01

277

Researcher Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest: A Qualitative Analysis of Views from Academia.  

PubMed

The increasing interconnectedness of academic research and external industry has left research vulnerable to conflicts of interest. These conflicts have the potential to undermine the integrity of scientific research as well as to threaten public trust in scientific findings. The present effort sought to identify themes in the perspectives of faculty researchers regarding conflicts of interest. Think-aloud interview responses were qualitatively analyzed in an effort to provide insights with regard to appropriate ways to address the threat of conflicts of interest in research. Themes in participant responses included disclosure of conflicts of interest, self-removal from situations where conflict exists, accommodation of conflict, denial of the existence of conflict, and recognition of complexity of situations involving conflicts of interest. Moral disengagement operations are suggested to explain the appearance of each identified theme. In addition, suggestions for best practices regarding addressing conflicts of interest given these themes in faculty perspectives are provided. PMID:25115563

Mecca, Jensen T; Gibson, Carter; Giorgini, Vincent; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

2014-08-13

278

The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

2009-01-01

279

Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

2013-06-01

280

Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, Craig M.

2013-07-31

281

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Andrographis paniculata by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R² > 0.9995) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02 ?g/mL to 0.06 ?g/mL and 0.06 ?g/mL to 0.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption. PMID:24084022

Song, Yong-Xi; Liu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Zhao; Qin, Jian-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan

2013-01-01

282

Qualitative risk analysis of introducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to the UK through the importation of live amphibians.  

PubMed

The international amphibian trade is implicated in the emergence and spread of the amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis, which has resulted in amphibian declines and extinctions globally. The establishment of the causal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), in the UK could negatively affect the survival of native amphibian populations. In recognition of the ongoing threat that it poses to amphibians, Bd was recently included in the World Organisation for Animal Health Aquatic Animal Health Code, and therefore is in the list of international notifiable diseases. Using standardised risk analysis guidelines, we investigated the likelihood that Bd would be introduced to and become established in wild amphibians in the UK through the importation of live amphibians. We obtained data on the volume and origin of the amphibian trade entering the UK and detected Bd infection in amphibians being imported for the pet and private collection trade and also in amphibians already held in captive pet, laboratory and zoological collections. We found that current systems for recording amphibian trade into the UK underestimate the volume of non-European Union trade by almost 10-fold. We identified high likelihoods of entry, establishment and spread of Bd in the UK and the resulting major overall impact. Despite uncertainties, we determined that the overall risk estimation for the introduction of Bd to the UK through the importation of live amphibians is high and that risk management measures are required, whilst ensuring that negative effects on legal trade are minimised. PMID:22436458

Peel, Alison J; Hartley, Matt; Cunningham, Andrew A

2012-03-20

283

Direct qualitative analysis of triacylglycerols by electrospray mass spectrometry using a linear ion trap.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated from a biological sample provide a challenge for mass spectrometric analysis because of the complexity of naturally occurring TAGs, which may contain different fatty acyl substituents resulting in a large number of molecular species having the identical elemental composition. We have investigated the use of mass spectrometry to obtain unambiguous information as to the individual TAG molecular species present in a complex mixture of triacylglycerols using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Ammonium adducts of TAGs, [M+NH4]+, were generated by electrospray ionization, which permitted the molecular weight of each TAG molecular species to be determined. The mechanisms involved in the decomposition of the [M+NH4]+ and subsequent fragment ions were investigated using deuterium labeling, MS/MS, and MS3 experiments. Collision induced decomposition of [M+NH4]+ ions resulted in the neutral loss of NH3 and an acyl side-chain (as a carboxylic acid) to generate a diacyl product ion. MS/MS data were used to identify each acyl group present for a given [M+NH4]+ ion, and this information could be combined with molecular weight data to identify possible TAG molecular species present in a biological extract. Subsequent MS3 experiments on the resultant diacyl product ions, which gave rise to acylium (RCO+) and related ions, enabled unambiguous TAG molecular assignments. These strategies of MS, MS/MS, and MS3 experiments were applied to identify components within a complex mixture of neutral lipids extracted from RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:16019221

McAnoy, Andrew M; Wu, Christine C; Murphy, Robert C

2005-09-01

284

Genotypic tropism testing by massively parallel sequencing: qualitative and quantitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Inferring viral tropism from genotype is a fast and inexpensive alternative to phenotypic testing. While being highly predictive when performed on clonal samples, sensitivity of predicting CXCR4-using (X4) variants drops substantially in clinical isolates. This is mainly attributed to minor variants not detected by standard bulk-sequencing. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) detects single clones thereby being much more sensitive. Using this technology we wanted to improve genotypic prediction of coreceptor usage. Methods Plasma samples from 55 antiretroviral-treated patients tested for coreceptor usage with the Monogram Trofile Assay were sequenced with standard population-based approaches. Fourteen of these samples were selected for further analysis with MPS. Tropism was predicted from each sequence with geno2pheno[coreceptor]. Results Prediction based on bulk-sequencing yielded 59.1% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity compared to the trofile assay. With MPS, 7600 reads were generated on average per isolate. Minorities of sequences with high confidence in CXCR4-usage were found in all samples, irrespective of phenotype. When using the default false-positive-rate of geno2pheno[coreceptor] (10%), and defining a minority cutoff of 5%, the results were concordant in all but one isolate. Conclusions The combination of MPS and coreceptor usage prediction results in a fast and accurate alternative to phenotypic assays. The detection of X4-viruses in all isolates suggests that coreceptor usage as well as fitness of minorities is important for therapy outcome. The high sensitivity of this technology in combination with a quantitative description of the viral population may allow implementing meaningful cutoffs for predicting response to CCR5-antagonists in the presence of X4-minorities. PMID:21569501

2011-01-01

285

Interacting oscillations in neural control of breathing: modeling and qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

In mammalian respiration, late-expiratory (late-E, or pre-inspiratory) oscillations emerge in abdominal motor output with increasing metabolic demands (e.g., during hypercapnia, hypoxia, etc.). These oscillations originate in the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) and couple with the respiratory oscillations generated by the interacting neural populations of the Bötzinger (BötC) and pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) complexes, representing the kernel of the respiratory central pattern generator. Recently, we analyzed experimental data on the generation of late-E oscillations and proposed a large-scale computational model that simulates the possible interactions between the BötC/pre-BötC and RTN/pFRG oscillations under different conditions. Here we describe a reduced model that maintains the essential features and architecture of the large-scale model, but relies on simplified activity-based descriptions of neural populations. This simplification allowed us to use methods of dynamical systems theory, such as fast-slow decomposition, bifurcation analysis, and phase plane analysis, to elucidate the mechanisms and dynamics of synchronization between the RTN/pFRG and BötC/pre-BötC oscillations. Three physiologically relevant behaviors have been analyzed: emergence and quantal acceleration of late-E oscillations during hypercapnia, transformation of the late-E activity into a biphasic-E activity during hypercapnic hypoxia, and quantal slowing of BötC/pre-BötC oscillations with the reduction of pre-BötC excitability. Each behavior is elicited by gradual changes in excitatory drives or other model parameters, reflecting specific changes in metabolic and/or physiological conditions. Our results provide important theoretical insights into interactions between RTN/pFRG and BötC/pre-BötC oscillations and the role of these interactions in the control of breathing under different metabolic conditions. PMID:20927576

Rubin, Jonathan E; Bacak, Bartholomew J; Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rybak, Ilya A

2011-06-01

286

The Effect of Online Systems Analysis Training on Aerospace Industry Business Performance: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aerospace companies needed additional research on technology-based training to verify expectations when enhancing human capital through online systems analysis training. The research for online systems analysis training provided aerospace companies a means to verify expectations for systems analysis technology-based training on business…

Burk, Erlan

2012-01-01

287

An Adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program for Elders in a Continuing Care Retirement Community: Quantitative and Qualitative Results From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

2014-12-01

288

Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

2013-01-01

289

Systemic analysis of UK foresight results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new systems approach to foresight studies. The paper will first indicate the complex and conflicting nature of long-term decision-making process. Then, the need for systems approach will be highlighted by the analysis of 1995 UK Delphi survey results and the scenarios of 2000 UK foresight scenarios. The paper proposes two methodologies, namely Integrated Management Model (IMM)

Ozcan Saritas; M. Atilla Oner

2004-01-01

290

Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred to as watershed management. Watershed management includes soil and water conservation to create water resources, management of drinking water, improving hygiene and sanitation, plantation of trees, improving agriculture, formation of self-help groups and proper utilisation and management of available natural resources. For successful implementation of such a solution, understanding of perceptions of the tribal community members with regard to public health and socioeconomic implications of watershed management is essential. Methods A qualitative study with six focus group discussions (FGDs), three each separately for men and women, was conducted among tribal community members of the Maharashtra state of India. The data collected from the FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. Results “Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management” was identified as the main theme. Participants perceived that their health problems and socio-economic development are directly and/or indirectly dependent upon water availability. They further perceived that watershed management could directly or indirectly result in reduction of their public health related challenges like waterborne diseases, seasonal migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence, as well as drudgery of women and may enhance overall empowerment of families through agricultural development. Conclusions Tribal people perceived that water scarcity is the main reason for their physical, mental and social health problems and a major obstacle for their overall development. The perceptions of tribal participants indicate that infectious diseases, migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence and drudgery of women are end results of water scarcity and efforts to increase water availability through watershed management may help them to achieve their right to health which is embedded in their right to access to water. PMID:24119537

2013-01-01

291

Perceptions of family of origin among lonely adult Filipino males with schizophrenia: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

This study explored the perceived family life experiences in the family of origin among 35 hospitalized lonely adult (range 27 to 44 years) Filipino males with schizophrenia during a period of remission of their overt psychotic features. Open-ended interview, checklists, and projective techniques were used to collect data. Together with an in-depth analysis of narratives, the responses of the lonely and the loneliest participants were compared by Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test of comparison. It was predicted in this study that individuals with schizophrenia with higher level of loneliness would be more likely to perceive their family life experiences negatively than the less lonely individuals with schizophrenia. Results showed that the degree of negative family experiences among the loneliest participants was significantly higher than the lonely participants. Moreover, a few participants regardless of the degree of loneliness positively viewed their family as united and close, interactive, affectionate and loving, kind and good, trustworthy, religious, morally good, complete, and supportive. PMID:19477758

Porinchu Tharayil, Davis

2010-06-01

292

Challenges of implementing a medication management evidence-based practice in a community mental health setting: results of a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The Medication Management Approaches in Psychiatry (MedMAP) is a medication management evidence-based practice (EBP) to guide the use of psychotropic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia. This qualitative study examined facilitators and barriers to implementing MedMAP in community mental health treatment settings. Audio-taped qualitative interviews were conducted with practitioners and administrators involved in a MedMAP implementation project conducted in six community mental health centers. Data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis of transcribed interviews. Findings indicate that facilitators to MedMAP implementation included practitioner recognition of the value of MedMAP, consumer involvement, collaboration, continuity of care, and fidelity assessments. Barriers to MedMAP implementation included problematic technology, work flow issues, lack of flexibility in prescribers' ability to implement MedMAP guidelines, regulatory and financial barriers, and consumer insurance status. Recommendations for improving future implementation efforts of MedMAP emphasize technological readiness, development of innovative models of care delivery, an emphasis on treatment guided by outcomes, and active leadership to promote EBPs within organizations and academic settings. PMID:24963852

El-Mallakh, Peggy; Howard, Patricia B; Bond, Gary R; Roque, Autumn P

2014-07-01

293

The investigation of deaths in custody: a qualitative analysis of problems and prospects.  

PubMed

The right to be treated humanely when detained is universally recognized. Deficiencies in detention conditions and violence, however, subvert this right. When this occurs, proper medico-legal investigations are critical irrespective of the nature of death. Unfortunately, the very context of custody raises serious concerns over the effectiveness and fairness of medico-legal examinations. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and discuss the practical and ethical difficulties encountered in the medico-legal investigation following deaths in custody. Data for this manuscript come from a larger project on Death in Custody that examined the causes of deaths in custody and the conditions under which these deaths should be investigated and prevented. A total of 33 stakeholders from forensic medicine, law, prison administration or national human rights administration were interviewed. Data obtained were analyzed qualitatively. Forensic experts are an essential part of the criminal justice process as they offer evidence for subsequent indictment and eventual punishment of perpetrators. Their independence when investigating a death in custody was deemed critical and lack thereof, problematic. When experts were not independent, concerns arose in relation to conflicts of interest, biased perspectives, and low-quality forensic reports. The solutions to ensure independent forensic investigations of deaths in custody must be structural and simple: setting binding standards of practice rather than detailed procedures and relying on preexisting national practices as opposed to encouraging new practices that are unattainable for countries with limited resources. PMID:24931858

Wangmo, Tenzin; Ruiz, Géraldine; Sinclair, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice Simone

2014-07-01

294

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lysine acetylation and methylation in yeast histone H3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histone post-translational modifications play important roles in cell functions and the modification patterns vary significantly among different organisms. It is important that histone modification patterns be identified. Flowing our previous work-identification of acetylation and methylation sites of histone H3 in a typical transcription most inactive chromatin isolated from chicken erythrocytes, here, we report using mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze histone modification pattern of H3 in a typical transcription most active chromatin isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compared the modification patterns of histone H3 between these two functionally opposite chromatins and observed that acetylation level at K9, K14, K27, K56 and methylation level at K4 and K79 are significantly higher in S. cerevisiae than in chicken erythrocytes, methylation at K9 is higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae and methylation level at K36 is unchanged in these two chromatins. Contrary to other sites, acetylation levels at K18 and K23 are higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae. Our data revealed the difference of acetylation and methylation pattern of individual H3 lysine between two distinct chromatins, one with more inactive form versus the other with more active form.

Zhang, Kangling

2008-01-01

295

The Incredible Years parenting program in Ireland: a qualitative analysis of the experience of disadvantaged parents.  

PubMed

Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programs work, but less is known about the processes of change, contextual factors or intervention characteristics that influence trial outcomes. This qualitative study assessed the experiences of Irish parents involved in a randomized controlled trial of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting program, with a view to understanding how and why the program works, or does not work, within disadvantaged settings. Data from 33 parents of young children (aged 3-7 years) with conduct problems were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Emerging themes indicated that parents perceived the program to have produced positive changes through learning key parenting skills (e.g. positive attention, empathy and problem-solving skills) and through enhanced parental mood/confidence, derived primarily from gaining non-judgmental support from the group. Parents also experienced cultural, personal and environmental challenges in learning the new skills, including discomfort with praise and positive attention, conflict with their partner and parenting within an antisocial environment. Parents dropped out of the course for largely circumstantial reasons. These findings should help to inform the future implementation of this well-known parenting program both in Ireland and elsewhere. PMID:22104366

Furlong, Mairéad; McGilloway, Sinéad

2012-10-01

296

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Danmu injection using LC-ESI-MSn and LC-DAD  

PubMed Central

Background: Danmu injection, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Nauclea officinalis, has been commonly used for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat in China. However, the chemical constituents in Danmu injection have not been clarified yet. Objective: a HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components in Danmu injection. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed on a Welch Material XB-C18 (4.6mm × 250mm, 5?m) using gradient elution with acetonitrile (A) and water containing 0.1% formic acid (B) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Results: Twenty-five compounds, including phenolic acid and phenol glycoside, iridous glycoside and glycoalkaloid were identified or tentatively deduced on the base of their retention behaviors, UV absorption, MS and MSn data with those elucidated references or literature. In addition, eleven compounds were simultaneously determined by HPLC–DAD, which was validated and successfully applied for determination of major components in Danmu injection. Conclusion: The results suggested that the established qualitative and quantitative method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of Danmu injection. PMID:25210312

Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Li, Xiu-Feng; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2014-01-01

297

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinones in rhubarbs by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Rhubarb is well known in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) mainly due to its effective purgative activity. Anthraquinones, including anthraquinone derivatives and their glycosides, are thought to be the major active components in rhubarb. To improve the quality control method of rhubarb, we studied on the extraction method, and did qualitative and quantitative analysis of widely used rhubarbs, Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. and Rheum palmatum L., by HPLC-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-mass spectrum (HPLC-MS) on a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m). Amount of five anthraquinones was viewed as the evaluating standard. A standardized characteristic fingerprint of rhubarb was provided. From the quantitative analysis, the rationality was demonstrated for ancestors to use these two species of rhubarb equally. Under modern extraction methods, the amount of five anthraquinones in Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. is higher than that in Rheum palmatum L. Among various extraction methods, ultrasonication with 70% methanol for 30 min is a promising one. For HPLC analysis, mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water with a gradient program, the detection wavelength at 280nm for fingerprinting analysis and 254 nm for quantitative analysis are good choices. PMID:23870882

Wei, Shao-yin; Yao, Wen-xin; Ji, Wen-yuan; Wei, Jia-qi; Peng, Shi-qi

2013-12-01

298

Constructing osteoarthritis through discourse – a qualitative analysis of six patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Health service policy in the United Kingdom emphasises the importance of self-care by patients with chronic conditions. Written information for patients about their condition is seen as an important aid to help patients look after themselves. From a discourse analysis perspective written texts such as patient information leaflets do not simply describe the reality of a medical condition and its management but by drawing on some sorts of knowledge and evidence rather than others help construct the reality of that condition. This study explored patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis (OA) to see how OA was constructed and to consider the implications for self-care. Methods Systematic and repeated readings of six patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis to look for similarities and differences across leaflets, contradictions within leaflets and the resources called on to make claims about the nature of OA and its management. Results Biomedical discourse of OA as a joint disease dominated. Only one leaflet included an illness discourse albeit limited, and was also the only one to feature patient experiences of living with OA. The leaflets had different views on the causes of OA including the role of lifestyle and ageing. Most emphasised patient responsibility for preventing the progression of OA. Advice about changing behaviour such as diet and exercise was not grounded in lived experience. There were inconsistent messages about using painkillers, exercise and the need to involve professionals when making changes to lifestyle. Conclusion The nature of the discourse impacted on how OA and the respective roles of patients and professionals were depicted. Limited discourse on illness meant that the complexity of living with OA and its consequences was underestimated. Written information needs to shift from joint biology to helping patients live with osteoarthritis. Written information should incorporate patient experience and value it alongside biomedical knowledge. PMID:17428315

Grime, Janet C; Ong, Bie Nio

2007-01-01

299

Qualitative analysis of parents' experience with early detection of hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine key themes from parents' comments on paths to diagnosis and intervention for their children with hearing loss, following introduction of at-risk neonatal hearing screening and modification of distraction test screening for infants not at-risk. Methods: Parents of children born in 1993 in Victoria, Australia, who were eligible for screening via the Victorian Infant Hearing Screening Program and who were subsequently diagnosed with a permanent congenital hearing loss and fitted with hearing aids prior to the year 2000 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire shortly after aid fitting. Two researchers independently analysed parent comments using the constant comparative method. Results: Parents of 82 children (61%) replied to the questionnaire. Themes analysis revealed a generally positive response to neonatal ABR screening, with a mixed response to the distraction test; powerful emotions experienced by parents at diagnosis including denial and shock; frustration arising from delays in diagnosis, and communication difficulties with providers. Special difficulties testing children with other medical and developmental problems, confusion about tympanostomy tube insertion, and difficulty with wearing hearing aids were also reported. Some children had experienced problems in the school setting. Experience of post-diagnostic services was generally positive. Conclusions: Parents need greater support both during the testing of screen failures and at the time of diagnosis. Providers need more training in how to communicate findings to parents, particularly at times when parents are experiencing strong emotions. Parents need more strategies to enable hearing aid wearing in very young children. Some children with additional medical, developmental, and behavioural problems need specialised approaches to testing. PMID:15033847

Russ, S; Kuo, A; Poulakis, Z; Barker, M; Rickards, F; Saunders, K; Jarman, F; Wake, M; Oberklaid, F

2004-01-01

300

Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects  

PubMed Central

Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Results Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. Conclusions This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial. PMID:24438471

2014-01-01

301

Parent-son decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Licensed for use in males in 2009, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in adolescent males are extremely low. Literature on HPV vaccination focuses on females, adult males, or parents of adolescent males, without including adolescent males or the dynamics of the parent-son interaction that may influence vaccine decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision-making process of parent-son dyads when deciding whether or not to get vaccinated against HPV. Methods Twenty-one adolescent males (ages 13–17), with no previous HPV vaccination, and their parents/guardians were recruited from adolescent primary care clinics serving low to middle income families in a large Midwestern city. Dyad members participated in separate semi-structured interviews assessing the relative role of the parent and son in the decision regarding HPV vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive content analysis. Results Parents and sons focused on protection as a reason for vaccination; parents felt a need to protect their child, while sons wanted to protect their own health. Parents and sons commonly misinterpreted the information about the vaccine. Sons were concerned about an injection in the penis, while some parents and sons thought the vaccine would protect them against other sexually transmitted infections including Herpes, Gonorrhea, and HIV. Parents and sons recalled that the vaccine prevented genital warts rather than cancer. The vaccine decision-making process was rapid and dynamic, including an initial reaction to the recommendation for HPV vaccine, discussion between parent and son, and the final vaccine decision. Provider input was weighed in instances of initial disagreement. Many boys felt that this was the first health care decision that they had been involved in. Dyads which reported shared decision-making were more likely to openly communicate about sexual issues than those that agreed the son made the decision. Conclusion Parents and sons play an active role in the decision-making process, with an individual’s role being influenced by many factors. The results of this study may be used to guide the messages presented by clinicians when recommending the HPV vaccine, and future vaccine uptake interventions. PMID:23241217

2012-01-01

302

Service learning in Guatemala: using qualitative content analysis to explore an interdisciplinary learning experience among students in health care professional programs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interprofessional collaboration among health care professionals yields improved patient outcomes, yet many students in health care programs have limited exposure to interprofessional collaboration in the classroom and in clinical and service-learning experiences. This practice gap implies that students enter their professions without valuing interprofessional collaboration and the impact it has on promoting positive patient outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the interprofessional experiences of students in health care professional programs as they collaborated to provide health care to Guatemalan citizens over a 7-day period. Methods In light of the identified practice gap and a commitment by college administration to fund interprofessional initiatives, faculty educators from nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy conducted a qualitative study to explore a service-learning initiative focused on promoting interprofessional collaboration. Students collaborated in triads (one student from each of the three disciplines) to provide supervised health care to underserved Guatemalan men, women, children, and infants across a variety of community and health care settings. Eighteen students participated in a qualitative research project by describing their experience of interprofessional collaboration in a service-learning environment. Twice before arriving in Guatemala, and on three occasions during the trip, participants reflected on their experiences and provided narrative responses to open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis methodology was used to describe their experiences of interprofessional collaboration. Results An interprofessional service-learning experience positively affected students’ learning, their growth in interprofessional collaboration, and their understanding and appreciation of health care professions besides their own. The experience also generated feelings of gratitude for the opportunity to be a member of an interprofessional team and to serve those in need by giving of themselves. Conclusion The findings support service learning as a platform to encourage interprofessional collaboration among students in health care professional programs. The research will inform future service-learning experiences in which interdisciplinary collaboration is an outcome of interest. PMID:23430865

Fries, Kathleen S; Bowers, Donna M; Gross, Margo; Frost, Lenore

2013-01-01

303

Seeking help for depression from family and friends: A qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282) including emotional support (n = 154), informational support (n = 93), companionship support (n = 36) and instrumental support (n = 23). Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72), the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62), the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49), their accessibility (n = 36), and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30). The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53), inappropriate support (n = 45), the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32) and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20) and the relationship (n = 18). Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers. PMID:22171567

2011-01-01

304

Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. PMID:25186561

Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

2014-09-01

305

Exploring the Role of Ethnic Identity on the Attitudes Towards HPV Vaccine Advertising Among Puerto Ricans: A Qualitative Analysis.  

PubMed

Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n = 23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans. PMID:24052477

Calo, William A; Fernández, Maria E; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

2015-02-01

306

A qualitative content analysis of cigarette health warning labels in australia, Canada, the United kingdom, and the United States.  

PubMed

The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced. PMID:25521883

Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

2015-02-01

307

Preparing for Rural Ministry: A Qualitative Analysis of Curriculum Used in Theological Education to Prepare Clergy for Ministry in a Rural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the capacity of rural clergy through their educational preparation is important. Unfortunately, there is lack of research and understanding about the educational preparation of clergy to work in rural communities. This qualitative content analysis of course descriptions, goals and objectives and an analysis of the content covered in the…

Sherin, Kenneth Mark

2012-01-01

308

Introduction to Q-Squared in Policy: the Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Poverty Analysis in Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory essay for the journal Symposium presents an overview of issues related to 'Q-Squared in Policy: the use of qualitative and quantitative methods of poverty analysis in decision-making'. We focus on issues raised on the supply side of data use, relating, inter alia to the informational content and policy usefulness of different types of data and analysis. These issues

Ellen Bortei-Doku Aryeetey

309

Results on the qualitative behaviour of solutions for a certain class of third order nonlinear delay differential equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the frequency domain method, sufficient conditions which guarantee asymptotic stability of the null solution of a certain class of third order nonlinear delay differential equation are established. Furthermore, effective criteria for the existence of a bounded solution which is exponentially stable, periodic or almost periodic according as the forcing term is periodic or almost periodic are obtained. Our results generalize existing results in the relevant literature.

Adesina, Olufemi Adeyinka

2014-12-01

310

Relay and forward in free space optical communication - A qualitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free space optical (FSO) communication systems have attracted great attention due to their ability to achieve high data rates. To increase the coverage area, multi-antenna systems were proposed, which failed to achieve diversity gains due to limitations of the feasible number of antennas per terminal and turbulent induced fading. Cooperative communication can overcome these drawbacks and this paper reviews relay assisted communication. The performance of Amplify and forward (AF), Decode and Forward (DF) and selective relaying protocols are analyzed and compared based on the metrics of outage analysis, BER analysis and communicating distance(s).

Jeyarani, J.; Kumar, D. Sriram, Dr.

2014-10-01

311

Cyanobacterial toxins: a qualitative meta-analysis of concentrations, dosage and effects in freshwater, estuarine and marine biota.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the rapidly expanding literature on the ecological effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The study employs a qualitative meta-analysis from the literature examining results from a large number of independent studies and extracts general patterns from the literature or signals contradictions. The meta-analysis is set up by putting together two large tables--embodying a large and representative part of the literature (see Appendix A). The first table (Table A.1) reviews the presence (concentrations) of different cyanobacterial toxins in the tissues of various groups of aquatic biota after exposure via different routes, experimentally in the lab or via natural routes in the environment. The second table (Table A.2) reviews the dose dependent effect of toxins on biota. The great majority of studies deal with the presence and effects of microcystin, especially of the MC-LR congener. Although this may partly be justified--MC-LR is an abundant and highly toxic protein--our review also emphasizes what is known about (i) other MC congeners (a number of studies showed a preferred accumulation of the less toxic variant MC-RR in animal tissues), (ii) nodularin (data on a range of biota from studies on the Baltic Sea), (iii) neurotoxins like anatoxin-a(s), which are conspicuously often present at times when mass mortalities of birds occur, (iv) a few studies on the presence and effects of cylindrospermposin, as well as (v) the first examples of ecological effects of newly identified bioactive compounds, like microviridin-J. Data were reorganized to assess to what extent bioconcentration (uptake and concentration of toxins from the water) or biomagnification (uptake and concentration via the food) of cyanobacterial toxins occurs in ecosystems. There is little support for the occurrence of biomagnification, and this reduces the risk for biota at higher trophic levels. Rather than biomagnification biodilution seems to occur in the foodweb with toxins being subject to degradation and excretion at every level. Nevertheless toxins were present at all tropic levels, indicating that some vectorial transport must take place, and in sufficient quantities for effects to possibly occur. Feeding seemed to be the most important route for exposure of aquatic biota to cyanobacterial toxins. A fair number of studies focus on dissolved toxins, but in those studies purified toxin typically is used, and biota do not appear very sensitive to this form of exposure. More effects are found when crude cyanobacterial cell lysates are used, indicating that there may be synergistic effects between different bioactive compounds. Aquatic biota are by no means defenseless against toxic cyanobacteria. Several studies indicate that those species that are most frequently exposed to toxins in their natural environment are also the most tolerant. Protection includes behavioral mechanisms, detoxication of MC and NODLN by conjugation with glutathione, and fairly rapid depuration and excretion. A common theme in much of the ecological studies is that of modulating factors. Effects are seldom straightforward, but are dependent on factors like the (feeding) condition of the animals, environmental conditions and the history of exposure (acclimation and adaptation to toxic cyanobacteria). This makes it harder to generalize on what is known about ecological effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The paper concludes by summarizing the risks for birds, fish, macroinvertebrates and zooplankton. Although acute (lethal) effects are mentioned in the literature, mass mortalities of--especially--fish are more likely to be the result of multiple stress factors that co-occur during cyanobacterial blooms. Bivalves appear remarkably resistant, whilst the harmful effects of cyanobacteria on zooplankton vary widely and the specific contribution of toxins is hard to evaluate. PMID:18461789

Ibelings, Bas W; Havens, Karl E

2008-01-01

312

Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by UPLC-MS/MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a structurally complex and bioactive group of tannins. Detailed analysis of PA concentration, composition, and structure typically requires the use of one or more time-consuming analytical methods. For example, the commonly employed thiolysis and phloroglucinolysis method...

313

A Qualitative Analysis of Vietnamese Adolescent Identity Exploration within and outside an Ethnic Enclave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on identity development explorations enables a greater understanding of contexts that affect immigrant adolescents. Utilizing thematic and grounded narrative analysis of 46 journal writings, during a one-month period, from first and second generation Vietnamese adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 18 (26 residents of a culturally and…

Vo-Jutabha, Easter Dawn; Dinh, Khanh T.; McHale, James P.; Valsiner, Jaan

2009-01-01

314

Using Social Network Analysis to Advance Traditional Qualitative Methods in Evaluation and Program Design1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network analysis (SNA) is a technique used to study relationships between actors, such as people or organizations. It has been applied to a wide array of disciplines, on topics ranging from destabilizing Al-Qaeda to explaining campaign fundraising success. While these applications may seem far removed from the efforts of AESP members, this paper will provide insights into the innovative

Caroline J. Wilson; Anne E. Dougherty; Mary Sutter; Jennifer Mitchell-Jackson

2008-01-01

315

Design and Analysis Problems Associated with Qualitative Data in Educational Research. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project addresses a series of methodological and theoretical statistical problems in the analysis of categorical data using loglinear and logistic response models, which grow directly out of problems in the study of the American educational system, and in basic educational research. The project focuses on the adaptation and…

Fienberg, Stephen E.; Larntz, Kinley

316

Recursive Frame Analysis: Reflections on the Development of a Qualitative Research Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…

Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

2012-01-01

317

Reconstructing Their Lives: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Analysis of the Transition to Biological Childlessness for Infertile Couples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a three-year, longitudinal study conducted to determine how infertile couples make the transition to biological childlessness after medical treatment fails. Phenomenological analysis of data indicated progressive adaptation by the participants to their biological childlessness over time, with greater overall life satisfaction being most…

Daniluk, Judith C.

2001-01-01

318

Learning (Not) to become a Teacher: A Qualitative Analysis of the Job Entrance Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reporting on 12 case studies of student teachers, this paper examines how experiences during teacher education affect graduates' decision on job entrance. Interpretative data-analysis reveals that powerful sources of the shift in motivation to enter teaching concern interactions in which the person of the teacher is at stake. These mainly involve…

Rots, Isabel; Kelchtermans, Geert; Aelterman, Antonia

2012-01-01

319

Illumination with a Dim Bulb? What do social scientists learn by employing qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) in the service of multi-method designs?  

PubMed Central

Although there has been much optimistic discussion of integrating quantitative and qualitative findings into sociological analysis, there remains a gap regarding the application of mixed approaches. We examine the potential gains and pitfalls of such integration in the context of the growing analytic power of contemporary qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) programs. We illustrate the issues with our own research in a mixed-methods project examining low fertility in Italy, a project that combines analysis of large nationally representative survey data with qualitative in-depth interviews with women across four (4) cities in Italy. Despite the enthusiasm for mixed-methods research, the available software appears to be underutilized. In addition, we suggest that the sociological research community will want to address several conceptual and inferential issues with these approaches. PMID:23543938

White, Michael J.; Judd, Maya D.; Poliandri, Simone

2012-01-01

320

The Use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis for Critical Event Research in Alcohol and HIV in Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

In this paper we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in critical event analysis to identify under what conditions alcohol is necessary in contributing to unprotected sex. The paper is based on a set of in-depth interviews with 84 men aged 18 = 29 from three typical low income communities in Mumbai who reported using alcohol and having sex with at least one nonspousal partner once or more in the 30 days prior to the interview. The interviews included narratives of critical events defined as recent (past 30–60 day) events involving sexual behavior with or without alcohol. The paper identifies themes related to alcohol, sexuality and condom use, uses QCA to identify and explain configurations leading to protected and unprotected sex, and explains the differences. The analysis shows that alcohol alone is not sufficient to explain any cases involving unprotected sex but alcohol in combination with partner type and contextual factors does explain unprotected sex for subsets of married and unmarried men. PMID:20563636

Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S. K.; Berg, Marlene; Singh, Sharad; Gupta, Kamla

2010-01-01

321

A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

Zhang, Lin

2013-07-01

322

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of naphthenic acids in natural waters surrounding the Canadian oil sands industry.  

PubMed

The Canadian oil sands industry stores toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) in large tailings ponds adjacent to the Athabasca River or its tributaries, raising concerns over potential seepage. Naphthenic acids (NAs; C(n)H(2n-Z)O(2)) are toxic components of OSPW, but are also natural components of bitumen and regional groundwaters, and may enter surface waters through anthropogenic or natural sources. This study used a selective high-resolution mass spectrometry method to examine total NA concentrations and NA profiles in OSPW (n = 2), Athabasca River pore water (n = 6, representing groundwater contributions) and surface waters (n = 58) from the Lower Athabasca Region. NA concentrations in surface water (< 2-80.8 ?g/L) were 100-fold lower than previously estimated. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished sample types based on NA profile, and correlations to water quality variables identified two sources of NAs: natural fatty acids, and bitumen-derived NAs. Analysis of NA data with water quality variables highlighted two tributaries to the Athabasca River-Beaver River and McLean Creek-as possibly receiving OSPW seepage. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of NA profiles in surface waters of the region, and demonstrates the need for highly selective analytical methods for source identification and in monitoring for potential effects of development on ambient water quality. PMID:23134288

Ross, Matthew S; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Fennell, Jon; Davies, Martin; Johnson, James; Sliva, Lucie; Martin, Jonathan W

2012-12-01

323

The quality of qualitative research.  

PubMed

In general, an appreciation of the standards of qualitative research and the types of qualitative data analyses available to researchers have not kept pace with the growing presence of qualitative studies in medical science. To help rectify this problem, the authors clarify qualitative research reliability, validity, sampling, and generalizability. They also provide 3 major theoretical frameworks for data collection and analysis that investigators may consider adopting. These 3 approaches are ethnography, existential phenomenology, and grounded theory. For each, the basic steps of data collection and analysis involved are presented, along with real-life examples of how they can contribute to improving medical care. PMID:18820144

Collingridge, Dave S; Gantt, Edwin E

2008-01-01

324

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex temperature-programmed desorption data by multivariate curve resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substantial amount of information carried in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments is often difficult to mine due to the occurrence of competing reaction pathways that produce compounds with similar mass spectrometric features. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is introduced as a tool capable of overcoming this problem by mathematically detecting spectral variations and correlations between several m/z traces, which is later translated into the extraction of the cracking pattern and the desorption profile for each desorbate. Different from the elegant (though complex) methods currently available to analyze TPD data, MCR analysis is applicable even when no information regarding the specific surface reaction/desorption process or the nature of the desorbing species is available. However, when available, any information can be used as constraints that guide the outcome, increasing the accuracy of the resolution. This approach is especially valuable when the compounds desorbing are different from what would be expected based on a chemical intuition, when the cracking pattern of the model test compound is difficult or impossible to obtain (because it could be unstable or very rare), and when knowing major components desorbing from the surface could in more traditional methods actually bias the quantification of minor components. The enhanced level of understanding of thermal processes achieved through MCR analysis is demonstrated by analyzing three phenomena: i) the cryogenic desorption of vinyltrimethylsilane from silicon, an introductory system where the known multilayer and monolayer components are resolved; ii) acrolein hydrogenation on a bimetallic Pt-Ni-Pt catalyst, where a rapid identification of hydrogenated products as well as other desorbing species is achieved, and iii) the thermal reaction of Ti[N(CH 3) 2] 4 on Si(100), where the products of surface decomposition are identified and an estimation of the surface composition after the thermal reaction is afforded. Since this work constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first effort to introduce multivariate analysis to TPD data, the procedures, algorithms and strategies employed are described in full detail.

Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.; Brown, Steven D.

2010-10-01

325

Qualitative and quantitative microbiological analysis of sputa of 102 patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A microbiological analysis of 102 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis was conducted over a 22 month period. 20 microbial species with the following incidence were identified:Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 83.4%;Candida albicans: 29.4%;Staphylococcus aureus: 24.5%;Staphylococcus epidermidis: 11.8%;Haemophilus influenzae: 11.8%;Streptococcus pneumoniae: 6.9%;Pseudomonas maltophilia: 6.8%;Aspergillus fumigatus: 5.9%. Other species were present in less than 5% of the patients. In the majority of specimens withP.

A. Bauernfeind; G. Hörl; R. Jungwirth; C. Petermüller; B. Przyklenk; C. Weisslein-Pfister; R. M. Bertele; K. Harms

1987-01-01

326

A qualitative analysis of GHB use among gay men: Reasons for use despite potential adverse outcomes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) among a sample of gay men in New York City, who identify GHB as their most frequently used club drug. The sample was drawn from a larger longitudinal investigation of club drug using men. Thematic analysis yielded findings regarding perceived stigma for GHB use, tolerance of potential adverse side effects, and reasons for why some prefer this substance to other club drugs. Specifically, our findings suggest that GHB is viewed unfavorably in many social circles, that side effects are tolerated by frequent GHB users, and that the drug is chosen over other substances because the short duration of action, energy boost, sleep assistance, increase in libido, and limited after-effects. Examining the reasons why men use this substance will lead to the development of GHB specific prevention strategies, which accurately address the consequences of use as well as the motivations that individuals possess for using the substance. PMID:23543728

Palamar, Joseph J.; Halkitis, Perry N.

2012-01-01

327

A Qualitative Analysis of Power Differentials in Ethical Situations in Academia.  

PubMed

Power and organizational hierarchies are ubiquitous to social institutions that form the foundation of modern society. Power differentials may act to constrain or enhance people's ability to make good ethical decisions. However, little scholarly work has examined perceptions of this important topic. The present effort seeks to address this issue by interviewing academics about hypothetical ethical problems that involve power differences among those involved. Academics discussed what they would do in these scenarios, often drawing on their own experiences. Using a think-aloud protocol, participants were prompted to discuss their reasoning and thinking behind their ethical decisions. These interview data were content analyzed using a semantic analysis program that identified a number of distinct ways that academics think about power differences and abuses in ethical situations. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25356066

Gibson, Carter; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Giorgini, Vincent; Mecca, Jensen T; Devenport, Lynn D; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D

2014-01-01

328

[Mental conflict of urban Korean housewives--a qualitative analysis of 20 interviews].  

PubMed

This study analysed marital conflicts, related factors, and adjustments to those conflicts described by urban Korean women. The purpose was to discover directions for resolutions that would enhance the helpfulness of volunteers or professionals working with women in counselling settings. The investigator interviewed 20 married women, all mothers and housewives living in Seoul, attending marriage encounter programs and the Lifeline telephone counselling service. An interview schedule using six open-ended questions guided the data collection which took place between May 31 and December 29, 1988. Content analysis of the data revealed, in order of reported frequency, the following areas of conflict: relationships between husband wife, relationships with children, relationships between the wife and her mother-in-Law, unsatisfied sexual needs, the husband's extra marital relationships, lack of self actualization and financial matters. Analysis of the data suggested the following factors were related to the conflicts: reasons for marriage, traditional views about marriage and divorce including to accept a marriage arranged by the parents, the husband's traditional attitude toward the sex role of the wife, the husband's patriarchal authoritarianism, and his attitude toward the wife's employment outside the home. The women thought these conflicts severely affected their relationships within the family, particularly with their children. Literature suggests links with such poor parent-child-family relationships and adolescent or young people's social problems. Volunteers or professionals working with married women in counselling situations need to be conscious of the possibility of these conflicts during assessment, and direct their guidance toward such conflict resolution. The researcher makes several suggestions which include the need for the husband to give emotional support to his wife, to recognize the worth of housework, to share the work of the home, to find ways to enhance the wife's self-actualization and to ease dreary housework routines by providing modern appliances. PMID:2811261

Cho, Y S

1989-08-31

329

Faculty and Student Perceptions of Dual Relationships within Counselor Education: a Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how counselor education faculty and students determine the ethical appropriateness of dilemmas portraying dual relationships in friendships, mentoring, monetary interactions, and romantic-sexual relationships. Results suggest that, unlike most students, faculty trust the ability of counselor educators to maintain objectivity and avoid…

Kolbert, Jered B.; Morgan, Barbara; Brendel, Johnston M.

2002-01-01

330

Rethinking work-health models for the new global economy: a qualitative analysis of emerging dimensions of work.  

PubMed

Technology change, rising international trade and investment, and increased competition are changing the organization, distribution and nature of work in industrialized countries. To enhance productivity, employers are striving to increase innovation while minimizing costs. This is leading to an intensification of work demands on core employees and the outsourcing or casualization of more marginal tasks, often to contingent workers. The two prevailing models of work and health - demand-control and effort-reward imbalance - may not capture the full range of experiences of workers in today's increasingly flexible and competitive economies. To explore this proposition, we conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 120 American workers [6]. Our analysis identifies aspects of work affecting the quality of workers' experiences that are largely overlooked by popular work-health models: the nature of social interactions with customers and clients; workers' belief in, and perception of, the importance of the product of their work. We suggest that the quality of work experiences is partly determined by the objective characteristics of the work environment, but also by the fit of the work environment with the worker's needs, interests, desires and personality, something not adequately captured in current models. PMID:15328458

Polanyi, Michael; Tompa, Emile

2004-01-01

331

Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.  

PubMed

Although forced migration research on refugee family functioning clearly points to the potential breakdown of parental availability and responsiveness in the context of cumulative migration stressors, studies exploring attachment security in refugee children are surprisingly lacking so far. The authors report their findings from a 2-site, small-scale administration of an attachment measure, adapted for use with refugee children aged between 4 and 9 years from a reliable and validated doll-play procedure. We evaluated interrater reliability and conducted a qualitative analysis of refugee children's narrative response to identify migration-specific representational markers of attachment quality. The level of agreement among 3 independent coders ranged between .54 to 1.00 for both study samples, providing initial psychometric evidence of the measure's value in assessing child attachment security in this population. The exploratory analysis of migration-related narrative markers pointed to specific parameters to be used in parent-child observational assessments in future validation of the attachment measure, such as parental withdrawal or trauma-communication within the parent-child dyad. PMID:23737300

De Haene, Lucia; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, Edith; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine

2013-06-01

332

Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral flow dipstick immunoassay for rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking. In this study a lateral flow dipstick immunoassay was developed for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate (ATS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in anti-malarial drugs. Methods This assay was based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against ATS. ATS-bovine serum albumin and goat anti-mouse IgG, used as the test capture reagent and the control capture reagent, were coated on the nitrocellulose membrane to form the test line and control line, respectively. The conjugate pad was saturated with the gold-labelled anti-ATS mAb. Results The indicator range of the dipsticks, defined as lowest concentration of the target analytes between which the test line was not visible, were 100-200 and 200-500 ng mL-1 for ATS and DHA, respectively. No competitive inhibition was observed up to 5,000 ng mL-1 of quinine, chloroquine diphosphate salt, primaquine phosphate, pyrimethamine, lumefantrine, amodiaquine, piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate or pyronaridine tetraphosphate. Semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials with the dipsticks produced result agreeable with those determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Storage test showed that the indicator range for artemisinins remained unchanged after a week at 37°C and increased four-folds after six months of storage at 4°C or ambient temperature. Conclusions The new selected mAb 3D82G7 with high avidity and broad cross reactivity for artemisinins was used to develop and optimize a dipstick immunoassay for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in anti-malarial drugs. The semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials, and the specificity test of the artemisinin-related drugs both proved the accurate performance of the developed dipsticks for semi-quantitation of ACT samples. The dipstick may be used as a point-of-care device for identifying substandard and counterfeit ATS- and DHA-containing anti-malarial drugs. PMID:24678609

2014-01-01

333

The State of Qualitative Research in Gifted Education as Published in American Journals: An Analysis and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research has become a more familiar form of inquiry in gifted education, judging its quality and value remains obscure and problematic to the field. This article analyzes and critiques published studies for the purpose of understanding the state of qualitative research in gifted education. Data for this study are from the major…

Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige; Dabbs, Charlotte Simms

2007-01-01

334

Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

2011-01-01

335

Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition, a scale was developed for rating the relative effectiveness of whole-class discussions in terms of student participation. This study provides a tool for measuring productive whole-class discussions, as well as practical applications for peer leader (or teacher) training.

Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

336

Why some MSM present late for HIV testing: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Although initiatives are under way in the UK to diagnose HIV infection early, late presentation is still a major issue and often results in serious health complications for the individual and has implications for society, including high costs and increased rates of transmission. Intervention strategies in the UK have aimed at increasing testing opportunities but still a significant proportion of those with HIV infection either decline testing or continue to test late. The main objective of this study is to identify ideas and themes as to why testing was not carried out earlier in men who have sex with men (MSM) who presented with late HIV infection. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with MSM presenting late with a CD4 cell count of <200. A structured framework approach was used to analyse the data collected and generate ideas as to why they did not seek testing earlier. Seventeen MSM were interviewed and four main themes were identified: psychological barriers, including fear of illness and dying, stigma surrounding testing for HIV and in living with a positive diagnosis, perceived low risk for contracting HIV despite participants reporting having a good understanding of HIV and its transmission and strong views that a more active approach by healthcare services, including general practice, is necessary if the uptake of HIV testing is to increase. Late presentation with HIV infection continues to be a problem in the UK despite government initiatives to expand opportunities for testing. Recurring themes for late testing were a low perceived risk for HIV infection and a fear of HIV and a positive diagnosis. Population-targeted health promotion alongside a more proactive approach by healthcare professionals and making HIV testing more convenient and accessible may result in earlier testing. PMID:21780956

Dowson, Lucy; Kober, Catherine; Perry, Nicky; Fisher, Martin; Richardson, Daniel

2012-01-01

337

The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

2014-01-01

338

Still too little qualitative research to shed light on results from reviews of effectiveness trials: A case study of a Cochrane review on the use of lay health workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Qualitative research is used increasingly alongside trials of complex interventions to explore processes, contextual factors,\\u000a or intervention characteristics that may have influenced trial outcomes. Qualitative research conducted alongside trials can\\u000a also be used to shed light on the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness by looking for factors that can help explain\\u000a heterogeneous results across trials. In a Cochrane review

Claire Glenton; Simon Lewin; Inger B Scheel

2011-01-01

339

Microscale Procedure for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis with Emphasis on Writing Equations: Chemical Fingerprinting Applied to the "n"-bottle Problem of Matching Samples with Their Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory method for teaching inorganic qualitative analysis and chemical equations is described. The experiment has been designed to focus attention on cations and anions that react to form products. This leads to a logical approach to understand and write chemical equations. The procedure uses 3 mL plastic micropipettes to store and deliver…

Sattsangi, Prem D.

2014-01-01

340

Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed a rapid method with ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant proanthocyanidins (PAs) directly from crude plant extracts. The method utilizes a range of cone voltages to achieve the depolymeriza...

341

A Qualitative Analysis of Disabilities Support Services in the Virginia Community College System: How Can We Better Serve Special Needs Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation provides a qualitative analysis of support services for students with disabilities and offers recommendations formulated to improve counseling services to future populations. Disability support services (DSS), as practiced by counselors in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS), is examined as a model of support services…

Tutton, Robert J.

342

Racing: A Critical Race Theorist's Qualitative Analysis of Whether African American Male Law School Alumni Were Mismatched or Maligned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the vast research on African Americans and affirmative action, little qualitative analysis has been done to investigate how race exists and functions in American law schools. This dissertation researches the ways in which race is constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed within two American law schools. Three primary lenses guide this…

Jackson, Darrell D.

2012-01-01

343

A qualitative analysis of the determinants in the choice of a French journal reviewing procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1993 and 2010, two French journals (Aster and Didaskalia) coming from different backgrounds but belonging to the same institution used to publish papers on research in science and technology education. The merging of these journals made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This merging occurred at a time when research is becoming increasingly international which partly determines some of the reviewing procedure choices. In order for a francophone international journal to survive, it needs to take this internationalization into account in a reasoned manner. The author of this article, as a chief editor of RDST (Recherches en Didactique des Sciences et des Technologies)—the journal resulting from the merging- taking part in this merger, analyses the social, cultural and pragmatic determinants which impacted the choices made in reviewing procedures. This paper describes how these diversity of factors leads us to drop the idea of a standard reviewing procedure which would be valid for all journals.

Morge, Ludovic

2014-05-01

344

Interpreter-mediated diabetes consultations: a qualitative analysis of physician communication practices  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-provider communication, in particular physicians’ ability to listen to their patients, and support them in making difficult lifestyle changes, is an essential component of effective diabetes care. Clinical communication around diabetes can be especially challenging when language barriers are present, and may contribute to poor diabetes management and outcomes. Clinicians need to be aware of and address potential communication difficulties associated with interpreter-mediated consultations. The purpose of our study was to explore how physicians communicate in interpreter-mediated consultations with diabetic patients, and how their communication behaviors may impact diabetes communication and care. Method We analyzed transcripts from 8 audio recorded, outpatient consultations at the Basel University Hospital general medicine outpatient clinic involving Turkish-speaking patients, German-speaking physicians, and Turkish-German interpreters (both community interpreters and family members). Results Clinicians used closed questions when asking about symptoms and glucose control. When providing information and explanation, they spoke in long and complex speech turns. They often directed their speech to interpreters or became sidetracked by family members’ questions or requests for information. Patients’ participation in the consultation was minimal, and limited to brief answers to clinicians’ questions. Conclusions Clinicians need to be aware of common pitfalls that diminish patient-centeredness during interpreter-mediated consultations, and learn strategies to avoid them. Attention to established guidelines on triadic communication is recommended, as is hands-on training with interpreters. PMID:24152539

2013-01-01

345

Content validity in the PROMIS social health domain: a qualitative analysis of focus group data  

PubMed Central

Purpose Our aim was to assess the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) social health item banks by comparing a prespecified conceptual model with concepts that focus-group participants identified as important social-health-related outcomes. These data will inform the process of improving health-related quality-of-life measures. Methods Twenty-five patients with a range of social limitations due to chronic health conditions were recruited at two sites; four focus groups were conducted. Raters independently classified participants' statements using a hierarchical, nested schema that included health-related outcomes, role performance, role satisfaction, family/friends, work, and leisure. Results Key themes that emerged were fulfilling both family and work responsibilities and the distinction between activities done out of responsibility versus enjoyment. Although focus-group participants identified volunteerism and pet ownership as important social-health-related concepts, these were not in our original conceptual model. The concept of satisfaction was often found to overlap with the concept of performance. Conclusion Our conceptual model appeared mostly comprehensive but is being further refined to more appropriately (a) distinguish between responsibilities versus discretionary activities, and (b) situate the outcome of satisfaction as it relates to impairment in social and other domains of health. PMID:18478368

Castel, Liana D.; Williams, Kelly A.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Eisen, Susan V.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Debra E.; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Morse, Jennifer; Stover, Angela; DeWalt, Darren A.; DeVellis, Robert F.

2009-01-01

346

Barriers and Facilitators to Colorectal Cancer Screening in Vietnamese Americans: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Vietnamese Americans are the fourth largest Asian ethnic group in the United States. Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as one of the most common cancers in Vietnamese Americans. However, CRC screening rates remain low among Vietnamese Americans, with 40% of women and 60% of men reporting never having a sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or Fecal Occult Blood Test. Methods We partnered with a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in Seattle, Washington, to conduct focus groups as part of a process evaluation. Using interpreters, we recruited and conducted three focus groups comprised of 6 women screened for CRC, 6 women not screened for CRC, and 7 men screened for CRC, which made up a total of 19 FQHC patients of Vietnamese descent between 50 and 79 years old. Three team members analyzed transcripts using open coding and axial coding. Major themes were categorized into barriers and facilitators to CRC screening. Results Barriers include lack of health problems, having comorbidities, challenges with medical terminology, and concerns with the colonoscopy. Participants singled out the risk of perforation as a fear they have towards colonoscopy procedures. Facilitators include knowledge about CRC and CRC screening, access to sources of information and social networks, and physician recommendation. Conclusion Our focus groups elicited information that adds to the literature and has not been previously captured through published surveys. Findings from this study can be used to develop more culturally appropriate CRC screening interventions and improve upon existing CRC screening programs for the Vietnamese American population. PMID:24756545

Kimura, Amanda; Sin, Mo-Kyung; Spigner, Clarence; Tran, Anh; Tu, Shin-Ping

2015-01-01

347

Scanning electron microscopy of fibrin networks in rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects mainly synovial joints and has an impact on approximately 1% of the Western population. The coagulation process is altered in this condition, and this is frequently complicated by thrombocytosis. Changes in fibrin morphology have been linked with inflammation, and this, in turn, plays an important role in thrombosis. Changes in the fibrin fiber formation cause the alterations observed in thrombus morphology. In the current study, the ultrastructure of platelets and fibrin networks was investigated to determine whether any morphological changes are present in these structures in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Six patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis took part in this study, and their clot morphology was compared to that of control subjects. Citrated blood with and without the addition of thrombin was used. Results indicated that the fibrin networks in the arthritis patients formed thick, matted layers. This matted appearance is due to a changed ultrastructure of the minor, thin fibers. Also, in these patients, spontaneous networks were created without the addition of thrombin, which indicates an abnormal hemostatic protein functioning, and the latter is expressed as visible changes in ultrastructure. PMID:21331577

Pretorius, Etheresia; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; van der Spuy, Wendy Jeannette; Swanepoel, Albe Carina; Soma, Prashilla

2012-06-01

348

Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4%) were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG); diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support. PMID:23249410

2012-01-01

349

A Lacanian view on Balint group meetings: a qualitative analysis of two case presentations  

PubMed Central

Background GPs’ subjectivity is an intrinsic instrument in their daily work. By offering GPs a platform to present and discuss difficult interactions with patients, Balint group work be might provide them an opportunity to explore and articulate aspects of their subjectivity. In order to get a more profound understanding of what participation in a Balint group can offer, we focused on the process of change that can be observed during Balint group meetings. To that end, this study scrutinized two Balint group case discussions on a micro-level. Method Two cases were selected from a larger data set of 68 audio-taped case discussions in four Balint groups. In order to shed light on the type of change that characterizes the presenter’s narrative, we used Lacan’s theoretical distinction between imaginary and symbolic modes of relating to the other. Results In both case discussions, the GPs presenting the case initially appeared to be stuck in a fixed image of a situation, referred to as ‘imaginary relating to the other.’ Through a range of interactions with the group, the presenters were encouraged to explore different subject positions, which allowed them to broaden their initial image of the situation and to discover other issues at stake. This was referred to as a more symbolic way of relating to the other. Conclusion This study throws light on the type of change Balint group participation allows for and on the way this might be achieved. We conclude that Balint group work is potentially beneficial to the participating GPs as well as to the relationship with their patients. PMID:24655833

2014-01-01

350

Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

Andersen, Frans Orsted

2010-01-01

351

Phase Plane Analysis of the Undamped Pendulum Phase plane analysis is a commonly used technique for determining the qualitative  

E-print Network

Phase Plane Analysis of the Undamped Pendulum Phase plane analysis is a commonly used technique pendulum. We first convert this second order equation into a first order system by introducing of the pendulum and y represents its angular velocity. But I find it useful to temporarily ignore this physical

Feldman, Joel

352

Danish and Finnish PISA results in a comparative, qualitative perspective: How can the stable and distinct differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA results be explained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant\\u000a differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA\\u000a studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g. reading, science and\\u000a math, while Danish students score

Frans Ørsted Andersen

2010-01-01

353

Staphylococcal biofilm formation on the surface of three different calcium phosphate bone grafts: a qualitative and quantitative in vivo analysis.  

PubMed

Differences in physico-chemical characteristics of bone grafts to fill bone defects have been demonstrated to influence in vitro bacterial biofilm formation. Aim of the study was to investigate in vivo staphylococcal biofilm formation on different calcium phosphate bone substitutes. A foreign-body guinea-pig infection model was used. Teflon cages prefilled with ?-tricalcium phosphate, calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, or dicalcium phosphate (DCP) scaffold were implanted subcutaneously. Scaffolds were infected with 2 × 10(3) colony-forming unit of Staphylococcus aureus (two strains) or S. epidermidis and explanted after 3, 24 or 72 h of biofilm formation. Quantitative and qualitative biofilm analysis was performed by sonication followed by viable counts, and microcalorimetry, respectively. Independently of the material, S. aureus formed increasing amounts of biofilm on the surface of all scaffolds over time as determined by both methods. For S. epidermidis, the biofilm amount decreased over time, and no biofilm was detected by microcalorimetry on the DCP scaffolds after 72 h of infection. However, when using a higher S. epidermidis inoculum, increasing amounts of biofilm were formed on all scaffolds as determined by microcalorimetry. No significant variation in staphylococcal in vivo biofilm formation was observed between the different materials tested. This study highlights the importance of in vivo studies, in addition to in vitro studies, when investigating biofilm formation of bone grafts. PMID:25693675

Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Betrisey, Bertrand; Bohner, Marc; Ilchmann, Thomas; Trampuz, Andrej; Clauss, Martin

2015-03-01

354

Social participation of children and adolescents with cochlear implants: a qualitative analysis of parent, teacher, and child interviews.  

PubMed

Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of interviews with parents, teachers, and pediatric cochlear implant users themselves in three eastern states of Australia. We interviewed 24 parents, 15 teachers, and 11 children and adolescents. The findings displayed commonalities across the three groups of participants, indicating positive experiences around the children's psychosocial development with their cochlear implants, but also ongoing difficulties communicating in groups of people and problems related to social skills. Some children had little contact with other deaf children (with or without cochlear implants) despite parents and teachers perceiving such contact beneficial. Children attending schools where there were other deaf children valued friendships with both deaf and hearing peers. Adolescence was a particularly difficult time for some as they struggled with feelings of self-consciousness about their deafness and external cochlear implant equipment and worries around friendships, dating, and their future place in the world. Recommendations for practice and further research are made. PMID:21372111

Punch, Renée; Hyde, Merv

2011-01-01

355

Hip dysplasia, pelvic obliquity, and scoliosis in cerebral palsy: a qualitative analysis using 3D CT reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five patients with cerebral palsy, hip dysplasia, pelvic obliquity, and scoliosis were evaluated retrospectively using three dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) scans of the proximal femur, pelvis, and lumbar spine to qualitatively evaluate their individual deformities by measuring a number of anatomical landmarks. Three dimensional reconstructions of the data were visualized, analyzed, and then manipulated interactively to perform simulated osteotomies of the proximal femur and pelvis to achieve surgical correction of the hip dysplasia. Severe deformity can occur in spastic cerebral palsy, with serious consequences for the quality of life of the affected individuals and their families. Controversy exists regarding the type, timing and efficacy of surgical intervention for correction of hip dysplasia in this population. Other authors have suggested 3DCT studies are required to accurately analyze acetabular deficiency, and that this data allows for more accurate planning of reconstructive surgery. It is suggested here that interactive manipulation of the data to simulate the proposed surgery is a clinically useful extension of the analysis process and should also be considered as an essential part of the pre-operative planning to assure that the appropriate procedure is chosen. The surgical simulation may reduce operative time and improve surgical correction of the deformity.

Russ, Mark D.; Abel, Mark F.

1998-06-01

356

Why Strong Tobacco Control Measures “Can’t” Be Implemented in the U.S. Military: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The Institute of Medicine recently called for a tobacco-free military, citing evidence that high rates of tobacco use harm readiness and create enormous costs for the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration. The pro-tobacco activities of the tobacco industry and others, sometimes supported by military authorities even when prohibited by policy, have created a culture highly hospitable to smoking. Through qualitative secondary analysis of data from interviews and focus groups, this article explores the reasons enlisted personnel and their supervisors, installation tobacco control managers, and service policy leaders give for why tobacco control policy change “cannot” effectively be achieved. Three primary reasons were given: policies would impinge on the “right to smoke,” policies would be unenforceable and lead to disciplinary breakdown, and the rights of civilian workers on military installations precluded policy enforcement. Yet evidence suggests that these reasons are not only invalid, but inconsistent with military policies addressing other threats to the health of personnel. This pervasive tobacco “exceptionalism” is a significant barrier to achieving a tobacco-free military. The military, Congress, and the President should re-evaluate the “can’ts” that have prevented effective action, and act to regulate and eventually abolish tobacco use in the armed forces. PMID:23113448

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

357

NPN fuzzy sets and NPN qualitative algebra: a computational framework for bipolar cognitive modeling and multiagent decision analysis.  

PubMed

An NPN (Negative-Positive-Neutral) fuzzy set theory and an NPN qualitative algebra (Q-algebra) are proposed which form a computational framework for bipolar cognitive modeling and multiagent decision analysis. First a 6-valued NPN logic is introduced which extends the usual 4-valued Q-algebra (S, approximately , plus sign in circle,multiply sign in circle) and S={+,-,0,?} by adding one more level of specification; and then a real-valued NPN fuzzy logic is introduced which extends the 6-valued model to the real space { for all(x,y)|(x,y)in[-1,0]x[0,1]} and adds infinite levels of specifications, As a generalization, a fuzzy set theory is presented that allows beta-level fuzzy number-based NPN variables (x,y) to be substituted into (S, approximately , plus sign in circle,multiply sign in circle) where multiply sign in circle stands for any NPN T-norm; plus sign in circle stands for disjunction (V) or union ( union or logical sum), and beta is the number of alpha-cuts. PMID:18263054

Zhang, W R

1996-01-01

358

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds using transient and steady-state responses of a thick-film tin oxide gas sensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of gases, by means of semiconductor sensor arrays and pattern-recognition techniques such as artificial neural networks, has been the goal of a great deal of work over the last few years. However, the lack of selectivity, repeatability and drifts of the sensors, have limited the applications of these systems to qualitative or semi-quantitative gas analysis. While the steady-state

Eduard Llobet; Jesús Brezmes; Xavier Vilanova; Jesús E. Sueiras; Xavier Correig

1997-01-01

359

USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

360

“Completely out-at-sea” with “two-gender medicine”: A qualitative analysis of physician-side barriers to providing healthcare for transgender patients  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the transgender community have identified healthcare access barriers, yet a corresponding inquiry into healthcare provider perspectives has lagged. Our aim was to examine physician perceptions of barriers to healthcare provision for transgender patients. Methods This was a qualitative study with physician participants from Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were used to capture a progression of ideas related to barriers faced by physicians when caring for trans patients. Qualitative data were then transcribed verbatim and analysed with an emergent grounded theory approach. Results A total of thirteen (13) physician participants were interviewed. Analysis revealed healthcare barriers that grouped into five themes: Accessing resources, medical knowledge deficits, ethics of transition-related medical care, diagnosing vs. pathologising trans patients, and health system determinants. A centralising theme of “not knowing where to go or who to talk to” was also identified. Conclusions The findings of this study show that physicians perceive barriers to the care of trans patients, and that these barriers are multifactorial. Access barriers impede physicians when referring patients to specialists or searching for reliable treatment information. Clinical management of trans patients is complicated by a lack of knowledge, and by ethical considerations regarding treatments—which can be unfamiliar or challenging to physicians. The disciplinary division of responsibilities within medicine further complicates care; few practitioners identify trans healthcare as an interest area, and there is a tendency to overemphasise trans status in mental health evaluations. Failure to recognise and accommodate trans patients within sex-segregated healthcare systems leads to deficient health policy. The findings of this study suggest potential solutions to trans healthcare barriers at the informational level—with increased awareness of clinical guidelines and by including trans health issues in medical education—and at the institutional level, with support for both trans-focused and trans-friendly primary care models. PMID:22559234

2012-01-01

361

Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records  

PubMed Central

Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people. PMID:24460955

2014-01-01

362

From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

Pearl, Judea

1994-01-01

363

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS  

PubMed Central

Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC) is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC. PMID:25654135

Jia, Weina; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Yuefei; Pan, Guixiang; Jiang, Miaomiao; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yan

2015-01-01

364

UK doctors’ views on the implementation of the European Working Time Directive as applied to medical practice: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report on what doctors at very different levels of seniority wrote, in their own words, about their concerns about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its implementation in the National Health Service (NHS). Design All medical school graduates from 1993, 2005 and 2009 were surveyed by post and email in 2010. Setting The UK. Methods Using qualitative methods, we analysed free-text responses made in 2010, towards the end of the first year of full EWTD implementation, of three cohorts of the UK medical graduates (graduates of 1993, 2005 and 2009), surveyed as part of the UK Medical Careers Research Group's schedule of multipurpose longitudinal surveys of doctors. Results Of 2459 respondents who gave free-text comments, 279 (11%) made unprompted reference to the EWTD; 270 of the 279 comments were broadly critical. Key themes to emerge included frequent dissociation between rotas and actual hours worked, adverse effects on training opportunities and quality, concerns about patient safety, lowering of morale and job satisfaction, and attempts reportedly made in some hospitals to persuade junior doctors to collude in the inaccurate reporting of compliance. Conclusions Further work is needed to determine whether problems perceived with the EWTD, when they occur, are attributable to the EWTD itself, and shortened working hours, or to the way that it has been implemented in some hospitals. PMID:24503304

Clarke, Rachel T; Pitcher, Alex; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

2014-01-01

365

Assisting a child with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a qualitative deep analysis of parents’ experience and caring needs  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was aimed to explore parents’ experience of assisting children affected by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) manifestation, in order to understand their caring needs and expectation of support. Setting and procedure The study was designed according to the qualitative method of interpretative description and implied two sequential phases of data collection. The first phase was based on in-depth interviews with 18 Italian caregivers of children living with TSC. The second phase of the research was based on an online forum with 30 caregivers of children living with TSC. Participants 48 Italian caregivers, assisting patients with TSC with SEGA manifestation have been involved in the study. Results When a TSC diagnosis is made, the whole family is affected psychologically. TSC has a great impact on families’ quality of life and on their ability to cope with the disease and support the child's ability to recover and reach an acceptable level of well-being. Caregivers report the experience of losing control and the feeling of loneliness and abandon from the healthcare system. Conclusion and practice implications Families of children affected by TSC need targeted psychosocial assistance in order to support patients and caregivers and facilitate their social integration. PMID:24319280

Graffigna, Guendalina; Bosio, Caterina; Cecchini, Isabella

2013-01-01

366

School of Education Qualitative Software  

E-print Network

& Transferring Classroom Video Data: From f4 to MAXQDA." Amanda Barany & Jilana Boston (Games + Learning:15-3:15 Session 2a (Teacher Education, Room 215) "Beyond Text: The Qualitative Analysis of Video, Audio, and Still

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

367

Numerical Taxonomic Analysis of Some Strains of Rhizobium spp. That Uses a Qualitative Coding of Immunodiffusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Antigenic relationships among seven strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were examined by immunodiffusion reactions, in which cells of each strain were reacted against each of the seven corresponding antisera. Similar analyses were performed with Rhizobium trifolii (28 strains), Rhizobium meliloti (9 strains), and rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany (13 strains). Antigens and antisera were reacted within each species only; serological interspecies cross-reactions were not performed. The results, scored qualitatively as reactions of identity, cross-reactions, or no reaction, were formed into datum matrices and used to analyze the relationships between strains by applying the association measure of Bray and Curtis (J. R. Bray and J. T. Curtis, Ecol. Monogr. 27:325-349, 1957) and the UPGMA clustering algorithm (P. H. A. Sneath and R. R. Sokal, Numerical Taxonomy, 1973). No two strains were regarded as being serologically identical unless each gave the same results as the other in each immunodiffusion reaction against every antiserum. Despite the high level of cross-reactions and reactions of identity (totalling 93% of all cell-antiserum combinations) among strains of R. trifolii and R. meliloti, no strains were identical by the criterion described above; however, the strains of these species clustered rapidly and fused at the 70% similarity level. The B. japonicum strains and the rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany were much less cross-reactive (67 and 86% of all combinations were negative, respectively), and they clustered more slowly. The strains of B. japonicum fused completely only at the 4% similarity level, whereas of the 13 cowpea-nodulating strains, 4 reacted as two pairs of identical strains and 6 remained unfused. PMID:16347692

Dudman, William F.; Belbin, Lee

1988-01-01

368

[Aspects of quality of life of residents of a nursing oasis from the perspectives of relatives and nurses- qualitative results of an evaluation study].  

PubMed

A nursing oasis (NO) can be understood as a version of special care units. The focus is on a constantly living arrangement for people with severe dementia in nursing homes (multiple person room). Nurses are permanently present during the day shift. The question has to be raised which characteristics of quality of life (QoL) are mentioned and how nurses and relatives do assess this concept. Qualitative Results of a two-year evaluation study of 15 people living in NOs are presented. Data were collected during four (five) group discussions with 8 nurses (15 relatives). Additionally problem-based interviews were realized. Data evaluation was oriented to the grounded theory. The findings show that primarily the focus of QoL in NOs was on psychophysical well-being. Assessments of relatives and nurses were prevailing positive and could be interpreted in the light of the Festingers' social-psychological "Theory of Cognitive Dissonance". Comparisons between the situation before and after the implementation of the NOs were shown to be relevant for the overall assessments. All in all we have to deal with the construction of "care worlds of everyday life" in long term care institutions. PMID:24670540

Brandenburg, Hermann; Adam-Paffrath, Renate; Güther, Helen

2014-04-01

369

Interpreting tricyclic antidepressant measurements in urine in an emergency department setting: comparison of two qualitative point-of-care urine tricyclic antidepressant drug immunoassays with quantitative serum chromatographic analysis.  

PubMed

Patients taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) can experience toxicity or severe side effects. As a rapid and less technically demanding alternative to quantitative serum analysis, most laboratories offer qualitative immunoassays to assist in the evaluation of a suspected TCA overdose. However, the relationship between quantitative serum and qualitative urine levels of TCA-related compounds and their metabolites has not been comprehensively studied. Serum high-performance liquid chromatography results were compared to the qualitative urine results using the Syva Rapid Test and the Biosite Triage. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline, desipramine, doxepin, imipramine, and nortriptyline ranging from subtherapeutic to toxic triggered a positive response on both urine immunoassay devices. On the other hand, neither immunoassay uniformly detected clomipramine, even at serum levels greater than the therapeutic range. False positives due to cyclobenzaprine were more common with the Biosite assay. For virtually all positive urine TCA findings, it was not possible to determine whether the positive results corresponded to subtherapeutic, therapeutic, supratherapeutic, or toxic serum concentrations. Because urine immunoassays are the only option for many laboratories analyzing specimens for TCAs (especially in an emergency setting), clinicians must understand the limitations and interpret results in conjunction with clinical findings and/or quantitation of serum levels. PMID:17579971

Melanson, Stacy E F; Lewandrowski, Elizabeth Lee; Griggs, David A; Flood, James G

2007-06-01

370

RESULTS (CONT.) Figure 7: After Software Analysis  

E-print Network

flow combinations, which includes: · Free flow over the inlet weir · Submerged weir flow · Gate distribution over the inlet to the weir structure. · Figure 6 & 7 are examples of PTV results for pair of video flow over inlet weir. · Flow over weir has linear behavior for flows > 0.07 m3/s. · PTV results

Farritor, Shane

371

Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

Perez, Horacio, III

2007-01-01

372

Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Ma?opolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 the Marshal Office of Ma?opolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Ma?opolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Ma?opolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of areas (municipalities) according to erosion control needs is visible. The study shows that, high-resolution satellite imagery and OBIA may be efficiently used for P-factor mapping and thus contribute to a refined soil erosion risk assessment.

Drzewiecki, Wojciech; W??yk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafra?ska, Beata

2014-06-01

373

Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Ma?opolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 the Marshal Office of Ma?opolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Ma?opolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Ma?opolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of areas (municipalities) according to erosion control needs is visible. The study shows that, high-resolution satellite imagery and OBIA may be efficiently used for P-factor mapping and thus contribute to a refined soil erosion risk assessment.

Drzewiecki, Wojciech; W??yk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafra?ska, Beata

2013-04-01

374

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in the leaves of Isatis indigatica Fort. by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with PDA and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS\\/MS) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in the leaves of Isatis indigotica Fort. (Daqingye). The separation was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with 0.1% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase

Xiangyu Deng; Guihua Gao; Shuning Zheng; Famei Li

2008-01-01

375

Astroglial in vivo response to cocaine in mouse dentate gyrus: a quantitative and qualitative analysis by confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Astrocytes have been proved to play a critical role in neuromodulation, neuroprotection, pH maintenance, axon guidance control during development, homeostasis preservation and blood brain barrier maintenance in the CNS (Kimmelberg and Norenberg, 1989). Quantitative changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a cytoskeletal intermediate filament protein exclusively expressed in astrocytes (Bignami et al, 1972), have been observed after administration of alcohol (Framke, 1995), morphine (Beitner-Johnson et al., 1993), amphetamine and its derivates (Aguirre et al., 1999), cannabinoids (Suarez et al., 2000), nicotine (Janson and Moller, 1993), caffeine (Marret et al., 1993) and prenatal exposure to cocaine (Clarke et al., 1996; Nassogne et al., 1998). However, the general astrocytic response to drugs of abuse is still far from being defined. In the present study we examined the in vivo astroglial response to cocaine in mouse dentate gyrus, the hippocampus being a common target of neurotoxic agents (Walsh and Emerich, 1988) which has a prominent effect on learning and memory processes (Eichenbaum et al., 1992). Quantitative changes in immunoreactivity of GFAP were investigated 24 h after acute and repeated daily administration of intraperitoneal cocaine (20 mg/kg). Drug-induced morphological alterations and spatial distribution of astrocytes were evaluated by means of confocal microscope. The results show that, compared to control animals, GFAP expression is two-fold enhanced after a single cocaine injection, still significantly higher after seven consecutive daily administrations, but not statistically different after prolonged (14 days) drug treatment. Moreover, morphological and morphometric analyses reveal significant modifications in astrocytic numbers, cell size and shape complexity. These data demonstrate that in mouse dentate gyrus, cocaine exposure differently affects the expression of GFAP and induces strong changes in astrocytes proliferation rate and cell morphology. Taken together, our findings provide the first in vivo quantitative and qualitative evaluation of astrocytic response to several regimens of cocaine in adult animals brain. PMID:11882367

Fattore, L; Puddu, M C; Picciau, S; Cappai, A; Fratta, W; Serra, G P; Spiga, S

2002-01-01

376

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods  

E-print Network

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods § to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary

Leistikow, Bruce N.

377

Simultaneous measurement in mass and mass/mass mode for accurate qualitative and quantitative screening analysis of pharmaceuticals in river water.  

PubMed

A new approach for the analysis of pharmaceuticals (target and non-target) in water by LC-QTOF-MS is described in this work. The study has been designed to assess the performance of the simultaneous quantitative screening of target compounds, and the qualitative analysis of non-target analytes, in just one run. The features of accurate mass full scan mass spectrometry together with high MS/MS spectral acquisition rates - by means of information dependent acquisition (IDA) - have demonstrated their potential application in this work. Applying this analytical strategy, an identification procedure is presented based on library searching for compounds which were not included a priori in the analytical method as target compounds, thus allowing their characterization by data processing of accurate mass measurements in MS and MS/MS mode. The non-target compounds identified in river water samples were ketorolac, trazodone, fluconazole, metformin and venlafaxine. Simultaneously, this strategy allowed for the identification of other compounds which were not included in the library by screening the highest intensity peaks detected in the samples and by analysis of the full scan TOF-MS, isotope pattern and MS/MS spectra - the example of loratadine (histaminergic) is described. The group of drugs of abuse selected as target compounds for evaluation included analgesics, opioids and psychostimulants. Satisfactory results regarding sensitivity and linearity of the developed method were obtained. Limits of detection for the selected target compounds were from 0.003 to 0.01 ?g/L and 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L, in MS and MS/MS mode, respectively - by direct sample injection of 100 ?L. PMID:22901300

Martínez Bueno, M J; Ulaszewska, Maria M; Gomez, M J; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

2012-09-21

378

Identifying Barriers to Help-Seeking: A Qualitative Analysis of Students' Preparedness to Seek Help from Tutors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To construct a culturally sensitive account of barriers to help-seeking in a student population, a qualitative study was based on first-hand accounts. Participants were encouraged to explain in their own terms their behavior in seeking help from academic staff. Reasons and implications for practice are discussed. (Author/EMK)

Grayson, Andrew; Miller, Hugh; Clarke, David D.

1998-01-01

379

Qualitative Outcomes for Youth Who Participate in Inclusive Programs: A Multi-Case Analysis across 14 Camps and Outdoor Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Inclusive Camp Practices (NICP) project was a national study of inclusive outdoor programs that examined outcomes for youth with and without disabilities. This paper reports qualitative findings that were gathered using case study methodology across 14 inclusive programs: 12 resident camp programs and 2 outdoor schools. At each site,…

Fullerton, Ann; Brannan, Steve; Arick, Joel

380

Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

Forde, Amanda

2011-01-01

381

Learning Qualitative Data Analysis in a North American University: Teaching Reflections on Creating Supports and Scaffolds for Researcher Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on things learned from teaching doctoral students (17 doctoral and 2 masters students) about qualitative analytic strategies. Researchers used a grounded theory approach while simultaneously drawing from literature related to adult learning theories, doctoral student training, and curricula development, all of which informed…

Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Asghar, Anila; Gaylor, Sue Stuebner

382

"I Need to Talk about It": A Qualitative Analysis of Trauma-Exposed Women's Reasons for Treatment Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant proportion of individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder do not seek or receive effective treatment. Understanding the reasons why an individual chooses to seek treatment or prefers one treatment to another is a critical step to improve treatment seeking. To begin to understand these reasons, we conducted a qualitative

Angelo, Frank N.; Miller, Helen E.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

2008-01-01

383

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Aconitum Alkaloids in Raw and Processed Chuanwu and Caowu by HPLC in Combination with Automated Analytical System and ESI/MS/MS  

PubMed Central

HPLC in combination with automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS was used to analyze aconitine (A), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), and their benzoyl analogs in the Chinese herbs Caowu and Chuanwu. First, an HPLC method was developed and validated to determine A, MA, and HA in raw and processed Caowu and Chuanwu. Then an automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS were applied to analyze these alkaloids and their semihydrolyzed products. The results obtained from automated analytical system are identical to those from ESI/MS/MS, which indicated that the method is a convenient and rapid tool for the qualitative analysis of herbal preparations. Furthermore, HA was little hydrolyzed by heating processes and thus it might account more for the toxicity of processed aconites. Hence, HA could be used as an indicator when one alkaloid is required as a reference to monitor the quality of raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu. In addition, the raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu can be distinguished by monitoring the ratio of A and MA to HA. PMID:22567575

Sun, Aimin; Gao, Bo; Ding, Xueqing; Huang, Chi-Ming; But, Paul Pui-Hay

2012-01-01

384

Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications. PMID:24982972

Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md.

2014-01-01

385

Intentions in wishes to die: analysis and a typology – A report of 30 qualitative case studies of terminally ill cancer patients in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the variations in and intentions of wishes to die (WTD) of palliative care cancer patients. Methods Thirty terminally ill cancer patients, their caregivers and relatives in a hospice, an oncology palliative care ward of a general hospital, and an outpatient palliative care service. 116 semistructured qualitative interviews analyzed by a combined approach using Grounded Theory and Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Results A WTD is dynamic and interactive. Its subjective phenomenology can be described by three aspects: intentions, motivations, and interactions. In this article, we present a typology of the possible intentions. We identified nine different (ideal) types of intentions that WTD statements might have, other than wishing to live and accepting death. Many WTD statements do not imply a desire to hasten death. The intentions of statements differ according to whether a WTD is related to as imaginary or as an action. Often WTD statements contain several partial wishes, which can be in tension with each other and form a dynamic, sometimes unstable equilibrium. Conclusions Terminally ill persons' WTD statements differ in their intention, and deeper knowledge about these differences is ethically relevant. PMID:24706488

Ohnsorge, K; Gudat, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

2014-01-01

386

Qualitative Metabolome Analysis of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by 13C-/12C-Isotope Dansylation Labeling Combined with Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolome analysis of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is challenging because of low abundance of metabolites present in a small volume of sample. We describe and apply a sensitive isotope labeling LC-MS technique for qualitative analysis of the CSF metabolome. After a CSF sample is divided into two aliquots, they are labeled by 13C-dansyl and 12C-dansyl chloride, respectively. The differentially labeled aliquots are then mixed and subjected to LC-MS using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Dansylation offers significant improvement in the performance of chromatography separation and detection sensitivity. Moreover, peaks detected in the mass spectra can be readily analyzed for ion pair recognition and database search based on accurate mass and/or retention time information. It is shown that about 14,000 features can be detected in a 25-min LC-FTICR MS run of a dansyl-labeled CSF sample, from which about 500 metabolites can be profiled. Results from four CSF samples are compared to gauge the detectability of metabolites by this method. About 261 metabolites are commonly detected in replicate runs of four samples. In total, 1132 unique metabolite ion pairs are detected and 347 pairs (31%) matched with at least one metabolite in the Human Metabolome Database. We also report a dansylation library of 220 standard compounds and, using this library, about 85 metabolites can be positively identified. Among them, 21 metabolites have never been reported to be associated with CSF. These results illustrate that the dansylation LC-FTICR MS method can be used to analyze the CSF metabolome in a more comprehensive manner.

Guo, Kevin; Bamforth, Fiona; Li, Liang

2011-02-01

387

Spectral analysis of tremor: understanding the results.  

PubMed Central

Spectral analysis of a tremor record can sometimes produce a spectrum with multiple components of significant amplitude. The problem is to determine whether the presence of several peaks represents the coexistence of separate tremor mechanisms or be a consequence of fluctuations in the frequency or amplitude of a single tremor. The spectrum of a tremor whose frequency or amplitude vary and are independent has the recognisable pattern of a central carrier frequency with sidebands of equal amplitudes distributed symmetrically around the carrier. However, if tremor amplitude and frequency fluctuate and are not independent, (frequency proportional to amplitude or frequency inversely proportional to amplitude), the spectrum has a pattern of sidebands which are asymmetrical in amplitudes and may resemble the spectrum of the combined signal from different independent oscillators. The investigation of sidebands in spectra has been neglected in tremor studies and multiple irregular peaks on a tremor spectrum have sometimes been used wrongly as evidence for the coexistence of multiple tremor mechanisms or frequency components assumed to be concurrent. PMID:2283529

Gresty, M; Buckwell, D

1990-01-01

388

Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking cessation plays a crucial role in reducing preventable morbidity and mortality and is a recognized public-health-policy issue in many countries. Two of the most important factors that affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability to cope with situations causing relapse. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate former and current smokers’ motivations for smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting. Methods We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants (twelve current and twelve former smokers) and eleven semi-structured interviews (five current and six former smokers) with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking cessation. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods. Results Three main themes were identified: (1) motivations to quit smoking, (2) reasons why smokers sometimes relapse, and (3) modes of quitting smoking. Within the first theme, the following six subthemes surfaced: (1) a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, (2) the high cost of cigarettes, (3) the unpleasant smell, (4) health concern, (5) pregnancy and breastfeeding, and (6) a variety of other factors. The second theme encompassed the following subthemes: (1) stress and the need to lessen it by smoking a cigarette, (2) the need to experience the pleasure connected with smoking, and (3) the smoking environment both at home and at work. Participants presented different smoking-cessation modes, but mainly they were unplanned attempts. Conclusion Two very important motivations for smoking cessation were a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, and the high cost of cigarettes. The most common smoking-cessation mode was a spontaneous decision to quit, caused by a particular trigger factor. Relapse causes encompassed, most notably: stress, lack of the pleasure previously obtained from smoking, and the smoking environment. PMID:25336926

Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Czachowski, Slawomir; Piszczek, Elwira

2014-01-01

389

LENS: ?LENS Simulations, Analysis, and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectrometer prototype, ?LENS, have been performed in order to benchmark the first measurements of the ?LENS detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF). ?LENS is a 6x6x6 celled scintillation lattice filled with Linear Alkylbenzene based scintillator. We have performed simulations of ?LENS using the GEANT4 toolkit. We have measured various radioactive sources, LEDs, and environmental background radiation measurements at KURF using up to 96 PMTs with a simplified data acquisition system of QDCs and TDCs. In this talk we will demonstrate our understanding of the light propagation and we will compare simulation results with measurements of the ?LENS detector of various radioactive sources, LEDs, and the environmental background radiation.

Rasco, Charles

2013-04-01

390

FociCounter: a freely available PC programme for quantitative and qualitative analysis of gamma-H2AX foci.  

PubMed

Gamma-H2AX foci are sensitive and specific indicator for the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and an immunocytochemical assay with antibodies recognizing gamma-H2AX has become the gold standard for the detection of this type of DNA lesion. Quantification of gamma-H2AX foci can be achieved by various methods such as Western blotting, flow cytometry, visual analysis and computational analysis with a fluorescence microscope. The best sensitivity is achieved by computer analysis. Since no freeware programme for the analysis of gamma-H2AX foci exists for a PC platform, the aim of our study was to develop a simple and user-friendly public-domain software. The algorithm applied in our programme allows determination of the number of foci in a single cell, a focus intensity per cell, as well as a cell intensity. Its graphical user interface is based on a GTK+ library and the whole application can be run under a variety of operating systems, including MS Windows and Linux. The programme called FociCounter is publicly available at http://focicounter.sourceforge.net. Application of the programme was tested by analysing gamma-H2AX foci in CHO and MO59K cells irradiated in vitro with X-rays and validated by comparing the results obtained with the outcome of automated image analysis and flow cytometry. PMID:20018253

Jucha, Anna; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Koza, Zbigniew; Lisowska, Halina; Wojcik, Andrzej; Wojewodzka, Maria; Lankoff, Anna

2010-02-01

391

Qualitative landslide susceptibility assessment by multicriteria analysis: A case study from San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo, Cuba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological information can be combined with decision-support tools to assess landslide hazard and risk. A heuristic model was applied to a rural municipality in eastern Cuba. The study is based on a terrain mapping units (TMU) map, generated at 1:50,000 scale by interpretation of aerial photos, satellite images and field data. Information describing 603 terrain units was collected in a database. Landslide areas were mapped in detail to classify the different failure types and parts. Three major landslide regions are recognized in the study area: coastal hills with rockfalls, shallow debris flows and old rotational rockslides denudational slopes in limestone, with very large deep-seated rockslides related to tectonic activity and the Sierra de Caujerí scarp, with large rockslides. The Caujerí scarp presents the highest hazard, with recent landslides and various signs of active processes. The different landforms and the causative factors for landslides were analyzed and used to develop the heuristic model. The model is based on weights assigned by expert judgment and organized in a number of components such as slope angle, internal relief, slope shape, geological formation, active faults, distance to drainage, distance to springs, geomorphological subunits and existing landslide zones. From these variables a hierarchical heuristic model was applied in which three levels of weights were designed for classes, variables, and criteria. The model combines all weights into a single hazard value for each pixel of the landslide hazard map. The hazard map was then divided by two scales, one with three classes for disaster managers and one with 10 detailed hazard classes for technical staff. The range of weight values and the number of existing landslides is registered for each class. The resulting increasing landslide density with higher hazard classes indicates that the output map is reliable. The landslide hazard map was used in combination with existing information on buildings and infrastructure to prepare a qualitative risk map. The complete lack of historical landslide information and geotechnical data precludes the development of quantitative deterministic or probabilistic models.

Castellanos Abella, Enrique A.; Van Westen, Cees J.

392

Study on the precession orbit shape analysis-based linear fault qualitative identification method for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration responses of different linear faults all possess some common features, which make fault diagnosis very difficult. Based on the multi-sensor information fusion theory, this paper presents a new qualitative identification method for the diagnosis of linear faults. The excitation-response dynamic equation is constructed and system balancing response with full consideration of system anisotropy is analyzed. Through discussion of the precession orbit shape difference and its dispersive situation, the orbit shape average difference coefficient and the corresponding dispersion term are estimated to obtain the theoretical balancing effect. Finally, the qualitative identification of linear fault can be done according to whether the calculated balancing effect meets the safe operation requirement or not. The dynamic characteristic of the system difference coefficients is verified by a simulation experiment and the case study further testifies the capability and reliability of the proposed method.

Lang, Genfeng; Liao, Yuhe; Liu, Qingcheng; Lin, Jing

2015-01-01

393

What Are Health-Related Users Tweeting? A Qualitative Content Analysis of Health-Related Users and Their Messages on Twitter  

PubMed Central

Background Twitter is home to many health professionals who send messages about a variety of health-related topics. Amid concerns about physicians posting inappropriate content online, more in-depth knowledge about these messages is needed to understand health professionals’ behavior on Twitter. Objective Our goal was to characterize the content of Twitter messages, specifically focusing on health professionals and their tweets relating to health. Methods We performed an in-depth content analysis of 700 tweets. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on tweets by health users on Twitter. The primary objective was to describe the general type of content (ie, health-related versus non-health related) on Twitter authored by health professionals and further to describe health-related tweets on the basis of the type of statement made. Specific attention was given to whether a tweet was personal (as opposed to professional) or made a claim that users would expect to be supported by some level of medical evidence (ie, a “testable” claim). A secondary objective was to compare content types among different users, including patients, physicians, nurses, health care organizations, and others. Results Health-related users are posting a wide range of content on Twitter. Among health-related tweets, 53.2% (184/346) contained a testable claim. Of health-related tweets by providers, 17.6% (61/346) were personal in nature; 61% (59/96) made testable statements. While organizations and businesses use Twitter to promote their services and products, patient advocates are using this tool to share their personal experiences with health. Conclusions Twitter users in health-related fields tweet about both testable claims and personal experiences. Future work should assess the relationship between testable tweets and the actual level of evidence supporting them, including how Twitter users—especially patients—interpret the content of tweets posted by health providers. PMID:25591063

DeCamp, Matthew; Dredze, Mark; Chisolm, Margaret S; Berger, Zackary D

2014-01-01

394

Ecstasy and Sex Among Young Heterosexual Women: A Qualitative Analysis of Sensuality, Sexual Effects, and Sexual Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Ecstasy has been shown to heighten senses, feelings of intimacy, and communication. This study addresses sensual and sexual responses to Ecstasy and the potential for risky sexual behavior. Qualitative data from 41 heterosexual female Ecstasy users in New York City (ages 18–29) were analyzed. Women reported both heightened sexual (e.g., desire, arousal, orgasmic intensity) and sensual (e.g., deep

Kristine E. P. Kennedy; Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons

2010-01-01

395

Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

Semrau, P.

1987-01-01

396

Scalable analysis tools for sensitivity analysis and UQ (3160) results.  

SciTech Connect

The 9/30/2009 ASC Level 2 Scalable Analysis Tools for Sensitivity Analysis and UQ (Milestone 3160) contains feature recognition capability required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks focused around sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ). These feature recognition capabilities include crater detection, characterization, and analysis from CTH simulation data; the ability to call fragment and crater identification code from within a CTH simulation; and the ability to output fragments in a geometric format that includes data values over the fragments. The feature recognition capabilities were tested extensively on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including the ability to visualize CTH tracer particles and the ability to visualize output from within an S3D simulation.

Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Fabian, Nathan; Scott, W. Alan; Moreland, Kenneth D.

2009-09-01

397

Fuzzy Qualitative Trigonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes fuzzy qualitative representation of trigonometry (FQT) in order to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative representation of physical systems using trigonometry. Fuzzy qualitative coordinates are defined by replacing a unit circle with a fuzzy qualitative circle; the Cartesian translation and orientation are replaced by their fuzzy membership functions. Trigonometric functions, rules and the extensions to triangles

Honghai Liu; George M. Coghill

2005-01-01

398

Qualitative analysis of the phase flow of an integrable approximation of a generalized roto-translatory problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider an integrable approximation of the planar motion of a gyrostat in Newtonian interaction with a spherical rigid body. We then describe the Hamiltonian dynamics, in the fibers of constant total angular momentum vector of an invariant manifold of motion. Finally, using the Liouville-Arnold theorem and a particular analysis of the momentum map in its critical points, we obtain a complete topological classification of the different invariant sets of the phase flow of this problem. The results can be applied to study two-body roto-translatory problems where the rotation of one of them has a strong influence on the orbital motion of the system.

Balsas, María Del Carmen; Jiménez, Elena S.; Vera, Juan A.; Vigueras, Antonio

2009-03-01

399

Qualitative Analysis To Ascertain Genotypic Identity of or Differences between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Laboratories with Limited Resources  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is currently genotyped using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, although the high cost of this technique restricts its implementation in resource-limited settings. We designed a MIRU-VNTR format, MLP3 (MIRU-VNTR length polymorphism triplex), that is based on the qualitative comparison of 5 nonfluorescent 3-band fingerprints in conventional electrophoresis and minimizes costs and technical demands. MLP3 successfully resolved cross-contamination alerts, discriminated reinfections from reactivations, clarified suspected microepidemics, and tracked transmission events of high epidemiological interest. PMID:24088847

Sislema-Egas, Fernanda; Ruiz-Serrano, María Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

2013-01-01

400

Qualitative analysis of halogenated organic contaminants in American eel by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Target compound analysis with scanning mass spectrometers such as quadrupole or magnetic sector instruments is used extensively in environmental chemistry because of the selectivity, sensitivity, and robustness. Yet, target compound analysis selectively ignores the majority of compounds present in a sample, especially in complex matrices like fish. In this study, time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to screen for and identify halogenated compounds in American eels (Anguilla rostrata). Individual and then pooled eel samples were analysed using electron ionization and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes. Eels were differentiated by principal component analysis of chemical profiles and were grouped corresponding to their capture location, all with a single instrument injection per sample. Bromine containing compounds were further investigated by taking advantage of the selectivity of ECNI by utilizing the Br(-) ion m/z 79 and 81. A total of 51 brominated compounds were detected and their identities were attempted by authentic standards, library searching, and/or chemical formula prediction based on accurate mass measurements. Several PBDEs were identified in the samples, and the majority of the non-PBDEs identified were bromophenols, bromoanisoles, and bromobenzenes. These classes of compounds are synthesized for use in flame retardant production either as intermediates or as final products. However, their occurrence in eels was most likely the result of metabolism or break-down products of high production volume flame retardants like polybrominated diphenyl ethers and bromophenoxy compounds. PMID:24703010

Byer, Jonathan D; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Lebeuf, Michel; Brown, R Stephen; Backus, Sean; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran

2014-12-01

401

46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no...

2011-10-01

402

46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no...

2010-10-01

403

Nonengagement in HIV care: a descriptive and qualitative study in hospitalized patients and community-based analysis.  

PubMed

Nonengagement in HIV care is a major clinical and public health challenge. To identify the risk factors and reasons, we performed (1) a retrospective study of patients admitted to the hospital with advanced HIV disease, (2) a prospective qualitative study, and (3) a population-based area-wide telephone interview. In the retrospective study, clinic care engagement was associated with age (43.9 ± 9.1 years vs 37.9 ± 7.2 years, P = .005) and improved from 23% to 44% (P = .03) after hospitalization. Survival was higher (93% vs 73%, P = .03) among those who engaged in care. Twelve inpatients were interviewed in the qualitative study. Themes identified for nonengagement were social stigma, indifference, or lack of understanding of care needs/denial and life care issues. In the population-based study, 145 patients were interviewed. In all, 49 denied the need for HIV care and 28 denied their HIV status. Stigma, denial, and indifference or lack of understanding of need are significant barriers to care engagement. PMID:23442561

Rao, Kavitha C; Enriquez, Maithe; Gantt, Tynisha C; Gerkovich, Mary M; Bonham, Aaron J; Griffin, Ron G; Bamberger, David M

2013-01-01

404

Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

2007-01-01

405

Transition to adult mental health services for young people with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a qualitative analysis of their experiences  

PubMed Central

Background There is little research on the process of transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS). More recently, there is growing recognition that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may persist into adulthood requiring services beyond age 18. However, despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guidance which recommends specialist services for adults with ADHD, there is currently a lack of such services in the UK. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences of young people with ADHD during transition from CAMHS to AMHS. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with ADHD patients accessing CAMHS clinics in Nottinghamshire were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Ten semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed. We found that patients’ relationships with their clinician were a key factor in both their reported experience of CAMHS and the transition process. Perceived responsibility of care was also pivotal in how the transition process was viewed. Nature and severity of problems and patients expectations of adult services were also contributing factors in the transition process. The need for continued parental support was openly accepted and thought to be required by the majority of young people with ADHD during transition. Conclusions Timely preparation, joint working, good clinician relationships and parental support serve to facilitate the process of transition for young people with ADHD. Nature and severity of problems are perceived to impede or facilitate transition, with predominantly more ‘complex presentations’ with associated mental health problems more familiar to AMHS (e.g. self-harm, depression) making for smoother transitions to adult services. Transitions to AMHS were more difficult when ADHD was viewed as the main or sole clinical problem. Further exploration of young people’s experiences of transition and their engagement with and experience of adult services is required to provide an overall picture of facilitators to successful transition and integration into adult services. PMID:23497082

2013-01-01

406

Concepts of mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis of expert evidence presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying  

PubMed Central

Background In May 2013 a new Assisted Dying Bill was tabled in the House of Lords and is currently scheduled for a second reading in May 2014. The Bill was informed by the report of the Commission on Assisted Dying which itself was informed by evidence presented by invited experts. This study aims to explore how the experts presenting evidence to the Commission on Assisted Dying conceptualised mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide and examine these concepts particularly in relation to the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Methods This study was a secondary qualitative analysis of 36 transcripts of oral evidence and 12 pieces of written evidence submitted by invited experts to the Commission on Assisted Dying using a framework approach. Results There was agreement on the importance of mental capacity as a central safeguard in proposed assisted dying legislation. Concepts of mental capacity, however, were inconsistent. There was a tendency towards a conceptual and clinical shift toward a presumption of incapacity. This appeared to be based on the belief that assisted suicide should only be open to those with a high degree of mental capacity to make the decision. The ‘boundaries’ around the definition of mental capacity appeared to be on a continuum between a circumscribed legal ‘cognitive’ definition of capacity (in which most applicants would be found to have capacity unless significantly cognitively impaired) and a more inclusive definition which would take into account wider concepts such as autonomy, rationality, voluntariness and decision specific factors such as motivation for decision making. Conclusion Ideas presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying about mental capacity as it relates to assisted suicide were inconsistent and in a number of cases at variance with the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Further work needs to be done to establish a consensus as to what constitutes capacity for this decision and whether current legal frameworks are able to support clinicians in determining capacity for this group. PMID:24755362

2014-01-01

407

A Community Jury on PSA screening: what do well-informed men want the government to do about prostate cancer screening—a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Cancer screening policies and programmes should take account of public values and concerns. This study sought to determine the priorities, values and concerns of men who were ‘fully informed’ about the benefits and harms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening; and empirically examine the value of a community jury in eliciting public values on PSA screening. Setting Community jury was convened on the Gold Coast, Queensland (Australia) to consider PSA screening benefits and harms, and whether government campaigns on PSA screening should be conducted. Participants 27 men (volunteers) aged 50–70 with no personal history of prostate cancer and willing to attend jury 6–7 April 2013: 12 were randomly allocated to jury (11 attended). Outcome measures A qualitative analysis was conducted of the jury deliberations (audio-recorded and transcribed) to elicit the jury's views and recommendations. A survey determined the impact of the jury process on participants’ individual testing decisions compared with control group. Results The jury concluded governments should not invest in programmes focused on PSA screening directed at the public because the PSA test did not offer sufficient reassurance or benefit and could raise unnecessary alarm. It recommended an alternative programme to support general practitioners to provide patients with better quality and more consistent information about PSA screening. After the jury, participants were less likely to be tested in the future compared with the controls, but around half said they would still consider doing so. Conclusions The jury's unanimous verdict about government programmes was notable in the light of their divergent views on whether or not they would be screened themselves in the future. Community juries provide valuable insights into the priorities and concerns of men weighing up the benefits and harms of PSA screening. It will be important to assess the degree to which the findings are generalisable to other settings. PMID:24785399

Rychetnik, Lucie; Doust, Jenny; Thomas, Rae; Gardiner, Robert; MacKenzie, Geraldine; Glasziou, Paul

2014-01-01

408

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2012-09-10

409

Detritus-Dependent Development of the Microbial Community in an Experimental System: Qualitative Analysis by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis†  

PubMed Central

Correlations between the biomass of phytoplankton and the biomass of bacteria and between the biomass of bacteria and the biomass of protozoans suggest that there is coupling between these compartments of the “microbial loop.” To investigate this coupling on the species level, bacteria and protozoans from untreated lake water inocula were allowed to grow on detritus of the green alga Ankistrodesmus falcatus or the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica in continuous-flow systems for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes was used to monitor the development of the bacterial community structure and the eukaryotic community structure, respectively. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of the DGGE profiles revealed the changes in the microbial community structure. This analysis showed that significantly different bacterial communities developed on the green algal detritus and on the cyanobacterial detritus. Although similar results were obtained for the eukaryotic communities, the differences were not significant. Hence, our findings indicate that the origin of detritus can affect the structure of at least the bacterial community. A phylogenetic analysis of 20 18S ribosomal DNA clones that were isolated from the continuous cultures revealed that many sequences were related to the sequences of bacterivorous protozoans (members of the Ciliophora, Rhizopoda, Amoeba, and Kinetoplastida). One clone grouped in a recently established clade whose previously described members are all parasites. The affiliations of about 20% of the clones could not be determined. PMID:10347030

van Hannen, Erik J.; Mooij, Wolf; van Agterveld, Miranda P.; Gons, Herman J.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

1999-01-01

410

[Quantitative and qualitative analysis of total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in Buji River in wet season].  

PubMed

Microbial community structure and biomass in river water can reflect the situation of water quality in some extent. Nitrogen removal was mainly achieved by the nitrification and denitrification processes, and ammonia oxidation catalyzed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification. To explore the AOB community structure and biomass in nitrogen polluted river, water samples were collected from Buji River (Shenzhen) in wet season. Quantification of 16S rRNA copy numbers of total bacteria and AOB were performed by real-time PCR, and the microbial community structures were studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that the number of total bacterial 16S rRNA changed from 4.73 x 10(10) - 3.90 x 10(11) copies x L(-1) in the water samples. The copy numbers of AOB varied from 5.44 x 10(6) - 5.96 x 10(8)copies x L(-1). Redundancy discrimination analysis (RDA) showed that the main factors affecting the structure and the numbers of bacteria were different. For total bacteria, nitrate influenced the biomass significantly (P < 0.05) while nitrogen and heavy metals (Mn and Zn) were the main factors affecting the microbial community structures (P < 0.05). For AOB, ammonia and Zn were the main factors influencing the biomass while ammonia nitrogen and heavy metals (Mn and Zn) were the main factors affecting the microbial community structures. 16S rDNA sequences from the water samples indicated that the bacteria generally belonged to Epsilon-Proteobacteria, Gamma-Proteobacteria, Beta-Proteobacteria, and Delta-Proteobacteria. Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrosospira sp. were the main AOB. Cluster analysis showed that water pollution in downstream resulted in evident difference in microbial community structure between upstream and downstream water samples. PMID:23213892

Sun, Hai-mei; Bai, Jiao-jiao; Sun, Wei-ling; Shao, Jun

2012-08-01

411

Analysis of SAGE Results with Combined Learning Techniques  

E-print Network

Analysis of SAGE Results with Combined Learning Techniques Hsuan-Tien Lin and Ling Li Learning. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) experiments could provide us the expression level of thousands, and evaluate the performance of the combined techniques on the SAGE dataset. Our results show that a novel

Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

412

Decision-making process of Kala Azar care: results from a qualitative study carried out in disease endemic areas of Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of consumer decision making in the health sector is a complex process of comparing feasible alternatives and evaluating the levels of satisfaction associated with the relevant options. This paper makes an attempt to understand how and why consumers make specific decisions, what motivates them to adopt a specific health intervention, and what features they find attractive in each of the options. Method The study used a descriptive-explanatory design to analyze the factors determining the choices of healthcare providers. Information was collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Results The results suggest that the decision making related to seeking healthcare for Kala Azar (KA) treatment is a complex, interactive process. Patients and family members follow a well-defined road map for decision making. The process of decision making starts from the recognition of healthcare needs and is then modified by a number of other factors, such as indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources. Household and individual characteristics also play important roles in facilitating the process of decision making. The results from the group discussions and in-depth interviews are consistent with the idea that KA patients and family members follow the rational approach of weighing the costs against the benefits of using specific types of medical care. Conclusion The process of decision making related to seeking healthcare follows a complex set of steps and many of the potential factors affect the decision making in a non-linear fashion. Our analysis suggests that it is possible to derive a generalized road map of the decision-making process starting from the recognition of healthcare needs, and then modifying it to show the influences of indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources. PMID:23849617

2013-01-01

413

Unrealistic optimism, fatalism, and risk-taking in new zealand farmers' descriptions of quad-bike incidents: a directed qualitative content analysis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on farms warranting health and safety attention. As part of a larger study, we carried out a face-to-face survey with 216 farmers in New Zealand. We quantitatively identified farmers' propensity for risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism as risk factors in quad-bike loss-of-control events (LCEs). The purpose of the analysis presented in this article was to use these same farmers' recollections of LCEs to explore the a priori constructs in more detail using qualitative methods. Participants reporting one or more LCEs described their first LCE and any experienced in the previous 12 months. Participants provided open-text responses about what occurred at each LCE, their reflections, and general thoughts on LCE risk factors. Directed qualitative content analysis (QCA) was used to "unpack" risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism whilst also delineating any additional concepts that farmers associate with LCEs. Risk-taking elements were more evident than unrealistic optimism or fatalism and more suggestive of farmers finding themselves in risky situations rather than engaging in risk-seeking behavior per se. Additional inductively derived categories of fatigue/stress, multitasking, inexperience, and quad-bike faults highlight the complex nature of LCEs and the importance of risk assessment covering these concepts as well as risky situations. PMID:25635739

Clay, Lynne; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Treharne, Gareth J; Milosavljevic, Stephan

2015-01-01

414

Background qualitative analysis of the European reference life cycle database (ELCD) energy datasets - part II: electricity datasets.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to identify areas of potential improvement of the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD) electricity datasets. The revision is based on the data quality indicators described by the International Life Cycle Data system (ILCD) Handbook, applied on sectorial basis. These indicators evaluate the technological, geographical and time-related representativeness of the dataset and the appropriateness in terms of completeness, precision and methodology. Results show that ELCD electricity datasets have a very good quality in general terms, nevertheless some findings and recommendations in order to improve the quality of Life-Cycle Inventories have been derived. Moreover, these results ensure the quality of the electricity-related datasets to any LCA practitioner, and provide insights related to the limitations and assumptions underlying in the datasets modelling. Giving this information, the LCA practitioner will be able to decide whether the use of the ELCD electricity datasets is appropriate based on the goal and scope of the analysis to be conducted. The methodological approach would be also useful for dataset developers and reviewers, in order to improve the overall Data Quality Requirements of databases. PMID:25646152

Garraín, Daniel; Fazio, Simone; de la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda; Mathieux, Fabrice

2015-01-01

415

Pulsed thermographic inspection of CFRP structures: experimental results and image analysis tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, three different CFRP specimens with internal artificial delaminations of various sizes and located at different depths were investigated by means of Pulsed Thermography (PT) under laboratory conditions. The three CFRP panels, having the same thickness and defects characteristics but with a different shape (planar, trapezoid and curved), were assessed after applying various signal processing tools on the acquired thermal data (i.e. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction, Pulsed Phase Thermography and Principal Component Thermography). The effectiveness of the above processing tools was initially evaluated in a qualitative manner, comparing the imaging outputs and the information retrieval in terms of defect detectability enhancement and noise reduction. Simultaneously, the produced defect detectability was evaluated through Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) computations, quantifying the image quality and the intensity contrast produced between the defected area and the adjacent background area of the test panel. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the implementation of PT along with the application of advanced signal processing algorithms can be a useful technique for NDT assessment, providing enhanced qualitative information. Nevertheless, SNR analysis showed that despite the enhanced visibility resulting from these algorithms, these can be properly applied in order to retrieve the best possible information according to the user's demands.

Theodorakeas, P.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Koui, M.; Maldague, X.

2014-03-01

416

Fuzzy qualitative trigonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fuzzy qualitative representation of conventional trigonometry with the goal of bridging the gap between symbolic cognitive functions and numerical sensing & control tasks in the domain of physical systems, especially in intelligent robotics. Fuzzy qualitative coordinates are defined by replacing a unit circle with a fuzzy qualitative circle; a Cartesian translation and orientation are defined by

Honghai Liu; George Macleod Coghill; Dave P. Barnes

2009-01-01

417

Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration  

PubMed Central

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: , where µ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and µ = ?1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference (??) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral Calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration. PMID:24897021

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

418

Qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes: an approach to effectively assign their absolute configuration.  

PubMed

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: 1/E = ?(H - K??2), where ? = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and ? = -1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference (??) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration. PMID:24897021

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

419

Leveraging public health nurses for disaster risk communication in Fukushima City: a qualitative analysis of nurses' written records of parenting counseling and peer discussions  

PubMed Central

Background Local public health nurses (PHNs) have been recognized as the main health service providers in communities in Japan. The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has, however, created a major challenge for them in responding to mothers’ concerns. This was in part due to difficulties in assessing, understanding and communicating health risks on low-dose radiation exposure. In order to guide the development of risk communication plans, this study sought to investigate mothers’ primary concerns and possible solutions perceived by a core healthcare profession like the PHNs. Methods A total of 150 records from parenting counseling sessions conducted between PHNs and mothers who have attended mandatory 18-month health checkups for their children at the Fukushima City Health and Welfare Center in 2010, 2011 (year of disaster) and 2012 were examined. Discussion notes of three peer discussions among PHNs organized in response to the nuclear disaster in 2012 and 2013 were also analyzed. All transcribed data were first subjected to text mining to list the words according to their frequencies and inter-relationships. The Steps Coding and Theorization method was then undertaken as a framework for qualitative analysis. Results PHNs noted mothers to have considerable needs for information on radiation risks as they impact on decisions related to relocations, concerns for child safety, and experiences with interpersonal conflicts within the family owing to differing risk perceptions. PHNs identified themselves as the information channels in the community, recommended the building of their risk communication capacities to support residents in making well-informed decisions, and advocated for self-measurement of radiation levels to increase residents’ sense of control. PHNs also suggested a more standardized form of information dissemination and an expansion of community-based counseling services. Conclusions Inadequate risk communication on radiation in the Fukushima nuclear incident has resulted in multiple repercussions for mothers in the community. Empowerment of local residents to assume more active roles in the understanding of their environment, increasing PHNs’ capacity in communication, and an expansion of health services such as counseling will together better address risk communication challenges in post-disaster recovery efforts. PMID:24642079

2014-01-01

420

Chromatographic analysis of some drugs employed in erectile dysfunction therapy: qualitative and quantitative studies using calixarene stationary phase.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of change in chromatographic process variables on the retention behavior of four drugs employed in erectile dysfunction therapy on a calixarene stationary phase is described. Three of these drugs are known to treat erectile dysfunction, namely, sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and apomorphine hydrochloride, and one drug that is used as opioid analgesic, tramadol hydrochloride, which is quiet widely misused to treat premature ejaculation. The results indicate the importance of considering the structure and pKa values of drugs to be separated along with mobile phase composition. A new optimized, rapid, and accurate liquid chromatography method is also established for simultaneous determination of sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and apomorphine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations and bulk powders. The chromatographic separation of the three pharmaceuticals was achieved on a calixarene column in less than 10 min using a binary mobile phase of 35% acetonitrile and 65% 50 mM sodium perchlorate pH2.5 at 1 mL/min flow rate. The method was validated for system efficiency, linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantitation, specificity, stability, and robustness. Statistical