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1

A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

2012-01-01

2

Requiem for Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982) focused on qualitative analysis curricula and instruction. Topics included benefits of qualitative analysis, use of iodo/bromo-complexes in qualitative analysis schemes, lecture demonstrations, and brief descriptions of three courses. (JN)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

1983-01-01

3

Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. Purpose To provide insights into students’ experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. Methods A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. Results The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students’ anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. Conclusion On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students’ support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians. PMID:25278789

Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Kohl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

2014-01-01

4

Communicating Qualitative Analytical Results Following Grice's Conversational Maxims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducting qualitative research can be seen as a developing communication act through which researchers engage in a variety of conversations. Articulating the results of qualitative data analysis results can be an especially challenging part of this scholarly discussion for qualitative researchers. To help guide investigators through this…

Chenail, Jan S.; Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

5

Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

6

Tracing Opinion-Formation on Political Issues on the Internet: A Model and Methodology for Qualitative Analysis and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linked social information on blogs and online social networks provides a rich source of policy feedback for citizens, journalists, politicians and researchers, yet the qualitative value hidden in this information is rarely exploited. In order to address the problem, this article presents a systematic methodology for retrieving targeted information on a political issue from prominent online sources. Using news services

Michael Kaschesky; Reinhard Riedl

2011-01-01

7

Qualitative data analysis: conceptual and practical considerations.  

PubMed

Qualitative inquiry requires that collected data is organised in a meaningful way, and this is referred to as data analysis. Through analytic processes, researchers turn what can be voluminous data into understandable and insightful analysis. This paper sets out the different approaches that qualitative researchers can use to make sense of their data including thematic analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and semiotic analysis and discusses the ways that qualitative researchers can analyse their data. I first discuss salient issues in performing qualitative data analysis, and then proceed to provide some suggestions on different methods of data analysis in qualitative research. Finally, I provide some discussion on the use of computer-assisted data analysis. PMID:19642962

Liamputtong, Pranee

2009-08-01

8

Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

2012-01-01

9

Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: qualitative analysis of interim results from a prospective national evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe and evaluate the implementation and adoption of detailed electronic health records in secondary care in England and thereby provide early feedback for the ongoing local and national rollout of the NHS Care Records Service. Design A mixed methods, longitudinal, multisite, socio-technical case study. Setting Five NHS acute hospital and mental health trusts that have been the focus of early implementation efforts and at which interim data collection and analysis are complete. Data sources and analysis Dataset for the evaluation consists of semi-structured interviews, documents and field notes, observations, and quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed thematically with a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. Main results Hospital electronic health record applications are being developed and implemented far more slowly than was originally envisioned; the top-down, standardised approach has needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice, which hospital trusts want in order to support local activity. Despite considerable delays and frustrations, support for electronic health records remains strong, including from NHS clinicians. Political and financial factors are now perceived to threaten nationwide implementation of electronic health records. Interviewees identified a range of consequences of long term, centrally negotiated contracts to deliver the NHS Care Records Service in secondary care, particularly as NHS trusts themselves are not party to these contracts. These include convoluted communication channels between different stakeholders, unrealistic deployment timelines, delays, and applications that could not quickly respond to changing national and local NHS priorities. Our data suggest support for a “middle-out” approach to implementing hospital electronic health records, combining government direction with increased local autonomy, and for restricting detailed electronic health record sharing to local health communities. Conclusions Experiences from the early implementation sites, which have received considerable attention, financial investment and support, indicate that delivering improved healthcare through nationwide electronic health records will be a long, complex, and iterative process requiring flexibility and local adaptability both with respect to the systems and the implementation strategy. The more tailored, responsive approach that is emerging is becoming better aligned with NHS organisations’ perceived needs and is, if pursued, likely to deliver clinically useful electronic health record systems. PMID:20813822

2010-01-01

10

Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

11

Probation Employee Job Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative analysis of the comments of approximately 400 probation and parole employees to a recent questionnaire survey is presented. Workers were found to offer more negative than positive comments and many of their concerns centered on administrative and court-related problems, similar to findings about police officer job stress. Ratings of the open-ended comments of the respondents indicated significant levels

John T. Whitehead; Susan Gunn

1988-01-01

12

Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.  

PubMed

Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use. PMID:24769596

Cope, Diane G

2014-05-01

13

An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

1983-01-01

14

Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

2002-01-01

15

Qualitative analysis on gain compression in power MOS transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a qualitative analysis on gain compression phenomenon of integrated power MOS transistor. In the large-signal operation of power device, the gain compression plays an essential role for characterizing non-linear behavior. The proposed approach combines both the RF waveform and load line characteristics in different quiescent points. Experimental results demonstrate the approach is feasible. The analysis of gain compression corresponds to different quiescent biases is useful during the implementation of power device for RFIC application.

Hsu, Heng-Ming

2007-06-01

16

Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to characterize the maintenance environment and processes in order to collect suitable and cost-effective data. Also, enacting such a program and getting usable data sets takes time. A short term substitute is therefore needed. We propose in this paper a characterization process aimed specifically at maintenance and based on a general qualitative analysis methodology. This process is rigorously defined in order to be repeatable and usable by people who are not acquainted with such analysis procedures. A basic feature of our approach is that actual implemented software changes are analyzed in order to understand the flaws in the maintenance process. Guidelines are provided and a case study is shown that demonstrates the usefulness of the approach.

Brand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

1996-01-01

17

Mixture interpretation: Experimental and simulated reevaluation of qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

We present here analytical data using the 15 STR typing (Identifiler) kit regarding heterozygote balance in experimental DNA samples including one or two persons. Surprisingly, the allelic imbalance was observed even in samples consisting of only one person but adequate DNA for the standard protocol. The variance of heterozygote balance was more expanded in two-person mixtures than in one-person samples. Therefore, it is not suitable to use allelic peak heights/areas for estimating the genotypes of the contributors such as the quantitative analysis. We also reevaluated the effectiveness of qualitative analysis by simulation, i.e. consideration of the probability of all possible genotype combinations from the typing results of a mixed DNA sample. As demonstrated, the qualitative analysis using 15 STR loci is still extremely effective even in a mixture from two or three individuals. PMID:23089142

Manabe, Sho; Mori, Yuki; Kawai, Chihiro; Ozeki, Munetaka; Tamaki, Keiji

2013-03-01

18

Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

19

A Qualitative Meta-analysis on Convergence around ICT Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convergence is a term which often used to explain the change of current society, but the meaning of the convergence differs according to the context. This paper defines convergence based on other research and analyzes 40 articles about convergence in the ICT area. Each paper was gathered from journals and databases in August of 2010 and was analyzed through a qualitative meta-analysis method based on the PEST concept. The result of the meta-analysis can be used to understand the current trends in convergence in ICT environments and to develop a future convergence strategy.

Bae, Yong-Gook; Kong, Hee-Kyung

20

Breastfeeding and WIC Participants: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a qualitative study designed to evaluate the obstacles to breastfeeding among Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants. The aims of the study presented here were to determine why participants chose particular feeding methods, to identify particular barriers to breastfeeding among low-income women, and to explore microlevel, as well as macrolevel, factors that have the potential to increase

J. M. Stolzer

2010-01-01

21

Qualitative Career Assessment: An Overview and Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative career assessments are theoretically based interventions that are grounded in constructivism. Constructivism is a departure from the traditional logical positive worldview that has influenced the development of many traditional career assessments. A central concept to constructivism is the importance of meaning, which can only be…

Whiston, Susan C.; Rahardja, Daryn

2005-01-01

22

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR BIFURCATION ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS*  

E-print Network

:M -N be a continuous map be- tween topological spaces. A point xo M is a bifurcation point for hQUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR BIFURCATION ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS* Philip Holmes Department problem of bifurcation of vector fields-the qualitative study of equations, such as (1)-contains

Marsden, Jerrold

23

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing "Mountains of Words" for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2008-01-01

24

Qualitative Analysis of Isotropic Curvature String Cosmologies  

E-print Network

A complete qualitative study of the dynamics of string cosmologies is presented for the class of isotopic curvature universes. These models are of Bianchi types I, V and IX and reduce to the general class of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes in the limit of vanishing shear isotropy. A non-trivial two-form potential and cosmological constant terms are included in the system. In general, the two-form potential and spatial curvature terms are only dynamically important at intermediate stages of the evolution. In many of the models, the cosmological constant is important asymptotically and anisotropy becomes dynamically negligible. There also exist bouncing cosmologies.

Andrew P. Billyard; Alan A. Coley; James E. Lidsey

1999-11-12

25

A qualitative spatial model for information fusion and situation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a qualitative spatial model that is particularly suitable for situation analysis and information fusion. Situation analysis is a process that leads to situation awareness. Information fusion is an important aspect of situation analysis. Many studies have shown that, in order to support a commanding officer in gaining and maintaining situation awareness, a situation analysis support

Driss Kettani; Jean Roy

2000-01-01

26

The politics of historical discourse analysis: a qualitative research method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical discourse analysis must not be judged by the

Ingólfur Ásgeir Jóhannesson

2010-01-01

27

Support for Contextual Control in Primary Care: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Providing support for high-level cognitive performance is largely missing in many decision support designs. Most development in this area is structured to minimize attention, decrease the need for deeper processing and limit intense goal-directed cognitive processing. However, from a dual process perspective, both automatic and deliberative processes need to be supported. The purpose of this qualitative analysis is to explore complex cognitive processing. We used the Contextual Control Model to guide the analysis. Transcripts from 33 taped primary care visits across 4 locations in the VA were analyzed using iterative process of construct and thematic development. Five themes related to high-level cognitive processes were identified: 1) Joint Exchange and Patient Activation; 2) Planning and Proactive Problem Solving; 3) Script and heuristic processing; 4) Time perspectives and 5) Uncertainty management. Results are discussed in terms of the need to support integrated views for complex situation mental models. PMID:24551420

Weir, Charlene; Drews, Frank A; Butler, Jorie; Barrus, Robyn J; Jones, Mokoto L.; Nebeker, Jonathan R

2013-01-01

28

Qualitative Analysis of Analgesic Tablets: An Experiment Employing High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment on the qualitative analysis of several over-the-counter analgesic tablets. Background information, procedures used (including high pressure liquid chromatography), and typical student results are included. (JN)

Beaver, Rodney W.; And Others

1983-01-01

29

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

30

The Evening News: Qualitative Assessment and Systematic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative studies can be approached through a method analogous to semiotic analysis. In order to avoid arbitrary assessments, news reportage should be subjected to an analysis that will reveal the various logical and technological, mythic and modal structures reflected in the message system. Humanistic inquiry can borrow from structural models…

Kolbenschlag, M. C.

31

Chinese Retirees' Learning Interests: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of two semistructured focus group interviews with 17 retirees that explore the issues these retirees perceived as central to their learning in later life (LLL). Focus is especially placed on the factors leading to their learning interests after retirement. A total of six themes (past experience in adulthood and…

Leung, Angela; Chi, Iris; Chiang, Vico

2008-01-01

32

The above result indicating no qualitative difference between  

E-print Network

(Tc ) is 37±3K. Phase-incoherent d-wave superconductivity Octet analysis Spectroscopic Fingerprint Fingerprint of Phase-Incoherent Superconductivity in the Cuprate Pseudogap State Jhinhwan Lee1 , K. Fujita1 of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. 3 Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

Davis, James C.

33

A Qualitative Analysis of Suicide Ideation among Manitoban Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canadian studies examining suicide among rural and farm populations remain scarce. To better understand this phenomenon, a qualitative research paradigm was used to analyze encounter forms of 29 individuals (24 men, 5 women) who called the Manitoban Farm and Rural Stress Line. Content analysis revealed 7 major themes: (a) coping mechanisms, (b)…

Sturgeon, Ryan; Morrissette, Patrick J.

2010-01-01

34

Analysis of measurement set qualitative characteristics for state estimation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method that allows observability analysis and restoration, identification of critical measurements and critical sets as well as the updating of these measurement set qualitative characteristics in real time, based only on the network topology. The identification of critical measurements and sets is carried out in a beforehand basis, that is, they are identified using the network

J. B. A. London; N. G. Bretas; L. F. C. Alberto

2005-01-01

35

INTERACTION IN GAMES: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE  

E-print Network

, INTERACTION, PERPOT Introduction The dynamics of team behaviour in games shows rather inhomogeneousINTERACTION IN GAMES: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE LOAD-PERFORMANCE-METAMODEL PERPOT Jürgen Perl Institute of Computer Science, FB 08 University of Mainz D-55099 Mainz, Germany KEYWORDS: HANDBALL

Perl, Jürgen

36

A Qualitative Analysis of Turning Points in the Recovery Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery from serious psychiatric disabilities is a multidimensional, nonlinear process that consists, in part, of a transformation from illness-dominated identities to identities centered on empowerment and agency. This transformation may be punctuated by critical turning points. Analysis of these turning points may provide insight into the recovery process and how recovery can be initiated and advanced. In this qualitative study,

MICHAEL A. MANCINI

2007-01-01

37

Utilizing Problem-Based Learning in Qualitative Analysis Lab Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of qualitative analysis (QA) laboratory experiments utilizing a problem-based learning (PBL) module has been designed and implemented. The module guided students through the experiments under the guise of cleaning up a potentially contaminated water site as employees of an environmental chemistry laboratory. The main goal was the…

Hicks, Randall W.; Bevsek, Holly M.

2012-01-01

38

Adding scientific rigour to qualitative data analysis: an illustrative example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how qualitative data may be analysed using a method that can be considered as rigorous\\/scientific as any statistical analysis of quantitative data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An artificial neural network programme CATPAC II™ was used to evaluate selected portions of two accounting standards: the Financial Reporting Standards Board of New Zealand's standard

Grant Samkin; Annika Schneider

2008-01-01

39

Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

40

Original article Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hydrosoluble  

E-print Network

, organic compounds leached from bitumen may complex heavy metals [12] and increase their solubilityOriginal article Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hydrosoluble organic matter in bitumen. Indeed, the generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents could affect the integrity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention  

PubMed Central

Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program. PMID:21605353

2011-01-01

42

A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets  

PubMed Central

In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

Evans, Michael S.

2014-01-01

43

[Qualitative analysis of Raman spectra based on pulse coupled neural network].  

PubMed

By studying on pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) and Raman spectra qualitative analysis, a method based on PCNN for Raman spectra qualitative analysis was proposed. After encoding the Raman spectra by using PCNN neurons' characteristics of fatigue and refractory period, the improved Horspool algorithm was used to match the code corresponding to the detected sample with all of the base code in the database one by one, and then their matching similarity was acquired to determine the sample type. Experimental results and analysis of data proved that the method proposed in this paper is accurate and effective for Raman spectra qualitative analysis. Meanwhile, traditional qualitative analysis method based on spectral template has some deficiencies, like that it is difficult to determine the characteristic peak of the detected sample and the matching analysis process has a high degree of redundancy. While our proposed method not only can avoid these deficiencies very well, but also needs a small amount of data storage. The requirement of the storage space was only 5.8% of that used in the traditional qualitative analysis method based on spectral template. PMID:21105407

Wang, Cheng; Li, Shao-fa; Wu, Zheng-jie; He, Kai; Huang, Yao-xiong

2010-09-01

44

Perceptions of Gain Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Significant research has focused on psychological difficulties following spinal cord injury (SCI), and there is a small prevalence of individuals who experience distress after injury. However, the converse is that many adjust well to injury and rate their quality of life highly. Despite this, there has been a comparative dearth of research investigating positive psychological outcomes after SCI, perceived by individuals living with this disability. Objective: To explore individuals’ perceptions of gain following the experience of SCI. Methods: Participants, who had sustained an SCI between the ages 16 and 83, responded to an open-ended written question: “What do you think you have gained from the experience of spinal cord injury?” This was administered at 4 time points post injury: 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Results: Participants’ responses were analyzed qualitatively using the framework of thematic analysis. Thirteen themes were identified: relationships, appreciation of relationships, perspective and appreciation of life, new goals or priorities, understanding of SCI or disability, appreciation of health or health care, changed personality, opportunity or challenge, knowledge of SCI or body, newly acquired skills, spirituality, acceptance, and nothing. Descriptive statistics were incorporated in the presentation of the data. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a broad range of positive as well as negative psychological outcomes are possible following SCI. More research is needed to better understand the process through which these outcomes arise and to inform how such outcomes may be communicated to persons experiencing this type of injury. PMID:23960704

2013-01-01

45

Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.  

PubMed

An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

2004-11-01

46

Causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: a qualitative comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a configurational comparative approach, the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), to study multiple causal interactions characterizing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our data set is based on seven local case studies at three time periods. Results reveal a limited number of pathways describing the articulation of causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon under different contexts. Roads are often

M. Scouvart; R. T. Adams; M. Caldas; V. Dale; B. Mertens; V. Nedelec; P. Pacheco; B. Rihoux; E. F. Lambin

2008-01-01

47

Driven and No Regrets: A Qualitative Analysis of Students Earning Baccalaureate Degrees in Three Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using rigorous qualitative research methodology, twenty-four college students receiving their undergraduate degrees in three years were interviewed. Following analysis of the semi-structured interview transcripts and coding, themes emerged, indicating that these students possessed self-discipline, self-motivation, and drive. Overall, the results

Firmin, Michael W.; Gilson, Krista Merrick

2007-01-01

48

Stakeholders' perceptions of the main challenges facing Ghana's mental health care system: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health remains a low priority in Ghana. No comprehensive studies have assessed the current status of mental health policy, legislation and services in Ghana. This paper presents the qualitative results of a situation analysis conducted as part of the first phase of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. The aim of this paper was to explore what a range

Victor Doku; Angela Ofori-Atta; Bright Akpalu; Akwasi Osei; Ursula Read; Sara Cooper

2011-01-01

49

System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

Reifman, Jaques (Lisle, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01

50

System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1993-11-23

51

Information-Seeking at a Caregiving Website: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is widely used for health information, yet little is known about the online activity of family caregivers of elders, a rapidly growing group. In order to better understand the online information-seeking activity of “e-caregivers” and other visitors at a caregiving website, we undertook a qualitative analysis of survey data from a website marketed as a comprehensive resource for adults caring for aging parents. Objective The objectives were to better understand what types of information are sought by those visiting a website focused on elder-care issues and to identify overarching themes that might inform future development of Internet resources related to caregiving and aging. Methods From March 2008 to March 2009, a 5-question pop-up survey was offered 9662 times and completed 2161 times. For 1838 respondents, included was a free text answer to the question "What were you looking for?” and 1467 offered relevant and detailed responses. The survey also asked about satisfaction with the site, gender of the respondent, and relationship to the individual being cared for. Content analysis was used to develop a coding dictionary, to code responses into information-seeking categories, and to identify overarching themes. Results Of the respondents (76% of whom were female), 50% indicated they were caring for parents, 17% for themselves only, and 31% for others. Over half (57%) reported finding what they were looking for, and 46% stated they were extremely likely to recommend the website. Frequently mentioned information-seeking categories included “health information,” “practical caregiving,” and “support.” Respondents also requested information related to housing, legal, insurance, and financial issues. Many responses referred to multiple comorbid conditions and complex caregiving situations. Overarching themes included (1) a desire for assistance with a wide range of practical skills and information and (2) help interpreting symptoms and behavior, such as knowing what life impacts to expect over the course of a health condition or treatment. Conclusion Visitors to a website targeting adults caring for aging parents reported seeking both general information on caregiving and specific assistance with the complex custodial, medical, emotional, and financial aspects of caregiving. Visitors requested both information to build caregiving skills as well as assistance in interpreting and knowing what to expect from symptoms, health conditions, and changes in behavior and relationships. Many desired communication with and support from other caregivers. Health care providers and eHealth developers should expect that many caregivers of elders are using the Internet as a resource. Further research and development is needed to fully realize the Internet’s potential for education and support of caregivers. PMID:20675292

Sudore, Rebecca L; Knight, Sara J

2010-01-01

52

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

53

Development of an Automated Microscope for Supporting Qualitative Asbestos Analysis by Dispersion Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces automated microscopic obser- vation supporting qualitative asbestos analysis. Visual qualitative asbestos evaluation generally involves dis- persion staining. Operators conventionally check and count asbestos fibers visually by microscope. We are developing automated microscopic observation to sup- port qualitative asbestos analysis. The system images fibers by microscope and saves them automatically to a database. We introduce system concepts and

Kuniaki Kawabata; Soichiro Morishita; Kazuhiro Hott; Taketoshi Mishima; Hiroshi Mizoguchi; Haruhisa Takahashi

2009-01-01

54

"It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

2000-01-01

55

Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

2005-01-01

56

Utilization of Morning Report by Acute Care Surgery Teams: Results from a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background The rigor of hand-offs is increasingly scrutinized in the era of shift-based patient care. Acute Care Surgery (ACS) embraced such a model of care; however, little is known about hand-offs in ACS programs. Methods We conducted 18 open-ended interviews with ACS leaders representing diverse geographic and practice settings. Two independent reviewers analyzed interviews using an inductive approach to elucidate themes regarding use of morning report (NVivo qualitative analysis software). Results 12/18 respondents reported a morning report but only 6/12 included attending-to-attending hand-offs. 1/12 incentivized attendings to participate, 2/12 included nursing staff, and 2/12 included physician extenders. Cited benefits of morning report were safe and effective information exchange (2/12), quality improvement (2/12), multidisciplinary discussion (1/12), and resident education (2/12). 3/12 respondents cited time commitment as the main limitation of morning report. Conclusions Morning report is under-utilized among ACS programs; however, if implemented strategically, it may improve patient care and resident education. PMID:24157348

Pringle, Patricia L.; Collins, Courtney; Santry, Heena P.

2013-01-01

57

Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

58

Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor

1988-01-01

59

Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).  

PubMed

The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created. PMID:25336172

Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

2014-01-01

60

Preservice teacher preparation for managing problem behaviors : an interpretive qualitative analysis of the classroom management course.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation examines the content of a required classroom management course to determine how preservice teachers are prepared for managing problem behaviors. Qualitative content analysis… (more)

Dunn, Sandra Hall

2012-01-01

61

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

2004-01-01

62

Advanced predoctoral implant program at UIC: description and qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Dental implant education has increasingly become an integral part of predoctoral dental curricula. However, the majority of implant education emphasizes the restorative aspect as opposed to the surgical. The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry has developed an Advanced Predoctoral Implant Program (APIP) that provides a select group of students the opportunity to place implants for single-tooth restorations and mandibular overdentures. This article describes the rationale, logistics, experiences, and perspectives of an innovative approach to provide additional learning experiences in the care of patients with partial and complete edentulism using implant-supported therapies. Student and faculty perspectives on the APIP were ascertained via focus group discussions and a student survey. The qualitative analysis of this study suggests that the select predoctoral dental students highly benefited from this experience and intend to increase their knowledge and skills in implant dentistry through formal education following graduation. Furthermore, the survey indicates that the APIP has had a positive influence on the students' interest in surgically placing implants in their future dental practice and their confidence level in restoring and surgically placing implants. PMID:24789837

Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Quimby, Anastasiya; Harlow, Rand; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

2014-05-01

63

An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

64

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

65

A University Management Analysis System for Qualitative Strategy Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the qualitative simulation-based university analyses. In university management, the staff of decision making section generally analyze their school status about the costs, cash flow from operations, investment cash flow, cash flow from financial activities and so on by using numerical analyses. However, such universities are like large business. Most of universities are small and medium-sized enterprise and

Tokuro Matsuo; Takayuki Fujimoto

2008-01-01

66

External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,…

Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

2012-01-01

67

Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive

A M Gotham; R G Brown; C D Marsden

1986-01-01

68

Imagery use by injured athletes: A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge and increase our understanding of imagery use by athletes in sport-injury rehabilitation using a qualitative approach. The participants were 10 injured athletes who were receiving physiotherapy at the time they were interviewed. During the interviews, the athletes provided extensive information about their use of imagery during injury rehabilitation and it

Molly Driediger; Craig Hall; Nichola Callow

2006-01-01

69

A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Stigma Among Latinos Receiving Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Objective This study sought to describe the role of stigma in antidepressant adherence among Latinos. Methods The study utilized data generated from six focus groups of Latino outpatients receiving antidepressants (N=30). By using a grounded theory approach, qualitative analysis focused specifically on the role of stigma in antidepressant treatment, as well as salient Latino values. Results Perceptions of stigma were related to both the diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressant medication. Qualitative analyses showed that antidepressant use was seen as implying more severe illness, weakness or failure to cope with problems, and being under the effects of a drug. Reports of stigma were also related to social consequences. Also, the perceived negative attributes of antidepressant use were at odds with self-perceived cultural values. Conclusions Stigma was a prominent concern among Latinos receiving antidepressants, and stigma often affected adherence. Furthermore, culture is likely to play an important role in the communication of stigma and its associated complications. PMID:18048562

Interian, Alejandro; Martinez, Igda E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Vega, William A.; Escobar, Javier I.

2008-01-01

70

Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

2011-01-01

71

[Dentistry in Wikipedia: A quantitative and qualitative analysis].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the scientific quality of the 265 dental articles that were present in January 2008 in the German-language version of Wikipedia. For this purpose, the Wikipedia entries were examined for their correctness by comparing them with the current dental literature. Every article was classified as having "textbook quality", "partial textbook quality" or "missing textbook quality". Of the 261 usable articles, 28% were qualitatively comparable to a textbook, while 56% had partial textbook quality. About 16% of the articles fell into the third group. Almost half of the Wikipedia entries fulfilled the qualitative standards, whereas the remaining articles were characterized by omissions. Hence, individuals interested in dental topics should not exclusively rely on Wikipedia. For a cursory overview, however, a search in Wikipedia appears to be in order. PMID:21261123

Lorenz, Annette; Türp, Jens C

2010-01-01

72

MARIKA - A model revision system using qualitative analysis of simulations. [of human orientation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.

Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter

1993-01-01

73

A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION OF ELITE FEMALE TRIATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidimensional theoretical framework of Self-Determination\\u000aTheory (SDT) has gained prominence in the sport and exercise field to assist in\\u000aunderstanding human motivation. While there is extensive research on motivation\\u000aof recreational athletes, no study has qualitatively examined the motivation of elite\\u000afemale triathletes. The primary purpose of this research was to determine how\\u000amotivation to train and compete is

Alexis Smith

2010-01-01

74

Qualitative analysis of a rolling hoop with mass unbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamical behavior of a rolling hoop with an unbalanced point mass under the influence of gravity is discussed. The whole\\u000a process from rolling to hopping of the hoop is analyzed qualitatively. The conditions of slipping, hopping and touching down\\u000a of the hoop are obtained. It is shown that the hoop cannot maintain a pure rolling before hopping up, and

Liu Yanzhu; Xue Yun

2004-01-01

75

Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare information systems (HISs) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care and the degree to which it is patient-centered,\\u000a as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of services. However, the outcomes of HIS implementations have not met expectations.\\u000a We set out to organize the knowledge gained in qualitative studies performed in association with HIS implementations and

Bahlol Rahimi; Vivian Vimarlund; Toomas Timpka

2009-01-01

76

Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

2012-01-01

77

The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

2014-01-01

78

Experiences of veterans' widows following conjugal bereavement: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

This qualitative study analyzed the conjugal grief experience of veterans' widows. The narratives yielded several themes, including the decreased self-reported symptoms of distress when widows reported having positive social support without negative social support, the development of an ongoing relationship with their deceased spouses with a mechanism for creating meaning from their loss, and the assumption of a new identity and new roles and responsibilities. Widows who ascribed a belief that external forces control their life events and those who have children with psychosocial issues reported increased symptoms of distress related to their spouses' death. PMID:21271445

Wilson, Sara C; Supiano, Katherine P

2011-01-01

79

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents from latrines.  

PubMed

More than 2.5 billion people defecate in the open. The increased commitment of private and public organizations to improving this situation is driving the research and development of new technologies for toilets and latrines. Although key technical aspects are considered by researchers when designing new technologies for developing countries, the basic aspect of offending malodors from human waste is often neglected. With the objective of contributing to technical solutions that are acceptable to global consumers, we investigated the chemical composition of latrine malodors sampled in Africa and India. Field latrines in four countries were evaluated olfactively and the odors qualitatively and quantitatively characterized with three analytical techniques. Sulfur compounds including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl-mono-(di;tri) sulfide are important in sewage-like odors of pit latrines under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, in Nairobi for example, paracresol and indole reached concentrations of 89 and 65 ?g/g, respectively, which, along with short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid (13 mg/g) explained the strong rancid, manure and farm yard odor. This work represents the first qualitative and quantitative study of volatile compounds sampled from seven pit latrines in a variety of geographic, technical, and economic contexts in addition to three single stools from India and a pit latrine model system. PMID:23829328

Lin, Jianming; Aoll, Jackline; Niclass, Yvan; Velazco, Maria Inés; Wünsche, Laurent; Pika, Jana; Starkenmann, Christian

2013-07-16

80

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

Flores, T.; Ponce, L. [CICATA- IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico); Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Cno. Parque Centenario e/505 y 508 Gonnet C.C. 124 (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-04-15

81

Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

82

Beliefs about fast food in Australia: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, (1988)), a qualitative design was employed to examine the beliefs and perceptions associated with fast-food consumption within an Australian sample. Findings provided an indication that positive affective reactions to fast food, convenience, and self-serving cognitions may override cognitive analyses of the longer-term health risks associated with frequent fast-food consumption. PMID:18430490

Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip B; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A

2008-09-01

83

Making sense of denial in sexual offenders: a qualitative phenomenological and repertory grid analysis.  

PubMed

Denial in sexual offenders represents the first barrier to successful treatment a clinician is likely to face. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to overcoming denial, with most programs having a focus on disclosure and "accepting responsibility." This is the first study that has aimed to make sense of sexual offenders' denial through a rigorous qualitative analysis. The main objective was to explore the experiences and lived worlds of sexual offenders in denial. A qualitative phenomenological methodology combining interpretative phenomenological analysis and repertory grids was implemented. Ten incarcerated sexual offenders in categorical denial participated in the research. The analysis revealed the narrative, relational, and self-reconstructive properties of denial and discusses the role and function denial may be playing for sexual offenders. The results highlight that denial can be viewed as a form of "sense making" and that clinically relevant treatment targets can be elicited without disclosure. It is concluded that viewing denial as a barrier to treatment impedes constructive work with offenders, and implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:24442912

Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Gregson, Mick; Thorne, Karen

2014-06-01

84

A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed…

Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

2012-01-01

85

Qualitative Analysis of an Educational Intervention with HIV-Discordant Heterosexual Latino Couples  

PubMed Central

Objective This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Methods Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. Results After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. Conclusion This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples. PMID:22263299

Perez-Jimenez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

2012-01-01

86

Initiation and Continuation of Smoking in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is the cause for many preventable deaths worldwide. The rate of smoking has not increased in Iran in the past two decades, but its increase among adolescents and young adults is a concern. This study investigates the risk factors of initiation and continuation of smoking in Iran using a qualitative approach. Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers and 6 non-smokers in 4 selected cities in Iran. Data were collected with deep and semi-structured interviews, verbatim transcription and simultaneously coding. Then, they were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three themes and 16 subcategories emerged. The themes were personal inefficacy with 6 subgroups included inadequate information, low age, curiosity, consideration of smoking not as a major problem, wrong beliefs, and making reasons. Family inefficacy with 4 subgroups included poor authority, lack of reaction, existence of stressors, and history of smoking. Vulnerable social environment with 6 subgroups included poverty, social stressors, magnification of smoking, network of cigarette smoking, smoking as a norm and convenience of access. Conclusion: Recognition of smoking among children, modification of wrong beliefs about smoking, empowerment of the individuals against smoking from the very childhood, consideration of familial stress and crisis, and ultimately, paying attention to the role of social variables will play a major role in prevention of smoking and encouraging individuals to quit smoking. PMID:25349865

Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jafar

2014-01-01

87

Imagery use by injured athletes: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge and increase our understanding of imagery use by athletes in sport-injury rehabilitation using a qualitative approach. The participants were 10 injured athletes who were receiving physiotherapy at the time they were interviewed. During the interviews, the athletes provided extensive information about their use of imagery during injury rehabilitation and it was clear that they believed imagery served cognitive, motivational and healing purposes in effectively rehabilitating an injury. Cognitive imagery was used to learn and properly perform the rehabilitation exercises. They employed motivational imagery for goal setting (e.g. imagined being fully recovered) and to enhance mental toughness, help maintain concentration and foster a positive attitude. Imagery was used to manage pain. The methods they employed for controlling pain included using imagery to practise dealing with expected pain, using imagery as a distraction, imagining the pain dispersing, and using imagery to block the pain. With respect to what they imaged (i.e. the content of their imagery), they employed both visual and kinaesthetic imagery and their images tended to be positive and accurate. It was concluded that the implementation of imagery alongside physical rehabilitation should enhance the rehabilitation experience and, therefore, facilitate the recovery rates of injured athletes. Moreover, it was recommended that those responsible for the treatment of injured athletes (e.g. medical doctors, physiotherapists) should understand the benefits of imagery in athletic injury rehabilitation, since it is these practitioners who are in the best position to encourage injured athletes to use imagery. PMID:16368636

Driediger, Molly; Hall, Craig; Callow, Nichola

2006-03-01

88

Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

Lüdecke, Daniel

2014-01-01

89

The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20?years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible. PMID:22925369

2012-01-01

90

Breastfeeding and Smoking among Low-Income Women: Results of a Longitudinal Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers have been well established, yet rates of breastfeeding remain well below national recommendations in the United States and even lower for women who smoke during pregnancy. Primary goals of this study were to explore contextual factors that contribute to breastfeeding intentions and behavior and to examine how smoking status affected women’s decision making about breastfeeding. Methods This paper is based on a longitudinal qualitative study of smoking, pregnancy, and breastfeeding among 44 low-income women in the southwest U.S. who smoked during pregnancy. Each woman was interviewed 9 times; 6 times during pregnancy and 3 times postpartum using semistructured questionnaires. Interviews lasted 1 to 3 hours and were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Results Despite 36 (82%) respondents stating that they intended to breastfeed for an average duration of 8 months, rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration were much lower than intentions. By 6 months postpartum, only two women were breastfeeding exclusively. Conclusions Women perceived that a strong risk of harming the baby was posed by smoking while breastfeeding and received little encouragement to continue breastfeeding despite an inability to stop smoking. The perceptions of the toxic, addictive, and harmful effects of smoking on breastmilk constitution and quantity factored into reasons why women weaned their infants from breastfeeding much earlier than the recommended 6 months. The results indicate a need for more consistency and routine in educating women on the relationship between smoking and breastfeeding and in promoting breastfeeding in spite of smoking postpartum. (BIRTH 35:3 September 2008) PMID:18844649

Goldade, Kate; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

2009-01-01

91

A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

Vorell, Matthew S.

2011-01-01

92

Visual Education Textbooks in the 1920s: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploration of the origins of educational communications and technology as a field focuses on the 1920s when the visual education movement first appeared. An explanation of the study precedes separate reviews of 13 primary sources--i.e., visual education textbooks--and draws on them to provide evidence for an analysis of the ideas and forces…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

93

Life expectancy change in perturbed communities: Derivation and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution, loss of habitat, and climate change are introducing dramatic perturbations to natural communities and affecting public health. Populations in perturbed communities can change dynamically, in both abundance and age structure. While analysis of the community matrix can predict changes in population abundance arising from a sustained or press perturbation, perturbations also have the potential to modify life expectancy, which

Jeffrey M. Dambacher; Richard Levins; Philippe A. Rossignol

2005-01-01

94

A Qualitative Analysis of the Decision-Making Process for Patients with Severe Lower Leg Trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Choosing the appropriate treatment for grade IIIB and IIIC open tibial fractures is a difficult decision for both the patient and the physician. Current research shows that the functional outcomes for reconstruction are similar to those for below-knee amputation, but little investigation of the qualitative outcomes of either treatment option has been done from the patient perspective. This study was designed to perform a qualitative analysis of patient preferences for amputation or reconstruction. Methods 20 patients with type IIIB or IIIC open tibial fractures participated in the study. These patients had undergone either amputation or reconstruction between 1997 and 2007. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and qualitative outcomes were assessed. Results Interviews highlighted several issues involved with medical decision-making. Participants described not having a role in deciding which medical treatment to choose. Family and spouses played a greater role, often due to patients’ being medicated when needing to make a treatment choice. Both amputation and reconstruction patients described being satisfied with the outcomes of their surgical treatments, but also expressed second thoughts about their treatment choices. Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize how difficult it is to assign preference to one medical treatment over another. The study reveals how the role of the patient is limited in making a decision about pursuing amputation or reconstruction. Instead there is a continued need for physicians to discuss treatment options and risks with family members who act on the patient’s behalf, as well as incorporating the patient’s preference in this complex decision. PMID:20697318

Aravind, Maya; Shauver, Melissa J.; Chung, Kevin C.

2010-01-01

95

"What is Found There"1: Qualitative Analysis of Physician-Nurse Collaboration Stories  

PubMed Central

Background Effective physician–nurse collaboration is an important, but incompletely understood determinant of patient and nurse satisfaction, and patient safety. Its impact on physicians has not been described. This study was undertaken to develop a fuller understanding of the collaboration experience and its outcomes. Methods Twenty-five medical residents, 32 staff nurses, 5 physician and 5 nurse faculty wrote narratives about successful collaboration; the narratives were then qualitatively analyzed. Narrative analysis was the initial qualitative method iteratively employed to identfy themes. A phenomenological approach was subsequently used to develop a framework for collaborative competence. Results Collaboration triggers, facilitative behaviors, outcomes and collaborative competence were the themes identified. Affect was identified in the triggers leading to collaboration and in its outcomes. Practioners typically entered a care episode feeling worrried, uncertain or inadequate and finished the interaction feeling satisfied, understood and grateful to their colleagues. The frequency of affective experience was not altered by gender, profession, or ethnicity. These experiences were particularly powerful for novice practioners of both disciplines and appear to have both formative and transformative potential. Collaborative competence was characterized by a series of graduated skills in clinical and relational domains. Many stories took place in the ICU and afterhours settings. Conclusions Despite the prevailing wisdom that nursing and medicine are qualitatively different, the stories from this study illuminate surprising commonalities in the collaboration experience, regardless of gender, age, experience, or profession. Collaborative competence can be defined and its component skills identified. Contexts of care can be identified that offer particularly rich opportunities to foster interprofessional collaboration. PMID:19089507

Morse, Diane S.; Glessner, Theresa; Gardner, Kathryn

2008-01-01

96

Laboratory test ordering and results management systems: a qualitative study of safety risks identified by administrators in general practice  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore experiences and perceptions of frontline administrators involved in the systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling in general medical practice. Design Qualitative using focus group interviews. Setting West of Scotland general medical practices in three National Health Service (NHS) territorial board areas. Participants Convenience samples of administrators (receptionists, healthcare assistants and phlebotomists). Methods Transcript data were subjected to content analysis. Results A total of 40 administrative staff were recruited. Four key themes emerged: (1) system variations and weaknesses (eg, lack of a tracking process is a known risk that needs to be addressed). (2) Doctor to administrator communication (eg, unclear information can lead to emotional impacts and additional workload). (3) Informing patients of test results (eg, levels of anxiety and uncertainty are experienced by administrators influenced by experience and test result outcome) and (4) patient follow-up and confidentiality (eg, maintaining confidentiality in a busy reception area can be challenging). The key findings were explained in terms of sociotechnical systems theory. Conclusions The study further confirms the safety-related problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the communication and psychosocial issues that can affect the health and well-being of staff and patients alike. However, opportunities exist for practices to identify barriers to safe care, and plan and implement system improvements to accommodate or mitigate the potential for human error in this complex area. PMID:24503302

Bowie, Paul; Halley, Lyn; McKay, John

2014-01-01

97

Pathways to Attrition: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Justifications for Police Designations of Sexual Assault Complaints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present analysis is a reframing of an earlier study conducted by the author to compensate for perceived deficiencies in previous studies on police decisions in sexual assault complaints. Specifically, qualitative comparative analysis was employed at the micro-social level to reveal justification scenarios, employed by investigating…

Soulliere, Danielle M.

2005-01-01

98

Interrogating accountability : An illustration of the use of Leximancer software for qualitative data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper has a dual purpose, being to report on an interrogation of concepts and contexts of accountability used in the accounting literature and to illustrate the application of a qualitative data analysis software tool in this interrogation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A content analysis was undertaken of 114 journal articles related to accountability and published in highly ranked accounting

Ken Crofts; Jayne Bisman

2010-01-01

99

Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research. PMID:24047204

2013-01-01

100

A qualitative analysis of immigrant population health practices in the Girona Healthcare Region  

PubMed Central

Background The research we present here forms part of a two-phase project - one quantitative and the other qualitative - assessing the use of primary health care services. This paper presents the qualitative phase of said research, which is aimed at ascertaining the needs, beliefs, barriers to access and health practices of the immigrant population in comparison with the native population, as well as the perceptions of healthcare professionals. Moroccan and sub-Saharan were the immigrants to who the qualitative phase was specifically addressed. The aims of this paper are as follows: to analyse any possible implications of family organisation in the health practices of the immigrant population; to ascertain social practices relating to illness; to understand the significances of sexual and reproductive health practices; and to ascertain the ideas and perceptions of immigrants, local people and professionals regarding health and the health system. Methods Qualitative research based on discursive analysis. Data gathering techniques consisted of discussion groups with health system users and semi-structured individual interviews with healthcare professionals. The sample was taken from the Basic Healthcare Areas of Salt and Banyoles (belonging to the Girona Healthcare Region), the discussion groups being comprised of (a) 6 immigrant Moroccan women, (b) 7 immigrant sub-Saharan African women and (c) 6 immigrant and native population men (2 native men, 2 Moroccan men and 2 sub-Saharan men); and the semi-structured interviews being conducted with the following healthcare professionals: (a) 3 gynaecologists, (b) 3 nurses and 1 administrative staff. Results Use of the healthcare system is linked to the perception of not being well, knowledge of the healthcare system, length of time resident in Spain and interiorization of traditional Western medicine as a cure mechanism. The divergences found among the groups of immigrants, local people and healthcare professionals with regard to healthcare education, use of the healthcare service, sexual and reproductive healthcare and reticence with regard to being attended by healthcare personnel of the opposite sex demonstrate a need to work with the immigrant population as a heterogeneous group. Conclusions The results we have obtained support the idea that feeling unwell is a psycho-social process, as it takes place within a specific socio-cultural situation and spans a range of beliefs, perceptions and ideas regarding symptomology and how to treat it. PMID:20587020

2010-01-01

101

Female adolescents' experiences and perceptions regarding sexual health education in Iranian schools: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite so many unmet sexual health education (SHE) needs of adolescents, socio-cultural challenges have caused this issue to be ignored in different scoieties. This study investigated Iranian female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions with respect to SHE that they received at schools, and what they really needed, expected, and preferred. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, seven focus group discussions (44 adolescents) and 13 individual in-depth interviews were conducted among female adolescents aged 14-18 in Mashhad and Ahvaz, Iran, to explore adolescents’ experiences and perceptions towards SHE in Iranian schools. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analyzing adolescents’ perspectives and experiences revealed their great dissatisfaction with SHE in schools. Emerged categories included: lack of obligation and priority for SHE, sexual reticence and evading, making adolescents frightened of sexual issues, inconsistency of SHE with adolescents’ needs, unqualified educators, and lack of appropriate educational materials. Conclusion: This study found some similarities between expectations of Iranian adolescents and those of adolescents from other cultures about an SHE program. Adolescents showed great abilities to appraise health services delivered for them, and so any program for sexual health promotion in adolescents ought to address adolescents’ needs, demands, and aspirations. Their contribution can provide insights for tailoring SHE programs for adolescents. PMID:23922603

Javadnoori, Mojgan; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

2012-01-01

102

Using Qualitative Observation To Document Group Processes in Accelerated Schools Training: Techniques and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of qualitative observation techniques for gathering and analyzing data related to group processes during an Accelerated Schools Model training session. The purposes for this research were to observe the training process in order better to facilitate present continuation and future training, to develop questions for…

McFarland, Katherine; Batten, Constance

103

Evidence-based Practice Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the strategies used to implement the evidence-based practices of supported employment and integrated\\u000a dual diagnosis treatment. Using qualitative research methods, the study uncovered eight strategies that contributed to successful\\u000a implementation in six sites.

Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Rob Whitley

2008-01-01

104

Factors Related to Persistence in Engineering: Results of a Qualitative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a qualitative study regarding the problem of retaining students in college engineering programs where roughly 50% of students drop out. The study focuses on interviews of students who participated in the pre-engineering program at Auburn University in Alabama. Twenty-four students were interviewed representing the sub-groups…

MacGuire, Susanne; Halpin, Glennelle

105

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within…

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

106

A Qualitative Analysis of User Experiences With a Self-Tracker for Activity, Sleep, and Diet  

PubMed Central

Background The recent increase in chronic diseases and an aging population warrant the necessity of health self-management. As small electronic devices that track one’s activity, sleep, and diet, called self-trackers, are being widely distributed, it is prudent to investigate the user experience and the effectiveness of these devices, and use the information toward engineering better devices that would result in increased efficiency and usability. Objective The aim of this study was to abstract the constructs that constitute the user experiences of the self-tracker for activity, sleep, and diet. Additionally, we aimed to develop and verify the Health Information Technology Acceptance Model-II (HITAM-II) through a qualitative data analysis approach. Methods The study group consisted of 18 female college students who participated in an in-depth interview after completing a 3-month study of utilizing a self-tracker designed to monitor activity, sleep, and diet. The steps followed in the analysis were: (1) extraction of constructs from theoretical frameworks, (2) extraction of constructs from interview data using a qualitative methodology, and (3) abstraction of constructs and modeling of the HITAM-II. Results The constructs that constitute the HITAM-II are information technology factors, personal factors, social factors, attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior. These constructs are further divided into subconstructs to additionally support the HITAM-II. Conclusions The HITAM-II was found to successfully describe the health consumer’s attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior from another perspective. The result serves as the basis for a unique understanding of the user experiences of HIT. PMID:24594898

2014-01-01

107

Geo-Narrative: Extending Geographic Information Systems for Narrative Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed-Method Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research seeks to contribute to advancing qualitative methodologies at the intersection of qualitative geographic information systems (GIS), narrative analysis, 3D GIS-based time-geographic methods, and computer-aided qualitative data analysis. The approach to GIS-based narrative analysis developed in the study, called “geo-narrative,” is based on extending current GIS capabilities for the analysis and interpretation of narrative materials such as oral histories,

Mei-Po Kwan; Guoxiang Ding

2008-01-01

108

Voices of the self in psychotherapy: A qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Approaches that view the self as constituted by socio-cultural processes and as plural, consisting of a multiplicity of states, positions, functions, etc., have flourished in the last decades. This paper explores the multi-voiced nature of the self, drawing upon Lacan's theory of subjectivity and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Subjectivity is seen as constituted through language as expressed in the speech of the subject's important early others. The psychoanalytic concept of transference, understood as a semiotic process of enacting early interpersonal patterns in the subject's present relations, provides a link between the unfolding of subjectivity in the present and its historical continuity. The articulation of subjectivity is discussed through a micro-analysis of extracts from sessions of a long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The analysis demonstrates the enactment of transferential dialogical positions at the beginning of the therapy and traces their recognition by the client through the gradual development of increasingly reflexive subject positions towards the end of therapy. It is argued that the aim of therapy should be the facilitation of a complex subjectivity, whereby the different subject positions can be fluently articulated within an overall reflexive frame. PMID:11802838

Georgaca, Eugenie

2001-06-01

109

Voices of the self in psychotherapy: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Approaches that view the self as constituted by socio-cultural processes and as plural, consisting of a multiplicity of states, positions, functions, etc., have flourished in the last decades. This paper explores the multi-voiced nature of the self, drawing upon Lacan's theory of subjectivity and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Subjectivity is seen as constituted through language as expressed in the speech of the subject's important early others. The psychoanalytic concept of transference, understood as a semiotic process of enacting early interpersonal patterns in the subject's present relations, provides a link between the unfolding of subjectivity in the present and its historical continuity. The articulation of subjectivity is discussed through a micro-analysis of extracts from sessions of a long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The analysis demonstrates the enactment of transferential dialogical positions at the beginning of the therapy and traces their recognition by the client through the gradual development of increasingly reflexive subject positions towards the end of therapy. It is argued that the aim of therapy should be the facilitation of a complex subjectivity, whereby the different subject positions can be fluently articulated within an overall reflexive frame. PMID:11453173

Georgaca, E

2001-06-01

110

Automated instrument for qualitative analysis of photographically recorded spectra  

SciTech Connect

An advanced technique has been developed for the identification of element spectral lines in photographically recorded emission spectra. It is based on measurement of the relative position of a line on the photoplate and calculation of the wavelength using an equation derived from measured positions of known spectral lines. With this technique, the wavelength of any line can be determined to within 0.04 Angstrom over a 1000 Angstrom region. The elements are identified by comparing the calculated wavelengths with known values in the MIT Wavelength Tables and verified based on the wavelengths of the most intense spectral lines. The automated instrument can be applied to the analysis of photographically recorded spark source mass spectra. Isotopes can be identified based on their mass-to-charge ratios which are calculated from the measured positions of the lines on the photoplate.

Hareland, W.A.; Melsaard, D.M.

1985-01-01

111

Towards an intelligent decision support system for public health surveillance - a qualitative analysis of information needs.  

PubMed

Public health information systems are often implemented considering the functionalities and requirements established by administrative staff or researchers, but sometimes ignoring the particular needs of decision makers. This paper describes a proposal to support the design of a Decision Support System for Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, by conducting a qualitative study to identify the real needs of people involved in decision making processes. Based on the study results, an intelligent computational component that supports Data Analysis Automation, Prediction of future scenarios and the identification of new Behavioral Patterns is proposed. The component will be implemented using the Case Based Reasoning methodology, which will be integrated as a new component of the Open Source DHIS2 Platform, enabling public health decision-making. PMID:25000011

Mera, Maritza; González, Carolina; López, Diego M

2014-01-01

112

Interviews with the dead: using meta-life qualitative analysis to validate Hippocrates' theory of humours  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hippocrates devised his theory of the 4 humours (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile) 24 centuries ago. Since then, medicine has evolved into a complex body of confusing and sometimes contradictory facts. The authors, seeing a need to determine the validity of his theory, hired a psychic. METHODS: The psychic interviewed 4 eminent ancient physicians, including Hippocrates. A randomized double-blind cross-over design was used for this meta-life qualitative analysis. RESULTS: All of the interviewees agreed that the theory of humours is an accurate model to explain disease and personality. INTERPRETATION: Hiring a psychic to conduct after-death interviews with key informants is a useful way to validate scientific theories. PMID:9875254

Secretion, F; Conjur, G S; Attitude, S P

1998-01-01

113

On the Qualitative Analysis of Conformon P Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study computational properties of conformon P-systems, an exten- sion of P-systems in which symbol objects are labelled by their current amount of energy. We focus here our attention to decision problems like reachability and coverability of a configuration and give positive and negati ve results for the full model and for some of its fragments. Furthermore, we investigate the

Parosh Aziz Abdulla; Giorgio Delzanno; Laurent Van Begin

2008-01-01

114

Dipartimento di Matematica MULTIPHASE MODELING AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE  

E-print Network

to the cells; these usually trigger particular collective behaviors of groups of cells, resulting finally and tissues of human body are, classical laws of Newtonian mechanics are not in principle the only rules that the evolution of the system obeys to, due to some sort of intelligence that makes cells able to self

Ceragioli, Francesca

115

An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a revised laboratory set-up for performing flame tests that enables students to pay more attention to the results of the tests and less attention to the manipulation of equipment. Employs a watch glass to add the analytical solutions to the flame. (DDR)

Bare, William D.; Bradley, Tom; Pulliam, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

116

Qualitative analysis of algal secretions with multiple mass spectrometric platforms  

PubMed Central

Lipid secretions from algae pose a great opportunity for engineering biofueler feedstocks. The lipid exudates could be interesting from a process engineering perspective because lipids could be collected directly from the medium without harvesting and disrupting cells. We here report on the extracellular secretions of algal metabolites from the strain UTEX 2341 (Chlorella minutissima) into the culture medium. No detailed analysis of these lipid secretions has been performed to date. Using multiple mass spectrometric platforms, we observed around 1000 compounds and were able to annotate 50 lipids by means of liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF), direct infusion with positive and negative electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These compounds were annotated by tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) database matching and retention time range filtering. We observed a series of triacylglycerols (TG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylglycerols, as well as betaine lipids diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserines (DGTS). PMID:22608776

Kind, Tobias; Meissen, John K.; Yang, Dawei; Nocito, Fernando; Vaniya, Arpana; Cheng, Yu-Shen; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Fiehn, Oliver

2013-01-01

117

Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene  

E-print Network

We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

Jakubsky, Vit

2014-01-01

118

Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene  

E-print Network

We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

2014-05-11

119

Qualitative Analysis for the Usability of the Caring For Others Website Tira Cohene 07/2004  

E-print Network

Qualitative Analysis for the Usability of the Caring For Others Website Tira Cohene ­ 07 medium of communication Information Advice Compassion Relationships Personal foresight Within group vs and updated features A sense of community, partnership, and caring for the CFO group A sense of cost

Toronto, University of

120

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

1969-01-01

121

Qualitative system analysis as a means for sustainable governance of emerging technologies: the case of nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable governance of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is a demanding societal challenge due to the “technological throughput” of today's and tomorrow's social life. A prerequisite for sustainable governance is an integrated understanding of the factors, interdependencies and developmental potentials of the technological system under investigation. This paper presents a transdisciplinary qualitative system analysis on nanotechnology in Switzerland, integrating perspectives

Arnim Wiek; Daniel J. Lang; Michael Siegrist

2008-01-01

122

Configural analysis of the drinking man: fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses.  

PubMed

The study here presents multiple configurations (i.e., causal recipes) of antecedents associating with heavy drinking using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Using national survey data (United States), intermediate solutions of fsQCA analyses yield high consistency and modest coverage in identifying heavy-drinking groups. PMID:22178601

Eng, Sereikhuoch; Woodside, Arch G

2012-04-01

123

A Qualitative Organic Analysis that Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then…

Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

2007-01-01

124

A Supply Chain Network Economy: Modeling and Qualitative Analysis Ding Zhang and June Dong  

E-print Network

A Supply Chain Network Economy: Modeling and Qualitative Analysis Ding Zhang and June Dong School-based to formalize both intra- supply chain cooperation and inter-supply chain competition. In particular, we propose a general network model for a supply chain economy since it is now recognized that when it comes

Nagurney, Anna

125

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

Lieber, Eli

2009-01-01

126

Taking on the UnknownA Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Unknown Relationship Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aside from noting the dramatic rise in their numbers, homicides with unknown victim\\/offender relationships have attracted little research attention. This study uses Qualitative Comparative Analysis and data from the Supplementary Homicide Reports for 1976 through 1998 to examine the nature of unknown relationship homicides and changes in their structure over time. The findings indicate that a large number of unknown

Wendy C. Regoeczi; Terance D. Miethe

2003-01-01

127

Client experiences of motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder: A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Motivational Interviewing (MI) has demonstrated efficacy, little is known about the mechanisms through which MI achieves beneficial effects or how clients perceive the process of MI. The present study addressed this gap through a qualitative analysis of client accounts following four sessions of MI for generalized anxiety disorder. Clients identified increased motivation for treatment and change, experiencing the therapist

Madalyn Marcus; Henny Westra; Lynne Angus; Angela Kertes

2011-01-01

128

A Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis, and Algorithms  

E-print Network

/marketing efforts is affected by other firms' advertising efforts. In addition, since consumers of a particular of the advertising of an individual firm. Further, according to the literature in marketing, consumer behaviorA Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis

Nagurney, Anna

129

Combining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social interactions  

E-print Network

Studying and evaluating real experiences that promote active and collaborative learning is a crucial fieldCombining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social design and tools. Our proposal and the presented case study aim at giving an answer to the need

Boyer, Edmond

130

The Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though social inclusion is essential to enhancing a person's quality of life, people with disabilities continue to face many barriers. The purpose of this qualitative meta-analysis was to describe the elements and experiences of social inclusion for people with disabilities. The study analyzed data from 15 primary research reports through thematic…

Hall, Sarah A.

2009-01-01

131

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of urine component in the toilet set using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of non-invasive and unaware measurement of physiological signal in the house of live-alone person, Raman spectroscopy was applied for urine component analysis in the toilet set. 785nm, 250-300mW output solid state diode laser and 2048 element linear silicon TE cooled CCD array were incorporated for this system. Several tests were performed for setting up Raman spectroscopy in non-constrained situation: toilet set in the house. The effect of dark current, integration time, warming up time of laser, property of probe and interference of water in the toilet were tested and controlled for appropriate measurement in this environment. The spectra were obtained immediately when the subject uses the toilet set, and they can be transmitted to the server though Bluetooth. Those spectra were pre-processed for removing or correcting the effect of undesired light scattering, sample path-length difference and baseline-effect. The preprocessed data were enhanced for more exact result of multivariate analysis. The training data was prepared for predicting unknown component and its concentration by using multivariate methods. Several kinds of multivariate methods: PCA, PCR, PLS were performed to validate what is the fittest method in this environment. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy"s spectra obtained in the house's toilet set, we could know the component and its concentration of urine which can be index of disease.

Chung, So Hyun; Park, Kwang Suk; Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Won Jin

2004-07-01

132

Behavioral determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: A qualitative directed content analysis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. METHODS This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. RESULTS Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. CONCLUSION Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors. PMID:25161674

Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

133

Iranian cancer patients' perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehran’s hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes) emerged from the data analysis: 1) God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God), 2) Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes) and 3) Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources). Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources. PMID:23043231

2012-01-01

134

New results from FRECOPA analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New results from the ongoing analysis of the FRECOPA's (FREnch COoperative PAssive payload) system hardware are discussed. FRECOPA (AO138) was one of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF satellite. The experiment was located on the trailing edge (Tray B3) and was exposed to UV radiation (11,100 equivalent sun hours), approximately equal to 34,000 thermal cycles, higher vacuum levels than the leading edge, a low atomic oxygen flux, and minor doses of protons and electrons. Due to LDEF's extended mission (5.8 years), CNES decided to set up a team to analyze the FRECOPA system. Initial results were presented at the First Post-Retrieval Conference, June, 1991. The results obtained since then are summarized.

Durin, Christian

1993-01-01

135

A Framework for Qualitative and Quantitative Formal Model-Based Safety Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In model-based safety analysis both qualitative aspects i.e. what must go wrong for a system failure) and quantitative aspects (i.e. how probable is a system failure) are very important. For both aspects methods and tools are available. However, until now for each aspect new and independent models must be built for analysis. This paper proposes the SAML framework as a

M. Gudemann; F. Ortmeier

2010-01-01

136

Including Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the 2008 CMS Payment Policy: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Research Summary Background With its 2008 reimbursement policy change, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sought to link payment and quality. CMS stopped reimbursing hospitals for additional treatment costs due to hospital-acquired conditions, such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Little is yet known about the impact of this policy. Objective To examine stakeholders’ views about the inclusion of CAUTIs in the 2008 CMS payment policy and its potential impact on hospital practices. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of infection preventionists. This included 36 infection preventionists from a purposive sample of non-federal, acute care U.S. hospitals. An interview guide refined through iterative development was used, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded thematically. Qualitative methodology employed grounded theory tools, including open coding and constant comparative analysis. Results Two main themes emerged: 1) participants’ attitudes toward the inclusion of CAUTIs in the CMS policy, including issues of the infection’s significance, opportunity costs, and financial incentives; and 2) participants’ views about advances in clinical organizational behaviors and limited defensive practice. Conclusions Equivocal attitudes toward CMS’ policy targeting CAUTIs were somewhat discordant with the reported improvements in CAUTI prevention in response to the policy. Perhaps “stick” pay-for-performance policies can complement “carrot” policies in coaxing quality improvement. To support such a conclusion, the field needs more research on multiple stakeholders’ views on other selected hospital-acquired conditions in the policy. CMS could also benefit from continued feedback from stakeholders on the policy and its perceived consequences. Level of Evidence – VI (Polit & Beck, 2012) PMID:23556374

Palmer, Jennifer A.; Lee, Grace M.; Dutta-Linn, M. Maya; Wroe, Peter; Hartmann, Christine W.

2014-01-01

137

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

2010-01-01

138

When a diabetic foot ulcer results in amputation: a qualitative study of the lived experience of 15 patients.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to complications resulting in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), foot infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. Almost 50,000 amputations performed every year in the United States are due to DFUs. A qualitative analysis using Colaizzi's step-by-step approach to phenomenology was conducted to describe the experiencesof 15 patients with diabetes living with a foot amputation. Semi-structured interviews were recorded digitally,transcribed, and analyzed. The analysis included reading transcripts multiple times, identifying noteworthy verbatimstatements, then abstracting key words and phrases; similar key words and phrases were grouped into a meaning unit. The researchers rereviewed original transcripts, verbatim statements, and extracted key words and phrases and devised meaning units to identify main themes. Rigor in this study was ensured by developing an audit trail that linked the meaning units and themes back to key words and verbatim statements in the original transcripts and then allowing the participant to ensure accuracy of recounted information. Five major themes emerged from the data regarding patient concern about the ability to be productive members of society (ie, transitioning from having a nonhealing wound to living as a new amputee) - financial burden, powerlessness, social support, placing blame, and uncertainty in one's continued ability - each having implications for health care providers as well as patients. By considering the experience from the patient perspective, health care professionals may be better prepared to discuss patient concerns with follow-up care and day to-day living, especially in getting help with finances. Additional research is needed to uncover models of care that may help these patients remain productive members of society and reduce the burden of amputation on patient quality of life. PMID:25380097

Foster, DeSales; Lauver, Lori S

2014-11-01

139

Explanatory models of medically unexplained symptoms: a qualitative analysis of the literature.  

PubMed

Background Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are common in primary health care. Both patients and doctors are burdened with the symptoms that negatively affect patients' quality of life. General practitioners (GPs) often face difficulties when giving patients legitimate and convincing explanations for their symptoms. This explanation is important for reassuring patients and for maintaining a good doctor-patient communication and relationship.Objective To provide an overview of explanatory models for MUS.Study design We performed a systematic search of reviews in PsycINFO and PubMed about explanatory models of MUS. We performed a qualitative analysis of the data according to the principles of constant comparative analysis to identify specific explanatory models.Results We distinguished nine specific explanatory models of MUS in the literature: somatosensory amplification, sensitisation, sensitivity, immune system sensitisation, endocrine dysregulation, signal filter model, illness behaviour model, autonomous nervous system dysfunction and abnormal proprioception. The nine different explanatory models focus on different domains, including somatic causes, perception, illness behaviour and predisposition. We also found one meta-model, which incorporates these four domains: the cognitive behavioural therapy model.Conclusion Although GPs often face difficulties when providing explanations to patients with MUS, there are multiple explanatory models in the scientific literature that may be of use in daily medical practice. PMID:22477946

van Ravenzwaaij, J; Olde Hartman, Tc; van Ravesteijn, H; Eveleigh, R; van Rijswijk, E; Lucassen, Plbj

2010-12-01

140

A Qualitative Analysis of Cancer-Related Fatigue in Ambulatory Oncology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe patients’ perceptions of the causes, relief, related symptoms, meaning, and suffering secondary to cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Two hundred and fifty two (n=252) patients with breast, lung, colon, and prostate cancers were enrolled in a quasi-experimental study to test the effects of a clinical intervention on reducing barriers to symptom management in ambulatory care. Analysis of data reported in this paper was derived from the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised (PFS-R). Using qualitative research methods and content analysis, written statements related to the impact of CRF were coded using the following themes: patients’ perceptions of cancer related fatigue, the causes, relief, related symptoms, meaning, and suffering. Comments were categorized and reviewed for content. Overall, CRF had a significant impact on the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual wellbeing. CRF limited the ability of participants to function, socialize, and participate in enjoyable activities. Emotional issues as a result of CRF were common. The negative impact of CRF on patient’s overall well-being alters the meaning and suffering related to the cancer experience. The assessment of personal meaning and suffering related to CRF is an important component of the multidimensional assessment of CRF. This will enable nurses to better understand the suffering related to CRF. PMID:22297018

Borneman, Tami; Piper, Barbara Fliegel; Koczywas, Marianna; Munevar, Carla M.; Sun, Virginia; Uman, Gwen C.; Ferrell, Betty R.

2013-01-01

141

Group medical visits can deliver on patient-centred care objectives: results from a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-centred care emerged in the late 1960s as a framework to guide providers and decision-makers towards the provision of more effective health care and better outcomes. An important body of literature has since emerged, reporting mixed results in terms of outcomes. To date, assessments of the effectiveness of patient-centred approaches have focused one-on-one consultations. The purpose of this article is to explore dimensions identified as key in the patient-centred literature in the context of primary health care services delivered in a group setting. Group Medical Visits (GMVs) offer a novel format for the delivery of patient-centred primary health care services, especially for patients living with complex morbidities. Methods Drawing on a large study of GMVs, we report on key format and process-oriented elements identified in GMVs, and on their link to improved outcomes. For the purpose of this study, we interviewed 34 providers and 29 patients who have been engaged in GMVs, delivered in rural, northern and First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Results Our analysis shows that the delivery of PHC in a group format results in a shift in the role of the provider, from that of an adjudicator involved in imparting norms of self-care, to that of a facilitator who assists the group in defining norms of self-care that are based on medical knowledge but also on the broader context of patients’ lived experience and on their pragmatic experience. In a group process, peer-patients take on the role of promoting these norms to other patients. This results in a significant shift in the role of the provider, increased trust, increased knowledge for the providers and the patients and better patient self-management. Our results also show increase satisfaction for patients and providers. Conclusions GMVs offer an alternative format for the provision of PHC that brings together the benefit of a group process and of a clinical encounter. This format can successfully deliver on the promises of patient-centred care. PMID:23627609

2013-01-01

142

[Detection of nucleic acid sequences by bioluminescence. Importance of an internal reference system for qualitative and quantitative analysis].  

PubMed

Various luminescent detection systems were used to detect and quantify simultaneously several probes. For quantitative analysis, one probe was used as an internal standard to evaluate the amplification yield and the others to quantify the amplified target. After using hybridization in solution, accurate results were obtained. For a qualitative analysis, amplified sequences were hybridized to specific oligonucleotides which were labelled or immobilized. To compare amplified fragments to products of known sequences, we developed a more efficient technique based on DNA strand exchange occurring during hybridization in solution. This method allowed to detect a single base substitution in DNA fragments of 280 base pairs. PMID:1306956

Nicolas, J C; Térouanne, B; Balaguer, P; Chikhaoui, Y; Defacque, H; Boussioux, A M

1992-01-01

143

Barriers to employment as experienced by disabled people: a qualitative analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one?to?one and focus group interviews with 56 disabled individuals

Michael Shier; John R. Graham; Marion E. Jones

2009-01-01

144

Barriers to Employment as Experienced by Disabled People: A Qualitative Analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one-to-one…

Shier, Michael; Graham, John R.; Jones, Marion E.

2009-01-01

145

Description and Analysis of the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Qualitative Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative report of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Girls' Education Activity (GEA) focuses on the results of project activities in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Section 1 outlines the overall purpose and goals of the GEA; contrasts the major tactics of the program in each country; and describes the…

Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephan; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

146

Qualitative analysis using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics: a comprehensive model system for narcotics analysis.  

PubMed

The rapid, on-site identification of illicit narcotics, such as cocaine, is hindered by the diverse nature of the samples, which can contain a large variety of materials in a wide concentration range. This sample variance has a very strong influence on the analytical methodologies that can be utilized and in general prevents the widespread use of quantitative analysis of illicit narcotics on a routine basis. Raman spectroscopy, coupled with chemometric methods, can be used for in situ qualitative and quantitative analysis of illicit narcotics; however, careful consideration must be given to dealing with the extensive variety of sample types. To assess the efficacy of combining Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics for the identification of a target analyte under real-world conditions, a large-scale model sample system (633 samples) using a target (acetaminophen) mixed with a wide variety of excipients was created. Materials that exhibit problematic factors such as fluorescence, variable Raman scattering intensities, and extensive peak overlap were included to challenge the efficacy of chemometric data preprocessing and classification methods. In contrast to spectral matching analyte identification approaches, we have taken a chemometric classification model-based approach to account for the wide variances in spectral data. The first derivative of the Raman spectra from the fingerprint region (750-1900 cm(-1)) yielded the best classifications. Using a robust segmented cross-validation method, correct classification rates of better than ?90% could be attained with regression-based classification, compared to ?35% for SIMCA. This study demonstrates that even with very high degrees of sample variance, as evidenced by dramatic changes in Raman spectra, it is possible to obtain reasonably reliable identification using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics. The model sample set can now be used to validate more advanced chemometric or machine learning algorithms being developed for the identification of analytes such as illicit narcotics. PMID:20925980

O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Ryder, Alan G; Leger, Marc N; Howley, Tom

2010-10-01

147

Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents' and physicians' experiences of stillbirth-a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate. In the months and years following a stillbirth, these parents continue to memorialize their children as part of their family. Conclusions Hospitals need to examine the physical environment for deliveries and, wherever possible, offer designated private areas with staff trained in stillbirth care. Training programs in obstetrics need to better address the bereavement needs of parents following a stillbirth, and research is needed to evaluate effective bereavement interventions, accounting for cultural variation. Critical improvements are also needed for mental health support beyond hospitalization. Finally, medical professionals and parents can play an important role in reversing the stigma that surrounds stillbirth. PMID:23181615

2012-01-01

148

Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. Methods The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Results Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients’ perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Conclusions Patients’ perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially reduce access barriers for those who might not otherwise consider using acupuncture. In addition, the community acupuncture model may offer individuals the opportunity for increased frequency of treatments, which raises pertinent questions about the dose–response relationship of acupuncture and health outcomes. This study provides preliminary data for future evaluations of the quality and effectiveness of community acupuncture. Future studies should include the perspectives of patients who initiated, and subsequently, discontinued community acupuncture treatment. PMID:24168022

2013-01-01

149

Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women’s HIV risks in addition to conventional HIV risk- taking behaviors are urgently needed. PMID:22697147

Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

2014-01-01

150

Learning effects of thematic peer-review: a qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care.  

PubMed

This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984. Experiential learning, Experience as the source of learning development. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hill). It was part of an educational programme on spiritual care in nursing for third-year undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in the Netherlands. Reflective journals (n=203) kept by students throughout the peer-review process were analysed qualitatively The analysis shows that students reflect on spirituality in the context of personal experiences in nursing practice. In addition, they discuss the nursing process and organizational aspects of spiritual care. The results show that the first two phases in the experiential learning cycle appear prominently; these are 'inclusion of actual experience' and 'reflecting on this experience'. The phases of 'abstraction of experience' and 'experimenting with new behaviour' are less evident. We will discuss possible explanations for these findings according to factors related to education, the students and the tutors and make recommendations for follow-up research. PMID:19027200

van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

2009-05-01

151

A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An exploratory, qualitative directed content analysis examined 15 narrative case summaries written by APNs and fieldnotes from biweekly case conferences. Results: Three central themes emerged: patients and caregivers having the necessary information and knowledge, care coordination, and the caregiver experience. An additional category was also identified, APNs going above and beyond. Implications: APNs implemented individualized approaches and provided care that exceeds the type of care typically staffed and reimbursed in the American health care system by applying a Transitional Care Model, advanced clinical judgment, and doing whatever was necessary to prevent negative outcomes. Reimbursement reform as well as more formalized support systems and resources are necessary for APNs to consistently provide such care to patients and their caregivers during this vulnerable time of transition. PMID:21908805

Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M.Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

2012-01-01

152

Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

2014-01-01

153

Qualitative SERS analysis of G-quadruplex DNAs using selective stabilising ligands.  

PubMed

Nucleic acids are of key biological importance due to their range of functions and ability to form various different structures, with an example of emerging significance being quadruplexes formed by guanine-rich sequences. These guanine rich sequences are found in different regions of the genome such as telomeres, gene promoters and introns and UTRs of mRNAs. Here a new approach has been developed that utilises surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the detection of the formation of G-quadruplexes. Three G-quadruplex stabilising ligands that each have their own unique SERS response were used in this study and their ability to act as reporters assessed. A SERS response was only obtained from the ligands in the absence of G-quadruplex formation. This resulted in an "on/off" method which was successfully used to qualitatively detect the formation of G-quadruplex using quadruplex-forming sequences such as human telomeric and C-MYC promoter DNAs. The unique SERS spectra of each stabilising ligand offer the potential for use of SERS to study higher order DNA structures. This work shows that the ligands used can act simultaneously as a potential therapeutic stabilising agent and a SERS reporter, therefore allowing the use of SERS as a method of analysis of the formation of G-quadruplex DNAs. PMID:24821331

Gracie, K; Dhamodharan, V; Pradeepkumar, P I; Faulds, K; Graham, D

2014-09-21

154

Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

2014-05-01

155

Using qualitative comparative analysis to understand and quantify translation and implementation.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors that facilitate implementation of behavioral medicine programs into practice can advance translational science. Often, translation or implementation studies use case study methods with small sample sizes. Methodological approaches that systematize findings from these types of studies are needed to improve rigor and advance the field. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a method and analytical approach that can advance implementation science. QCA offers an approach for rigorously conducting translational and implementation research limited by a small number of cases. We describe the methodological and analytic approach for using QCA and provide examples of its use in the health and health services literature. QCA brings together qualitative or quantitative data derived from cases to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for an outcome. QCA offers advantages for researchers interested in analyzing complex programs and for practitioners interested in developing programs that achieve successful health outcomes. PMID:24904704

Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan A; Williams, Pamela A; Kahwati, Leila C

2014-06-01

156

The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

Anyan, Frederick

2013-01-01

157

Shame and self-acceptance in continued flux: qualitative study of the embodied experience of significant weight loss and removal of resultant excess skin by plastic surgery.  

PubMed

This study explored the embodied experience of body change using a qualitative design. Eight previous plastic surgery patients of a London hospital took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews 1 year post a plastic surgery procedure to remove excess skin around their abdomen, resulting from weight loss. Participant interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two sub-themes titled 'Shame of the hidden body' and 'Lack of acceptance; the future focused body' are presented in this article. Findings are considered in relation to theories of 'Body Shame' and in the current cultural context. PMID:23104996

Smith, Fran; Farrants, Jacqui R

2013-09-01

158

A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

2014-01-01

159

High-resolution mass spectrometry for integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals in biological matrices.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative high-resolution (HR) dependent and independent acquisition schemes on a QqTOF MS (with resolving power 20,000-40,000) were investigated for the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in biological fluids. High-resolution selected reaction monitoring (HR-SRM) was found to be linear over three orders of magnitude for quantitative analysis of paracetamol in human plasma, offering a real alternative to triple quadrupole LC-SRM/MS. Metabolic stability of talinolol in microsomes was characterized by use of three different acquisition schemes: (i) information-dependent acquisition (IDA) with a TOF MS experiment as survey scan and product-ion scan as dependent scan; (ii) MS(ALL) by collecting TOF mass spectra with and without fragmentation by alternating the collision energy of the collision cell between a low (i.e., 10 eV) and high setting (i.e., 40 eV); and (iii) a novel independent acquisition mode referred to as "sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra" (SWATH) or "global precursor ions scan mode" (GPS) in which sequential precursor ions windows (typically 20 u) are used to collect the same spectrum precursor and fragment ions using a collision energy range. SWATH or GPS was found to be superior to IDA or MS(ALL) in combination with UHPLC for qualitative analysis but requires a rapidly acquiring mass spectrometer. Finally, the GPS concept was used for QUAL/QUAN analysis (i.e. integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis) of bosentan and its metabolites in urine over a concentration range from 5 to 2,500 ng mL(-1). PMID:22203371

Hopfgartner, Gérard; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel

2012-03-01

160

Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention.

Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

2014-01-01

161

Resultants in Genetic Linkage Analysis  

E-print Network

Statistical models for genetic linkage analysis of k-locus diseases are k-dimensional subvarieties of a (3^k-1)-dimensional probability simplex. We determine the algebraic invariants of these models with general characteristics for k=1, in particular we recover, and generalize, the Hardy-Weinberg curve. For k = 2, the invariants are presented as determinants of 32x32-matrices of linear forms in 9 unknowns, a suitable format for computations with numerical data.

Hallgrimsdottir, Ingileif B

2011-01-01

162

Understanding Barrett's columnar lined oesophagus from the patients' perspective: qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo explore patients' views and perspectives on their experience of living with Barrett's columnar lined oesophagus (CLO) and being part of an endoscopic surveillance programme.DesignQualitative semistructured interviews.SettingDistrict General Hospital.Subjects22 men with diagnosis of Barrett's CLO between the ages of 50 and 70 years.ResultsAll subjects had received some information about Barrett's CLO and had a heightened awareness of the cancer risk.

Helen Griffiths; Ruth Davies

2011-01-01

163

WETLAND USES AND FUNCTIONS AS PERCEIVED BY MID-MICHIGAN RESIDENTS: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following report outlines the results of focus group discussions that were conducted to help researchers learn what it is about wetlands, wetland services, and wetland characteristics that matter to people. The participants were asked questions in the areas of natural resources, their prior knowledge of wetlands, wetland types, public policies relating to wetlands, and wetland functions. The focus group

John P. Hoehn; Michael D. Kaplowitz; Frank Lupi; Gwyn Heyboer

2001-01-01

164

Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods. Results of a qualitative study in four countries.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to gain insight into consumers> attitudes towards genetic modification in food production. With means-end chain theory as the theoretical basis, laddering interviews were conducted with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Perceived risks and benefits of genetic modification in foods were investigated using beer and yoghurt as examples. German and Danish responses revealed more complex cognitive structures than did the results from the United Kingdom and Italy. In all four countries, however, applying genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting products, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well, as were a number of other consequences that were perceived to conflict with both individual and social values. PMID:10625527

Bredahl, L

1999-12-01

165

APREF Project: Results and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asia-Pacific Reference Frame (APREF) Project is a regional initiative that seeks to improve the geodetic infrastructure of the Asia-Pacific region. As a joint effort of the Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), APREF is developing a start-of-the-art regional geodetic reference frame. In the Asia-Pacific region there are a substantial number of state-of-the-art GNSS networks, which are commonly operated by national mapping agencies or private sector organisations. These networks represent an important and significant investment by the respective governments and industry in their own spatial infrastructure. In the APREF initiative these networks are combined to realize a high-standard regional reference frame. The GNSS data of the network is processed by different Analysis Centres (ACs). The contributions of the different ACs are combined into a weekly solution by the APREF Central Bureau. This weekly solution is the core product of the APREF; it contains weekly estimates of the coordinates of the participating Asia-Pacific GNSS tracking stations and their covariance information. The APREF product, which is available since the first quarter of 2010, gives a reliable time-series of a regional reference frame in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and a quality assessment of the performance of the GNSS CORS stations included in the network. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the APREF network and an analysis of the first APREF products

Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J.; Hu, G.

2010-12-01

166

Internet suicide in Japan: a qualitative content analysis of a suicide bulletin board.  

PubMed

Netto shinju, or Internet group suicide, is a contemporary form of Japanese suicide where strangers connect on the Internet and make plans to commit suicide together. In the past decade, numerous incidents have occurred whereby young Japanese make contact on the Internet, exchange tips on suicide methods, and make plans to meet offline for group/individual suicide. A systematic qualitative content/thematic analysis of online communications posted on a popular Japanese suicide bulletin board yielded a textured, thematic understanding of this phenomenon. Themes identified reflected Shneidman's theory of suicide but with an emphasis on interpersonal concerns that are embedded in Japanese culture. PMID:23666942

Ikunaga, Ai; Nath, Sanjay R; Skinner, Kenneth A

2013-04-01

167

Students' experiences and perceived benefits of a sex education curriculum: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

A qualitative evaluation explored the experiences and perceived benefits of students who participated in an abstinence-plus sex education program at enrollment and conclusion. The sample included 1130 inner-city high school students, 73.7% of whom were Hispanic. Thematic analysis was used to identify main themes in responses made by students to 3 open-ended questions. The most common preparticipation request was for information about sexually transmitted infections. At program conclusion, the most common response theme involved the quality of course delivery. Students indicated that they appreciated the facilitators who allowed open conversations. The implications of these findings to sex education programs are discussed. PMID:21707329

Smith, Peggy B; Realini, Janet P; Buzi, Ruth S; Martinez, Mario

2011-01-01

168

Towards successful coordination of electronic health record based-referrals: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals remain prone to coordination breakdowns. Clear referral policies, well-defined roles and responsibilities for key personnel, standardized procedures and communication protocols, and adequate human resources must be in place before implementing an EHR to facilitate referrals. PMID:21794109

2011-01-01

169

What Leads Indians to Participate in Clinical Trials? A Meta-Analysis of Qualitative Studies  

PubMed Central

Background With the globalization of clinical trials, large developing nations have substantially increased their participation in multi-site studies. This participation has raised ethical concerns, among them the fear that local customs, habits and culture are not respected while asking potential participants to take part in study. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable among Indian subjects, since despite the large number of participants, little is known regarding what factors affect their willingness to participate in clinical trials. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies evaluating the factors and barriers, from the perspective of potential Indian participants, contributing to their participation in clinical trials. We searched both international as well as Indian-specific bibliographic databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane, Openjgate, MedInd, Scirus and Medknow, also performing hand searches and communicating with authors to obtain additional references. We enrolled studies dealing exclusively with the participation of Indians in clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted by three researchers, with disagreement being resolved by consensus. Results Six qualitative studies and one survey were found evaluating the main themes affecting the participation of Indian subjects. Themes included Personal health benefits, Altruism, Trust in physicians, Source of extra income, Detailed knowledge, Methods for motivating participants as factors favoring, while Mistrust on trial organizations, Concerns about efficacy and safety of trials, Psychological reasons, Trial burden, Loss of confidentiality, Dependency issues, Language as the barriers. Conclusion We identified factors that facilitated and barriers that have negative implications on trial participation decisions in Indian subjects. Due consideration and weightage should be assigned to these factors while planning future trials in India. PMID:20505754

Shah, Jatin Y.; Phadtare, Amruta; Rajgor, Dimple; Vaghasia, Meenakshi; Pradhan, Shreyasee; Zelko, Hilary; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

170

A qualitative analysis of health professionals' job descriptions for surgical service delivery in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The ever increasing demand for surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa is creating a need to increase the number of health workers able to provide surgical care. This calls for the optimisation of all available human resources to provide universal access to essential and emergency surgical services. One way of optimising already scarce human resources for health is by clarifying job descriptions to guide the scope of practice, measuring rewards/benefits for the health workers providing surgical care, and informing education and training for health professionals. This study set out to determine the scope of the mandate to perform surgical procedures in current job descriptions of surgical care health professionals in Uganda. Methods A document review was conducted of job descriptions for the health professionals responsible for surgical service delivery in the Ugandan Health care system. The job descriptions were extracted and subjected to a qualitative content data analysis approach using a text based RQDA package of the open source R statistical computing software. Results It was observed that there was no explicit mention of assignment of delivery of surgical services to a particular cadre. Instead the bulk of direct patient related care, including surgical attention, was assigned to the lower cadres, in particular the medical officer. Senior cadres were assigned to perform predominantly advisory and managerial roles in the health care system. In addition, a no cost opportunity to task shift surgical service delivery to the senior clinical officers was identified. Conclusions There is a need to specifically assign the mandate to provide surgical care tasks, according to degree of complexity, to adequately trained cadres of health workers. Health professionals’ current job descriptions are not explicit, and therefore do not adequately support proper training, deployment, defined scope of practice, and remuneration for equitable surgical service delivery in Uganda. Such deliberate assignment of mandates will provide a means of increasing surgical service delivery through further optimisation of the available human resources for health.

2014-01-01

171

Community nurse assessment of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors--a qualitative analysis within the CroHort study.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to identify major determinants of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors among subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The data for the qualitative analysis were obtained from the Croatian Adult Health Cohort Study (CroHort). The data analysis was based on the principles of Grounded Theory. We have generated the concept of an individual in a vicious circle of risky health behaviour, defined by the low level of motivation and unfavourable personal characteristics which in interaction with unsupportive social environment adversely influence one's health behaviour, leading to negative health outcomes that produce negative effects on one's motivation and social environment. Community nurses assessed that the respondents often weren't adequately recognising their CVD risk and were very reluctant about the change in their risky habits. Our results are supported by the quantitative analysis and are complementing other analyses of the cardiovascular risks within the CroHort study. PMID:22338744

Andri?, Adriana; Vuleti?, Silvije

2012-01-01

172

Cigars, whiskey, and winning: a qualitative analysis of Kaltman’s analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant’s leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of successful leadership was developed using a qualitative research method in a reanalysis of Kaltman’s analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant’s leadership. The model rests on a person by situation interactional perspective but has a person-oriented focus. It suggests that leader actions are affected by task-related competence, management competence, and social competence. These competencies, in turn, are affected

Gerry Larsson

2002-01-01

173

Importance of relationship context in HIV transmission: results from a qualitative case-control study in Rakai, Uganda.  

PubMed

We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health. PMID:24524490

Higgins, Jenny A; Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelley, Laura; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

2014-04-01

174

WHAT'S THE STORY? FRAMING OF HEALTH ISSUES BY THE U.S. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION AND MAJOR NEWSPAPERS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative analysis of the framing of health issues by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one of the world's premier health organizations, and by major U.S. newspapers analyzes the frames present in a sample of the CDC's press releases, and the frames present in the contemporaneous (and often resulting) press coverage. This study focuses on communication surrounding public

Kathryn O'Neill Karnes

175

Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

Franck, Bruno M.

1990-01-01

176

Still too little qualitative research to shed light on results from reviews of effectiveness trials: A case study of a Cochrane review on the use of lay health workers  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is used increasingly alongside trials of complex interventions to explore processes, contextual factors, or intervention characteristics that may have influenced trial outcomes. Qualitative research conducted alongside trials can also be used to shed light on the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness by looking for factors that can help explain heterogeneous results across trials. In a Cochrane review on the effects of using lay health workers on maternal and child health and infectious disease control, we identified 82 trials. These trials showed promising benefits but results were heterogeneous. Objective To use qualitative studies conducted alongside these trials to explore factors and processes that might have influenced intervention outcomes. Methods We attempted to identify qualitative research carried out alongside the trials by contacting trial authors, checking papers for references to qualitative research, searching Pubmed for related studies, and carrying out citation searches. For those qualitative studies that we included, we extracted information regarding study objective, data collection and analysis methods, and key themes and categories. Results For 52 (63%) of the trials, we found no qualitative research that had been conducted alongside the trials. For 16 (20%) trials, some form of qualitative data collection had been done but was unavailable or had been done before the trial. For 14 (17%) trials, qualitative research had been done during or shortly after the trial, although descriptions of qualitative methods and results were often sparse. Most of these 14 studies aimed to elicit trial participants' perspectives and experiences of the intervention. A common theme was participants' appreciation of the lay health workers' shared circumstances, for instance with regard to social background or experience of the health condition. In six studies, researchers explored the experiences of the lay health workers themselves. Issues included the importance of regular supervision and health professionals' support or lack of support. Conclusions Qualitative studies carried out alongside trials of complex interventions could offer opportunities to authors of systematic reviews of effectiveness wishing to understand the heterogeneity of trial results. For interventions of lay health worker programmes at least, too few such studies exist at present for these opportunities to be realised. PMID:21619645

2011-01-01

177

A qualitative analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing a cognitive-behavioral treatment with education  

PubMed Central

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a widely accepted psychosocial treatment for chronic pain. However, the efficacy of CBT has not been investigated within a rural setting. Furthermore, few studies have utilized first-person accounts to qualitatively investigate the key treatment elements and processes of change underlying the well-documented quantitative improvements associated with CBT. To address these gaps, we conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the efficacy of group CBT compared to an active education condition (EDU) within a rural, low-literacy population. Post-treatment semi-structured interviews of 28 CBT and 24 EDU treatment completers were qualitatively analyzed. Emerging themes were collated to depict a set of finalized thematic maps to visually represent the patterns inherent in the data. Patterns were separated into procedural elements and presumed change processes of treatment. Key themes, subthemes, and example extracts for CBT and EDU are presented; unique and shared aspects pertaining to the thematic maps are discussed. Results indicate that while both groups benefited from the program, the CBT group described more breadth and depth of change as compared to the EDU group. Importantly, this study identified key treatment elements and explored possible processes of change from the patients’ perspective. Perspective This qualitative article describes patient-identified key procedural elements and change process factors associated with psychosocial approaches for chronic pain management. Results may guide further adaptations to existing treatment protocols for use within unique, underserved chronic pain populations. Continued development of patient-centered approaches may help reduce health, treatment and ethnicity disparities. PMID:21839689

Day, Melissa A.; Thorn, Beverly E.; Kapoor, Shweta

2011-01-01

178

'Well London' and the benefits of participation: results of a qualitative study nested in a cluster randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Well London is a multicomponent community engagement and coproduction programme designed to improve the health of Londoners living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. To evaluate outcomes of the Well London interventions, a cluster randomised trial (CRT) was conducted that included a longitudinal qualitative component, which is reported here. The aim is to explore in depth the nature of the benefits to residents and the processes by which these were achieved. Methods The 1-year longitudinal qualitative study was nested within the CRT. Purposive sampling was used to select three intervention neighbourhoods in London and 61 individuals within these neighbourhoods. The interventions comprised activities focused on: healthy eating, physical exercise and mental health and well-being. Interviews were conducted at the inception and following completion of the Well London interventions to establish both if and how they had participated. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analysed using Nvivo. Results Positive benefits relating to the formal outcomes of the CRT were reported, but only among those who participated in project activities. The extent of benefits experienced was influenced by factors relating to the physical and social characteristics of each neighbourhood. The highest levels of change occurred in the presence of: (1) social cohesion, not only pre-existing but also as facilitated by Well London activities; (2) personal and collective agency; (3) involvement and support of external organisations. Where the physical and social environment remained unchanged, there was less participation and fewer benefits. Conclusions These findings show interaction between participation, well-being and agency, social interactions and cohesion and that this modulated any benefits described. Pathways to change were thus complex and variable, but personal well-being and local social cohesion emerged as important mediators of change. PMID:24694622

Derges, Jane; Clow, Angela; Lynch, Rebecca; Jain, Sumeet; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Renton, Adrian; Draper, Alizon

2014-01-01

179

Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack of practical tools to encourage behavioural change was a key barrier for obese parents. Conclusions Well-funded, targeted social marketing campaigns will play an important role in the prevention and management of obesity. It is important that these campaigns are comprehensively evaluated and are backed up with structural supports to enable and encourage population subgroups to act upon messages. PMID:24517101

2014-01-01

180

A Qualitative Analysis of Life Course Adjustment to Multiple Morbidity and Disability  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of limitations over the life course requires that women re-adapt to environmental barriers that they encounter over time. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to detail the life experiences associated with living with mobility, cognitive, and sensory loss experienced by a woman and her sister who participated in an on-going ethnographic study of mobility impairment in women. In-depth interviews were subjected to thematic, life course analysis. A family case study was interpreted as an exemplar for aging with early onset disability into multiple morbidity, which was described as a series of loss, recovery and re-engagement. Within the case study, the participant suggested that because her functional limitations were not accommodated earlier in life due to societal and family level disadvantage, functional limitations were more difficult to adjust to in later years. PMID:23437442

Harrison, Tracie; Taylor, Jessica; Fredland, Nina; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Choban, Robin

2012-01-01

181

Sense of presence experiences and meaning-making in bereavement: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

This qualitative study aimed to explore the potential role that might be played by the reported experience of "sensing the presence of the deceased" in meaning-making processes in bereavement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 participants who reported having had such an experience and the transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Seven overarching themes were identified, 3 of which were considered central: finding benefit in the continuation of the deceased, finding benefit in the continued relationship, and finding meaning through existential, spiritual, and religious sense-making. While participants found many benefits in what they experienced, finding meaning beyond immediate coping seemed to require the availability of spiritual/religious frameworks that could be adopted or, if available but discrepant, could meaningfully accommodate the experience. PMID:24501839

Steffen, Edith; Coyle, Adrian

2011-08-01

182

Post16 physics and chemistry uptake: combining large-scale secondary analysis with in-depth qualitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served three distinct purposes in the design of this

Gillian Hampden-Thompson; Fred Lubben; Judith Bennett

2011-01-01

183

Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

2011-01-01

184

Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

Malin, Jane T. (inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (inventor); Harris, Richard A. (inventor)

1990-01-01

185

Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study  

SciTech Connect

Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

2012-05-01

186

"Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding "caregiver burden" in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

Gater, Adam; Rofail, Diana; Tolley, Chloe; Marshall, Chris; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H; Berardo, Carmen Galani

2014-01-01

187

Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.  

PubMed

Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. PMID:24117678

Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

2014-01-01

188

Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies used to manage diabetic foot in Jordan.  

PubMed

In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 patients with diabetes who have used complementary therapies to treat diabetic foot problems. These 68 persons represented a subgroup of the study population surveyed using a questionnaire, to the effect of investigating diabetic foot treatments provided in Jordan. Informants were recruited from eight healthcare facilities established in the southern part of Jordan plus from one hospital established in the Jordanian capital. The study was approved by the Boards of Ethics of the participating healthcare facilities. Content analysis yielded the category "Complementary Therapies Used", which included a range of household items (olive oil, sesame oil, honey, and vinegar), and also some indigenous Jordanian herbs (Wormwood, Myrrh, Caper, and Henna among others). The remedies were used either as a monotherapy or as mixtures, to the common goal of treating diabetic foot problems. Other interventions like Al-cowy were also sought from traditional healers. Educational campaigns are required to increase the awareness of patients and their families on possible hazards of unwise complementary therapy use. The decisions on the use of such therapies should be made in agreement with the attending healthcare professionals. PMID:23983379

Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid; Wilson, Anne

2012-01-01

189

What makes the everyday life of Swedish adolescent girls less stressful: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Stress is a widespread phenomenon in society today, not least among children and adolescents. Stress-related ill-health has increased in this population and affects girls to a greater extent than boys. Against this background, it is important to acquire knowledge about measures that prevent stress, especially in girls. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate adolescent girls' experiences and reflections about what makes everyday life less stressful. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen 17-year-old girls. The analysis comprised both manifest and latent content and revealed the girls' own experiences of and reflections about what makes everyday life less stressful. Three categories, 'Enjoyment and Recovery', 'Trust' and 'Insight and Influence', and nine subcategories emerged. The latent content of these categories is described by the theme 'access to sources of strength'. It is essential that persons in the girls' surroundings are aware of all sources that provide the strength to resist and prevent stress in everyday life. A climate has to be created in all arenas of the girls' everyday life in which they can access these sources of strength. Utilizing the girls' experiences and views about what needs to be done is the first step towards a preventive and promotive mode of working on their own circumstances and wishes. This approach is consistent with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which emphasizes the importance of involving the target group. PMID:20233834

Haraldsson, Katarina; Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Hildingh, Cathrine; Marklund, Bertil

2010-06-01

190

Qualitative Analysis of Fourteen White Solids and Two Mixtures Using Household Chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a revised and expanded version of a previously published qualitative analysis scheme for the identification of 11 white solids using materials readily available in drugstores, supermarkets, or variety stores. Phenolphthalein has been eliminated because the FDA banned its use in over-the-counter laxatives; instead, tests for pH are conducted using red cabbage indicator. Once commonly used by diabetics to test urine, copper reduction tablets are no longer widely available and are replaced by a mixture of ingredients. Three white solids and two types of mixtures, commercial antacid tablets and baking powder, have been added to the scheme. All procedures can be done with the simplest of equipment. Amounts of solids are measured volumetrically and heat is supplied by contact with hot tap water. The use of household chemicals reduces waste disposal problems while making the experiment suitable for a laboratory exercise in a distance-learning course. This experiment can be adapted for many levels of instruction. In middle school only the safer tests should be included; honors general chemistry students can be asked to design an analysis scheme for the 14 household chemicals.

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, Deedee; Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Ciraolo, Justine; Daly, Shawn; Jackson, Leia

2001-11-01

191

The Significance of Member Validation in Qualitative Analysis: Experiences from a Longitudinal Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concept of member validation and its potential role in the process of constructing case descriptions and interpretations in qualitative research. Although generally approved as a required step in qualitative inquiry, the format, conduct, and purpose of this vary significantly according to different research perspectives. The paper discusses methodological and validity aspects of member validation, and illustrates

Bendik Bygstad; Bjørn Erik Munkvold

2007-01-01

192

Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation in Counseling Psychology: Strategies for Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of various strategies and methods of engaging in qualitative data interpretations and analyses in counseling psychology. The authors explore the themes of self, culture, collaboration, circularity, trustworthiness, and evidence deconstruction from multiple qualitative methodologies. Commonalities and differences…

Yeh, Christine J.; Inman, Arpana G.

2007-01-01

193

Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

2005-01-01

194

Qualitative Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative simulation is a key inference process in qualitative causal reasoning. However, the precise meaning of the different proposals and their relation with differential equations is often unclear. In this paper, we present a precise definition of qualitative structure and behavior descriptions as abstractions of differential equations and continuously differentiable functions. We present a new algorithm for qualitative simulation that

Benjamin Kuipers

1986-01-01

195

Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty’s eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Results Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the “Attitudes and Traits” or “Beliefs and Values” dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). Conclusion We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan. PMID:24726054

2014-01-01

196

Qualitative analysis of Zircaloy-4 cladding air degradation in O2-N2 mixtures at high temperature  

E-print Network

the corrosion rate rises substantially and leads to a rapid degradation of the metal at high oxygen and nitrogen corrosion; oxygen-nitrogen mixture atmospheres Abstract This article is devoted to the qualitative analysis, nitrogen has an accelerating effect in the corrosion reaction. The kinetic curves reveal two distinct

Boyer, Edmond

197

Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

2014-01-01

198

Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

2011-01-01

199

A Comparative-Qualitative Research Analysis of Character Education in the Christian School and Home Education Milieu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study provides a phenomenological perspective and comparative analysis of character education within the Christian school and home education milieu. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of fifty-two individuals (N = 52) representative of a sampling of Christian educators from four private, evangelical Christian Schools…

Wilhelm, Gretchen Marie

2005-01-01

200

Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H[subscript 2]S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures is an essential experiment carried out in high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels all over the world especially in India and South Asia. The classical technique uses H[subscript 2]S, which is highly toxic and has adverse effects on humans and the environment. Increasing awareness…

Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita

2008-01-01

201

Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity…

Baudoin, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

202

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis oils have attracted a lot of interest, as they are liquid energy carriers and general sources of chemicals. In this work, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC–TOFMS) techniques were used to provide both qualitative and quantitative results of the analysis of three different pyrolysis oils. The chromatographic methods and

Themistoklis Sfetsas; Chrysa Michailof; Angelos Lappas; Qiangyi Li; Brian Kneale

2011-01-01

203

Multiphase modeling and qualitative analysis of the growth of tumor cords  

E-print Network

In this paper a macroscopic model of tumor cord growth is developed, relying on the mathematical theory of deformable porous media. Tumor is modeled as a saturated mixture of proliferating cells, extracellular fluid and extracellular matrix, that occupies a spatial region close to a blood vessel whence cells get the nutrient needed for their vital functions. Growth of tumor cells takes place within a healthy host tissue, which is in turn modeled as a saturated mixture of non-proliferating cells. Interactions between these two regions are accounted for as an essential mechanism for the growth of the tumor mass. By weakening the role of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as a rigid non-remodeling scaffold, a system of two partial differential equations is derived, describing the evolution of the cell volume ratio coupled to the dynamics of the nutrient, whose higher and lower concentration levels determine proliferation or death of tumor cells, respectively. Numerical simulations of a reference two-dimensional problem are shown and commented, and a qualitative mathematical analysis of some of its key issues is proposed.

Andrea Tosin

2009-06-27

204

Patient reported determinants of health: a qualitative analysis of veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Although COPD is a common disorder of veterans who receive care from the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA), the perceptions of veterans with COPD about their disease, its effects on their lives, and their interactions with the VHA have not been determined. Utilizing qualitative methodology, we conducted focus groups of veterans with COPD at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. Participants were selected by systematic sampling from the top quintile of veterans stratified by the cost of healthcare utilization related to a primary diagnosis of COPD and grouped by age and use of supplemental oxygen. All 42 participants were male and had a mean age of 65 years. Analysis of the focus group transcripts demonstrated five major themes: 1) Physical and Functional Limitations: work and employment constraints, recreation restrictions, limits on activities of daily living, reduced sexuality, concerns about housing and finances, and physical symptoms; 2) Restricted Social Interactions/Altered Social Networks: altered relationships with friends and family and reliance upon family and care givers; 3) Emotional Effects: reduced self-worth, vulnerability, depression, perseverance and adaptation, hopelessness, fear, pride, and lack of control; 4) Limitations in the Understanding of COPD: unawareness of diagnosis, triggers and reaction to disease manifestations, COPD management; and 5) Complex Healthcare Interactions. COPD pervasively and extensively affects all aspects of veterans' lives and causes significant consequences for their care and management. PMID:23537003

Panos, Ralph J; Krywkowski-Mohn, Sara M; Sherman, Susan N; Lach, Laura A

2013-06-01

205

Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

SciTech Connect

Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B. [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Manurung, M. [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia)] [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, K. H. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)] [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)

2013-09-03

206

Qualitative Analysis of Collaborative Learning Groups in Large Enrollment Introductory Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-lecture introductory astronomy courses for undergraduate, non-science majors present numerous problems for faculty. As part of a systematic effort to improve the course learning environment, a series of small-group, collaborative learning activities were implemented in an otherwise conventional lecture astronomy survey course. These activities were used once each week during the regularly scheduled lecture period. After eight weeks, ten focus group interviews were conducted to qualitatively assess the impact and dynamics of these small group learning activities. Overall, the data strongly suggest that students enjoy participating in the in-class learning activities in learning teams of three to four students. These students firmly believe that they are learning more than they would from lectures alone. Inductive analysis of the transcripts revealed five major themes prevalent among the students' perspectives: (1) self-formed, cooperative group composition and formation should be more regulated by the instructor; (2) team members' assigned rolls should be less formally structured by the instructors; (3) cooperative groups helped in learning the course content; (4) time constraints on lectures and activities need to be more carefully aligned; and (5) gender issues can exist within the groups. These themes serve as a guide for instructors who are developing instructional interventions for large lecture courses.

Skala, Chija; Slater, Timothy F.; Adams, Jeffrey P.

2000-08-01

207

The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010  

PubMed Central

The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

2014-01-01

208

Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.  

PubMed

The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored. PMID:23751254

Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

2013-10-01

209

A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID:20056568

Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

2010-01-01

210

Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.  

PubMed

There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

2012-10-01

211

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

212

Qualitative analysis of the elliptical centric technique and the TRICKS technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the usefulness of time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and elliptical centric MRA according to the type of cerebral disease. From February 2010 to January 2012, elliptical centric MRA and TRICKS MRA images were acquired from 50 normal individuals and 50 patients with cerebral diseases by using 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The images were analyzed qualitatively by examining areas such as the presence or absence of artifacts on the images, the distinctness of boundaries of blood vessels, accurate representation of the lesions, and the subtraction level. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction rate, negative prediction rate and accuracy were assessed by comparing the diagnostic efficacy of the two techniques. The results revealed TRICKS MRA to have superior image quality to elliptical centric MRA. Regarding each disease, TRICKS MRA showed higher diagnostic efficacy for artery venous malformation (AVM) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass patients whereas elliptical centric MRA was more suitable for patients with brain tumors, cerebral infarction, cerebral stenosis or sinus mass.

Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

2013-02-01

213

Model-Based Analysis for Qualitative Data: An Application in Drosophila Germline Stem Cell Regulation  

PubMed Central

Discovery in developmental biology is often driven by intuition that relies on the integration of multiple types of data such as fluorescent images, phenotypes, and the outcomes of biochemical assays. Mathematical modeling helps elucidate the biological mechanisms at play as the networks become increasingly large and complex. However, the available data is frequently under-utilized due to incompatibility with quantitative model tuning techniques. This is the case for stem cell regulation mechanisms explored in the Drosophila germarium through fluorescent immunohistochemistry. To enable better integration of biological data with modeling in this and similar situations, we have developed a general parameter estimation process to quantitatively optimize models with qualitative data. The process employs a modified version of the Optimal Scaling method from social and behavioral sciences, and multi-objective optimization to evaluate the trade-off between fitting different datasets (e.g. wild type vs. mutant). Using only published imaging data in the germarium, we first evaluated support for a published intracellular regulatory network by considering alternative connections of the same regulatory players. Simply screening networks against wild type data identified hundreds of feasible alternatives. Of these, five parsimonious variants were found and compared by multi-objective analysis including mutant data and dynamic constraints. With these data, the current model is supported over the alternatives, but support for a biochemically observed feedback element is weak (i.e. these data do not measure the feedback effect well). When also comparing new hypothetical models, the available data do not discriminate. To begin addressing the limitations in data, we performed a model-based experiment design and provide recommendations for experiments to refine model parameters and discriminate increasingly complex hypotheses. PMID:24626201

Pargett, Michael; Rundell, Ann E.; Buzzard, Gregery T.; Umulis, David M.

2014-01-01

214

Self-performed supragingival biofilm control: qualitative analysis, scientific basis and oral-health implications.  

PubMed

Patients frequently fail to achieve an optimal mechanical plaque control. However, many patients are not confident about using mouthrinses, and many professionals refuse to prescribe them for regular daily use. Aiming at achieving a better understanding of the use and prescription of mouthrinses in periodontics, 24 dentists with different dental educational levels were purposively chosen and interviewed in a qualitative research. Partial data was presented at the 15th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (ABOPREV), and full data was presented at the 88th General Session and Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR). The professionals' answers were confirmed or rejected through scientific data analysis. Additionally, scientifically supported answers were provided for the interviewees' most frequent unanswered questions. Around half of the participants (46%) reported that they recommended the use of mouthrinses, although a high percentage (64%) of the dentists answered that they knew very little about the efficacy of mouthrinses and also about the oral benefits (54%) provided by them. All interviewees reported that they were aware of the fact that their patients, and themselves, failed to floss and, less frequently, to brush their teeth, and all of them believed that oral health impacts overall systemic health. Seventy five percent answered that using mouthrinses was safe. Most participants (55%) did not declare themselves as mouthrinse users. We concluded that dentists with different levels of dental education have only partial knowledge related to mouthrinse use in periodontics. The use of effective mouthrinses on a daily basis is justified and can help patients achieve or maintain a healthier mouth. A healthier mouth will positively impact patients' quality of life and could also benefit their overall systemic health. PMID:20857075

Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cortelli, José Roberto; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

2010-01-01

215

Current (re-)Distribution inside an ITER Full-Size Conductor: a Qualitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comprehension of the current re-distribution phenomenon inside multi-filamentary conductors is a crucial point for the design of ITER-relevant coils, as it is by now assessed that current non-uniformity among cable sub-stages may strongly deteriorate Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICC) performances. The only feasible way to get information about the current flowing inside CICC sub-stages is an indirect evaluation by self-field measurements in regions very close to conductor surface. A 7m full-size NbTi conductor (Bus-Bar III) has been used as short-circuit during the test of an ITER Toroidal Field Coil HTS current lead at FzK. Its relatively simple shape and the absence of any other magnetic field source (background coils, etc.), made BBIII one of the most desirable candidate for a reliable measurement of the current distribution under controlled conditions. This is why it has been ad hoc instrumented with different arrangements of Hall-probes (rings and arrays), as well as with transverse and longitudinal voltage taps. This paper gives a qualitative interpretation of the current (re-)distribution events inside the conductor as derived from the analysis of the Hall sensors and the voltage taps signals, during Tcs measurements and as a function of different dI/dt. It has been shown that Hall probes represent a very reliable tool to investigate this issue. In fact, re-distribution phenomena have been clearly observed during transition, and even far before reaching Tcs, when voltage transverse signals had not yet showed any appreciable onset.

di Zenobio, A.; Muzzi, L.; Turtù, S.; Della Corte, A.; Verdini, L.

2006-06-01

216

Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

2013-06-01

217

Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, Craig M.

2013-07-31

218

Life impact of ankle fractures: Qualitative analysis of patient and clinician experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle fractures are one of the more commonly occurring forms of trauma managed by orthopaedic teams worldwide. The impacts of these injuries are not restricted to pain and disability caused at the time of the incident, but may also result in long term physical, psychological, and social consequences. There are currently no ankle fracture specific patient-reported outcome measures with a robust content foundation. This investigation aimed to develop a thematic conceptual framework of life impacts following ankle fracture from the experiences of people who have suffered ankle fractures as well as the health professionals who treat them. Methods A qualitative investigation was undertaken using in-depth semi-structured interviews with people (n=12) who had previously sustained an ankle fracture (patients) and health professionals (n=6) that treat people with ankle fractures. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Each phrase was individually coded and grouped in categories and aligned under emerging themes by two independent researchers. Results Saturation occurred after 10 in-depth patient interviews. Time since injury for patients ranged from 6 weeks to more than 2 years. Experience of health professionals ranged from 1 year to 16 years working with people with ankle fractures. Health professionals included an Orthopaedic surgeon (1), physiotherapists (3), a podiatrist (1) and an occupational therapist (1). The emerging framework derived from patient data included eight themes (Physical, Psychological, Daily Living, Social, Occupational and Domestic, Financial, Aesthetic and Medication Taking). Health professional responses did not reveal any additional themes, but tended to focus on physical and occupational themes. Conclusions The nature of life impact following ankle fractures can extend beyond short term pain and discomfort into many areas of life. The findings from this research have provided an empirically derived framework from which a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure can be developed. PMID:23171034

2012-01-01

219

The silicon-glass microreactor with embedded sensors—technology and results of preliminary qualitative tests, toward intelligent microreaction plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology and preliminary qualitative tests of silicon-glass microreactors with embedded pressure and temperature sensors are presented. The concept of microreactors for leading highly exothermic reactions, e.g. nitration of hydrocarbons, and design process-included computer-aided simulations are described in detail. The silicon-glass microreactor chip consisting of two micromixers (multistream micromixer), reaction channels, cooling/heating chambers has been proposed. The microreactor chip was equipped with a set of pressure and temperature sensors and packaged. Tests of mixing quality, pressure drops in channels, heat exchange efficiency and dynamic behavior of pressure and temperature sensors were documented. Finally, two applications were described.

Knapkiewicz, P.

2013-03-01

220

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

221

Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

2013-01-01

222

Tobacco Use and Its Treatment Among Young People in Mental Health Settings: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Youth with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of tobacco use. Outpatient mental health settings have received little investigation for delivering tobacco treatment. This study obtained formative data to guide development of a tobacco cessation program for transitional age youth with co-occurring psychiatric disorders with a focus on outpatient mental health settings. Methods: Applying qualitative methods, we analyzed transcripts from interviews with 14 mental health clients (aged 16–23) and 8 mental health providers. Results: The youth identified internal (nicotine addiction and mood), social, parental, and media influences to their use of tobacco. Providers’ viewed youth tobacco use as a normative developmental process, closely tied to management of psychiatric symptoms, supported by parents, and of lower priority relative to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Youth and providers believed that clinicians can do more to address tobacco use in practice and emphasized nonjudgmental support and nondirective approaches. Top recommended quitting strategies, however, differed notably for the youth (cold turkey, support from friends, physical activity, hobbies) and providers (cessation pharmacotherapy, cessation groups, treatment referrals). Conclusions: Mental health providers’ greater prioritization of other substances and view of youth smoking as developmentally normative and a coping strategy for psychopathology are likely contributing to the general lack of attention to tobacco use currently. Integrating care within mental health settings would serve to reach youth in an arena where clinical rapport is already established, and study findings suggest receptivity for system improvements. Of consideration, however, is the apparent disconnect between provider and youth recommended strategies for supporting cessation. PMID:23322765

2013-01-01

223

Qualitative analysis of couples' experience with prostate cancer by age cohort.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in men in all adult life stages. Normative developmental tasks of aging combined with disease-related stressors may negatively affect adjustment to prostate cancer and, consequently, affect the quality of life of both the man and his spouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of men with prostate cancer and their partners according to their life cycle cohort: 50-64 (late middle age), 65-74 (young-old), and 75-84 (old-old). Qualitative interviews with 15 couples were used to provide information about the dyad's experiences with prostate cancer. Interview data were analyzed to identify preliminary coding schemas, which were subsequently refined and modified into themes. Three major themes were identified from the data. Across all age groups, prostate cancer had a significant effect on: (1) couples' daily lives, (2) their dyadic and family relationships, and (3) their developmental stage. There were also differences in age groups. Couples in the late middle age group reported greater disappointment and anger at their inability to reach life goals and establish financial security. Couples in the young-old group made more spontaneous comments about being satisfied with their life than the couples in the other 2 groups. Couples in the old-old group reported slower recovery from the illness than the younger couples. Results indicate that although prostate cancer may have some universal effects on couples, it also may have differential effects by age cohort. Hence, targeted interventions by age cohort may be warranted. PMID:17006110

Harden, Janet K; Northouse, Laurel L; Mood, Darlene W

2006-01-01

224

System monitoring and diagnosis with qualitative models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantial foundation of tools for model-based reasoning with incomplete knowledge was developed: QSIM (a qualitative simulation program) and its extensions for qualitative simulation; Q2, Q3 and their successors for quantitative reasoning on a qualitative framework; and the CC (component-connection) and QPC (Qualitative Process Theory) model compilers for building QSIM QDE (qualitative differential equation) models starting from different ontological assumptions. Other model-compilers for QDE's, e.g., using bond graphs or compartmental models, have been developed elsewhere. These model-building tools will support automatic construction of qualitative models from physical specifications, and further research into selection of appropriate modeling viewpoints. For monitoring and diagnosis, plausible hypotheses are unified against observations to strengthen or refute the predicted behaviors. In MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), multiple hypothesized models of the system are tracked in parallel in order to reduce the 'missing model' problem. Each model begins as a qualitative model, and is unified with a priori quantitative knowledge and with the stream of incoming observational data. When the model/data unification yields a contradiction, the model is refuted. When there is no contradiction, the predictions of the model are progressively strengthened, for use in procedure planning and differential diagnosis. Only under a qualitative level of description can a finite set of models guarantee the complete coverage necessary for this performance. The results of this research are presented in several publications. Abstracts of these published papers are presented along with abtracts of papers representing work that was synergistic with the NASA grant but funded otherwise. These 28 papers include but are not limited to: 'Combined qualitative and numerical simulation with Q3'; 'Comparative analysis and qualitative integral representations'; 'Model-based monitoring of dynamic systems'; 'Numerical behavior envelopes for qualitative models'; 'Higher-order derivative constraints in qualitative simulation'; and 'Non-intersection of trajectories in qualitative phase space: a global constraint for qualitative simulation.'

Kuipers, Benjamin

1991-01-01

225

School Uniforms: A Qualitative Analysis of Aims and Accomplishments at Two Christian Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing rigorous qualitative research methodology, we studied the implementation of two schools' uniform policies. Their primary intents were to eliminate competition, teach young people to dress appropriately, decrease nonacademic distractions, and lower the parental clothing costs. The young people differed with adults regarding whether or not the objectives relating to competition and distractions were met. Both adults and young people

Michael Firmin; Suzanne Smith; Lynsey Perry

2006-01-01

226

Elements of Supervision in Sexual Violence Counselors' Narratives: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on vicarious traumatization has suggested that trauma-sensitive supervision may help to minimize the effect of vicarious exposure to trauma; however, nothing from the perspective of trauma counselors was noted. The present qualitative study involved 1 male and 8 female sexual violence counselors who had worked with sexual violence…

Sommer, Carol A.; Cox, Jane A.

2005-01-01

227

The Pathways Model of AssaultA Qualitative Analysis of the Assault Offender and Offense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on offending behavior rehabilitation suggests that offenders would gain the maximum benefit from programs that reflect the individual needs of different types of offender. Multivariate theories of offending behavior are thus required to inform individualized rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to construct a multivariate model for the prolific offense of assault. Qualitative methodology was used to

Jemma C. Chambers; Tony Ward; Lynne Eccleston; Mark Brown

2009-01-01

228

Transcription and Analysis of Qualitative Data in a Study of Women Who Sexually Offended against Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on sexual violence is often conducted within the qualitative paradigm. However, many writers have described the lack of specific detail provided with regard to decisions and processes involved in transcribing and analyzing this type of data. In this article, I will provide a description and discussion of the organization, categorization,…

McNulty, Elizabeth Anne

2012-01-01

229

Qualitative Analysis of the Performance of Introverts and Extraverts on Standard Progressive Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does measurement of intelligence through a concolidated score imply that two or more subjects obtaining the same score are also undergoing the same mental process? Introverts are supposed to opt for accuracy and extraverts for speed. Attempts to investigate the qualitative differences between extraverts and introverts on an intelligence test.…

Mohan, Vidhu; Kumar, Dalip

1976-01-01

230

A Qualitative Analysis of Job Burnout in Eating Disorder Treatment Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although job burnout is common in mental health care settings, almost no research has examined burnout in eating disorder treatment providers. Using qualitative methodology, this study examined a) perceived contributors of burnout, b) efforts to manage burnout, and c) recommendations for avoiding burnout in a sample of professional eating disorder treatment providers. Recruited via professional organizations, 298 participants completed an

Cortney S. Warren; Kerri J. Schafer; Mary Ellen Crowley; Roberto Olivardia

2012-01-01

231

The Implications of Psychoanalysis for Qualitative Methodology: The Case of Interviews and Narrative Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I ask to what extent geographers can draw on psychoanalytic theory when examining interview data. I consider Freud's theory of the mind and its unconscious processes to ask how bringing the unconscious to bear on identity studies potentially impacts qualitative research on subjectivity and identification. Existing geographic debate on psychoanalytic theory and methods provides an organizing framework

Mary E. Thomas

2007-01-01

232

A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

2012-01-01

233

Combining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying and evaluating real experiences that promote active and collaborative learning is a crucial field in CSCL. Major issues that remain unsolved deal with the merging of qualitative and quantitative methods and data, especially in educational settings that involve both physical and computer-supported collaboration. In this paper we present an evaluation in a university course of Computer Architecture that took

A. Martínez; Yannis A. Dimitriadis; Bartolomé Rubia-avi; E. Gómez; P. De La Fuente

2003-01-01

234

A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident: A Pilot Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The topic "A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident" is an opportunity to explore residents' experiences to inform the delivery of education. Methods: An open-ended, qualitative approach was used in a pilot project to explore contemporary residents' experiences with education, similar to a patient-centered model of health care.…

Hilty, Donald M.; Maynes, Sonya M.; Kellner, Maria; Clark, Marilyn S.; Bourgeois, James A.; Servis, Mark E.

2005-01-01

235

Using Intergenerational Oral History Service-Learning Projects to Teach Human Behavior Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction with older adults. Qualitative evaluation of the oral history

Natalie Ames; Stephene A. Diepstra

2006-01-01

236

LiQuor: A tool for Qualitative and Quantitative Linear Time analysis of Reactive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

LiQuor is a tool for verifying probabilistic reactive sys- tems modelled Probmela programs, which are terms of a probabilistic guarded command language with an opera- tional semantics based on (finite) Markov decision pro- cesses. LiQuor provides the facility to perform a qualitative or quantitativeanalysis for ! -regularlinear time properties by means of automata-based model checking algorithms.

Frank Ciesinski; Christel Baier

2006-01-01

237

Combining Qualitative Evaluation and Social Network Analysis for the Study of Classroom Social Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying and evaluating real experiences that promote active and collaborative learning is a crucial field in CSCL. Major issues that remain unsolved deal with the merging of qualitative and quantitative methods and data, especially in educational settings that involve both physical and computer-supported collaboration. In this paper we present a…

Martinez, A.; Dimitriadis, Y.; Rubia, B.; Gomez, E.; de la Fuente, P.

2003-01-01

238

Physicians' Perceptions of Clinical Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis in the Context of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Change is ubiquitous. Current trends in both educational and clinical settings bring new challenges to clinicians and have the potential to threaten the quality of clinical teaching. Objective: To investigate hospital specialists' perceptions of clinical teaching in the context of change. Design: Qualitative study using in-depth…

Knight, Lynn V.; Bligh, John

2006-01-01

239

Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

2014-01-01

240

Recounting the K-12 School Experiences of Adults Who Stutter: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study qualitatively explored the primary and secondary (K-12) school experiences of adults who stutter. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 participants, a first focus group interview with 6 participants, and a second focus group interview with 4 participants. Participants discussed the various ways in which…

Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.; Hughes, Stephanie

2012-01-01

241

A magic pill? A qualitative analysis of patients' views on the role of antidepressant therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)  

PubMed Central

Background Studies with healthy volunteers have demonstrated that antidepressants can improve immunoregulatory activity and thus they may have a potential to positively impact the disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic and incurable condition. However, patients’ views on the role of antidepressants in the management of their IBD are unknown. Thus, this study aimed to explore patients’ experiences and opinions regarding the effect of antidepressants on IBD course before possibly undertaking future treatment trials with antidepressants. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with a randomly selected sample of IBD patients recruited at the Australian public hospital IBD clinic and currently receiving antidepressants. A qualitative content analysis was undertaken to summarise patients’ responses. A Visual Analogue Scale was used to provide a quantitative assessment of patients’ experiences with antidepressants. Results Overall, 15 IBD sufferers currently on antidepressants (nine females, six males) were interviewed. All 15 reported a positive response to antidepressants reporting they improved their quality of life, with minimal side-effects. Five patients (33.3%) felt the antidepressant had specifically improved their IBD course. Three patients noted how they believed the reduction in feelings of stress mediated the positive influence of the antidepressant on IBD course. Ten patients (66.7%) felt the antidepressants had not specifically influenced their IBD. Nine patients (60.0%) had a generally positive attitude towards antidepressants, four patients (26.7%) were ambivalent, and two patients (13.3%) held a negative view towards antidepressants. Twelve patients (80.0%) stated that they would be willing to participate in clinical trials. Conclusions Antidepressants seem to be well tolerated by IBD patients. One third of patients reported an observable improvement of their IBD under the influence of this treatment. The positive attitude towards antidepressants in these participants may make the conduct of clinical trials to further assess for any specific role on IBD course feasible. However, due to a small sample size, a qualitative nature of this study and in light of the results of studies on other populations indicating reluctance to taking antidepressants at least in some patients, these results should be interpreted with caution until confirmed in quantitative studies. PMID:22816728

2012-01-01

242

Communication by Nurses in the Intensive Care Unit: Qualitative Analysis of Domains of Patient-Centered Care  

PubMed Central

Background High quality communication is a key determinant and facilitator of patient-centered care. Nurses engage in the vast majority of communication with patients and families in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective To perform a qualitative analysis of nurses' communication. Methods The study was conducted in a 26-bed cardiac/medical ICU in an academic hospital and a 26-bed general ICU in a Veterans Affairs hospital in Portland, OR. We reviewed 315 hours of ICU interactions and 53 interviews with 33 nurses to categorize communication interactions into five patient-centered care domains. Interviews were analyzed to identify major themes regarding nurses’ roles and preferences for communicating with patients and families within the domains. Results Most nursing communication occurred in the biopsychosocial information exchange, “patient-as-person”, and “clinician-as-person” domains. Nurses endorsed the importance of the shared power and responsibility and therapeutic alliance domains but had relatively few communication interactions in these areas. Communication behaviors were strongly influenced by the nurses’ roles as translators of information between physicians with patients and families and what they were and were not willing to communicate to patients and families. Conclusions Critical care, including communication, is a collaborative effort. Understanding how nurses engage in patient-centered communication in the ICU can guide future interventions to improve patient-centered care. PMID:23117904

Slatore, Christopher G.; Hansen, Lissi; Ganzini, Linda; Press, Nancy; Osborne, Molly L.; Chesnutt, Mark S.; Mularski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

243

Improved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of allantoin in Zea mays.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of allantoin in silk and seed of Zea mays has been developed. Allantoin separation in crude extract was achieved using a C 18 column and phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.0) as a mobile phase at ambient temperature at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 210 nm. The results showed that the amount of allantoin in samples was between 14 and 271 mg/100 g of dry plant material. A comprehensive validation of the method including sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, and recovery was conducted. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.2-200 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of r2>0.999. Limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the allantoin were 0.05 and 0.2 microg/mL (1.0 and 4.0 ng) respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value of the repeatability was reported within 1.2%. The average recovery of allantoin added to samples was 100.6% with RSD of 1.5%. PMID:18189357

Haghi, Ghasem; Arshi, Rohollah; Safaei, Alireza

2008-02-27

244

Results of the central data analysis.  

PubMed Central

This chapter presents the results of blind serological studies carried out by workshop participants on 87 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) supplied to them as a coded panel. Twenty six mAbs had been studied in the first workshop. Participants were asked to carry out immunohistochemical, immunocytological or flow cytometric analysis on a mandatory panel of target tissues or cells. Central computer analysis and other supporting data allowed the assignment of 33 mAbs to seven clusters. Two of the antigens identified have been cloned while two more have been defined as carbohydrate epitopes. The results allow comparison of new mAbs against lung cancer with existing ones and are beginning to provide a description of the antigenic structure of the SCLC cell surface. PMID:1645565

Beverley, P. C.; Olabiran, Y.; Ledermann, J. A.; Bobrow, L. G.; Souhami, R. L.

1991-01-01

245

Visualizing Qualitative Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

Slone, Debra J.

2009-01-01

246

HIV testing and disclosure: a qualitative analysis of TB patients in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South Africa, more than 60% of TB patients have HIV co-infection. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is critical to effective HIV prevention, and TB facilities are optimal venues for delivery of these services. This study employed qualitative research methods to explore the decision-making processes for HIV testing and serostatus disclosure by 21 patients hospitalized with multi\\/extensively-drug resistant TB (M\\/XDR-TB)

A. Daftary; N. Padayatchi; M. Padilla

2007-01-01

247

Content of health status reports of people seeking assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two right-to-die organisations offer assisted suicide in Switzerland. The specific legal situation allows assistance to Swiss\\u000a and foreign citizens. Both organisations require a report of the person’s health status before considering assistance. This\\u000a qualitative study explored these reports filed to legal authorities after the deaths of individuals in the area of Zurich.\\u000a Health status reports in the legal medical dossiers

Lorenz Imhof; Georg Bosshard; Susanne Fischer; Romy Mahrer-Imhof

2011-01-01

248

Fostering Social Work Gerontological Competencies: Qualitative Analysis of an Intergenerational Service-Learning Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and qualitative student outcomes of an intergenerational service-learning course designed to promote social work gerontological competencies. Efforts focused on creating a learning environment to actively promote learning opportunities for students and older adults. The course was hosted at a local, private, not-for-profit senior housing location where older adults were invited to actively participate in the

Debra Fromm Faria; Jason A. Dauenhauer; David W. Steitz

2010-01-01

249

Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

Rabello-Soares, M. C.

2013-12-01

250

A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations  

PubMed Central

Background Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. Methods A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Results Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Conclusions Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to information can act as a solution. PMID:24981205

2014-01-01

251

Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges  

PubMed Central

Background The provision of peer support as a component of mental health care, including the employment of Peer Workers (consumer-providers) by mental health service organisations, is increasingly common internationally. Peer support is strongly advocated as a strategy in a number of UK health and social care policies. Approaches to employing Peer Workers are proliferating. There is evidence to suggest that Peer Worker-based interventions reduce psychiatric inpatient admission and increase service user (consumer) empowerment. In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams. Methods We report the secondary analysis of qualitative interview data from service users, Peer Workers, non-peer staff and managers of three innovative interventions in a study about mental health self-care. Relevant data was extracted from interviews with 41 participants and subjected to analysis using Grounded Theory techniques. Organisational research literature on role adoption framed the analysis. Results Peer Workers were highly valued by mental health teams and service users. Non-peer team members and managers worked hard to introduce Peer Workers into teams. Our cases were projects in development and there was learning from the evolutionary process: in the absence of formal recruitment processes for Peer Workers, differences in expectations of the Peer Worker role can emerge at the selection stage; flexible working arrangements for Peer Workers can have the unintended effect of perpetuating hierarchies within teams; the maintenance of protective practice boundaries through supervision and training can militate against the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice; lack of consensus around what constitutes peer practice can result in feelings for Peer Workers of inequality, disempowerment, uncertainty about identity and of being under-supported. Conclusions This research is indicative of potential benefits for mental health service teams of introducing Peer Worker roles. Analysis also suggests that if the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice is not adequately considered and supported, as integral to the development of new Peer Worker roles, there is a risk that the potential impact of any emerging role will be constrained and diluted. PMID:23705767

2013-01-01

252

Review of sodium analysis proficiency test results.  

PubMed

Proficiency testing results for sodium analysis in foods raised concerns over the proportion of laboratories achieving satisfactory z-scores. Test materials for sodium analysis include fruit juice, canned meat meal, tomato sauce, cheese and pasta meal, and snack food. Fruit juice and tomato sauce data sets are the most problematic in deriving the assigned value with sufficiently low uncertainty to provide evaluative z-scores. The standard deviation for proficiency is derived from Horwitz, with a lack of collaborative trial data for these matrices to provide other guidance. The status of accreditation for the method/matrix does not appear to influence the observed variation in results. Microwave digestion is much less commonly used than simple acid digestion. The choice of determination method appears to be entirely matrix dependent (whether flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame photometry or inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy). Results for juice matrix may be overestimated if flame photometry is used, due to either potassium interference or careless reporting where potassium is also determined. PMID:21240823

Sykes, M; Parmar, B; Knaggs, M

2011-02-01

253

Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations. PMID:21943401

2011-01-01

254

Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

2009-12-01

255

Qualitative Analysis in a Second-Order Impact Model for Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural forest fires are the problems that influence ecosystems, and they have been researched from of old. For solving this problem, a prediction model for forest fires was proposed. The model imitates fires that are seen in mediterranean forests, boreal forests and savannas. In recent years, it was simplified a second-order impact model. Furthermore, the model of mediterranean forests have been analyzed. However, the others are insufficient yet, and the qualitative property of forest fires has not been discussed enough. In this letter, we analyze the second-order impact model that is seen in boreal forests and savannas. Moreover, we consider what bifurcation phenomena essentially influences some periodic solutions.

Tomonaga, Shingo; Kousaka, Takuji

256

Barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units in Japan: a qualitative survey with content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We investigated the barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units (PCUs) through a qualitative study across various\\u000a sources of information, including terminal cancer patients, their families, physicians, and nurses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  There were 63 participants, including 13 advanced cancer patients, 10 family members, 20 physicians, and 20 nurses in palliative\\u000a care and acute care cancer settings from five regional

Mitsunori Miyashita; Kei Hirai; Tatsuya Morita; Makiko Sanjo; Yosuke Uchitomi

2008-01-01

257

Qualitative and quantitative analysis on chemical constituents from Curculigo orchioides using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative determination of constituents in the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. Qualitative analysis was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UHPLC @ HSS T3 column (1.8?m 100×2.1mm) using gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Quantitative analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse plus C18 column (1.7?m 100×2.1mm) using gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile for at least 20min. Quadrupole TOF/MS in either full scan mode or extracted ion mode was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents. According to the mass spectrometric fragmentation mechanism and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS data, chemical structures of 45 constituents in the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides, including 19 phenols and phenolic glycosides, 16 lignans and lignan glycosides, 8 triterpenoid saponins, one flavone and one sesquiterpene, were identified tentatively on-line without the time-consuming process of isolation. In addition, 8 phenolic glycosides including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), 2-hydroxy-5-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (HPG), anacardoside (ACD), orcinol glucoside (OGD), orcinol-1-O-?-d-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside (OAG), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (DBA), curculigoside (CUR) and curculigine A (CCL) were quantitated in 11 collected samples and 10 commercial samples from different providers. The results show that UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS is a viable method for analysis and quality evaluation of the constituents from the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. PMID:25305598

He, Yongjing; Dong, Xin; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Li, Mei; Yuan, Tingting; Xu, Hongtao; Qin, Luping; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiaoyan

2015-01-01

258

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents in Danmu preparations by UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

An ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) method was developed for the quality assessment of Danmu preparations, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. Thirty-three compounds from Danmu preparations were simultaneously detected; among them, 14 compounds were unequivocally identified based on their retention behaviors, UV spectrum, MS and MS(n) data by comparing with reference substances, and the others were tentatively characterized by literatures. Twelve of 33 compounds were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA, and the validation of the quantitative method, including recoveries, linearity, sensitivity, precision and repeatability was carried out and the results demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. The results suggested that the established method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for quality control of Danmu preparations and the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system. PMID:23988988

Zhu, Fenxia; Chen, Jiaquan; Wang, Jingjing; Yin, Rong; Li, Xiufeng; Jia, Xiaobin

2014-09-01

259

Leaf Dimorphism Of Microgramma Squamulosa (Polypodiaceae): a qualitative and quantitative analysis focusing on adaptations to epiphytism.  

PubMed

The epiphytic fern Microgramma squamulosa occurs in the Neotropics and shows dimorphic sterile and fertile leaves. The present study aimed to describe and compare qualitatively and quantitatively macroscopic and microscopic structural characteristics of the dimorphic leaves of M. squamulosa, to point more precisely those characteristics which may contribute to epiphytic adaptations. In June 2009, six isolated host trees covered by M squamulosa were selected close to the edge of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Macroscopic and microscopic analyzes were performed from 192 samples for each leaf type, and permanent and semi-permanent slides were prepared. Sections were observed under light microscopy using image capture software to produce illustrations and scales, as well as to perform quantitative analyses. Fertile and sterile leaves had no qualitative structural differences, being hypostomatous and presenting uniseriate epidermis, homogeneous chlorenchyma, amphicribal vascular bundle, and hypodermis. The presence of hypodermal tissue and the occurrence of stomata at the abaxial face are typical characteristics ofxeromorphic leaves. Sterile leaves showed significantly larger areas (14.80cm2), higher sclerophylly index (0.13g/cm2) and higher stomatal density (27.75stomata/mm2) than fertile leaves. The higher sclerophylly index and the higher stomatal density observed in sterile leaves are features that make these leaves more xeromorphic, enhancing their efficiency to deal with limited water availability in the epiphytic environment, compared to fertile leaves. PMID:23894982

Rocha, Ledyane Dalgallo; Droste, Annette; Gehlen, Günther; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

2013-03-01

260

A qualitative analysis of prescription activity and alert usage in a computerized physician order entry system.  

PubMed

Medical alerts in CPOE are overridden in most cases. The need for alerting systems that are better adapted to physicians' needs and work processes is recognized. Our study aims to shed some light on how medical alerts are used and how they are integrated in the work process. Work analysis and interviews resulted in a hierarchical task analysis of prescription during ward rounds at the University Hospitals of Geneva. The results indicate that non-modal medical alerts are appreciated as an "insurance" for drugs that are out of the routine set. In the case of drugs that are often prescribed, alerts are ignored as physicians feel comfortable prescribing them. Non-interrupting alerts do not cognitively overcharge physicians, but the question is how to display the numerous alerts so that they are easily accessible when needed. Further, inexperienced physicians lack a mental representation of what evaluations the system is doing with the prescriptions and when alerts are triggered. This may lead to lack of trust or overconfidence, both of them potentially harmful. PMID:21893884

Wipfli, Rolf; Betrancourt, Mireille; Guardia, Alberto; Lovis, Christian

2011-01-01

261

Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

2002-04-01

262

Gap analysis: Concepts, methods, and recent results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units - from general categories such as 'Forests' or 'Cold-Deciduous Shrubland Formation' to more categories such as 'Picea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliance' - in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The GAP experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

Jennings, M.D.

2000-01-01

263

Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred to as watershed management. Watershed management includes soil and water conservation to create water resources, management of drinking water, improving hygiene and sanitation, plantation of trees, improving agriculture, formation of self-help groups and proper utilisation and management of available natural resources. For successful implementation of such a solution, understanding of perceptions of the tribal community members with regard to public health and socioeconomic implications of watershed management is essential. Methods A qualitative study with six focus group discussions (FGDs), three each separately for men and women, was conducted among tribal community members of the Maharashtra state of India. The data collected from the FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. Results “Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management” was identified as the main theme. Participants perceived that their health problems and socio-economic development are directly and/or indirectly dependent upon water availability. They further perceived that watershed management could directly or indirectly result in reduction of their public health related challenges like waterborne diseases, seasonal migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence, as well as drudgery of women and may enhance overall empowerment of families through agricultural development. Conclusions Tribal people perceived that water scarcity is the main reason for their physical, mental and social health problems and a major obstacle for their overall development. The perceptions of tribal participants indicate that infectious diseases, migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence and drudgery of women are end results of water scarcity and efforts to increase water availability through watershed management may help them to achieve their right to health which is embedded in their right to access to water. PMID:24119537

2013-01-01

264

Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: state-of-the-art in qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) aims to enable direct analysis of gaseous, liquid, and/or solid samples under ambient conditions. In ADI-MS, different types of desorption/ionization sources are classified according to their basic method of operation, namely spray-based, laser-based, or plasma-based. This review discusses many of the plasma-based techniques coupled to mass spectrometry in terms of their current performance in fast qualitative screening and quantitative analysis. Critical aspects, for example sample preparation and introduction, quantification, and matrix effects, are addressed. Furthermore, the applicability of plasma-based sources to portable mass spectrometers and their capabilities in imaging experiments are summarized. The applications discussed are of two types. In one, direct screening is performed without any or with minimal sample pretreatment. Samples with low matrix content are qualitatively analyzed without interferences. The other, more challenging applications, namely samples with high matrix content and most quantitative analysis, typically require sample preparation ranging from simple dilution to extensive multi-step procedures. PMID:25069879

Albert, Anastasia; Shelley, Jacob T; Engelhard, Carsten

2014-10-01

265

Older depressed Latinos’ experiences with primary care visits for personal, emotional and/or mental health problems: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe salient experiences with a primary care visit (e.g., the context leading up to the visit, the experience and/or outcomes of that visit) for emotional, personal and/or mental health problems older Latinos with a history of depression and recent depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use reported 10 years after enrollment into a randomized controlled trial of quality-improvement for depression in primary care. Design Secondary analysis of existing qualitative data from the second stage of the continuation study of Partners in Care (PIC). Participants Latino ethnicity, age ? 50 years, recent depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use, and a recent primary care visit for mental health problems. Of 280 second-stage participants, 47 were eligible. Both stages of the continuation study included participants from the PIC parent study control and 2 intervention groups, and all had a history of depression. Methods Data analyzed by a multidisciplinary team using grounded theory methodology. Results Five themes were identified: beliefs about the nature of depression; prior experiences with mental health disorders/treatments; sociocultural context (e.g., social relationships, caregiving, the media); clinic-related features (e.g., accessibility of providers, staff continuity, amount of visit time); provider attributes (e.g., interpersonal skills, holistic care approach). Conclusions Findings emphasize the importance of key features for shaping the context leading up to primary care visits for help-seeking for mental health problems, and the experience and/or outcomes of those visits, among older depressed Latinos at long-term follow-up, and may help tailor chronic depression care for the clinical management of this vulnerable population. PMID:24620453

Izquierdo, Adriana; Sarkisian, Catherine; Ryan, Gery; Wells, Kenneth B.; Miranda, Jeanne

2014-01-01

266

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

267

Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently needed. The monitoring of health trends is crucial to evaluate the impact of public health programmes. PMID:22537389

2012-01-01

268

The pathways model of assault: a qualitative analysis of the assault offender and offense.  

PubMed

Research on offending behavior rehabilitation suggests that offenders would gain the maximum benefit from programs that reflect the individual needs of different types of offender. Multivariate theories of offending behavior are thus required to inform individualized rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to construct a multivariate model for the prolific offense of assault. Qualitative methodology was used to construct a descriptive model of assault for 25 adult assault offenders. The model incorporated the development of violent behavior, types of anger, violence motivation, and the assault offense. The model consisted of 14 categories, 10 of which allowed for individual differences in behavior. A total of 35 participant transcripts were then coded through the model where the individual differences occurred. Five main offense types were found. The characteristics of the types of assault offense gave indications for how rehabilitation may be targeted for each group. PMID:18794374

Chambers, Jemma C; Ward, Tony; Eccleston, Lynne; Brown, Mark

2009-09-01

269

The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

2009-01-01

270

Qualitative and quantitative determination of micro-inclusions by automated SEM/EDX analysis.  

PubMed

With the help of an automated SEM/EDX analysis system non-metallic micro-inclusions in steel can be detected on a metallographically prepared surface area. The system makes it possible to determine position, size, shape and composition of each particle. Usually more than 1000 inclusions are found on one scan area. Therefore a new offline evaluation method has been developed to classify the large amount of inclusions and calculate specific size and shape data. A summary sheet is created to show the area contents and the mean values of all important properties for each class. Size and XY distributions as well as binary and ternary phase diagrams are drawn to depict the results. The strengths of this analytical technique are demonstrated by evaluation of an LC (low-carbon) steel. Alumina, common spinel, sulfide and oxisulfide inclusions could be identified as dominant inclusion types in LC steel. PMID:14985907

Nuspl, Markus; Wegscheider, Wolfhard; Angeli, Johann; Posch, Wilhelm; Mayr, Michael

2004-06-01

271

Modeling approaches for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of cellular signaling networks  

PubMed Central

A central goal of systems biology is the construction of predictive models of bio-molecular networks. Cellular networks of moderate size have been modeled successfully in a quantitative way based on differential equations. However, in large-scale networks, knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is often too limited to allow for the set-up of predictive quantitative models. Here, we review methodologies for qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. In particular, we focus on three different but related formalisms facilitating modeling of signaling processes with different levels of detail: interaction graphs, logical/Boolean networks, and logic-based ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Albeit the simplest models possible, interaction graphs allow the identification of important network properties such as signaling paths, feedback loops, or global interdependencies. Logical or Boolean models can be derived from interaction graphs by constraining the logical combination of edges. Logical models can be used to study the basic input–output behavior of the system under investigation and to analyze its qualitative dynamic properties by discrete simulations. They also provide a suitable framework to identify proper intervention strategies enforcing or repressing certain behaviors. Finally, as a third formalism, Boolean networks can be transformed into logic-based ODEs enabling studies on essential quantitative and dynamic features of a signaling network, where time and states are continuous. We describe and illustrate key methods and applications of the different modeling formalisms and discuss their relationships. In particular, as one important aspect for model reuse, we will show how these three modeling approaches can be combined to a modeling pipeline (or model hierarchy) allowing one to start with the simplest representation of a signaling network (interaction graph), which can later be refined to logical and eventually to logic-based ODE models. Importantly, systems and network properties determined in the rougher representation are conserved during these transformations. PMID:23803171

2013-01-01

272

[Results of the Qualitative Evaluation of all-fit--a group education and training program for elderly people with chronic illness].  

PubMed

Chronic illness in elderly people is often associated with activity limitations, impairment, and mood changes. There is strong evidence that chronic disease self-management programs enhance health behaviour and stabilize or improve health status. A new program in Zurich, called all-fit, is a community-based program consisting of eight educational group sessions and physical training, held over two months. It is designed for elders with chronic illness. The program is led by a specially trained nurse. This study was undertaken to evaluate the program. The qualitative methodology emphasizes the experiences of the participants. Sixteen participants, drawn from the diabetes and arthritis groups, engaged in in-depth interviews before and after their participation in the program. The aim of the study was to assess the outcomes of the program and to identify the ways by which the outcomes occurred. Interview data were analyzed by content analysis. Most participants reported several positive outcomes and described dynamic pathways that led to these outcomes. In analyzing the pathways, the following steps emerged: (1) Motivation to change stems from, for example, activities such as sharing vicarious experiences within the group, or taking on other participants or significant events during the sessions as exemplars. (2) To move on, certain intermediate steps are important, such as cognitive reframing and experimenting with the new behaviour. (3) The resulting change can be attributed to two domains: (a) behaviour change in self-management, such as more time spent exercising or eating healthy; and (b) improvement in psychological well-being, such as having less feelings of depression or new perspectives for future coping. (4) Factors such as remembering highlights and additional group activities contribute to the sustainability of the effects. The results demonstrate that all-fit can be considered as a self-management program that improves health behaviour and physical and psychological well-being. There is a significant dynamic underway which is facilitated by the group setting with participants with similar conditions, social interactions, and concrete, practical learning. PMID:16941389

Bonsack, Stefania; Spirig, Rebecca; Baldegger, Esther; Wettstein, Albert

2006-08-01

273

Patient reported barriers and facilitators to using a self-management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis in primary care: results of a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background To enhance guideline-based non-surgical management of hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), a multidisciplinary, stepped-care strategy has been implemented in primary care in a region of the Netherlands. To facilitate this implementation, the self-management booklet “Care for Osteoarthritis” was developed and introduced. The aim of the booklet was to educate patients about OA, to enhance the patient’s active role in the treatment course, and to improve the communication with health care providers. To successfully introduce the booklet on a large scale we assessed barriers and facilitators for patients to using this booklet. Methods Seventeen primary care patients with hip or knee OA who received the self-management booklet participated in this qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Purposive sampling was used to ensure diversity of the patients’ view about the booklet. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Three core themes with patient perceived barriers and facilitators to use the booklet emerged from the interviews: 1) the role of health care providers, 2) the patient’s perceptions about OA and its manageability, and 3) the patient’s perceptions about the usefulness of the booklet and patient’s information needs. Regarding the first theme, a barrier was the lack of encouragement from health care providers to use the booklet in the treatment course of OA. Moreover, patients had doubts concerning the health care providers’ endorsement of non-surgical treatment for OA. Barriers from the second theme were: thinking that OA is not treatable or that being pro-active during the treatment course is not important. In contrast, being convinced about the importance of an active participation in the treatment course was a facilitator. Third, patients’ perceptions about the usefulness of the booklet and patients’ information needs were both identified as barriers as well as facilitators for booklet use. Conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of patient perceived barriers and facilitators to use a self-management booklet in the treatment course of OA. The results offer practical starting points to tailor the implementation activities of the booklet nationwide and to introduce comparable educational tools in OA primary care or in other chronic diseases. PMID:24289303

2013-01-01

274

Qualitative analysis of sequence specific binding of flavones to DNA using restriction endonuclease activity assays.  

PubMed

Flavones, found in nature as secondary plant metabolites, have shown efficacy as anti-cancer agents. We have examined the binding of two flavones, 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone; FlavA) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone; FlavB), to phiX174 RF DNA using restriction enzyme activity assays employing the restriction enzymes Alw44, AvaII, BssHII, DraI, MluI, NarI, NciI, NruI, PstI, and XhoI. These enzymes possess differing target and flanking sequences allowing for observation of sequence specificity analysis. Using restriction enzymes that cleave once with a mixture of supercoiled and relaxed DNA substrates provides for observation of topological effects on binding. FlavA and FlavB show differing sequence specificities in their respective binding to phiX. For example, with relaxed DNA, FlavA shows inhibition of cleavage with DraI (reaction site (5') TTTAAA) but not BssHII ((5') GCGCGC) while FlavB shows the opposite results. Evidence for tolological specificity is also observed, Molecular modeling and conformational analysis of the flavones suggests that the phenyl ring of FlavB is coplanar with the flavonoid ring while the phenyl ring of FlavA is at an angle relative to the flavonoid ring. This may account for aspects of the observed sequence and topological specificities in the effects on restriction enzyme activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 99: 530-537, 2013. PMID:23712489

Duran, Elizabeth; Ramsauer, Victoria P; Ballester, Maria; Torrenegra, Ruben D; Rodriguez, Oscar E; Winkle, Stephen A

2013-08-01

275

Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces  

PubMed Central

Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated into standards for local public health. As reflected in their policies, both provinces have embraced the importance of reducing health inequities. Both concepualized this process as rooted in structural injustices and the social determinants of health. Differences in the conceptualization of health equity likely reflect contextual influences on the public health renewal processes in each jurisdiction. PMID:22632097

2012-01-01

276

Results and analysis of the GLONASS measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of improving the national geodetic reference frame an establishment of the new Fundamental Astro-Geodetic network (FAGN), based mainly on the combined use of GPS and GLONASS measurements, is now carried out in Russia. From the geodetic point of view, the advantages of combining both systems are numerous, especially in the urban, mountain and near polar areas. More than 30 permanent core sites of this network are provided with the dual GPS/GLONASS receivers. Several core sites of the FAGN network are collocated with the existing IERS stations, equipped with the SLR, VLBI and DORIS instruments. Now the constellation of the GLONASS consists of 24 satellites at three orbital planes, 8 satellites in each. Inclination of the orbit is 64.80, height 19100 km and revolution time 11h 15min. Analysis of the GLONASS data, obtained at the IGS sites, including most of the Russian sites, have been made with the use of GIPSY-OASIS 2 software. Results of estimation of GLONASS orbital parameters and station coordinates were compared with the GPS estimations at the collocated sites. Both solutions are related to the ITRF2005 coordinate system. Differences between solutions are in the limit of a few cm. The means of improvement of the GLONASS solution and adjustment of the GLONASS coordinate system with the ITRF are considered.

Suriya, Tatevyan

2012-07-01

277

Qualitative analysis of cocaine and heroin users' main partner sex-risk behavior: is safety in love safety in health?  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009, 27% of the 48,100 estimated new cases of HIV were attributed to heterosexual contact with an infected or at-risk person. Sexually active adults are less likely to use condoms in relationships with main partners than with non-regular partners, despite general knowledge that condom use reduces HIV transmission. Methods The purpose of this secondary qualitative analysis was to explore and contextualize perceptions of main partnerships, HIV risk, and attitudes toward condom use within main partner relationships among a subsample of intervention-arm cocaine- and/or heroin-using patients enrolled in a negative trial of brief motivational intervention to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted disease and unsafe sexual behaviors. The open-ended portion of these interview audiotapes consisted of questions about perceptions of risk and attitudes about condom use with main partners. Enrollees were aged 18-54, English or Spanish speaking, and included in this analysis only if they reported having a main partner. We identified codes and elaborated important themes through a standard inductive three step coding process, using HyperRESEARCH™ software. Results Among 48 interviewees, 65% were male, half were non-Hispanic white, over 60% were 20-39 years of age, 58% had intravenous drug use (IDU), and 8% were HIV-positive. Participants defined respect, support, trust, and shared child-rearing responsibility as the most valued components of main partner relationships. Condom use was viewed occasionally as a positive means of showing respect with main partners but more often as a sign of disrespect and a barrier to intimacy and affection. Enrollees appraised their partners’ HIV risk in terms of perceptions of physical health, cleanliness, and sexual and HIV testing history. They based decisions regarding condom use mainly on perceived faithfulness, length of involvement, availability of condoms, and pregnancy desirability. Conclusions Risk appraisal was commonly based on appearance and subjective factors, and condom use with main sexual partners was described most often as a demonstration of lack of trust and intimacy. Trial registration NCT01379599 PMID:23618318

2013-01-01

278

Perceptions and Experiences of Women in Karachi, Pakistan Regarding Secondary Infertility: Results from a Community-Based Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans. PMID:22474450

Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

2012-01-01

279

Client aggression toward social workers and social services in Israel--a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The aggressive behavior of clients toward employees in service organizations is an alarming phenomenon, which harms employees and damages the organization itself. Employees all over the public sector, especially in social service departments, are continuously exposed to aggressive behavior by clients. The focus of the current study is on understanding the short- and long-term implications of aggressive client behavior on social workers and the organization in which they operate. A qualitative approach was used to understand the perspective of the workers exposed to aggressive client behavior as well as its organizational implications. In-depth interviews were conducted with the 40 participants between February and May, 2009. The participants included district managers, agency managers, supervisors, social workers, and administrators, in 17 agencies all over the country. The study findings identified negative impacts of client aggression on several levels and on several focal areas. On the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral levels, both short-term and long-term consequences can be seen, which affect not only the attacked individual but also resonate throughout the organization. Individual events may diffuse to affect other levels of the service process by role-learning, imitation of behavior, and by noticing that the organization provides incentives for client aggression, while providing disincentives for assertiveness and self-protective actions on the part of workers. PMID:23262826

Enosh, Guy; Tzafrir, Shay S; Gur, Amit

2013-04-01

280

Attitudes toward birth spacing among low-income, postpartum women: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

To explore attitudes about birth spacing among low-income, recently postpartum women, using qualitative methods, seven focus groups among postpartum women were conducted, probing knowledge and attitudes related to desired birth spacing. Transcripts of the discussions were reviewed and coded for salient themes using a Grounded Theory approach. In regards to whether to pursue pregnancy in the future, major themes included the availability of adequate resources, current family composition and the role of partners. With respect to when to have a next pregnancy, themes centered around the desire for particular intervals between siblings. Discussions of the effect of spacing on the health of the mother or child did not emerge frequently. Themes underlying postpartum women's desire for particular birth spacing are varied, but social and family considerations seem to predominate over concerns or knowledge about potential health effects. Improving women's knowledge about these consequences could lead to lowering the incidence of short interpregnancy intervals, known to be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:22057657

Bryant, Allison; Fernandez-Lamothe, Ana; Kuppermann, Miriam

2012-10-01

281

Implementing successful interprofessional communication opportunities in health care education: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the experience of an interprofessional communication educational intervention among nursing and medical students. Methods Forty-five medical students and 50 nursing students participated in two-hour-long interprofessional communication skills education sessions with interprofessional groups of 6-8 students each. The sessions were based on the Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPSTM) curriculum. Problematic communication scenarios were presented and then reenacted by the students with role plays that depicted improvements in interprofessional communication. Afterward, narratives describing their experience were collected from a focus group interview. Using the conventional content analysis approach, key phrases and statements were coded into themes. Results The study found that students felt increased competence and confidence when responding to conflict after practicing communication in a safe environment. Based on the opportunity to come to know their colleagues, students recognized that patient safety was a shared goal. Six themes were extracted from the narratives describing their experiences: support for process, patient safety, coming to know colleague, support for tools, respectful collaboration, and barriers to communication. Conclusions TeamSTEPPSTM provided a framework for effective and respectful collaboration. A significant barrier identified by students was that these communication techniques were not consistently demonstrated during their clinical experiences. An emphasis on interprofessional communication skills and teamwork should begin in the academic setting and be reinforced in both the formal and hidden curricula.

Eggenberger, Terry L.; Belkowitz, Julia; Sarsekeyeva, Mira; Zito, Amalinnette R.

2013-01-01

282

Politics and its intersection with coverage with evidence development: a qualitative analysis from expert interviews  

PubMed Central

Background Pressures on health care budgets have led policy makers to discuss how to balance the provision of costly technologies to populations in need and making coverage decisions under uncertainty. Coverage with evidence development (CED) is being employed to meet these challenges. Methods Twenty-four interviews were carried out between June 2009 and December 2010 with researchers, decision makers and policy makers from Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States. Three phases of coding occurred, the first being manual coding where the interviews were read and notes were taken and nodes were extracted and imputed. NVIVO coding was applied to the interview transcripts, with both broad general searches for word usages and imputed nodes. Results Four overarching thematic areas emerged out of contextual analysis of the interviews – (1) what constitutes CED; (2) the lack of a systematic approach/governance structure; (3) the role of the pharmaceutical industry and overt political considerations in CED; and (4) alternatives and barriers to CED. We explore these themes and then use concrete examples of CED projects in each of the four countries to illustrate the political issues that our interviewees raised. Conclusion Until the underlying political nature of CED is recognized then fundamental questions about its usefulness and operation will remain unresolved. PMID:23497271

2013-01-01

283

USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

284

Selection Mechanisms Underlying High Impact Biomedical Research - A Qualitative Analysis and Causal Model  

PubMed Central

Background Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. Methodology/Principal Findings Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. Conclusions The proposed selection mechanism provides insights that can be translated into research coaching programs as well as research policy models to optimize the introduction of high impact research at a broad scale among institutional and governmental agencies. PMID:20479867

Zelko, Hilary; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Bonilauri Ferreira, Ana Paula; Phadtare, Amruta; Shah, Jatin; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

285

A qualitative analysis of lung cancer screening practices by primary care physicians.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, but no scientific organization currently recommends screening because of limited evidence for its effectiveness. Despite this, physicians often order screening tests such as chest X-rays and computerized tomography scans for their patients. Limited information is available about how physicians decide when to order these tests. To identify factors that affect whether physicians' screen patients for lung cancer, we conducted five 75-min telephone-based focus groups with 28 US primary care physicians and used inductive qualitative research methods to analyze their responses. We identified seven factors that influenced these physicians' decisions about screening patients for lung cancer: (1) their perception of a screening test's effectiveness, (2) their attitude toward recommended screening guidelines, (3) their practice experience, (4) their perception of a patient's risk for lung cancer, (5) reimbursement and payment for screening, (6) their concern about litigation, and (7) whether a patient requested screening. Because these factors may have conflicting effects on physicians' decisions to order screening tests, physicians may struggle in determining when screening for lung cancer is appropriate. We recommend (1) more clinician education, beginning in medical school, about the existing evidence related to lung cancer screening, with emphasis on the benefit of and training in tobacco use prevention and cessation, (2) more patient education about the benefits and limitations of screening, (3) further studies about the effect of patients' requests to be screened on physicians' decisions to order screening tests, and (4) larger, quantitative studies to follow up on our formative data. PMID:21442338

Henderson, Susan; DeGroff, Amy; Richards, Thomas B; Kish-Doto, Julia; Soloe, Cindy; Heminger, Christina; Rohan, Elizabeth

2011-12-01

286

Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects  

PubMed Central

Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Results Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. Conclusions This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial. PMID:24438471

2014-01-01

287

Cultural beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are well established, early introduction of formula remains a common practice. Cultural beliefs and practices can have an important impact on breastfeeding. This paper describes some common beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding in Lebanon. Methods Participants were healthy first-time mothers recruited from hospitals throughout Lebanon to participate in a study on usage patterns of a telephone hotline for postpartum support. The hotline was available to mothers for the first four months postpartum and patterns of usage, as well as questions asked were recorded. Thematic analysis of the content of questions which referred to cultural beliefs and practices related to breastfeeding was conducted. Results Twenty four percent of the 353 women enrolled in the study called the hotline, and 50% of the calls included questions about breastfeeding. Mothers expressed concern about having adequate amounts of breast milk or the quality of their breast milk. Concerns that the mother could potentially harm her infant though breastfeeding were rooted in a number of cultural beliefs. Having an inherited inability to produce milk, having "bad milk", and transmission of abdominal cramps to infants through breast milk were among the beliefs that were expressed. Although the researchers live and work in Lebanon, they were not aware of many of the beliefs that are reported in this study. Conclusion There are a number of cultural beliefs that could potentially discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women. Understanding and addressing local beliefs and customs can help clinicians to provide more culturally appropriate counselling about breastfeeding. PMID:19883506

Osman, Hibah; El Zein, Lama; Wick, Livia

2009-01-01

288

Parent-son decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Licensed for use in males in 2009, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in adolescent males are extremely low. Literature on HPV vaccination focuses on females, adult males, or parents of adolescent males, without including adolescent males or the dynamics of the parent-son interaction that may influence vaccine decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision-making process of parent-son dyads when deciding whether or not to get vaccinated against HPV. Methods Twenty-one adolescent males (ages 13–17), with no previous HPV vaccination, and their parents/guardians were recruited from adolescent primary care clinics serving low to middle income families in a large Midwestern city. Dyad members participated in separate semi-structured interviews assessing the relative role of the parent and son in the decision regarding HPV vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive content analysis. Results Parents and sons focused on protection as a reason for vaccination; parents felt a need to protect their child, while sons wanted to protect their own health. Parents and sons commonly misinterpreted the information about the vaccine. Sons were concerned about an injection in the penis, while some parents and sons thought the vaccine would protect them against other sexually transmitted infections including Herpes, Gonorrhea, and HIV. Parents and sons recalled that the vaccine prevented genital warts rather than cancer. The vaccine decision-making process was rapid and dynamic, including an initial reaction to the recommendation for HPV vaccine, discussion between parent and son, and the final vaccine decision. Provider input was weighed in instances of initial disagreement. Many boys felt that this was the first health care decision that they had been involved in. Dyads which reported shared decision-making were more likely to openly communicate about sexual issues than those that agreed the son made the decision. Conclusion Parents and sons play an active role in the decision-making process, with an individual’s role being influenced by many factors. The results of this study may be used to guide the messages presented by clinicians when recommending the HPV vaccine, and future vaccine uptake interventions. PMID:23241217

2012-01-01

289

Why physicians and nurses ask (or don't) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1) explore physicians’ and nurses’ experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2) determine the variations by discipline; and 3) identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Methods Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher’s Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Results Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated) provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The experiences of these nurses and physicians suggest that more supports (e.g., supportive work environments, training, mentors, consultations, community resources, etc.) are needed by practitioners. These findings reflect the results of previous research yet offer perspectives on why barriers persist. Multifaceted and intersectoral approaches that address individual, interpersonal, workplace and systemic issues faced by nurses and physicians when inquiring about IPV are required. Comprehensive frameworks are needed to further explore the many issues associated with IPV inquiry and the interplay across these issues. PMID:22721371

2012-01-01

290

Qualitative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Qualitative evaluation" is the theme of this issue of the California Journal of Teacher Education. Ralph Tyler states that evaluation is essentially descriptive, and using numbers does not solve basic problems. Martha Elin Vernazza examines the issue of objectivity in history and its implications for evaluation. She posits that the decisive…

Stone, James C., Ed.; James, Raymond A., Ed.

1981-01-01

291

Qualitative analysis and asymptotics of solutions of generalized KdV-class equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the asymptotics and the structure of solutions of generalized KdV-class equations with an arbitrary nonlinearity\\u000a index, which are extensively used in the physics of ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma, hydrodynamics, and aerodynamics.\\u000a KdV-class equations are generalized by introducing higher-order dispersion correction and terms describing dissipation and\\u000a instability caused by numerous factors. Using asymptotic analysis and analysis of solutions in

V. Yu. Belashov; S. G. Tyunina

1997-01-01

292

Qualitative analysis and asymptotics of solutions of generalized KdV-class equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the asymptotics and the structure of solutions of generalized KdV-class equations with an arbitrary nonlinearity index, which are extensively used in the physics of ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma, hydrodynamics, and aerodynamics. KdV-class equations are generalized by introducing higher-order dispersion correction and terms describing dissipation and instability caused by numerous factors. Using asymptotic analysis and analysis of solutions in

V. Yu. Belashov; S. G. Tyunina

1997-01-01

293

Qualitative analysis and asymptotics of solutions of generalized KdV-class equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the asymptotics and the structure of solutions of generalized KdV-class equations with an arbitrary nonlinearity index, which are extensively used in the physics of ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma, hydrodynamics, and aerodynamics. KdV-class equations are generalized by introducing higher-order dispersion correction and terms describing dissipation and instability caused by numerous factors. Using asymptotic analysis and analysis of solutions in the phase space, we distinguish among different classes of solutions of soliton and nonsoliton types.

Belashov, V. Yu.; Tyunina, S. G.

1997-03-01

294

Seeking help for depression from family and friends: A qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282) including emotional support (n = 154), informational support (n = 93), companionship support (n = 36) and instrumental support (n = 23). Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72), the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62), the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49), their accessibility (n = 36), and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30). The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53), inappropriate support (n = 45), the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32) and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20) and the relationship (n = 18). Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers. PMID:22171567

2011-01-01

295

Harm reduction and knowledge exchange--a qualitative analysis of drug-related Internet discussion forums  

PubMed Central

Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are continuously and increasingly appearing on the international drug market. Global Internet forums are a publicly available reality where users anonymously discuss and share information about NPS. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the discussions about NPS on international Internet forums. Methods The most post-frequent NPS discussions were collected from three “leading edge” international Internet forums. A total of 13,082 posts from 60 threads of discussion were systematically examined and interpreted to reveal recurring topics and patterns. Each thread was coded with emerging topics and supporting quotations from the data set. Eventually, codes with coherent meaning were arranged into 51 broader categories of abstraction, which were combined into four overarching themes. Results Four themes emerged during the analysis: (1) uncovering the substance facts, (2) dosage and administration, (3) subjectively experienced effects, and (4) support and safety. The first theme dealt primarily with substance identification, pharmacology, and assessed not only purity but also legal status and acquisition. The second theme focused on administration techniques, dose recommendations, technical talk about equipment, and preferred settings for drug use. The third theme involved a multitude of self-reported experiences, in which many different aspects of intoxication were depicted in great detail. The users emphasized both positive and negative experiences. The last theme incorporated the efforts of the communities to prevent and minimize harm by sharing information about potential risks of the harmful effects or contraindications of a substance. Also, online support and guidance were given to intoxicated persons who experienced bad or fearful reactions. Conclusions The findings showed that the discussions were characterized by a social process in which users supported each other and exchanged an extensive and cumulative amount of knowledge about NPS and how to use them safely. Although this publicly available knowledge could entail an increase in drug use, the main characteristics of the discussions in general were a concern for safety and harm reduction, not for recruiting new users. Drug-related Internet forums could be used as a location for drug prevention, as well as a source of information for further research about NPS. PMID:25200686

2014-01-01

296

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ qualitative and quantitative analysis of mineral ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for discrimination and analysis of geological materials was examined. The research was focused on classification of mineral ores using their LIBS spectra prior to quantitative determination of copper. Quantitative analysis is not a trivial task in LIBS measurement because intensities of emission lines in laser-induced plasmas (LIP) are strongly affected by the sample matrix (matrix effect). To circumvent this effect, typically matrix-matched standards are used to obtain matrix-dependent calibration curves. If the sample set consists of a mixture of different matrices, even in this approach, the corresponding matrix has to be known prior to the downstream data analysis. For this categorization, the multielemental character of LIBS spectra can be of help. In this contribution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was employed on the measured data set to discriminate individual rocks as individual matrices against each other according to their overall elemental composition. Twenty-seven igneous rock samples were analyzed in the form of fine dust, classified and subsequently quantitatively analyzed. Two different LIBS setups in two laboratories were used to prove the reproducibility of classification and quantification. A superposition of partial calibration plots constructed from the individual clustered data displayed a large improvement in precision and accuracy compared to the calibration plot constructed from all ore samples. The classification of mineral samples with complex matrices can thus be recommended prior to LIBS system calibration and quantitative analysis.

Po?ízka, P.; Demidov, A.; Kaiser, J.; Keivanian, J.; Gornushkin, I.; Panne, U.; Riedel, J.

2014-11-01

297

Analysis of Some Results of Quark Searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of the results of Cairns, McCusker, Peak, and Woolcott, indicating a discovery of quarks in the cores of very energetic extensive air showers, is shown to be extremely difficult to reconcile with the results of other negative experiments. Alternative explanations of their results are then suggested.

R. K. Adair; H. Kasha

1969-01-01

298

Negotiating ecstasy risk, reward, and control: a qualitative analysis of drug management patterns among ecstasy-using urban young adults.  

PubMed

This paper is based on qualitative in-depth interviews conducted from 2008 to 2009 with 118 ethnically diverse Ecstasy users from the greater Hartford area, CT, USA. Participants were urban, primarily Black and Hispanic, aged 18 to 36, and had limited higher education compared with samples in previous Ecstasy research. Interviews focused on personal background, history of Ecstasy and other drug use, and recent sexual events. In this paper, we examine: participants' negotiation of perceived risks and benefits of Ecstasy use, behavioral strategies employed to minimize risks, and the relationship of risk-benefit analysis, motivation for use, frequency of use, and polydrug use to participants' sense of control over their Ecstasy use. We conclude with recommendations for intervention approaches and suggestions for future research. PMID:21955066

Singer, Elyse Ona; Schensul, Jean J

2011-01-01

299

Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

Andersen, Frans Orsted

2010-01-01

300

Relay and forward in free space optical communication - A qualitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free space optical (FSO) communication systems have attracted great attention due to their ability to achieve high data rates. To increase the coverage area, multi-antenna systems were proposed, which failed to achieve diversity gains due to limitations of the feasible number of antennas per terminal and turbulent induced fading. Cooperative communication can overcome these drawbacks and this paper reviews relay assisted communication. The performance of Amplify and forward (AF), Decode and Forward (DF) and selective relaying protocols are analyzed and compared based on the metrics of outage analysis, BER analysis and communicating distance(s).

Jeyarani, J.; Kumar, D. Sriram, Dr.

2014-10-01

301

Learning (Not) to become a Teacher: A Qualitative Analysis of the Job Entrance Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reporting on 12 case studies of student teachers, this paper examines how experiences during teacher education affect graduates' decision on job entrance. Interpretative data-analysis reveals that powerful sources of the shift in motivation to enter teaching concern interactions in which the person of the teacher is at stake. These mainly involve…

Rots, Isabel; Kelchtermans, Geert; Aelterman, Antonia

2012-01-01

302

A Qualitative Analysis of Vietnamese Adolescent Identity Exploration within and outside an Ethnic Enclave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on identity development explorations enables a greater understanding of contexts that affect immigrant adolescents. Utilizing thematic and grounded narrative analysis of 46 journal writings, during a one-month period, from first and second generation Vietnamese adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 18 (26 residents of a culturally and…

Vo-Jutabha, Easter Dawn; Dinh, Khanh T.; McHale, James P.; Valsiner, Jaan

2009-01-01

303

Recursive Frame Analysis: Reflections on the Development of a Qualitative Research Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…

Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

2012-01-01

304

USI Technical Report Series in Informatics A qualitative analysis of preemptive conflict detection  

E-print Network

analysis of preemptive conflict detection Lile Hattori1, Michele Lanza1, Marco D'Ambros1 1 REVEAL @ Faculty of Informatics, Università della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland Abstract Preemptive conflict detection is the act of detecting a potential merge conflict at an earlier stage than at check in time, and informing the involved

Lanza, Michele

305

Service learning in Guatemala: using qualitative content analysis to explore an interdisciplinary learning experience among students in health care professional programs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interprofessional collaboration among health care professionals yields improved patient outcomes, yet many students in health care programs have limited exposure to interprofessional collaboration in the classroom and in clinical and service-learning experiences. This practice gap implies that students enter their professions without valuing interprofessional collaboration and the impact it has on promoting positive patient outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the interprofessional experiences of students in health care professional programs as they collaborated to provide health care to Guatemalan citizens over a 7-day period. Methods In light of the identified practice gap and a commitment by college administration to fund interprofessional initiatives, faculty educators from nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy conducted a qualitative study to explore a service-learning initiative focused on promoting interprofessional collaboration. Students collaborated in triads (one student from each of the three disciplines) to provide supervised health care to underserved Guatemalan men, women, children, and infants across a variety of community and health care settings. Eighteen students participated in a qualitative research project by describing their experience of interprofessional collaboration in a service-learning environment. Twice before arriving in Guatemala, and on three occasions during the trip, participants reflected on their experiences and provided narrative responses to open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis methodology was used to describe their experiences of interprofessional collaboration. Results An interprofessional service-learning experience positively affected students’ learning, their growth in interprofessional collaboration, and their understanding and appreciation of health care professions besides their own. The experience also generated feelings of gratitude for the opportunity to be a member of an interprofessional team and to serve those in need by giving of themselves. Conclusion The findings support service learning as a platform to encourage interprofessional collaboration among students in health care professional programs. The research will inform future service-learning experiences in which interdisciplinary collaboration is an outcome of interest. PMID:23430865

Fries, Kathleen S; Bowers, Donna M; Gross, Margo; Frost, Lenore

2013-01-01

306

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of low molecular weight phenols by high pressure liquid chromatography  

E-print Network

). The 8 commonly occurring phenolic acids chosen as standards were: gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxyben- zoic, vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, feruli c and ci nnami c acids. Separation was on a nonpolar C18 substituted, silica based column with elution..., Texas, in 1980. Samples were stored at -4'C until analysis. Chem1cals Gallic, Protocatechuic, Vaniliic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were obtained from Aldrich Chemical Company (Milwankee, Miscons1n), p-hydroxybenzoic acid from Eastman...

Hahn, David Henry

2012-06-07

307

An Affect-Based Text Mining System for Qualitative Analysis of Japanese Free Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing companies are concerned about ordinary customers' opinions of their products. This paper presents an affect-based text mining system for Japanese that can aid in the analysis of customers' reviews of commercial products. From free-text product reviews, the system creates an Adjective-Relation Database containing relations extracted between adjective and noun phrases. Using a pre-existing lexicon of general affect words together

Makoto Sano

308

Value of quantitative stress thallium-201 emission CT for localization of coronary artery disease: Comparison with qualitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors previously reported the value of segmental analysis of stress thallium emission computed tomography (ECT) for localization of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was undertaken to evaluate whether quantitative analysis (QNT) may further improve the diagnostic accuracy over the visual qualitative analysis (QLT). The gamma camera was rotated over 180/sup 0/, collecting 32 views (30 sec each). Stress and 2.5hr delayed ECT images were evaluated in 83 cases who underwent coronary arteriography. The initial uptake and % washout were assessed by circumferential profiles of the three short-axis sections and one middle RAO long-axis section. Those with initial uptake or washout profiles below the mean minus 2SD of the 10 normals in more than 20/sup 0/ contiguous regions were considered abnormal. Among 61 cases with CAD, QNT showed abnormality in 60 cases (98%), while QLT showed in 57 (93%). The specificity was both 91%. The authors conclude that both QLT and QNT of stress ECT showed high accuracy for diagnosing CAD. QNT is valuable for evaluating multivessel disease and detecting mild stenosis.

Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Kodama, S.; Senda, M.; Minato, K.; Nohara, R.; Kambara, H.; Kawai, C.; Torizuka, K.

1984-01-01

309

Qualitative Analysis of College Students' Ideas about the Earth: Interviews and Open-Ended Questionnaires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOTE: This is a large file, 165.8 mb in size! This article describes a study in which students' conceptual understanding about the Earth was examined. In the study, students enrolled in introductory science courses at four institutions, completed open-ended questionnaires, and participated in interviews. The institutions consisted of a small private university, two large state schools, and one small public liberal arts college. Students were probed on a variety of topics related to the Earth's crust and interior, and to geologic time. Analysis of questionnaire and interview responses indicates that students hold a number of non-scientific ideas about the Earth. Additionally, students apply a range of ontological categories to geologic phenomena, with significant implications for teaching geosciences from a systems perspective.

Libarkin, Julie; Anderson, Steven; Dahl, Julie; Beilfuss, Meredith; Boone, William

2005-01-01

310

A Qualitative Analysis of Power Differentials in Ethical Situations in Academia  

PubMed Central

Power and organizational hierarchies are ubiquitous to social institutions that form the foundation of modern society. Power differentials may act to constrain or enhance people's ability to make good ethical decisions. However, little scholarly work has examined perceptions of this important topic. The present effort seeks to address this issue by interviewing academics about hypothetical ethical problems that involve power differences among those involved. Academics discussed what they would do in these scenarios, often drawing on their own experiences. Using a think-aloud protocol, participants were prompted to discuss their reasoning and thinking behind their ethical decisions. These interview data were content analyzed using a semantic analysis program that identified a number of distinct ways that academics think about power differences and abuses in ethical situations. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25356066

Gibson, Carter; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Giorgini, Vincent; Mecca, Jensen T.; Devenport, Lynn D.; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D.

2014-01-01

311

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vetiver essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Vetiver essential oils (VEO) are important raw ingredients used in perfume industry, entering the formula of numerous modern fragrances. Vetiver oils are considered to be among the most complex essential oils, resulting most of the time in highly coeluted chromatograms whatever the analytical technique. In this context, conventional gas chromatography has failed to provide a routine tool for the accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of their constituents. Applying comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography techniques (GC×GC-FID/MS) afforded the mean to separate efficiently vetiver oil constituents in order to identify them in a more reliable way. Moreover, this is the first time that a complete true quantitation of each constituent is carried out on such complex oils by means of internal calibration. Finally, we have studied the influence of the injection mode on the determined chemical composition, and showed that several alcohols underwent dehydration under defined chromatographic conditions (splitless mode) usually recommended for quantitation purposes. PMID:23522261

Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

2013-05-01

312

A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

Zhang, Lin

2013-07-01

313

A Generalized Qualitative-Response Model and the Analysis of Management Fraud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management fraud has become a topic of increasing interest to the public accounting profession. Prior research indicates that management fraud is seldom experienced by audiGtors. As a result, it is doubtful that auditors have a well-developed cognitive model for making fraud risk assessments as part of the audit planning process. Early research studies attempted to identify factors that could be

J. V. Hansen; J. B. McDonald; W. F. Messier Jr.; T. B. Bell

1996-01-01

314

Relationship Advice in Top-Selling Men's Magazines: A Qualitative Document Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of men's magazines contain advice columns which counsel readers on relationships. The viewers heed the information provided to them and apply it to their own lives and relationships. As a result, it is imperative to study the relationship advice men are seeking in these magazines. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intimate relational content and

Roy Spalding; Toni Schindler Zimmerman; Christine A. Fruhauf; James H. Banning; Joanna Pepin

2010-01-01

315

Informed Consent for Whole Genome Sequencing: A Qualitative Analysis of Participant Expectations and Perceptions of Risks, Benefits, and Harms  

PubMed Central

Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the supplementary materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework. PMID:22532433

Tabor, Holly K.; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg., Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J.; Dent., Karin M.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.

2012-01-01

316

Anterior mediastinal fat in Behçet's disease: qualitative and quantitative CT analysis.  

PubMed

The fat-rich anterior mediastinum could be a sensitive window for monitoring minute changes in vascularity induced by systemic vasculitis. To evaluate this hypothesis, an analysis of anterior mediastinal fat in patients with Behçet's disease and a control group was conducted. This study included 43 patients diagnosed with Behçet's disease within the last 11 years who underwent CT scan; 55 patients were selected as a control population. Mediastinal fat was classified according to CT morphology. Comparison of serum inflammatory markers was performed for evaluation of disease activity according to morphologic types, and average Hounsfield unit of the anterior mediastinum was measured. Significantly higher mean CT attenuation was observed in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the control group (-48.5 ± 33.5 vs. -67.7 ± 18.7, respectively, P < 0.05). Mediastinal fat types were classified as follows: pure fatty tissue (2 vs. 31 % [Behçet's disease vs. control group]), diffuse soft tissue infiltration (16 vs. 29 %), tubular structures (21 vs. 4 %), mixed infiltration with tubular structures (42 vs. 15 %), and evident thymic tissue (19 vs. 22 %). The value for mean mediastinal attenuation was significantly higher in the group with a high level of C-reactive protein than in the normal level group. The mean CT attenuation of anterior mediastinal fat is significantly higher in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the normal group. Although pathologic confirmation is needed, the cause is postulated to be either inflammatory neovascularization or minimal thymic hyperplasia induced by Behçet's disease. PMID:24113897

Lee, Sang Yub; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Hui Joong; Choi, Sun Ju; Hahm, Myong Hun; Yoon, Sung Won

2013-12-01

317

Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.  

PubMed

Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype. PMID:24222464

Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

2014-01-01

318

Qualitative analysis of a ratio-dependent Holling-Tanner model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a Holling-Tanner system with ratio-dependenceE First, we establish the sufficient conditions for the global stability of positive equilibrium by constructing Lyapunov function. Second, through a simple change of variables, we transform the ratio-dependent Holling-Tanner model into a better studied Liénard equation. As a result, the uniqueness of limit cycle can be solved.

Liang, Zhiqing; Pan, Hongwei

2007-10-01

319

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Medication Errors: The New York Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives:In June 2000, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) expanded,its New York Patient Occurrence Reporting and Tracking System (NYPORTS) mandatory,adverse event reporting system to include the reporting of medication errors. The errors included were those that resulted in a severity of patient harm that met the National Coordinating Council Medication Error Reporting Program (NCC MERP) criteria for

Elizabeth Duthie; Barbara Favreau; Angelo Ruperto; Janet Mannion; Ellen Flink; Ruth Leslie

320

Quantitative and qualitative image quality analysis of super resolution images from a low cost scanning laser ophthalmoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lurking epidemic of eye diseases caused by diabetes and aging will put more than 130 million Americans at risk of blindness by 2020. Screening has been touted as a means to prevent blindness by identifying those individuals at risk. However, the cost of most of today's commercial retinal imaging devices makes their use economically impractical for mass screening. Thus, low cost devices are needed. With these devices, low cost often comes at the expense of image quality with high levels of noise and distortion hindering the clinical evaluation of those retinas. A software-based super resolution (SR) reconstruction methodology that produces images with improved resolution and quality from multiple low resolution (LR) observations is introduced. The LR images are taken with a low-cost Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO). The non-redundant information of these LR images is combined to produce a single image in an implementation that also removes noise and imaging distortions while preserving fine blood vessels and small lesions. The feasibility of using the resulting SR images for screening of eye diseases was tested using quantitative and qualitative assessments. Qualitatively, expert image readers evaluated their ability of detecting clinically significant features on the SR images and compared their findings with those obtained from matching images of the same eyes taken with commercially available high-end cameras. Quantitatively, measures of image quality were calculated from SR images and compared to subject-matched images from a commercial fundus imager. Our results show that the SR images have indeed enough quality and spatial detail for screening purposes.

Murillo, Sergio; Echegaray, Sebastian; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter; Bauman, Wendall

2011-03-01

321

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Delivery Through the Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have proven that focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles can deliver large molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) locally, transiently and non-invasively. In this study, the cellular effects, the size estimation of the opening and the amount delivered were inferred through qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular delivery to the brain parenchyma in a murine model. The ultimate purpose was to build the foundation for future ultrasound-facilitated neurodegenerative disease treatment in humans. A bolus of microbubbles at 1 ?l/g body weight concentration was intravenously injected. Pulsed FUS was applied to the left hippocampus through the intact skin and skull followed by intravenously administration of fluorescence-conjugated dextran at 3 kDa, 10 kDa and 70 kDa. The brain were either sectioned for fluorescence imaging or homogenized for quantitative analysis. The concentration of 3 kDa, 10 kDa and 70 kDa dextrans delivered to the left brain hemisphere was quantified to be 7.9±4.9 ?g/g, 2.4±1.3 ?g/g and 0.9±0.47 ?g/g of brain weight. Smooth muscle cells engulfing the arterioles exhibited higher fluorescence in the case of 70 kDa dextran, compared to the 3 kDa dextran, demonstrating that fluorescence imaging can help with the understanding of the type of mechanism of molecular uptake by different brain cells.

Wang, Shougang; Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Morrison, Barclay; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2009-04-01

322

Living with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Physical, Psychological, and Social Sequelae  

PubMed Central

Women with metastatic breast cancer face a wide range of medical, practical, and emotional challenges that impact their quality of life. Research to date, however, has not focused on the quality-of-life concerns of metastatic breast cancer patients with significant distress. The present study examined a range of concerns among distressed metastatic breast cancer patients, including physical and emotional distress, social functioning, and existential issues. Forty-four distressed women with metastatic breast cancer wrote their deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their illness. These essays were thematically analyzed for effects of the illness on quality of life. Three themes were identified in patients’ essays. First, metastatic breast cancer and its treatment may result in a number of quality-of-life concerns, including physical symptom burden, emotional distress, body image disturbance, and disrupted daily activities. Second, social constraints on disclosure of cancer-related concerns may exacerbate patients’ distress. Third, many women experience a heightened awareness of life’s brevity and search for meaning in their cancer experience. Results highlight a range of quality-of-life concerns following a metastatic breast cancer diagnosis and suggest that addressing social constraints on cancer-related disclosure and the search for meaning may improve patients’ psychological adjustment. PMID:23528206

Mosher, Catherine E.; Johnson, Courtney; Dickler, Maura; Norton, Larry; Massie, Mary Jane; DuHamel, Katherine

2014-01-01

323

The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.  

PubMed

This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. PMID:23793078

Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

2013-11-01

324

The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

2014-01-01

325

Typology of Analytical Errors in Qualitative Educational Research: An Analysis of the 2003-2007 Education Science Dissertations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…

Karadag, Engin

2010-01-01

326

The State of Qualitative Research in Gifted Education as Published in American Journals: An Analysis and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research has become a more familiar form of inquiry in gifted education, judging its quality and value remains obscure and problematic to the field. This article analyzes and critiques published studies for the purpose of understanding the state of qualitative research in gifted education. Data for this study are from the major…

Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige; Dabbs, Charlotte Simms

2007-01-01

327

Ecology-centered experiences among children and adolescents: A qualitative and quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research involved two studies that considered ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the opportunity to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences. To do this, I carried out a yearlong ethnographic study at an urban community garden located in a large city in the Southeastern United States. Through participant observations and informal interviews of community garden staff and participants, I found children had opportunities to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences (e.g., interaction with animals) along with other experiences (e.g., playing games, reading books). In light of previous research that shows urban children have diminished ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---because of their lack of ecology-centered experiences (Coley, 2012), the present study may have implications for urban children to learn about ecology. As an extension of Study 1, I carried out a second study (Study 2) to investigate how ecology-centered experiences contribute to adolescents' environmental attitudes and behaviors in light of other contextual factors, namely environmental responsibility support, ecological thought, age and gender. Study 2 addressed three research questions. First, does ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---predict environmental attitudes and behaviors (EAB)? Results showed ecological thought did not predict EAB, an important finding considering the latent assumptions of previous research about the relationship between these two factors (e.g., Brugger, Kaiser, & Roczen, 2011). Second, do two types of contextual support, ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) and environmental responsibility support (i.e., support through the availability of environmentally responsible models) predict EAB? As predicted, results showed that ecology-centered experiences predicted EAB; yet, when environmental responsibility support was taken into consideration, ecology-centered experiences no longer predicted EAB. These findings suggested environmental responsibility support was a stronger predictor than ecology-centered experiences. Finally, do age and gender predict EAB? Consistent with previous research (e.g., Alp, Ertepiner, Tekkaya, & Yilmaz, 2006), age and gender significantly predicted EAB.

Orton, Judy

328

A qualitative analysis of the determinants in the choice of a French journal reviewing procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1993 and 2010, two French journals (Aster and Didaskalia) coming from different backgrounds but belonging to the same institution used to publish papers on research in science and technology education. The merging of these journals made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This merging occurred at a time when research is becoming increasingly international which partly determines some of the reviewing procedure choices. In order for a francophone international journal to survive, it needs to take this internationalization into account in a reasoned manner. The author of this article, as a chief editor of RDST (Recherches en Didactique des Sciences et des Technologies)—the journal resulting from the merging- taking part in this merger, analyses the social, cultural and pragmatic determinants which impacted the choices made in reviewing procedures. This paper describes how these diversity of factors leads us to drop the idea of a standard reviewing procedure which would be valid for all journals.

Morge, Ludovic

2014-05-01

329

A qualitative analysis of the experience and impact of killing in hand-to-hand combat.  

PubMed

A growing body of research suggests that killing during military combat is closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as a number of other adverse mental health related conditions (e.g., dissociative experiences, violent behavior, functional impairment). This article provides first-person perspectives on the experiences and impact of killing by service members with the goal of expanding our understanding of the impact of taking a life during war. In audio-recorded phenomenological interviews, 9 service members described their experiences and the subsequent impact of killing during hand-to-hand combat. A description, supported by participant quotations, was constructed to represent the participants' experiences. Results suggest the experience and aftermath of taking a life in hand-to-hand combat was disturbing, psychologically stressful, and necessitated some form of coping after the event. Service members who killed in hand-to-hand combat viewed their actions as necessary to preserve their life and that killing in hand-to-hand combat was more emotionally taxing than killing by shooting. Our findings may help to improve providers' understanding of service members' first-person experiences of killing in hand-to-hand combat and thus provide the basis for the development of a connected and genuine relationship with such military clients. PMID:25158640

Jensen, Peter R; Simpson, Duncan

2014-08-01

330

Health care experiences of people with dementia and their caregivers: a meta-ethnographic analysis of qualitative studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Understanding the health care experience of people with dementia and their caregivers is becoming increasingly important given the growing number of affected individuals. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies that examined aspects of the health care experience of people with dementia and their caregivers to better understand ways to improve care for this population. Methods: We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO and CINAHL to identify relevant articles. We extracted key study characteristics and methods from the included studies. We also extracted direct quotes from the primary studies, along with the interpretations provided by authors of the studies. We used meta-ethnography to synthesize the extracted information into an overall framework. We evaluated the quality of the primary studies using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist. Results: In total, 46 studies met our inclusion criteria; these involved 1866 people with dementia and their caregivers. We identified 5 major themes: seeking a diagnosis; accessing supports and services; addressing information needs; disease management; and communication and attitudes of health care providers. We conceptualized the health care experience as progressing through phases of seeking understanding and information, identifying the problem, role transitions following diagnosis and living with change. Interpretation: The health care experience of people with dementia and their caregivers is a complex and dynamic process, which could be improved for many people. Understanding these experiences provides insight into potential gaps in existing health services. Modifying existing services or implementing new models of care to address these gaps may lead to improved outcomes for people with dementia and their caregivers. PMID:24003093

Prorok, Jeanette C.; Horgan, Salinda; Seitz, Dallas P.

2013-01-01

331

A Lacanian view on Balint group meetings: a qualitative analysis of two case presentations  

PubMed Central

Background GPs’ subjectivity is an intrinsic instrument in their daily work. By offering GPs a platform to present and discuss difficult interactions with patients, Balint group work be might provide them an opportunity to explore and articulate aspects of their subjectivity. In order to get a more profound understanding of what participation in a Balint group can offer, we focused on the process of change that can be observed during Balint group meetings. To that end, this study scrutinized two Balint group case discussions on a micro-level. Method Two cases were selected from a larger data set of 68 audio-taped case discussions in four Balint groups. In order to shed light on the type of change that characterizes the presenter’s narrative, we used Lacan’s theoretical distinction between imaginary and symbolic modes of relating to the other. Results In both case discussions, the GPs presenting the case initially appeared to be stuck in a fixed image of a situation, referred to as ‘imaginary relating to the other.’ Through a range of interactions with the group, the presenters were encouraged to explore different subject positions, which allowed them to broaden their initial image of the situation and to discover other issues at stake. This was referred to as a more symbolic way of relating to the other. Conclusion This study throws light on the type of change Balint group participation allows for and on the way this might be achieved. We conclude that Balint group work is potentially beneficial to the participating GPs as well as to the relationship with their patients. PMID:24655833

2014-01-01

332

Chinese immigrant parents' vaccination decision making for children: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background While immunization coverage rates for childhood routine vaccines in Hong Kong are almost 100%, the uptake rates of optional vaccines remain suboptimal. Understanding parental decision-making for children’s vaccination is important, particularly among minority groups who are most vulnerable and underserved. This study explored how a subsample of new immigrant mothers from mainland China, a rapidly-growing subpopulation in Hong Kong, made decisions on various childhood and adolescent vaccines for their offspring, and identified key influences affecting their decision making. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 Chinese new immigrant mothers recruited by purposive sampling. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results Participants’ conversation revealed five underlying themes which influenced parents’ vaccination decision-making: (1) Institutional factors, (2) Insufficient vaccination knowledge and advice, (3) Affective impacts on motivation, (4) Vaccination barriers, and (5) Social influences. The role of social norms appeared overwhelmingly salient influencing parents’ vaccination decision making. Institutional factors shaped parent’s perceptions of vaccination necessity. Fear of vaccine-targeted diseases was a key motivating factor for parents adopting vaccination. Insufficient knowledge about vaccines and targeted diseases, lack of advice from health professionals and, if provided, suspicions regarding the motivations for such advice were common issues. Vaccination cost was a major barrier for many new immigrant parents. Conclusions Social norms play a key role influencing parental vaccination decision-making. Insight gained from this study will help inform healthcare providers in vaccination communication and policymakers in future vaccination programme. PMID:24507384

2014-01-01

333

Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4%) were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG); diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support. PMID:23249410

2012-01-01

334

Microscale Procedure for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis with Emphasis on Writing Equations: Chemical Fingerprinting Applied to the "n"-bottle Problem of Matching Samples with Their Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory method for teaching inorganic qualitative analysis and chemical equations is described. The experiment has been designed to focus attention on cations and anions that react to form products. This leads to a logical approach to understand and write chemical equations. The procedure uses 3 mL plastic micropipettes to store and deliver…

Sattsangi, Prem D.

2014-01-01

335

Hip dysplasia, pelvic obliquity, and scoliosis in cerebral palsy: a qualitative analysis using 3D CT reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five patients with cerebral palsy, hip dysplasia, pelvic obliquity, and scoliosis were evaluated retrospectively using three dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) scans of the proximal femur, pelvis, and lumbar spine to qualitatively evaluate their individual deformities by measuring a number of anatomical landmarks. Three dimensional reconstructions of the data were visualized, analyzed, and then manipulated interactively to perform simulated osteotomies of the proximal femur and pelvis to achieve surgical correction of the hip dysplasia. Severe deformity can occur in spastic cerebral palsy, with serious consequences for the quality of life of the affected individuals and their families. Controversy exists regarding the type, timing and efficacy of surgical intervention for correction of hip dysplasia in this population. Other authors have suggested 3DCT studies are required to accurately analyze acetabular deficiency, and that this data allows for more accurate planning of reconstructive surgery. It is suggested here that interactive manipulation of the data to simulate the proposed surgery is a clinically useful extension of the analysis process and should also be considered as an essential part of the pre-operative planning to assure that the appropriate procedure is chosen. The surgical simulation may reduce operative time and improve surgical correction of the deformity.

Russ, Mark D.; Abel, Mark F.

1998-06-01

336

Qualitative analysis of files of four different rotary systems, before and after being used for the twelfth time.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to make a comparative evaluation of the surface topography of the cervical third and tip of four different rotary systems, before and after being used 12 times, in resin blocks with simulated root canals with standardized 45° curvatures, and analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A total of 1,440 resin blocks with simulated root canals and standardized curvatures were used. The blocks were divided into four groups and prepared by the crown down technique according to the manufacturers' recommendations: Group 1 (G1)--K3®, Group 2 (G2)--Protaper Universal®, Group 3 (G3)--Twisted Files®, and Group 4 (G4)--Biorace®. After each preparation, the instruments were washed and autoclaved. A total of 24 instruments were selected, being three new instruments and three after having been used for the 12th time, from each group. These instruments were analyzed by SEM. To perform the evaluation, 24 micrographs were observed by 12 evaluators who attributed a score to the images according to a template. In the qualitative analysis of the cervical region and tip of new instruments, it was observe that the files of Groups G4 and G2 were the least rough and those of G1, the roughest. In the same manner, the cervical region of the instruments was qualitatively analyzed after the 12th time of using them, and there was no statistically significant difference at a level of 1% (ANOVA P < 0.01) between G2 and G4 as well as between G1 and G3. As regards the tip, it was observed that there was no statistically significant difference, at a level of 1%, between the groups: G1 and G3, G1 and G4, and between G3 and G4, and there was statistically significant difference at a level of 1%, between group G2 and the other groups, with G3 having the greatest roughness (ANOVA P < 0.01). PMID:23108940

Yamazaki-Arasaki, Andréa Kanako; Cabrales, Ricardo Júlio Salgado; Kleine, Brígida Mônica; Araki, Angela Toshie; Dos Santos, Marcelo; Prokopowitsch, Igor

2013-01-01

337

"Completely out-at-sea" with "two-gender medicine": A qualitative analysis of physician-side barriers to providing healthcare for transgender patients  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the transgender community have identified healthcare access barriers, yet a corresponding inquiry into healthcare provider perspectives has lagged. Our aim was to examine physician perceptions of barriers to healthcare provision for transgender patients. Methods This was a qualitative study with physician participants from Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were used to capture a progression of ideas related to barriers faced by physicians when caring for trans patients. Qualitative data were then transcribed verbatim and analysed with an emergent grounded theory approach. Results A total of thirteen (13) physician participants were interviewed. Analysis revealed healthcare barriers that grouped into five themes: Accessing resources, medical knowledge deficits, ethics of transition-related medical care, diagnosing vs. pathologising trans patients, and health system determinants. A centralising theme of “not knowing where to go or who to talk to” was also identified. Conclusions The findings of this study show that physicians perceive barriers to the care of trans patients, and that these barriers are multifactorial. Access barriers impede physicians when referring patients to specialists or searching for reliable treatment information. Clinical management of trans patients is complicated by a lack of knowledge, and by ethical considerations regarding treatments—which can be unfamiliar or challenging to physicians. The disciplinary division of responsibilities within medicine further complicates care; few practitioners identify trans healthcare as an interest area, and there is a tendency to overemphasise trans status in mental health evaluations. Failure to recognise and accommodate trans patients within sex-segregated healthcare systems leads to deficient health policy. The findings of this study suggest potential solutions to trans healthcare barriers at the informational level—with increased awareness of clinical guidelines and by including trans health issues in medical education—and at the institutional level, with support for both trans-focused and trans-friendly primary care models. PMID:22559234

2012-01-01

338

Linking HIV-positive Jail Inmates to Treatment, Care, and Social Services After Release: Results from a Qualitative Assessment of the COMPASS Program  

PubMed Central

Approximately 17% of individuals living with HIV/AIDS pass through the correctional system each year. Jails provide a unique opportunity to diagnose and treat HIV infection among high-risk, transient populations with limited access to medical services. In 2007, the US Health Resources and Services Administration funded a multi-site demonstration project entitled Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care in Jail Settings that aims to improve diagnosis and treatment services for HIV-positive jail detainees and link them to community-based medical care and social services upon release. We performed an evaluation of the Rhode Island demonstration site entitled Community Partnerships and Supportive Services for HIV-Infected People Leaving Jail (COMPASS). Through in-depth qualitative interviews among 20 HIV-positive COMPASS participants in Rhode Island, we assessed how COMPASS impacted access to health care and social services utilization. Most individuals were receiving HIV treatment and care services upon enrollment, but COMPASS enhanced linkage to medical care and follow-up visits for HIV and other co-morbidities for most participants. Several participants were successfully linked to new medical services as a result of COMPASS, including one individual newly diagnosed with HIV and another who had been living with HIV for many years and was able to commence highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While many individuals reported that COMPASS support prevented substance abuse relapse, ongoing substance abuse nevertheless remained a challenge for several participants. Most participants enrolled in one or more new social services as a result of COMPASS, including Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, food assistance, and housing programs. The primary unmet needs of COMPASS participants were access to mental health services and stable housing. Intensive case management of HIV-positive jail detainees enhances access to medical and social support services and helps prevent relapse to substance abuse. Expanding intensive case management programs, public housing, and mental health services for recently released HIV-positive detainees should be public health priorities. PMID:21046470

Cornwall, Alexandra; Fu, Jeannia; Bazerman, Lauri; Loewenthal, Helen; Beckwith, Curt

2010-01-01

339

Linking HIV-positive jail inmates to treatment, care, and social services after release: results from a qualitative assessment of the COMPASS Program.  

PubMed

Approximately 17% of individuals living with HIV/AIDS pass through the correctional system each year. Jails provide a unique opportunity to diagnose and treat HIV infection among high-risk, transient populations with limited access to medical services. In 2007, the US Health Resources and Services Administration funded a multi-site demonstration project entitled Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care in Jail Settings that aims to improve diagnosis and treatment services for HIV-positive jail detainees and link them to community-based medical care and social services upon release. We performed an evaluation of the Rhode Island demonstration site entitled Community Partnerships and Supportive Services for HIV-Infected People Leaving Jail (COMPASS). Through in-depth qualitative interviews among 20 HIV-positive COMPASS participants in Rhode Island, we assessed how COMPASS impacted access to health care and social services utilization. Most individuals were receiving HIV treatment and care services upon enrollment, but COMPASS enhanced linkage to medical care and follow-up visits for HIV and other co-morbidities for most participants. Several participants were successfully linked to new medical services as a result of COMPASS, including one individual newly diagnosed with HIV and another who had been living with HIV for many years and was able to commence highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While many individuals reported that COMPASS support prevented substance abuse relapse, ongoing substance abuse nevertheless remained a challenge for several participants. Most participants enrolled in one or more new social services as a result of COMPASS, including Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, food assistance, and housing programs. The primary unmet needs of COMPASS participants were access to mental health services and stable housing. Intensive case management of HIV-positive jail detainees enhances access to medical and social support services and helps prevent relapse to substance abuse. Expanding intensive case management programs, public housing, and mental health services for recently released HIV-positive detainees should be public health priorities. PMID:21046470

Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Fu, Jeannia; Bazerman, Lauri; Loewenthal, Helen; Beckwith, Curt

2010-12-01

340

Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners' records  

PubMed Central

Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people. PMID:24460955

2014-01-01

341

Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking cessation plays a crucial role in reducing preventable morbidity and mortality and is a recognized public-health-policy issue in many countries. Two of the most important factors that affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability to cope with situations causing relapse. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate former and current smokers’ motivations for smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting. Methods We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants (twelve current and twelve former smokers) and eleven semi-structured interviews (five current and six former smokers) with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking cessation. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods. Results Three main themes were identified: (1) motivations to quit smoking, (2) reasons why smokers sometimes relapse, and (3) modes of quitting smoking. Within the first theme, the following six subthemes surfaced: (1) a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, (2) the high cost of cigarettes, (3) the unpleasant smell, (4) health concern, (5) pregnancy and breastfeeding, and (6) a variety of other factors. The second theme encompassed the following subthemes: (1) stress and the need to lessen it by smoking a cigarette, (2) the need to experience the pleasure connected with smoking, and (3) the smoking environment both at home and at work. Participants presented different smoking-cessation modes, but mainly they were unplanned attempts. Conclusion Two very important motivations for smoking cessation were a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, and the high cost of cigarettes. The most common smoking-cessation mode was a spontaneous decision to quit, caused by a particular trigger factor. Relapse causes encompassed, most notably: stress, lack of the pleasure previously obtained from smoking, and the smoking environment. PMID:25336926

Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Czachowski, Slawomir; Piszczek, Elwira

2014-01-01

342

46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no...

2010-10-01

343

Numerical Taxonomic Analysis of Some Strains of Rhizobium spp. That Uses a Qualitative Coding of Immunodiffusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Antigenic relationships among seven strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were examined by immunodiffusion reactions, in which cells of each strain were reacted against each of the seven corresponding antisera. Similar analyses were performed with Rhizobium trifolii (28 strains), Rhizobium meliloti (9 strains), and rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany (13 strains). Antigens and antisera were reacted within each species only; serological interspecies cross-reactions were not performed. The results, scored qualitatively as reactions of identity, cross-reactions, or no reaction, were formed into datum matrices and used to analyze the relationships between strains by applying the association measure of Bray and Curtis (J. R. Bray and J. T. Curtis, Ecol. Monogr. 27:325-349, 1957) and the UPGMA clustering algorithm (P. H. A. Sneath and R. R. Sokal, Numerical Taxonomy, 1973). No two strains were regarded as being serologically identical unless each gave the same results as the other in each immunodiffusion reaction against every antiserum. Despite the high level of cross-reactions and reactions of identity (totalling 93% of all cell-antiserum combinations) among strains of R. trifolii and R. meliloti, no strains were identical by the criterion described above; however, the strains of these species clustered rapidly and fused at the 70% similarity level. The B. japonicum strains and the rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany were much less cross-reactive (67 and 86% of all combinations were negative, respectively), and they clustered more slowly. The strains of B. japonicum fused completely only at the 4% similarity level, whereas of the 13 cowpea-nodulating strains, 4 reacted as two pairs of identical strains and 6 remained unfused. PMID:16347692

Dudman, William F.; Belbin, Lee

1988-01-01

344

From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

Pearl, Judea

1994-01-01

345

Qualitative Analysis of Association of Research Libraries' E-Metrics Participant Feedback about the Evolution of Measures for Networked Electronic Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) E-Metrics Project is an ongoing effort to develop new measures that describe and measure networked electronic resources and also to underscore the need for measuring the value of such resources. This article presents results from an ongoing iterative qualitative study with the following goals: (a) to…

Kyrillidou, Martha; Giersch, Sarah

2004-01-01

346

Evaluating Fidelity in Home-Visiting Programs a Qualitative Analysis of 1058 Home Visit Case Notes from 105 Families  

PubMed Central

Objective Implementation fidelity is a key issue in home-visiting programs as it determines a program’s effectiveness in accomplishing its original goals. This paper seeks to evaluate fidelity in a 27-month program addressing maternal and child health which took place in France between 2006 and 2011. Method To evaluate implementation fidelity, home visit case notes were analyzed using thematic qualitative and computer-assisted linguistic analyses. Results During the prenatal period, home visitors focused on the social components of the program. Visitors discussed the physical changes in pregnancy, and psychological and social environment issues. Discussing immigration, unstable employment and financial related issues, family relationships and dynamics and maternity services, while not expected, were found in case notes. Conversely, health during pregnancy, early child development and postpartum mood changes were not identified as topics within the prenatal case notes. During the postnatal period, most components of the intervention were addressed: home visitors observed the mother’s adaptation to the baby; routine themes such as psychological needs and medical-social networks were evaluated; information on the importance of social support and on adapting the home environment was given; home visitors counseled on parental authority, and addressed mothers’ self-esteem issues; finally, they helped to find child care, when necessary. Some themes were not addressed or partially addressed: health education, child development, home environment, mother’s education plans and personal routine, partner support and play with the child. Other themes were not expected, but found in the case notes: social issues, mother-family relationship, relation with services, couple issues, quality of maternal behavior and child’s language development. Conclusions In this program, home visitors experienced difficulties addressing some of the objectives because they gave precedence to the families“ urgent needs. This research stresses the importance of training home visitors to adapt the intervention to the social, psychological and health needs of families. PMID:22629341

Saïas, Thomas; Lerner, Emilie; Greacen, Tim; Simon-Vernier, Elodie; Emer, Alessandra; Pintaux, Eléonore; Guédeney, Antoine; Dugravier, Romain; Tereno, Susana; Falissard, Bruno; Tubach, Florence; Revah-Levy, Anne

2012-01-01

347

Faint Object Classification and Analysis System standard test image results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of standard test images has been analyzed using the Faint Object Classification and Analysis System (FOCAS). This paper presents an outline of the FOCAS software and algorithms followed by a summary of the results and a description of the archive containing the detailed analysis. The archive is available on magnetic tape. The detailed results may be used to

Francisco Valdes

1989-01-01

348

Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in

Elizabeth Ormondroyd; Louise Donnelly; Clare Moynihan; Cornelie Savona; Elizabeth Bancroft; D Gareth Evans; Rosalind Eeles; Stuart Lavery; Maggie Watson

2012-01-01

349

Identifying Barriers to Help-Seeking: A Qualitative Analysis of Students' Preparedness to Seek Help from Tutors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To construct a culturally sensitive account of barriers to help-seeking in a student population, a qualitative study was based on first-hand accounts. Participants were encouraged to explain in their own terms their behavior in seeking help from academic staff. Reasons and implications for practice are discussed. (Author/EMK)

Grayson, Andrew; Miller, Hugh; Clarke, David D.

1998-01-01

350

Introductory Statistics, College Student Attitudes and Knowledge--A Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of Technology-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that compared the learning experiences of a group of students from a technology-based college-level introductory statistics course with the learning experiences of a group of students with non-technology-based instruction. Findings from the study indicate differences with regards to classroom…

Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M.; Lee, C.; Fouladi, R. T.

2007-01-01

351

The role of HIV testing, counselling, and treatment in coping with HIV\\/AIDS in Uganda: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV\\/AIDS has had a devastating impact at individual, household and community levels. This qualitative research investigates the role of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and treatment in enabling HIV-positive Ugandans to cope with this disease. Twelve predetermined focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted; six with men and six with women. Half of the men and women's groups were receiving

Barbara Nyanzi-Wakholi; Antonieta Medina Lara; Christine Watera; Paula Munderi; Charles Gilks; Heiner Grosskurth

2009-01-01

352

Some Recovery Processes in Mutual-Help Groups for Persons with Mental Illness; II: Qualitative Analysis of Participant Interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that consumer operated services facilitate recovery from serious mental illness. In part I of this series, we analyzed the content of the GROW program, one example of a consumer operated service, and identified several processes that Growers believe assists in recovery. In this paper, we review the qualitative interviews of 57 Growers to determine what actual participants

Patrick W. Corrigan; Natalie Slopen; Gabriela Gracia; Sean Phelan; Cornelius B. Keogh; Lorraine Keck

2005-01-01

353

Effectiveness of Quantitative Skills, Qualitative Skills, and Gender in Determining Computer Skills and Attitudes: A Causal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author investigated the relationships among Turkish students' perceived computer skills, computer attitudes, quantitative skills, qualitative skills, and gender. The author collected data from a total of 362 undergraduate students. He found that gender was a significant variable to predict computer attitudes but not perceived…

Varank, Ilhan

2007-01-01

354

The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

2012-01-01

355

Restoration of Short Periods of Missing Energy Use and Weather Data Using Cubic Spline and Fourier Series Approaches: Qualitative Analysis  

E-print Network

-bulb temperature samples, the performance is based on the amount of data that are within 1, 3, 5 and 10 °F from the actual data. From the results of this analysis, it appears that linear interpolation is a better approach for filling gaps one to three hours long...

Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

2002-01-01

356

Restoration of Short Periods of Missing Energy Use and Weather Data Using Cubic Spline and Fourier Series Approaches: Qualitative Analysis  

E-print Network

and the dry-bulb temperature samples, the performance is based on the amount of data that are within 1, 3, 5, and 10ºF from the actual data. From the results of this analysis, it appears that linear interpolation is a better approach for filling gaps one...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

357

Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Ma?opolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 the Marshal Office of Ma?opolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Ma?opolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Ma?opolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of areas (municipalities) according to erosion control needs is visible. The study shows that, high-resolution satellite imagery and OBIA may be efficiently used for P-factor mapping and thus contribute to a refined soil erosion risk assessment.

Drzewiecki, Wojciech; W??yk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafra?ska, Beata

2014-06-01

358

Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Ma?opolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 the Marshal Office of Ma?opolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Ma?opolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Ma?opolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of areas (municipalities) according to erosion control needs is visible. The study shows that, high-resolution satellite imagery and OBIA may be efficiently used for P-factor mapping and thus contribute to a refined soil erosion risk assessment.

Drzewiecki, Wojciech; W??yk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafra?ska, Beata

2013-04-01

359

Simultaneous measurement in mass and mass/mass mode for accurate qualitative and quantitative screening analysis of pharmaceuticals in river water.  

PubMed

A new approach for the analysis of pharmaceuticals (target and non-target) in water by LC-QTOF-MS is described in this work. The study has been designed to assess the performance of the simultaneous quantitative screening of target compounds, and the qualitative analysis of non-target analytes, in just one run. The features of accurate mass full scan mass spectrometry together with high MS/MS spectral acquisition rates - by means of information dependent acquisition (IDA) - have demonstrated their potential application in this work. Applying this analytical strategy, an identification procedure is presented based on library searching for compounds which were not included a priori in the analytical method as target compounds, thus allowing their characterization by data processing of accurate mass measurements in MS and MS/MS mode. The non-target compounds identified in river water samples were ketorolac, trazodone, fluconazole, metformin and venlafaxine. Simultaneously, this strategy allowed for the identification of other compounds which were not included in the library by screening the highest intensity peaks detected in the samples and by analysis of the full scan TOF-MS, isotope pattern and MS/MS spectra - the example of loratadine (histaminergic) is described. The group of drugs of abuse selected as target compounds for evaluation included analgesics, opioids and psychostimulants. Satisfactory results regarding sensitivity and linearity of the developed method were obtained. Limits of detection for the selected target compounds were from 0.003 to 0.01 ?g/L and 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L, in MS and MS/MS mode, respectively - by direct sample injection of 100 ?L. PMID:22901300

Martínez Bueno, M J; Ulaszewska, Maria M; Gomez, M J; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

2012-09-21

360

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods  

E-print Network

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods § to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary

Leistikow, Bruce N.

361

Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications. PMID:24982972

Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md.

2014-01-01

362

Growth phase-dependent proteomes of the Malaysian isolated Lactococcus lactis dairy strain M4 using label-free qualitative shotgun proteomics analysis.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MS(E)) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications. PMID:24982972

Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

2014-01-01

363

Archetypal trajectories of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress in family care givers of patients with lung cancer: secondary analysis of serial qualitative interviews  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess if family care givers of patients with lung cancer experience the patterns of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress typical of the patient, from diagnosis to death. Design Secondary analysis of serial qualitative interviews carried out every three months for up to a year or to bereavement. Setting South east Scotland. Participants 19 patients with lung cancer and their 19 family carers, totalling 88 interviews (42 with patients and 46 with carers). Results Carers followed clear patterns of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress that mirrored the experiences of those for whom they were caring, with some carers also experiencing deterioration in physical health that impacted on their ability to care. Psychological and spiritual distress were particularly dynamic and commonly experienced. In addition to the “Why us?” response, witnessing suffering triggered personal reflections in carers on the meaning and purpose of life. Certain key time points in the illness tended to be particularly problematic for both carers and patients: at diagnosis, at home after initial treatment, at recurrence, and during the terminal stage. Conclusions Family carers witness and share much of the illness experience of the dying patient. The multidimensional experience of distress suffered by patients with lung cancer was reflected in the suffering of their carers in the social, psychological, and spiritual domains, with psychological and spiritual distress being most pronounced. Carers may need to be supported throughout the period of illness not just in the terminal phase and during bereavement, as currently tends to be the case. PMID:20538635

2010-01-01

364

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Aconitum Alkaloids in Raw and Processed Chuanwu and Caowu by HPLC in Combination with Automated Analytical System and ESI/MS/MS  

PubMed Central

HPLC in combination with automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS was used to analyze aconitine (A), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), and their benzoyl analogs in the Chinese herbs Caowu and Chuanwu. First, an HPLC method was developed and validated to determine A, MA, and HA in raw and processed Caowu and Chuanwu. Then an automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS were applied to analyze these alkaloids and their semihydrolyzed products. The results obtained from automated analytical system are identical to those from ESI/MS/MS, which indicated that the method is a convenient and rapid tool for the qualitative analysis of herbal preparations. Furthermore, HA was little hydrolyzed by heating processes and thus it might account more for the toxicity of processed aconites. Hence, HA could be used as an indicator when one alkaloid is required as a reference to monitor the quality of raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu. In addition, the raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu can be distinguished by monitoring the ratio of A and MA to HA. PMID:22567575

Sun, Aimin; Gao, Bo; Ding, Xueqing; Huang, Chi-Ming; But, Paul Pui-Hay

2012-01-01

365

Be known, be available, be mutual: a qualitative ethical analysis of social values in rural palliative care  

PubMed Central

Background Although attention to healthcare ethics in rural areas has increased, specific focus on rural palliative care is still largely under-studied and under-theorized. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the values informing good palliative care from rural individuals' perspectives. Methods We conducted a qualitative ethnographic study in four rural communities in Western Canada. Each community had a population of 10, 000 or less and was located at least a three hour travelling distance by car from a specialist palliative care treatment centre. Data were collected over a 2-year period and included 95 interviews, 51 days of field work and 74 hours of direct participant observation where the researchers accompanied rural healthcare providers. Data were analyzed inductively to identify the most prevalent thematic values, and then coded using NVivo. Results This study illuminated the core values of knowing and being known, being present and available, and community and mutuality that provide the foundation for ethically good rural palliative care. These values were congruent across the study communities and across the stakeholders involved in rural palliative care. Although these were highly prized values, each came with a corresponding ethical tension. Being known often resulted in a loss of privacy. Being available and present created a high degree of expectation and potential caregiver strain. The values of community and mutuality created entitlement issues, presenting daunting challenges for coordinated change. Conclusions The values identified in this study offer the opportunity to better understand common ethical tensions that arise in rural healthcare and key differences between rural and urban palliative care. In particular, these values shed light on problematic health system and health policy changes. When initiatives violate deeply held values and hard won rural capacity to address the needs of their dying members is undermined, there are long lasting negative consequences. The social fabric of rural life is frayed. These findings offer one way to re-conceptualize healthcare decision making through consideration of critical values to support ethically good palliative care in rural settings. PMID:21955451

2011-01-01

366

A shifting sense of being: a secondary analysis and comparison of two qualitative studies on young-onset dementia.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate and interpret metaphorical expressions of the lived experiences of everyday life in people with young-onset dementia (YOD) and to compare these findings with findings from an analysis via grounded theory to see if the second analysis adds more knowledge to the topic. In this secondary analysis of data, metaphors from 20 Norwegian men and women living with YOD were investigated. Using Steger's anthropological three-step method, three categories were identified: Sliding away, leaving traces, and all alone in the world. Comprehensively, we understood the metaphors as representing the participants' shifting sense of being. The main findings of the study show that by analysing the data by combining and using both methods, more knowledge to the topic was added. Acknowledging metaphorical expressions as a source of knowledge, this study reflects on how metaphors can be used in therapeutic dialogue. We conclude that metaphors add to the understanding of descriptions of daily life in a more existential way, beyond the results gained from the grounded theory analysis. However, the findings from the analysis via grounded theory included aspects that we did not find when analysing the metaphors. PMID:25022268

Johannessen, Aud; Möller, Anders; Haugen, Per K; Biong, Stian

2014-01-01

367

A shifting sense of being: A secondary analysis and comparison of two qualitative studies on young-onset dementia  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate and interpret metaphorical expressions of the lived experiences of everyday life in people with young-onset dementia (YOD) and to compare these findings with findings from an analysis via grounded theory to see if the second analysis adds more knowledge to the topic. In this secondary analysis of data, metaphors from 20 Norwegian men and women living with YOD were investigated. Using Steger's anthropological three-step method, three categories were identified: Sliding away, leaving traces, and all alone in the world. Comprehensively, we understood the metaphors as representing the participants’ shifting sense of being. The main findings of the study show that by analysing the data by combining and using both methods, more knowledge to the topic was added. Acknowledging metaphorical expressions as a source of knowledge, this study reflects on how metaphors can be used in therapeutic dialogue. We conclude that metaphors add to the understanding of descriptions of daily life in a more existential way, beyond the results gained from the grounded theory analysis. However, the findings from the analysis via grounded theory included aspects that we did not find when analysing the metaphors. PMID:25022268

Johannessen, Aud; Moller, Anders; Haugen, Per K.; Biong, Stian

2014-01-01

368

The power of technology: a qualitative analysis of how South Asian youth use technology to maintain cross-gender relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores how South Asian youth in Canada use computer-mediated communication (CMC) such as social networking sites, cell phones and instant messaging in their cross-gender intimate relationships. Using 42 qualitative interviews conducted with second-generation South Asian Canadians living in the Greater Toronto Area and Durham region, this article sheds light on the motives for using CMC as well as

Arshia U. Zaidi; Amanda Couture; Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale

2012-01-01

369

Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change Among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were conducted, and data were analyzed using qualitative software to code and

Lara J. LaCaille; Kim Nichols Dauner; Rachel J. Krambeer; Jon Pedersen

2011-01-01

370

Qualitative analysis of the behavior of the plasma piston in the channel of a rail-gun launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal difficulties associated with the realization of high launching velocities in rail guns are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the difficulties related to the gasdynamic structure of the plasma piston and electrode erosion. These phenomena are analyzed in qualitative terms, with attention given to the conditions under which they occur and to the stability of stationary states. The importance of special measures aimed at ensuring the compactness of the plasma piston at the initial stage of acceleration is emphasized.

Zagorskii, A. V.

1991-12-01

371

UNCORRECTED 2 Flawed population viability analysis can result  

E-print Network

Protected area 21 PVA 22 Scientific method 23 Time series analysis 24 Wolf A B S T R A C T For many assessment: A case study 4 for wolves in Algonquin park, Canada 5 Brent R. Pattersona,*, Dennis L. Murrayb 6UNCORRECTED PROOF 2 Flawed population viability analysis can result 3 in misleading population

372

TEST RESULT ANALYSIS WITH RESPECT TO FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

TEST RESULT ANALYSIS WITH RESPECT TO FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS Gregor v. BOCHMANN and Omar B. BELLAL Université de Montréal Montréal, Canada Abstract: There are two aspects to testing: (1) the selection of appropriate test inputs and (2) the analysis of the observed interactions of the implementation under test

von Bochmann, Gregor

373

ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR BUILDING 241 702-AZ A TRAIN  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the analyses results for three samples obtained under RPP-PLAN-28509, Sampling and Analysis Plan for Building 241 702-AZ A Train. The sampling and analysis was done in response to problem evaluation request number PER-2004-6139, 702-AZ Filter Rooms Need Radiological Cleanup Efforts.

DUNCAN JB; FRYE JM; COOKE CA; LI SW; BROCKMAN FJ

2006-12-13

374

The Bowl-Throwing Result Analysis for Bowling Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new approach to bowling game result analysis. A reliable attribute, i.e. the lane boundary, is detected first. Based on this attribute the rudimentary result frame can be detected. The spectral features of the audio frames of the candidates are employed to determine the exact result frame by applying the DistAl algorithm, a simple and

Jiann-Shu Lee; Shang-Chin Su; Hsuan-Ting Chang

2007-01-01

375

Investigation of a Power Synchro System: Analysis and Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

An actual synchro system is examined with particular attention to dynamic behavior. Using frequency response and eigenvalue analysis, dynamic behavior is examined over a wide speed range. Experimental results obtained by frequency response measurements on the actual system are presented. Predicted values are correlated with experimental results and conclusions drawn regarding system performance, in particular concerning stability. Some steady-state results

Robert Burridge; Thomas Barton

1970-01-01

376

DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

2010-02-01

377

The Results of Gregor Mendel: An analysis, and comparison with the results of other researchers  

E-print Network

The Results of Gregor Mendel: An analysis, and comparison with the results of other researchers The work of Gregor Mendel on inheritance in the garden pea, which was carried out in the 1850s and 1860s that the ideas put forward by Mendel are still highly relevant today, more than a century later. However

Stephens, Matthew

378

Decision-making process of Kala Azar care: results from a qualitative study carried out in disease endemic areas of Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of consumer decision making in the health sector is a complex process of comparing feasible alternatives and evaluating the levels of satisfaction associated with the relevant options. This paper makes an attempt to understand how and why consumers make specific decisions, what motivates them to adopt a specific health intervention, and what features they find attractive in each of the options. Method The study used a descriptive-explanatory design to analyze the factors determining the choices of healthcare providers. Information was collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Results The results suggest that the decision making related to seeking healthcare for Kala Azar (KA) treatment is a complex, interactive process. Patients and family members follow a well-defined road map for decision making. The process of decision making starts from the recognition of healthcare needs and is then modified by a number of other factors, such as indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources. Household and individual characteristics also play important roles in facilitating the process of decision making. The results from the group discussions and in-depth interviews are consistent with the idea that KA patients and family members follow the rational approach of weighing the costs against the benefits of using specific types of medical care. Conclusion The process of decision making related to seeking healthcare follows a complex set of steps and many of the potential factors affect the decision making in a non-linear fashion. Our analysis suggests that it is possible to derive a generalized road map of the decision-making process starting from the recognition of healthcare needs, and then modifying it to show the influences of indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources. PMID:23849617

2013-01-01

379

Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm3 and 15×15×15 cm3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

Dahing, Lahasen@Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

2014-09-01

380

Qualitative analysis of halogenated organic contaminants in American eel by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Target compound analysis with scanning mass spectrometers such as quadrupole or magnetic sector instruments is used extensively in environmental chemistry because of the selectivity, sensitivity, and robustness. Yet, target compound analysis selectively ignores the majority of compounds present in a sample, especially in complex matrices like fish. In this study, time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to screen for and identify halogenated compounds in American eels (Anguilla rostrata). Individual and then pooled eel samples were analysed using electron ionization and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes. Eels were differentiated by principal component analysis of chemical profiles and were grouped corresponding to their capture location, all with a single instrument injection per sample. Bromine containing compounds were further investigated by taking advantage of the selectivity of ECNI by utilizing the Br(-) ion m/z 79 and 81. A total of 51 brominated compounds were detected and their identities were attempted by authentic standards, library searching, and/or chemical formula prediction based on accurate mass measurements. Several PBDEs were identified in the samples, and the majority of the non-PBDEs identified were bromophenols, bromoanisoles, and bromobenzenes. These classes of compounds are synthesized for use in flame retardant production either as intermediates or as final products. However, their occurrence in eels was most likely the result of metabolism or break-down products of high production volume flame retardants like polybrominated diphenyl ethers and bromophenoxy compounds. PMID:24703010

Byer, Jonathan D; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Lebeuf, Michel; Brown, R Stephen; Backus, Sean; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran

2014-12-01

381

Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

2007-01-01

382

Accept or refuse? Factors influencing the decision-making of transplant surgeons who are offered a pancreas: results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Most offered pancreases are not transplanted. This study investigates the factors that inform and influence the transplant surgeon’s decision to select an offered pancreas. Methods Semi-standardized interviews were conducted with 14 highly qualified transplant surgeons from all 14 German transplant centers performing?>?5 pancreas transplantations per year. The interviews focused on medical and non-medical criteria on which the individual accept/refuse decision depends. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and underwent content analysis. Results The interviewees agreed upon certain main selection criteria, e.g. donor age, lab results, ICU stay. However, there was no consistency in judging these parameters, and clear cut-offs did not exist. The pancreas macroscopy is a pivotal factor, as well as knowing (and trusting) the donor surgeon. 3/14 surgeons reported that they had occasionally refused a pancreas because of staff shortage. Some interviewees followed a restrictive acceptance policy, whereas others preferred to accept almost any pancreas and inspect it personally before deciding. Conclusion The assessment of medical donor characteristics is highly inconsistent. Both very cautious as well as very permissive acceptance policies may render the allocation process less efficient. A more standardized policy should be discussed. Finally, better training for donor surgeons seems advisable, in order to increase trust and thus pancreas utilization. PMID:24152541

2013-01-01

383

Transition to adult mental health services for young people with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a qualitative analysis of their experiences  

PubMed Central

Background There is little research on the process of transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS). More recently, there is growing recognition that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may persist into adulthood requiring services beyond age 18. However, despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guidance which recommends specialist services for adults with ADHD, there is currently a lack of such services in the UK. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences of young people with ADHD during transition from CAMHS to AMHS. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with ADHD patients accessing CAMHS clinics in Nottinghamshire were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Ten semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed. We found that patients’ relationships with their clinician were a key factor in both their reported experience of CAMHS and the transition process. Perceived responsibility of care was also pivotal in how the transition process was viewed. Nature and severity of problems and patients expectations of adult services were also contributing factors in the transition process. The need for continued parental support was openly accepted and thought to be required by the majority of young people with ADHD during transition. Conclusions Timely preparation, joint working, good clinician relationships and parental support serve to facilitate the process of transition for young people with ADHD. Nature and severity of problems are perceived to impede or facilitate transition, with predominantly more ‘complex presentations’ with associated mental health problems more familiar to AMHS (e.g. self-harm, depression) making for smoother transitions to adult services. Transitions to AMHS were more difficult when ADHD was viewed as the main or sole clinical problem. Further exploration of young people’s experiences of transition and their engagement with and experience of adult services is required to provide an overall picture of facilitators to successful transition and integration into adult services. PMID:23497082

2013-01-01

384

A nationwide survey on the expectation of public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists in Malaysia--a qualitative analysis of 623 written comments  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the expectation of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) who are working closely with family medicine specialists (FMSs) at public health clinics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting This study is part of a larger national study on the perception of the Malaysian public healthcare professionals on FMSs. Participants PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely hospitals, health clinics and health offices. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of written comments of respondents’ expectation of FMSs. Results The participants’ response rate was 58% (780/1345) with an almost equal proportion from each public healthcare facility. We identified 21 subthemes for the 623 expectation comments. The six emerging themes are (1) need for more FMSs, (2) clinical roles and functions of FMSs, (3) administrative roles of FMSs, (4) contribution to community and public health, (5) attributes improvement and (6) research and audits. FMSs were expected to give attention to clinical duty. Delivering this responsibility with competence included having the latest medical knowledge in their own and others’ medical disciplines, practising evidence-based medicine in prehospital and posthospital care, better supervision of staff and doctors under their care, fostering effective teamwork, communicating more often with hospital specialists and making appropriate referral. Expectations ranged from definite and strong for more FMSs at the health clinics to low expectation for FMSs’ involvement in research; to mal-expectation on FMSs’ involvement in community and public health programmes. Conclusions There were some remarkable differences in expectations on FMSs from the three different PHCPs. These ranged from being clinically competent and administratively available for patients and staff at the health clinics, to mal-expectations on FMSs to engage in public health affairs. Relevant parties, including FMSs themselves, could take appropriate self-improvement initiatives to enhance public practice of family medicine and patient care. Trial registration number NMRR ID: 08-12-1167. PMID:24919639

Chew, Boon-How; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Ismail, Mastura; Hamzah, Zuhra; A-Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan; Md-Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Ali, Norsiah

2014-01-01

385

"Home is where the patient is": a qualitative analysis of a patient-centred model of care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Ambulatory, community-based care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been found to be effective in multiple settings with high cure rates. However, little is known about patient preferences around models of MDR-TB care. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has delivered home-based MDR-TB treatment in the rural Kitgum and Lamwo districts of northern Uganda since 2009 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the National TB and Leprosy Programme. We conducted a qualitative study examining the experience of patients and key stakeholders of home-based MDR-TB treatment. Methods We used semi-structured interviews and focus-group discussions to examine patients’ perceptions, views and experiences of home-based treatment and care for MDR-TB versus their perceptions of care in hospital. We identified how these perceptions interacted with those of their families and other stakeholders involved with TB. Participants were selected purposively following a stakeholder analysis. Sample size was determined by data saturation being reached within each identified homogenous category of respondents: health-care receiving, health-care providing and key informant. Iterative data collection and analysis enabled adaptation of topic guides and testing of emerging themes. The grounded theory method of analysis was applied, with data, codes and categories being continually compared and refined. Results Several key themes emerged: the perceived preference and acceptability of home-based treatment and care as a model of MDR-TB treatment by patients, family, community members and health-care workers; the fear of transmission of other infections within hospital settings; and the identification of MDR-TB developing through poor adherence to and inadequate treatment regimens for DS-TB. Conclusions Home-based treatment and care was acceptable to patients, families, communities and health-care workers and was seen as preferable to hospital-based care by most respondents. Home-based care was perceived as safe, conducive to recovery, facilitating psychosocial support and allowing more free time and earning potential for patients and caretakers. These findings could contribute to development of an adaptation of treatment approach strategy at national level. PMID:24559177

2014-01-01

386

Developing school psychologists as agents of social justice: a qualitative analysis of student understanding across three years.  

PubMed

This study employed a cohort-sequential design with four cohorts over 3 years to investigate school psychology graduate trainees' (n=37) understanding of social justice. Using consensual qualitative research methods, participants' perspectives on social justice writ large, social justice as it applies to school psychology, and effective aspects of social justice training in their graduate training program were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Field-based training though service-learning in diverse communities provided trainees with exposure to experiences that were viewed as instrumental in their understanding of social justice in general and as it applies to school psychology. Trainees described aspects of the training program that were viewed as conducive to educating school psychologists as agents of social justice. Based on findings from the study, a descriptive model of school psychology training for social justice is proposed. PMID:24930823

Moy, Gregory E; Briggs, Alissa; Shriberg, David; Furrey, Katie Jackson; Smith, Portia; Tompkins, Nicole

2014-06-01

387

Trajectory constraints in qualitative simulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for specifying temporal constraints on trajectories of dynamical systems and enforcing them during qualitative simulation. This capability can be used to focus a simulation, simulate non-autonomous and piecewise-continuous systems, reason about boundary condition problems and incorporate observations into the simulation. The method has been implemented in TeQSIM, a qualitative simulator that combines the expressive power of qualitative differential equations with temporal logic. It interleaves temporal logic model checking with the simulation to constrain and refine the resulting predicted behaviors and to inject discontinuous changes into the simulation.

Brajnik, G. [Universita di Udine (Italy); Clancy, D.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

388

POMO - Plotting Omics analysis results for Multiple Organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Systems biology experiments studying different topics and organisms produce thousands of data values across different types of genomic data. Further, data mining analyses are yielding ranked and heterogeneous results and association networks distributed over the entire genome. The visualization of these results is often difficult and standalone web tools allowing for custom inputs and dynamic filtering are limited. Results We have developed POMO (http://pomo.cs.tut.fi), an interactive web-based application to visually explore omics data analysis results and associations in circular, network and grid views. The circular graph represents the chromosome lengths as perimeter segments, as a reference outer ring, such as cytoband for human. The inner arcs between nodes represent the uploaded network. Further, multiple annotation rings, for example depiction of gene copy number changes, can be uploaded as text files and represented as bar, histogram or heatmap rings. POMO has built-in references for human, mouse, nematode, fly, yeast, zebrafish, rice, tomato, Arabidopsis, and Escherichia coli. In addition, POMO provides custom options that allow integrated plotting of unsupported strains or closely related species associations, such as human and mouse orthologs or two yeast wild types, studied together within a single analysis. The web application also supports interactive label and weight filtering. Every iterative filtered result in POMO can be exported as image file and text file for sharing or direct future input. Conclusions The POMO web application is a unique tool for omics data analysis, which can be used to visualize and filter the genome-wide networks in the context of chromosomal locations as well as multiple network layouts. With the several illustration and filtering options the tool supports the analysis and visualization of any heterogeneous omics data analysis association results for many organisms. POMO is freely available and does not require any installation or registration. PMID:24365393

2013-01-01

389

SIMS prototype system 3 test results: Engineering analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating is presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

1978-01-01

390

Dimensional analysis of impulse loading resulting from detonation  

E-print Network

. Design/methodology/approach ­ In the present work, a critical assessment is carried out of some for the problem of impulse loading experienced by target structures (e.g. vehicle hull) due to detonation products takes place). Once the dimensional analysis is reformulated, a variety of experimental results

Grujicic, Mica

391

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2012-09-10

392

Implementation of a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety in a community health center: results from a qualitative case study  

PubMed Central

Background The collaborative care model is a systematic approach to the treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care settings that involves the integration of care managers and consultant psychiatrists, with primary care physician oversight, to more proactively manage mental disorders as chronic diseases, rather than treating acute symptoms. While collaborative care has been shown to be more effective than usual primary care in improving depression outcomes in a number of studies, less is known about the factors that support the translation of this evidence-based intervention to real-world program implementation. The purpose of this case study was to examine the implementation of a collaborative care model in a community based primary care clinic that primarily serves a low-income, uninsured Latino population, in order to better understand the interdisciplinary relationships and the specific elements that might facilitate broader implementation. Methods An embedded single-case study design was chosen in order to thoroughly examine the components of one of several programs within a single organization. The main unit of analysis was semi-structured interviews that were conducted with seven clinical and administrative staff members. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the interviews. Line-by-line initial coding resulted in over 150 initial codes, which were clustered together to rebuild the data into preliminary categories and then divided into four final categories, or main themes. Results Four unique themes about how the implementation of a collaborative care model worked in this setting emerged from the interviews: organizational change, communication, processes and outcomes of the program, and barriers to implementation. Each main theme had a number of subthemes that provided a detailed description of the implementation process and how it was unique in this setting. Conclusion The results indicated that adequate training and preparation, acceptance and support from key personnel, communication barriers, tools for systematic follow-up and measurement, and organizational stability can significantly impact successful implementation. Further research is necessary to understand how organizational challenges may affect outcomes for patients.

Eghaneyan, Brittany H; Sanchez, Katherine; Mitschke, Diane B

2014-01-01

393

Representation of analysis results involving aleatory and epistemic uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

Procedures are described for the representation of results in analyses that involve both aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty, with aleatory uncertainty deriving from an inherent randomness in the behavior of the system under study and epistemic uncertainty deriving from a lack of knowledge about the appropriate values to use for quantities that are assumed to have fixed but poorly known values in the context of a specific study. Aleatory uncertainty is usually represented with probability and leads to cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) or complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for analysis results of interest. Several mathematical structures are available for the representation of epistemic uncertainty, including interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory and probability theory. In the presence of epistemic uncertainty, there is not a single CDF or CCDF for a given analysis result. Rather, there is a family of CDFs and a corresponding family of CCDFs that derive from epistemic uncertainty and have an uncertainty structure that derives from the particular uncertainty structure (i.e., interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory, probability theory) used to represent epistemic uncertainty. Graphical formats for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in families of CDFs and CCDFs are investigated and presented for the indicated characterizations of epistemic uncertainty.

Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Sallaberry, Cedric J.

2008-08-01

394

Recent results on parametric analysis of differential Omega error  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous tests of the differential Omega concept and an analysis of the characteristics of VLF propagation make it possible to delineate various factors which might contribute to the variation of errors in phase measurements at an Omega receiver site. An experimental investigation is conducted to determine the effect of each of a number of parameters on differential Omega accuracy and to develop prediction equations. The differential Omega error form is considered and preliminary results are presented of the regression analysis used to study differential error.

Baxa, E. G., Jr.; Piserchia, P. V.

1974-01-01

395

Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration  

PubMed Central

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: , where µ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and µ = ?1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference (??) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral Calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration. PMID:24897021

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

396

ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

PubMed Central

A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

2011-01-01

397

Retrospective qualitative analysis of ecological networks under environmental perturbation: a copper-polluted intertidal community as a case study.  

PubMed

The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped into trophic groups) belonging to the Chañaral intertidal community that, being directly affected by copper pollution, contributed primarily to the generation of the observed changes in community structure. These groups of species were called initiators. We applied a qualitative modelling approach based only on the sign and direction of effects among species, and present a formula for predicting changes in equilibrium abundances considering stress on multiple variables simultaneously. We then applied this technique retrospectively to identify the most likely set of initiators. Our analyses allowed identification of a unique set of four initiators in the studied intertidal system (a group of algae, sessile invertebrates, a group of herbivores and starfish), which were hypothesized to be the primary drivers of the observed changes in community structure. In addition, a hypothesis was derived about how the perturbation affected these initiators. The hypothesis is that pollution affected negatively the population growth rate of both algae and sessile invertebrates and suppressed the interaction between herbivores and starfish. Our analytic approach, focused on identifying initiators, constitutes an advance towards understanding the mechanisms underlying human-driven ecosystem disruption and permits identifying species that may serve as a focal point for community management and restoration. PMID:21877226

Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Garay-Narváez, Leslie; Medina, Matías H

2012-01-01

398

Multiple Alleles for Tuber Shape in Diploid Potato Detected by Qualitative and Quantitative Genetic Analysis Using Rflps  

PubMed Central

Tuber shape in potato is commonly regarded as displaying continuous variation, yet at the diploid level phenotypes can be discerned visually, having round or long tubers. Inheritance of qualitative tuber shape can be explained by a single locus Ro, round being dominant to long. With restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) the Ro locus was mapped on chromosome 10. Tuber shape was also studied as a quantitative trait, using the length/width ratio as trait value. The estimated broad sense heritability was h(2) = 0.80. The morphologically mapped Ro locus explained 75% of the genetic variation, indicating the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) at the Ro locus and minor genetic factors. RFLP alleles linked with Ro alleles were used to divide the progeny into four genotypic classes: Ro( &) Ro( &) : Ro( &) ro : roRo( &) : roro = 1 : 1 : 1 : 1. The recessive ro allele is identical by descent in both parents. The significantly different effects (P = 0.0157) of the non-identical alleles Ro( &) and Ro( &) provided evidence for multiallelism at the Ro locus. Linkage mapping of the Ro locus was compared with QTL mapping. Only those markers which are polymorphic in both parents allow accurate QTL mapping when genetic factors segregate from both parents. This finding applies to QTL mapping in all outbreeders without homozygous inbred strains. PMID:7914504

van-Eck, H. J.; Jacobs, JME.; Stam, P.; Ton, J.; Stiekema, W. J.; Jacobsen, E.

1994-01-01

399

Perceived barriers to care and provider gender preferences among veteran men who have experienced military sexual trauma: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Research suggests that there may be unique barriers to accessing care among men who have experienced sexual trauma. The primary goal of the current research was to elucidate potential barriers to accessing military sexual trauma (MST)-related care for male veterans. A secondary goal was to explore whether veterans have preferences regarding the gender of clinicians providing MST-related care. Qualitative analyses were used to examine data collected from semistructured interviews conducted with 20 male veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration care who reported MST but who had not received any MST-related mental health care. Veterans identified a number of potential barriers, with the majority of reported barriers relating to issues of stigma and gender. Regarding provider gender preferences, veterans were mixed, with 50% preferring a female provider, 25% a male provider, and 25% reporting no gender preference. These preliminary data suggest that stigma, gender, and knowledge-related barriers may exist for men regarding seeking MST-related care. Interventions to address potential barriers, such as outreach interventions and providing gender-specific psychoeducation, may increase access to care for male veterans who report MST. PMID:22984877

Turchik, Jessica A; McLean, Caitlin; Rafie, Samantha; Hoyt, Tim; Rosen, Craig S; Kimerling, Rachel

2013-05-01

400

Chromatographic analysis of some drugs employed in erectile dysfunction therapy: Qualitative and quantitative studies using calixarene stationary phase.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of change in chromatographic process variables on the retention behavior of four drugs employed in erectile dysfunction therapy on a calixarene stationary phase is described. Three of these drugs are known to treat erectile dysfunction, namely, sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and apomorphine hydrochloride, and one drug that is used as opioid analgesic, tramadol hydrochloride, which is quiet widely misused to treat premature ejaculation. The results indicate the importance of considering the structure and pKa values of drugs to be separated along with mobile phase composition. A new optimized, rapid, and accurate liquid chromatography method is also established for simultaneous determination of sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and apomorphine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations and bulk powders. The chromatographic separation of the three pharmaceuticals was achieved on a calixarene column in less than 10 min using a binary mobile phase of 35% acetonitrile and 65% 50 mM sodium perchlorate pH2.5 at 1 mL/min flow rate. The method was validated for system efficiency, linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantitation, specificity, stability, and robustness. Statistical analysis proved that the method enabled reproducible and selective quantification of all three analytes in bulk drugs and in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25175553

Hashem, Hisham; Ibrahim, Adel Ehab; Elhenawee, Magda

2014-10-01

401

Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of T2-weighted MRI scans in chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), and for objective assessment of the extent of disease as a marker of treatment efficacy in MS clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to compare the evaluation of T2-weighted MRI scans in MS patients using a semi-automated quantitative technique with an independent assessment by a neurologist. Baseline, 6- month, and 12-month T2-weighted MRI scans from 41 chronic progressive MS patients were examined. The lesion volume ranged from 0.50 to 51.56 cm2 (mean: 8.08 cm2). Reproducibility of the quantitative technique was assessed by the re-evaluation of a random subset of 20 scans, the coefficient of variation of the replicate determinations was 8.2%. The reproducibility of the neurologist evaluations was assessed by the re-evaluation of a random subset of 10 patients. The rank correlation between the results of the two methods was 0.097, which did not significantly differ from zero. Disease-related activity in T2-weighted MRI scans is a multi-dimensional construct, and is not adequately summarized solely by determination of lesion volume. In this setting, image analysis software should not only support storage and retrieval as sets of pixels, but should also support links to an anatomical dictionary.

Adams, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Simone; Koziol, James A.

1998-06-01

402

Qualitative SEM/EDS analysis of microleakage and apical gap formation of adhesive root-filling materials  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to compare the correspondence between gap formation and apical microleakage in root canals filled with epoxy resin-based (AH Plus) combined or not with resinous primer or with a dimethacrylate-based root canal sealer (Epiphany). Material and Methods Thirty-nine lower single-rooted human premolars were filled by the lateral condensation technique (LC) and immersed in a 50-wt% aqueous silver nitrate solution at 37ºC (24 h). After longitudinal sectioning, epoxy resin replicas were made from the tooth specimens. Both the replicas and the specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gaps were observed in the replicas. Apical microleakage was detected in the specimens by SEM/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The data were analyzed statistically using an Ordinal Logistic Regression model and Analysis of Correspondence (?=0.05). Results Epiphany presented more regions containing gaps between dentin and sealer (p<0.05). There was correspondence between the presence of gaps and microleakage (p<0.05). Microleakage was similar among the root-filling materials (p>0.05). Conclusions The resinous primer did not improve the sealing ability of AH Plus sealer and the presence of gaps had an effect on apical microleakage for all materials. PMID:22858699

SOUZA, Soraia de Fatima Carvalho; FRANCCI, Carlos; BOMBANA, Antonio C.; KENSHIMA, Silvia; BARROSO, Lucia P.; D'AGOSTINO, Liz Z.; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro D.

2012-01-01

403

What is in a text and what does it do: Qualitative Evaluations of an NLG system the BT-Nurse using content analysis and discourse analysis.  

E-print Network

et al., 2011) gener- ates nursing shift handover reports for babies in a Neonatal Intensive Care UnitWhat is in a text and what does it do: Qualitative Evaluations of an NLG system � the BT-Nurse to be improved. In this paper we describe two such evaluations carried out for the BT-Nurse system, using two

Reiter, Ehud

404

A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the impact of high school marine science curricula and instructional strategies on science literacy of students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to describe the ways secondary level students became more scientifically knowledgeable and literate as they participated in naturally integrated marine science courses using a combined qualitative and quantitative research design. Students' attitudes toward science, technology, and society issues, views relative to marine science, and knowledge of general science concepts were assessed before and after taking a marine science course using three surveys developed by the researcher. Nine Florida secondary level teachers administered pre- and post-questionnaires to students to assess knowledge and attitudes. Paired-sample t tests revealed a significant difference (p < 0.001, t value = 4.42, n = 399) between pretest and posttest mean scores for secondary level students, indicating an increase in students' general scientific knowledge. Attitudes toward science, technology, and society issues did not significantly change, but were more reflective of the Standards and Benchmark based on qualitative data. Qualitative data also was used to validate the questionnaires and explain the relationship between scientific literacy and key aspects of the instruction and curriculum through descriptive case profiles. Similarities and differences between the learning environments, including curriculum and instruction, were analyzed to provide insight and explanation of the findings. The ARCS Model, a model based on four necessary conditions---attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction---for a student to be motivated to learn was used as an organizing framework for this analysis. Students' open-ended responses reflected overall positive experiences in marine science courses, ones that will cause them to be more motivated to learn science and become responsible citizens in the state of Florida. The most prevalent reasons students gave for being satisfied with their marine science courses were: they learned more science than they previously had in other courses due to the integrated and coherent nature of marine science, they were interested in the subject of the oceans, and their teachers showed great enthusiasm and passion for teaching marine science.

Lambert, Julie Lee

2001-11-01

405

Analysis and results of the 104Sn Coulomb excitation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the Coulomb excitation experiment conducted on 104Sn required a strict selection of the data in order to reduce the large background present in the ?-ray energy spectra and identify the ?-ray peak corresponding to the Coulomb excitation events. As a result the B(E2; 0+ ? 2+) value could be extracted, which established the downward trend towards 100Sn and therefore the robustness of the N=Z=50 core against quadrupole excitations.

Guastalla, G.; DiJulio, D. D.; Górska, M.; Cederkäll, J.; Boutachkov, P.; Golubev, P.; Pietri, S.; Grawe, H.; Nowacki, F.; Algora, A.; Ameil, F.; Arici, T.; Atac, A.; Bentley, M. A.; Blazhev, A.; Bloor, D.; Brambilla, S.; Braun, N.; Camera, F.; Domingo Pardo, C.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Gr?bosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hoischen, R.; Jansson, K.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Knoebel, R.; Kumar, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, N.; Lalovi?, N.; Merchan, E.; Moschner, K.; Naqvi, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Nyberg, J.; Nociforo, C.; Obertelli, A.; Pfützner, M.; Pietralla, N.; Podolyák, Z.; Prochazka, A.; Ralet, D.; Reiter, P.; Rudolph, D.; Schaffner, H.; Schirru, F.; Scruton, L.; Swaleh, T.; Taprogge, J.; Wadsworth, R.; Warr, N.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H. J.

2014-09-01

406

Qualitative Student Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of a qualitative model is used as the focus of this review of qualitative student models in order to compare alternative computational models and to contrast domain requirements. The report is divided into eight sections: (1) Origins and Goals (adaptive instruction, qualitative models of processes, components of an artificial…

Clancey, William J.

407

#Irony or #Sarcasm--A Quantitative and Qualitative Study Based on Twitter  

E-print Network

in content analysis, irony seems to be more broadly used in its second sense. 1 Introduction Philosophers as qualitative content analysis. The result of quantitative sentiment analysis shows that sarcastic tweets are used with more positive tweets than ironic tweets. The result of content analysis corresponds

408

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 19F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

Harris, S.

2010-09-02

409

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 18F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Shine [1]. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL [2]. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results [3] to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL{sub 95%}) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL{sub 95%}) on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL{sub 95%} was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

Harris, S.

2010-09-02

410

SCD1 thermal design and test result analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SCD 01 (Satelite de Coleta de Dados 01) is a spin stabilized low Earth orbit satellite dedicated to the collection and distribution of environmental data. It was completely developed at the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) and is scheduled to be launched in 1992. The SCD 01 passive thermal control design configuration is presented and the thermal analysis results are compared with the temperatures obtained from a Thermal Balance Test. The correlation between the analytical and experimental results is considered very good. Numerical flight simulations show that the thermal control design can keep all the subsystem temperatures within their specified temperature range.

Cardoso, Humberto Pontes; Muraoka, Issamu; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Leite, Rosangela M. G.

1990-01-01