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1

A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

2012-01-01

2

Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. I. Likelihood Formulation and Simulation Results  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe a variance-components method for multipoint linkage analysis that allows joint consideration of a discrete trait and a correlated continuous biological marker (e.g., a disease precursor or associated risk factor) in pedigrees of arbitrary size and complexity. The continuous trait is assumed to be multivariate normally distributed within pedigrees, and the discrete trait is modeled by a threshold process acting on an underlying multivariate normal liability distribution. The liability is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative trait, and the liability and quantitative phenotype may each include covariate effects. Bivariate discrete-continuous observations will be common, but the method easily accommodates qualitative and quantitative phenotypes that are themselves multivariate. Formal likelihood-based tests are described for coincident linkage (i.e., linkage of the traits to distinct quantitative-trait loci [QTLs] that happen to be linked) and pleiotropy (i.e., the same QTL influences both discrete-trait status and the correlated continuous phenotype). The properties of the method are demonstrated by use of simulated data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 10. In a companion paper, the method is applied to data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, in a bivariate linkage analysis of alcoholism diagnoses and P300 amplitude of event-related brain potentials.

Williams, Jeff T.; Van Eerdewegh, Paul; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

1999-01-01

3

Ayahuasca in Adolescence: Qualitative Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research was conducted in Brazil among 28 ayahuasca-consuming adolescents members of the Uni?o do Vegetal Church, and 28 adolescents who never used ayahuasca. They were compared on a number of qualitative variables, including vignettes measuring moral and ethical concerns. Psychocultural studies utilizing co-occurences of variables in the realm of qualitative studies are useful in understanding and complementing quantitative studies

Marlene Dobkin de Rios; Charles S. Grob; Enrique Lopez; Dartiu Xavier da Silviera; Luisa K. Alonso; Evelyn Doering-Silveira

2005-01-01

4

Communicating Qualitative Analytical Results Following Grice's Conversational Maxims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducting qualitative research can be seen as a developing communication act through which researchers engage in a variety of conversations. Articulating the results of qualitative data analysis results can be an especially challenging part of this scholarly discussion for qualitative researchers. To help guide investigators through this…

Chenail, Jan S.; Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

5

Factors influencing European consumer uptake of personalised nutrition. Results of a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to explore consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition and to compare these across three different levels of "medicalization": lifestyle assessment (no blood sampling); phenotypic assessment (blood sampling); genomic assessment (blood and buccal sampling). The protocol was developed from two pilot focus groups conducted in the UK. Two focus groups (one comprising only "older" individuals between 30 and 60 years old, the other of adults 18-65 yrs of age) were run in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Germany (N=16). The analysis (guided using grounded theory) suggested that personalised nutrition was perceived in terms of benefit to health and fitness and that convenience was an important driver of uptake. Negative attitudes were associated with internet delivery but not with personalised nutrition per se. Barriers to uptake were linked to broader technological issues associated with data protection, trust in regulator and service providers. Services that required a fee were expected to be of better quality and more secure. An efficacious, transparent and trustworthy regulatory framework for personalised nutrition is required to alleviate consumer concern. In addition, developing trust in service providers is important if such services to be successful. PMID:23500415

Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Kuznesof, Sharron; Robinson, Jenny; Rankin, Audrey; Orr, Karen; Duffy, Maresa; Poínhos, Rui; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz; Macready, Anna; Gallagher, Caroline; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Riemer, Martina; Traczyk, Iwona; Gjelstad, Ingrid M F; Mavrogianni, Christina; Frewer, Lynn J

2013-07-01

6

Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

7

Qualitative Calculus and Regional Impact Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is devoted to the use of qualitative modeling for purposes of impact analysis. In particular, attention is paid to the theory of qualitative calculus, which deals with qualitatively determinate relationships. The posed problem of determining th...

H. Voogd

1983-01-01

8

The NUDIST qualitative data analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer approaches to qualitative data analysis have concentrated on coding and retrieval of text. This paper describes a research project which set out to support a range of methods for the analysis of unstructured data, with emphasis on the building and testing of grounded theory. It resulted in software whose innovations include: a) No limit to the number of

Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

1991-01-01

9

An Individualized Approach to Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of ions is selected (by computer program available from author) for each student in this qualitative analysis course. Students work out a separation scheme based on results of their experimentation and using selected references. Course methodology, preparation of solutions/unknowns, grading, and student responses are discussed. (Author/SK)

Haendler, Blanca L.; And Others

1982-01-01

10

An Introduction to Computerised Analysis of Qualitative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last two decades there has been an increase in the use of qualitative research, particularly in the human sciences. Such a move has resulted in an increasing number of researchers across disciplines using various types of qualitative software specially designed for managing text and facilitating analysis of qualitative data. However, we…

Darmody, Merike; Byrne, Delma

2006-01-01

11

Qualitative data analysis: conceptual and practical considerations.  

PubMed

Qualitative inquiry requires that collected data is organised in a meaningful way, and this is referred to as data analysis. Through analytic processes, researchers turn what can be voluminous data into understandable and insightful analysis. This paper sets out the different approaches that qualitative researchers can use to make sense of their data including thematic analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and semiotic analysis and discusses the ways that qualitative researchers can analyse their data. I first discuss salient issues in performing qualitative data analysis, and then proceed to provide some suggestions on different methods of data analysis in qualitative research. Finally, I provide some discussion on the use of computer-assisted data analysis. PMID:19642962

Liamputtong, Pranee

2009-08-01

12

An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis of Graduate Student Learning and Division of Labor Resulting from Student Cofacilitation of an Asynchronous Online Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study is an exploratory, retrospective content analysis (Schwandt, 2007) of 81 debrief statements collected over 3 years and written by graduate students in an educational technology graduate program's educational leadership course taught 100% online. Researchers analyzed students' debrief statements of lessons learned and task…

Milman, Natalie B.; Hillarious, Marilyn; Walker, Bryce

2012-01-01

13

Qualitative Study of Nonlinear Problems in Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work was to use qualitative methods, especially fixed point theorems and topological degree, to study nonlinear problems in analysis. Existence of solutions of wide classes of abstract nonlinear functional equations are established an...

J. C. Scanlon

1979-01-01

14

[Framework analysis method in qualitative research].  

PubMed

In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology. PMID:24941857

Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

2014-05-01

15

Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

16

Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: qualitative analysis of interim results from a prospective national evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe and evaluate the implementation and adoption of detailed electronic health records in secondary care in England and thereby provide early feedback for the ongoing local and national rollout of the NHS Care Records Service. Design A mixed methods, longitudinal, multisite, socio-technical case study. Setting Five NHS acute hospital and mental health trusts that have been the focus of early implementation efforts and at which interim data collection and analysis are complete. Data sources and analysis Dataset for the evaluation consists of semi-structured interviews, documents and field notes, observations, and quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed thematically with a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. Main results Hospital electronic health record applications are being developed and implemented far more slowly than was originally envisioned; the top-down, standardised approach has needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice, which hospital trusts want in order to support local activity. Despite considerable delays and frustrations, support for electronic health records remains strong, including from NHS clinicians. Political and financial factors are now perceived to threaten nationwide implementation of electronic health records. Interviewees identified a range of consequences of long term, centrally negotiated contracts to deliver the NHS Care Records Service in secondary care, particularly as NHS trusts themselves are not party to these contracts. These include convoluted communication channels between different stakeholders, unrealistic deployment timelines, delays, and applications that could not quickly respond to changing national and local NHS priorities. Our data suggest support for a “middle-out” approach to implementing hospital electronic health records, combining government direction with increased local autonomy, and for restricting detailed electronic health record sharing to local health communities. Conclusions Experiences from the early implementation sites, which have received considerable attention, financial investment and support, indicate that delivering improved healthcare through nationwide electronic health records will be a long, complex, and iterative process requiring flexibility and local adaptability both with respect to the systems and the implementation strategy. The more tailored, responsive approach that is emerging is becoming better aligned with NHS organisations’ perceived needs and is, if pursued, likely to deliver clinically useful electronic health record systems.

2010-01-01

17

Qualitative risk analysis: some problems and remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The article sets out to discuss and present a solution to the fact that various qualitative risk analyses of the same problem can reach significantly different conclusions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By reviewing a common risk analysis approach and identifying where the possible problems arise, the authors propose ways to overcome the problems based on what they have found in

Jan Emblemsvåg; Lars Endre Kjølstad

2006-01-01

18

Incorrect Surgical Counts: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that patients remain free of unintended retained foreign bodies is a primary responsibility of perioperative nurses and surgical technologists. However, these incidents continue to occur despite hospital policies and AORN recommended practice guidelines for their prevention. To provide insight into how incorrect surgical counts occur, researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of the tasks and challenges faced by perioperative nurses

Aletha Rowlands; Richard Steeves

2010-01-01

19

Combining qualitative simulation with functional labels for automated sneak circuit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of sneak circuit analysis (SCA) is presented based on qualitative simulation and functional reasoning. To provide a good intuitive model for qualitative reasoning, a way of qualitative representation of electrical resistance is put forward. Qualitative simulation is integrated with functional labels to deduce the actual functions achieved, providing necessary information for SCA. The result of an example

Ma Qingliang; Hu Changhua; Hu Shuhai

2000-01-01

20

Blogging Medical Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students’ learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners.

Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Alig, Stefan K.; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen

2013-01-01

21

Blogging medical students: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students' learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners. PMID:23467720

Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T; Alig, Stefan K; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen

2013-01-01

22

An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

1983-01-01

23

Filtrates and Residues: Qualitative Analysis of Some Transition Metals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a qualitative analysis laboratory in which students examine specific precipitates that can be used to identify copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron cations. The objective of the laboratory is to determine which test or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each cation and to use the results to identify several unknowns. (JN)

Kilner, Cary

1985-01-01

24

Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

2002-01-01

25

Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

26

Computing in Qualitative Analysis: A Healthy Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential impact of computers in qualitative health research. Describes the original goals, design, and implementation of NUDIST, a qualitative computing software. Argues for evaluation of the impact of computer techniques and for an opening of debate among program developers and users to address the purposes and power of computing…

Richards, Lyn; Richards, Tom

1991-01-01

27

Mixture interpretation: Experimental and simulated reevaluation of qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

We present here analytical data using the 15 STR typing (Identifiler) kit regarding heterozygote balance in experimental DNA samples including one or two persons. Surprisingly, the allelic imbalance was observed even in samples consisting of only one person but adequate DNA for the standard protocol. The variance of heterozygote balance was more expanded in two-person mixtures than in one-person samples. Therefore, it is not suitable to use allelic peak heights/areas for estimating the genotypes of the contributors such as the quantitative analysis. We also reevaluated the effectiveness of qualitative analysis by simulation, i.e. consideration of the probability of all possible genotype combinations from the typing results of a mixed DNA sample. As demonstrated, the qualitative analysis using 15 STR loci is still extremely effective even in a mixture from two or three individuals. PMID:23089142

Manabe, Sho; Mori, Yuki; Kawai, Chihiro; Ozeki, Munetaka; Tamaki, Keiji

2013-03-01

28

Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

29

Qualitative Analysis of Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study observation-based strategies for partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with parity objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on partial information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. We consider qualitative analysis problems: given a POMDP with a parity objective, decide whether there exists an observation-based strategy to achieve the objective with probability 1 (almost-sure winning), or with positive probability (positive winning). Our main results are twofold. First, we present a complete picture of the computational complexity of the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives and its subclasses: safety, reachability, Büchi, and coBüchi objectives. We establish several upper and lower bounds that were not known in the literature. Second, we give optimal bounds (matching upper and lower bounds) for the memory required by pure and randomized observation-based strategies for each class of objectives.

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.

30

Integrating qualitative and quantitative techniques in network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article introduces a method for assessing network dynamics over time. It integrates a qualitative approach to data collection with a bifocal approach to data analysis, i.e. where data are interpreted with two lenses: qualitative and quantitative. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The dynamics of an entrepreneurial firm's network are analyzed by combining: content and event analysis of case data and

Nicole E. Coviello

2005-01-01

31

Analysis of Qualitative Data with Microcomputers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The microcomputer offers social science field researchers a valuable tool for managing qualitative research data. In addition to the flexibility and efficiency of the microcomputer, the logic governing its programming and operation imposes a framework on the research process which necessitates that research decisions and strategies be explicit and…

Marshall, Catherine; Lynch, Kathleen Kelley

32

Establishing Student Competency in Qualitative Research: Can Undergraduate Nursing Students Perform Qualitative Data Analysis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To learn the skills of qualitative analysis, 28 nursing students selected research questions, interviewed each other, and conducted data analysis. Students' analyses had 89% agreement with the instructor's on the topic of lab-to-clinic skill transfer, 96% agreement on the influence of experience, and 61% on nervousness during clinical supervision.…

Reising, Deanna L.

2003-01-01

33

Qualitative Analysis on Stage: Making the Research Process More Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions regarding standards for assessing qualitative research have not sufficiently addressed questions concerning the privatization of this type of analysis. In response to this dilemma, the authors of this article address some of the strategies that they have employed in working with doctoral students and offer suggestions for assessing and publicly disclosing the methodological rigor and analytical defensibility of qualitative

Vincent A. Anfara; Kathleen M. Brown; Terri L. Mangione

2002-01-01

34

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing "Mountains of Words" for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data.

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2008-01-01

35

Qualitative analysis in the few body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chronological development of qualitative methods in celestial mechanics is discussed. Particular attention is given to new integrals of motion, periodic orbits, singularities and regularization, Hill stability, final evolutions, tests of escape, and chaotic motions. Periodic orbits and the Kolmogoroff-Arnold-Moser theorem are shown to make a major contribution to the latest picture of the set of solutions. Finally, some general conjectures about the three-body and N-body problems are presented.

Marchal, C.

36

Database Organization for Qualitative Analysis: The NUDIST System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative data analysis is an approach to the use of unstructured data that is widely practised (and studied) in the social sciences, history and literary studies. It is used in many areas derivative from social sciences, such as market analysis, legal evidence analysis, health and demographic studies, education, journalism, etc. It is also coming to be recognised as significant in

Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

1991-01-01

37

Support for Contextual Control in Primary Care: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Providing support for high-level cognitive performance is largely missing in many decision support designs. Most development in this area is structured to minimize attention, decrease the need for deeper processing and limit intense goal-directed cognitive processing. However, from a dual process perspective, both automatic and deliberative processes need to be supported. The purpose of this qualitative analysis is to explore complex cognitive processing. We used the Contextual Control Model to guide the analysis. Transcripts from 33 taped primary care visits across 4 locations in the VA were analyzed using iterative process of construct and thematic development. Five themes related to high-level cognitive processes were identified: 1) Joint Exchange and Patient Activation; 2) Planning and Proactive Problem Solving; 3) Script and heuristic processing; 4) Time perspectives and 5) Uncertainty management. Results are discussed in terms of the need to support integrated views for complex situation mental models.

Weir, Charlene; Drews, Frank A; Butler, Jorie; Barrus, Robyn J; Jones, Mokoto L.; Nebeker, Jonathan R

2013-01-01

38

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

39

Data analysis in health-relateD qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, coding was done manually, by use of coloured pens to categorise data, and consequently cutting and sorting the data. With the advent of software technology, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), such as NUDIST, NVivo and Atlas-ti, the process has been greatly simplified from the traditional tedious one. The software enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the analysis process

40

Qualitative methodologies II: a brief guide to applying interpretative phenomenological analysis in musculoskeletal care.  

PubMed

In this paper, we conclude our two-part series discussing how readers of Musculoskeletal Care might employ qualitative methods. In the first paper of the series, we focused upon some issues surrounding the distinctions and similarities between qualitative and quantitative approaches, and outlined the origins, typology and limitations of qualitative methods. We introduced one particular qualitative research process which readers may find useful: interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). In this paper, we provide a guide to applying IPA via the design of an interview, a methodology with which it is particularly suited. We discuss some specific interview and interviewing processes and also some necessary ethical issues, including personal protection and participant well-being. We also discuss how to proceed through analysis while considering questions about the generalizability, reliability, validity and application of results. Finally, we question the overall direction of qualitative research, which we hope will fuel debate among readers. PMID:17628038

Hale, Elizabeth D; Treharne, Gareth J; Kitas, George D

2008-06-01

41

Emotional loneliness in sexual murderers: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

This study compared levels of emotional loneliness between sexual murderers and rapists who had not gone on to kill their victim/s. All participants were life-sentenced prisoners in the United Kingdom. Assessment consisted of a semistructured interview and was subjected to grounded theory analysis. This approach is defined as the breaking down, naming, comparing, and categorizing of data. As such, it is distinguished from other qualitative methods by the process of constant comparison. This continual sifting and comparing elements assists in promoting conceptual and theoretical development. The results of this process found that sexual murderers, compared to rapists, reported significantly higher levels of grievance towards females in childhood, significantly higher levels of peer group loneliness in adolescence, and significantly higher levels of self as victim in adulthood. PMID:14571534

Milsom, Jacci; Beech, Anthony R; Webster, Stephen D

2003-10-01

42

[Qualitative and quantitative gamma-hydroxybutyrate analysis].  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound present in the brain and peripheral tissues of mammals. It is a minor metabolite and precursor of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Just as GABA, GHB is believed to play a role in neurotransmission. GHB was first synthesized in vitro in 1960, when it revealed depressive and hypnotic effects on the central nervous system. In 1960s it was used as an anaesthetic and later as an alternative to anabolic steroids, in order to enhance muscle growth. However, after it was shown that it caused strong physical dependence and severe side effects, GHB was banned. For the last fifteen years, GHB has been abused for its intoxicating effects such as euphoria, reduced inhibitions and sedation. Illicitly it is available as white powder or as clear liquid. Paradoxically GHB can easily be manufactured from its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), which has not yet been banned. Because of many car accidents and criminal acts in which it is involved, GHB has become an important object of forensic laboratory analysis. This paper describes gas and liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, colourimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance as methods for detection and quantification of GHB in urine and illicit products. PMID:17265679

Petek, Maja Jelena; Vrdoljak, Ana Luci?

2006-12-01

43

Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention  

PubMed Central

Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program.

2011-01-01

44

A new computer-aided technique for qualitative document analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing production of digital textual data in a wide variety of forms presents both opportunities and challenges to researchers. The opportunities derive from the rich availability of secondary data with which to work. The challenges are the familiar ones of lack of time and resources to undertake the analysis. The qualitative researcher is often faced with a trade-off between

David Morris; Nigel Ecclesfield

2011-01-01

45

Hispanic Mother and Father Perceptions of Fathering: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which Hispanic (of Mexican descent) mothers and fathers viewed the role of fathers in families. To elicit these views, seven focus group discussions were conducted with 28 spouses\\/relationship partners. Content analysis of the interview transcripts identified seven dimensions of the fathering role: (a) instrumental providers, (b) disciplinarians, (c)

Jacki Fitzpatrick; Yvonne M. Caldera; Martha Pursley; Karen Wampler

1999-01-01

46

Reflexive Accounts and Accounts of Reflexivity in Qualitative Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the importance of being reflexive is acknowledged within social science research, the difficulties, practicalities and methods of doing it are rarely addressed. Thus, the implications of current theoretical and philosophical discussions about reflexivity, epistemology and the construction of knowledge for empirical socio- logical research practice, specifically the analysis of qualitative data, remain under- developed. Drawing on our doctoral experiences,

Natasha S. Mauthner; Andrea Doucet

2003-01-01

47

Clients' Accounts of Resistance in Counselling: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted study of clients' moment-to-moment experience of counseling session. Studied their recollections of experience through replay of taped session and analyzed transcribed interviews in terms of grounded theory form of qualitative analysis. Accounts given by some clients indicated that they were resistant to their counselor because they were…

Rennie, David L.

1994-01-01

48

A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets  

PubMed Central

In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern.

Evans, Michael S.

2014-01-01

49

An Array of Qualitative Data Analysis Tools: A Call for Data Analysis Triangulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important steps in the qualitative research process is analysis of data. The purpose of this article is to provide elements for understanding multiple types of qualitative data analysis techniques available and the importance of utilizing more than one type of analysis, thus utilizing data analysis triangulation, in order to understand phenomenon more fully for school psychology

Nancy L. Leech; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

2007-01-01

50

An Array of Qualitative Data Analysis Tools: A Call for Data Analysis Triangulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important steps in the qualitative research process is analysis of data. The purpose of this article is to provide elements for understanding multiple types of qualitative data analysis techniques available and the importance of utilizing more than one type of analysis, thus utilizing data analysis triangulation, in order to…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2007-01-01

51

Experiences of Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with parents of child-cancer survivors about the late consequences of the disease were utilized in a qualitative research study. Results indicate that parents experienced changes of a definite and long-lasting nature as a result of the child's survival; feelings of loss and preservation of problems prevailed. (Author/MKA)

van Dongen-Melman, J. E. W. M.; van Zuuren, F. J.; Verhulst, F. C.

1998-01-01

52

Spiritual Dynamics Involved with Overseas Student Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the results of a qualitative, phenomenological research study that explored the spiritual dynamics of 13 overseas student teachers. Overall, participants in our sample described spiritual growth on two levels. First, they related that spiritual development often followed an inside-out pattern. In explaining this phenomenon, students…

Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.

2009-01-01

53

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within a 2-week period in all units (n = 53) in nursing homes located in New York City. Narrative reconstructions were created for each event based on information from residents and staff who were involved as well as other sources. The event reconstructions were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common features of RRA events. Results: Analysis of the 122 event reconstructions identified 13 major forms of RRA, grouped under five themes. The resulting framework demonstrated the heterogeneity of types of RRA, the importance of considering personal, environmental, and triggering factors, and the potential emotional and physical harm to residents. Implications: These results suggest the need for person-centered and environmental interventions to reduce RRA, as well as for further research on the topic.

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

54

Qualitative Analysis of Surface Energy Using Atomic Force Microscopy Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper performs a qualitative analysis of the surface energy of copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), carbon steel (S45C) and alloy steel (SKD11) by analyzing the variation in the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam (Si3N4 ) of an atomic force microscope following repeated contacts with the specimen surface. In a pure material (Cu, Al and S45C), it is found that

Yen-Liang Yehl; Ming-Jyi Jang; Cheng Chi Wang; Kuang Sheng Chen; Yen-Pin Lin

2007-01-01

55

Listening Instruction: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Selected Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used qualitative meta-analysis to examine a set of empirical studies concerned with listening instruction. Twenty-four studies (subjects were all ages) published in communication-related journals between 1950 and 1989 were analyzed. Analysis of the papers showed conflicting results, producing no clear findings as to whether listening can…

DeWitt-Brinks, Dawn; Rhodes, Steven C.

56

Correlating traditional ayurvedic and modern medical perspectives on cancer: results of a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To characterize Ayurvedic perspectives on the etiopathogenesis and supportive treatments for a biomedical diagnosis of cancer. Methods: Hour-long, digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 10 experienced Ayurvedic clinicians, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using techniques of qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Four major themes were identified. The Ayurvedic description of the pathophysiology of cancer uses traditional concepts translated into a modern context. Although the biomedical treatment of cancer is considered valuable, from an Ayurvedic perspective it results in degeneration and depletion. In cases where biomedical treatment of cancer is not feasible, an Ayurvedic approach focusing on strengthening digestion, eliminating toxins, reducing tumor growth, and improving tissue metabolism is useful. An Ayurvedic approach to cancer supportive care focuses on restoring equilibrium, building strength, and rejuvenation. Conclusion: Ayurvedic medicine offers a unique perspective on the biomedical diagnosis of cancer that emphasizes restoring wholeness, uses natural remedies, includes a focus on emotional health, and emphasizes prevention strategies. PMID:24341342

Dhruva, Anand; Hecht, Frederick M; Miaskowski, Christine; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Bodeker, Gerard; Abrams, Donald; Lad, Vasant; Adler, Shelley R

2014-05-01

57

Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.  

PubMed

An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

2004-11-01

58

A Qualitative Analysis of Physician Humanism: Women's Experiences with Hyperemesis Gravidarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the humanistic qualities of physicians deemed important to women who have experienced hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), thereby, contributing to patient satisfaction.STUDY DESIGN: Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 96 women who had experienced HG. Content analysis was the qualitative method used to analyze and interpret the interview texts.RESULTS: Patient satisfaction was associated with women's perceptions that physicians believed

Shari L Munch; Shari L. Munch MSW

2000-01-01

59

Major Sources of Difficulty in Students' Understanding of Basic Inorganic Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the major sources of students' difficulties in qualitative analysis (QA), 51 grade 10 students (15 to 17 year old) from three secondary schools were interviewed. The results found that the major sources of students' difficulties in understanding QA are formation of precipitates, formation of complex salts and addition of acid.

Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

2004-01-01

60

System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

Reifman, Jaques (Lisle, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01

61

[The qualitative analysis method of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) for ABS wastewater].  

PubMed

The dissolved organic matter (DOM) of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin wastewater was qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry(GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The detected results shows that the GC-MS qualitatively analysed 21 dissolved organic pollutants, such as acetophenone, styrene, alpha, alpha-dimethyl-benzenemethanol, 3,3'oxybis-propanenitrile, 3, 3'-iminobis-propanenitrile, 3,3'-thiobis-propanenitrile, 3-(dimethylamino)-propanenitrile and 2-propenenitrile. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy could examine and certify the accuracy and integrity for the qualitative analysis of GC-MS. The results of this study provides an important guiding role for the development of wastewater treatment process. PMID:21595240

Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yue-xi; Song, Yu-dong; Xi, Hong-bo; Sun, Li-dong; Chen, Jia-yun

2011-03-01

62

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

63

Researchers' views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results.

Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

64

A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi  

PubMed Central

A better understanding of the physico-chemical principles underlying the formation of calculus has led to a need for more precise information on the chemical composition of stones. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi which is suitable for routine use is presented. The procedure involves five simple qualitative tests followed by the quantitative determination of calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and oxalate. These data are used to calculate the composition of the stone in terms of calcium oxalate, apatite, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. Analytical results and derived values for five representative types of calculi are presented.

Hodgkinson, A.

1971-01-01

65

Psychiatrists' experiences of being stalked: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Stalking is a well-recognized social phenomenon, one that particularly affects health care professionals, especially psychiatrists and other mental health workers; however, the nature and effects of stalking of psychiatrists have not been examined in detail. This study is a qualitative thematic analysis of the free-text responses of 2,585 psychiatrists in the United Kingdom (approximately 25% of all U.K. psychiatrists), almost 11 percent of whom described being stalked according to a strict research definition, and 21 percent of whom perceived themselves as having been stalked. It demonstrates that threat minimization, negative psychological impact, awareness of vulnerability, and difficulty obtaining help were major themes in how psychiatrists viewed their experiences of being stalked. It shows how some psychiatrists coped better than others and makes suggestions for appropriate professional support. PMID:23771932

Maclean, Louise; Reiss, David; Whyte, Seán; Christopherson, Simon; Petch, Edward; Penny, Catherine

2013-01-01

66

"It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia

Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

2000-01-01

67

Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Adolescent HIV Testing: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Using qualitative data, this article explored the circumstances leading to HIV testing among 59 HIV-infected adolescents recruited from New York City HIV clinics. Results showed differences between the heterosexual women and the gay and bisexual men. Most of the young women were tested during routine health care or self-initiated tests, and most were asymptomatic when they tested positive. Their testing decisions were sometimes based on assessments of their boyfriends’ risk behaviors, rather than their own. Many males were experiencing symptoms of illness when they tested positive, and about half of these recognized their symptoms as related to HIV and sought tests. Some young men expressed fear of learning about positive test results, which delayed their testing, and some providers did not initially recommend HIV testing for males who presented with symptoms. The article concludes that consideration of these gender and sexual orientation-related concerns can facilitate HIV testing among adolescents.

Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Olson, Kari; VanDevanter, Nancy

2010-01-01

68

A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative

Tierney, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

69

Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

70

Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

2005-01-01

71

Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.  

PubMed

Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis. PMID:22853179

Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

2012-01-01

72

Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved.Design: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews.Setting: Australian gynaecology clinics.Subjects: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist.Main outcome measures: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs.Results: Most

Anne M Kavanagh; Dorothy H Broom

1997-01-01

73

Development of an automatic polarized microscopic imaging system for asbestos qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes about an automated microscopic imaging system for supporting asbestos qualitative analysis. By JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards), the dispersion staining method is designated as a visual qualitative analysis for asbestos in the construction materials. In the analysis process using the microscope, the expert monitors the particles including asbestos fibers and count them. For supporting such observation process, we

Kuniaki KAWABATA; Yugo TSUBOTA; Hirokazu YAMAZAKI; Taketoshi MISHIMA; Kazuhiro HOTTA; Hajime ASAMA; Hiroshi MIZOGUCHI; Haruhisa TAKAHASHI

2009-01-01

74

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

2004-01-01

75

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of synapses in Hirschsprung's disease.  

PubMed

In Hirschsprung's disease (HD), certain intestinal nervous plexuses are absent. Sprouting nerve endings contain different amounts of synaptophysin (SY), a protein and main constituent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) storage compartments. Due to the lack of specific markers for synapses, a qualitative analysis of nerve endings of intestinal segments affected by HD has not yet been undertaken. For this study, resected colorectal specimens from patients with HD (n = 8, mean age 2.1 years) were investigated in parallel for AChE, SY, and content of small synaptic vesicles by biochemical, immunohistochemical, and electronmicroscopic means. In the microdissected muscular layer, reduced SY (1.4 microgram/mg total protein, normal 24 +/- 0.3) was observed. Immunohistochemistry showed in affected tissues reduced numbers of SY-positive nerve fibers and nerve endings, which in turn were thickened and distorted, in both the muscle proper and the muscularis mucosae. Combining both morphologic and biochemical findings, in HD the number of cholinergic vesicles in the remaining nerve endings seems to be increased as measured by SY, a marker molecule specific for synaptic vesicles. Our data also suggest that nerve endings in HD may contain high concentrations of cholinergic vesicles, paralleling the known high amounts of acetylcholine and AChE found in intestinal segments of patients with HD. PMID:9716672

Wiedenmann, B; Riedel, C; John, M; Ahnert-Hilger, G; Stoltenburg, G; Waldschmidt, J; von Deimling, K; Riecken, E O; Schier, F

1998-09-01

76

Qualitative analysis of two-fluid FRW cosmological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses attention on a qualitative analysis of the evolution of two-fluid flat FRW cosmological models.In the first model one of the fluid represents matter content of the universe comoving with respect to the another fluid that is the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), these two fluids are interacting.The first model is most relevant to describe the scenario before the recombination epoch when matter and radiation were in an interactive phase and the photons was bound to electron through Thomson scattering. The second model describe two noninteracting fluids where the matter is comoving to the space-time coordinates and the CMBR is moving axially, relative to the matter thus modeling the relative velocity between galaxies and the CMBR (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:898-901, 1977). This model portray the cosmic evolution in the postrecombination epoch when the two-fluid are noninteracting.In this epoch the photons got themselves free to form the CMBR being observed presently.

Verma, A. K.

2009-05-01

77

Advanced predoctoral implant program at UIC: description and qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Dental implant education has increasingly become an integral part of predoctoral dental curricula. However, the majority of implant education emphasizes the restorative aspect as opposed to the surgical. The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry has developed an Advanced Predoctoral Implant Program (APIP) that provides a select group of students the opportunity to place implants for single-tooth restorations and mandibular overdentures. This article describes the rationale, logistics, experiences, and perspectives of an innovative approach to provide additional learning experiences in the care of patients with partial and complete edentulism using implant-supported therapies. Student and faculty perspectives on the APIP were ascertained via focus group discussions and a student survey. The qualitative analysis of this study suggests that the select predoctoral dental students highly benefited from this experience and intend to increase their knowledge and skills in implant dentistry through formal education following graduation. Furthermore, the survey indicates that the APIP has had a positive influence on the students' interest in surgically placing implants in their future dental practice and their confidence level in restoring and surgically placing implants. PMID:24789837

Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Quimby, Anastasiya; Harlow, Rand; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

2014-05-01

78

Qualitative data analysis with hypertext: A case of New York City crack dealers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnography has become a useful method in procuring sensitive information from the ‘hidden population’ who may not be accessed\\u000a with quantitative survey techniques. Researchers are generating huge amounts of qualitative\\/textual data. Qualitative data\\u000a require careful planning in storage, coding, retrieval, and analysis. Personal computers have solved data management problems,\\u000a but data analysis remains problematic. The paper describes some qualitative data

Ali Manwar; Bruce D. Johnson; Eloise Dunlap

1994-01-01

79

Qualitative analysis of mycotoxins using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring mycotoxins are separated using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Trends in the retention of these toxins, resulting from changes in mobile-phase composition and pH, are reported and presented as a means of alleviating coelution problems. Two sets of mobile-phase conditions are determined that provide unique separation selectivity. The facile manner by which mobile-phase conditions can be altered, without changes in instrumental configuration, allowed the acquisition of two distinctive, fully resolved chromatograms of 10 mycotoxins in a period of approximately 45 min. By adjusting retention times, using indigenous or added components in mycotoxin samples as normalization standards, it is possible to obtain coefficients of variation in retention time that average less than 1%. The qualitative capabilities of this methodology are evaluated by separating randomly generated mycotoxin-interferent mixtures. In this study, the utilization of normalized retention times applied to separations obtained with two sets of mobile-phase conditions permitted the identification of all the mycotoxins in five unknown samples without any misidentifications. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Holland, R.D.; Sepaniak, M.J. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1993-05-01

80

An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

81

Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

82

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function.

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

83

Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar.  

PubMed

Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs can directly inhibit/stimulate microbial and plant processes. Over 70 biochars encompassing a variety of parent feedstocks and manufacturing processes were evaluated and were observed to possess diverse sorbed VOC composition. There were over 140 individual chemical compounds thermally desorbed from some biochars, with hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and fast pyrolysis biochars typically possessing the greatest number of sorbed volatiles. In contrast, gasification, thermal or chemical processed biochars, soil kiln mound, and open pit biochars possessed low to non-detectable levels of VOCs. Slow pyrolysis biochars were highly variable in terms of their sorbed VOC content. There were no clear feedstock dependencies to the sorbed VOC composition, suggesting a stronger linkage with biochar production conditions coupled to post-production handling and processing. Lower pyrolytic temperatures (?350°C) produced biochars with sorbed VOCs consisting of short carbon chain aldehydes, furans and ketones; elevated temperature biochars (>350°C) typically were dominated by sorbed aromatic compounds and longer carbon chain hydrocarbons. The presence of oxygen during pyrolysis also reduced sorbed VOCs. These compositional results suggest that sorbed VOCs are highly variable and that their chemical dissimilarity could play a role in the wide variety of plant and soil microbial responses to biochar soil amendment noted in the literature. This variability in VOC composition may argue for VOC characterization before land application to predict possible agroecosystem effects. PMID:21788060

Spokas, Kurt A; Novak, Jeffrey M; Stewart, Catherine E; Cantrell, Keri B; Uchimiya, Minori; Dusaire, Martin G; Ro, Kyoung S

2011-10-01

84

Qualitative analysis of motions, using asymptotic methods of nonlinear mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for obtaining qualitative estimates of oscillations described by standard equations or equations with many slow and rapid variables. Using this method, it is possible to predetermine the motion of the system at any time, without recourse to an approximation of the exact solutions. The motion of conducting body in a magnetic field rapidly varying in time

K. Sh. Khodzhaev; S. D. Shatalov

1980-01-01

85

External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing Among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster, 2006), which reported findings regarding college students' internal dynamics for tattoo choices. Present findings suggest that

Michael Firmin; Luke Tse; Janna Foster; Tammy Angelini

2012-01-01

86

Career Counseling Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Experts' Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consensual qualitative research methodology was used to analyze the career counseling cases of 12 noted vocational psychologists to identify common themes and factors. The findings indicated that the career counseling described by these experts often involved the same counseling or helping skills found in personal counseling or psychotherapy.…

Whiston, Susan C.; Lindeman, Dawn; Rahardja, Daryn; Reed, Jordan H.

2005-01-01

87

Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive

A M Gotham; R G Brown; C D Marsden

1986-01-01

88

A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

2013-01-01

89

Mass Spectrometer Analysis Results  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. After undergoing initial separation ...

2010-05-25

90

A Qualitative-Quantitative H-NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment combining qualitative and quantitative information from hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Reviews theory, discusses the experimental approach, and provides sample results. (JM)

Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.

1986-01-01

91

Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

2011-01-01

92

Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

2012-01-01

93

[Dentistry in Wikipedia: A quantitative and qualitative analysis].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the scientific quality of the 265 dental articles that were present in January 2008 in the German-language version of Wikipedia. For this purpose, the Wikipedia entries were examined for their correctness by comparing them with the current dental literature. Every article was classified as having "textbook quality", "partial textbook quality" or "missing textbook quality". Of the 261 usable articles, 28% were qualitatively comparable to a textbook, while 56% had partial textbook quality. About 16% of the articles fell into the third group. Almost half of the Wikipedia entries fulfilled the qualitative standards, whereas the remaining articles were characterized by omissions. Hence, individuals interested in dental topics should not exclusively rely on Wikipedia. For a cursory overview, however, a search in Wikipedia appears to be in order. PMID:21261123

Lorenz, Annette; Türp, Jens C

2010-01-01

94

Qualitative analysis of traffic jam formation in urban ring road  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the procedure of traffic jams formation in urban ring road are studied qualitatively. Some concepts such as homogeneous measure index (HMI) and spatial-temporal difference index (SDI) are utilized to scale the cross-lane inhomogeneities of the traffic flow, and the spatial-temporal state transitions of the traffic flow are explained in terms of HMI and SDI. We present the

Wei Guan; Hui Hu

2005-01-01

95

The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady)

Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

2014-01-01

96

[Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: results of a qualitative study in Chile].  

PubMed

Objective. Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Materials and methods. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results. The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the "delayed access group". This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. Conclusion. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect. PMID:24715010

Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Aguilera, Ximena; Vega, Jeanette; González, María José; Sanhueza, Gabriel

2013-12-01

97

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the adult Drosophila melanogaster proteome.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model organisms in life sciences. Mapping its proteome is of great significance for understanding the biological characteristics and tissue functions of this species. However, the comprehensive coverage of its proteome remains a challenge. Here, we describe a high-coverage analysis of whole fly through a 1D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS approach. By combining the datasets of two types of SDS-PAGE and two kinds of tagmata, the high-coverage analysis resulted in the identification of 5262 genes, which correspond to 38.23% of the entire coding genes. Moreover, we found that the fly head and body have different molecular weight distributions of their proteomes when the proteins were resolved with SDS-PAGE and image analysis of the stained gel. This phenomenon was further confirmed by both label-free and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative approaches. The consistent results of the two different quantitation methods also demonstrated the stability and accuracy of the LC-MS/MS platform. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000454 and PXD000455 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000454; (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000455). PMID:24259522

Xing, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Ning; Zhai, Linhui; Zhu, Yunping; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Ping

2014-02-01

98

Response Analysis Survey: A Qualitative Look at Response and Nonresponse in the American Time Use Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 2004, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) conducted a Response Analysis Survey (RAS) that elicited qualitative information related to survey response in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS.) This information was elicited from both respondents a...

G. E. O'Neill J. R. Sincavage

2008-01-01

99

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

Flores, T.; Ponce, L. [CICATA- IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico); Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Cno. Parque Centenario e/505 y 508 Gonnet C.C. 124 (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-04-15

100

Making sense of denial in sexual offenders: a qualitative phenomenological and repertory grid analysis.  

PubMed

Denial in sexual offenders represents the first barrier to successful treatment a clinician is likely to face. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to overcoming denial, with most programs having a focus on disclosure and "accepting responsibility." This is the first study that has aimed to make sense of sexual offenders' denial through a rigorous qualitative analysis. The main objective was to explore the experiences and lived worlds of sexual offenders in denial. A qualitative phenomenological methodology combining interpretative phenomenological analysis and repertory grids was implemented. Ten incarcerated sexual offenders in categorical denial participated in the research. The analysis revealed the narrative, relational, and self-reconstructive properties of denial and discusses the role and function denial may be playing for sexual offenders. The results highlight that denial can be viewed as a form of "sense making" and that clinically relevant treatment targets can be elicited without disclosure. It is concluded that viewing denial as a barrier to treatment impedes constructive work with offenders, and implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:24442912

Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Gregson, Mick; Thorne, Karen

2014-06-01

101

Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science_Qualitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents findings from the qualitative analysis of data from a long-term investigation into the science literacy and attitudes toward science of University of Arizona non-science major undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting). The qualitative analysis centered on student responses to four open-ended questions probing science process and content knowledge, derived from measures of adults’ science literacy as defined and assessed by the National Science Foundation in its biannual Science and Engineering Indicators reports to the National Science Board. The four questions asked students to briefly describe (1) DNA; (2) radiation; (3) software; and (4) the nature of scientific study. Data was coded thematically both for students’ depth of understanding of each concept as well as for common and uncommon beliefs and reasoning difficulties. Analysis included investigations into changes in students’ understandings of the different concepts over time. The data suggest trends in students’ conceptions and influences on those conceptions. In addition, the results of this study are being used to develop a survey instrument designed specifically for use with Astro 101 students to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction on their scientific attitudes and beliefs as a Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) research project. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS).

Antonellis, Jessie; Impey, C.; Johnson, E.; King, C.; CATS

2009-01-01

102

Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

2011-01-01

103

Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

104

Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved. DESIGN: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews. SETTING: Australian gynaecology clinics. SUBJECTS: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs. RESULTS: Most women wanted to participate in decisions about their care but found it difficult to get the information they required from doctors because they were confused by what their doctors told them and felt unable to ask questions in the consultation. Medical terms such as wart virus and precancer were difficult to understand. Not being able to see their cervix also made it hard for women to understand what their abnormality meant and what treatment entailed. Most women tried to make sense of their abnormality in the context of their everyday lives. For some women their gynaecological care was not consistent with the way they understood their abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: The inherent power structure of medical practice combined with time pressures often make it difficult for doctors to give the detailed information and reassurance patients need when a diagnosis is distressing or when investigation and treatment are strange and upsetting.

Kavanagh, A. M.; Broom, D. H.

1997-01-01

105

What Happens Along the Diagnostic Pathway to CHD Treatment? Qualitative Results Concerning Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Extensive research on health disparities documents persistent differential diagnosis and treatment of many conditions according to patient characteristics, physician attributes, and healthcare systems. Less is known about how physicians arrive at their decisions. We use qualitative data from a vignette-based factorial experiment to examine how physicians reason through and account for their clinical decisions, and how variations arise despite the presentation of identical symptoms of CHD. We find that physicians show evidence of cognitive biases but also actively interpret social characteristics they deem relevant to medical treatment. In an uncertain clinical context, these diagnostic pathways expose key junctures wherein physicians are detoured to alternative diagnoses, their certainty of CHD lowered, and scientific logic makes it difficult to return to a CHD diagnosis—thereby providing a fuller picture of why some cases are counted as CHD while others are not. These results have important implications insofar as diagnostic decisions like these contribute to the compilation of epidemiologic base rates, and are therefore used as part of Bayesian decision making to determine the probability of CHD in subsequent patients. This work resonates with social constructivist concerns regarding the ways disease categories are established and maintained, and potential sources of bias in official rates.

Lutfey, Karen E.; McKinlay, John. B.

2014-01-01

106

Gravitational microlensing of a reverberating quasar broad-line region - I. Method and qualitative results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission-line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a 'flare') passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disc - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensing, while not strong, can produce significant observable effects that will help in differentiating the properties of BELRs. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI: ), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.

Garsden, H.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.

2011-12-01

107

Qualitative environmental analysis for industrial districts implantation using geoprocessing techniques.  

PubMed

Industrial districts became important instruments which are used by the Public Power to induce economic decentralization and create new development poles. For this reason the legislative process is an indispensable means to define the priorities in the uses of soil, also to conduct and follow the process of industrial registration. However, the industrial district establishment shall not be analyzed by taking into account just the economic factor, but also the environmental issue of the enterprise. Thus, this research has the objective of determining adequate places for industrial districts implantation, having as a pilot area the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Geographic Information System for execution of spatial analysis and criteria creation on a large volume of environmental information will be used as a tool, which will be guided by the Municipal, State and Federal legislation and a Quickbird satellite image that covers the interest area. The main information used on this research are: altimeter, hydrography, soil use, pedology, geology and infrastructure. The results are visualized in scenarios modeled in accordance with the restrictions imposed upon the information, allowing at the end, to combine all scenarios and create through the multiple criteria method a map that indicates adequate places for implantation of industrial districts. PMID:19151443

Baretta, Luciane; Veronez, Maurício Roberto; Reinhardt, Alessandro Ott

2008-12-01

108

Fostering social work gerontological competencies: qualitative analysis of an intergenerational service-learning course.  

PubMed

This article describes the development and qualitative student outcomes of an intergenerational service-learning course designed to promote social work gerontological competencies. Efforts focused on creating a learning environment to actively promote learning opportunities for students and older adults. The course was hosted at a local, private, not-for-profit senior housing location where older adults were invited to actively participate in the course activities. A total of 37 undergraduate and graduate students completed the course. Content and narrative analysis was conducted using text from a final structured reflective journal assignment. This analysis identified themes related to the "explicit" and "implicit" pedagogy of the course that details students' educational growth. The results of this study indicate that intergenerational service-learning coursework may help foster geriatric competencies among graduate and undergraduate students. The benefits of utilizing social work gerontological competencies to guide course objectives, content, and student outcomes are discussed. PMID:20390629

Faria, Debra Fromm; Dauenhauer, Jason A; Steitz, David W

2010-01-01

109

FOOTWORK TECHNIQUES USED IN TABLE TENNIS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 2 matches of 4 male players from 2006 World Team Table Tennis Championships (videos recorded from television). During that competition the players were the n° 1 (Wang Liqin), 2 (Timo Boll), 4 (Ma Lin) and 56 (Christian Suss) in the world ranking. Analysis of the matches: L. Ma vs T. Boll, and L.Q. Wang vs C. Suss. 2.

Malagoli Lanzoni Ivan; Lobietti Roberto; Merni Franco

110

"What is Found There"1: Qualitative Analysis of Physician-Nurse Collaboration Stories  

PubMed Central

Background Effective physician–nurse collaboration is an important, but incompletely understood determinant of patient and nurse satisfaction, and patient safety. Its impact on physicians has not been described. This study was undertaken to develop a fuller understanding of the collaboration experience and its outcomes. Methods Twenty-five medical residents, 32 staff nurses, 5 physician and 5 nurse faculty wrote narratives about successful collaboration; the narratives were then qualitatively analyzed. Narrative analysis was the initial qualitative method iteratively employed to identfy themes. A phenomenological approach was subsequently used to develop a framework for collaborative competence. Results Collaboration triggers, facilitative behaviors, outcomes and collaborative competence were the themes identified. Affect was identified in the triggers leading to collaboration and in its outcomes. Practioners typically entered a care episode feeling worrried, uncertain or inadequate and finished the interaction feeling satisfied, understood and grateful to their colleagues. The frequency of affective experience was not altered by gender, profession, or ethnicity. These experiences were particularly powerful for novice practioners of both disciplines and appear to have both formative and transformative potential. Collaborative competence was characterized by a series of graduated skills in clinical and relational domains. Many stories took place in the ICU and afterhours settings. Conclusions Despite the prevailing wisdom that nursing and medicine are qualitatively different, the stories from this study illuminate surprising commonalities in the collaboration experience, regardless of gender, age, experience, or profession. Collaborative competence can be defined and its component skills identified. Contexts of care can be identified that offer particularly rich opportunities to foster interprofessional collaboration.

Morse, Diane S.; Glessner, Theresa; Gardner, Kathryn

2008-01-01

111

Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research.

2013-01-01

112

Laboratory test ordering and results management systems: a qualitative study of safety risks identified by administrators in general practice  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore experiences and perceptions of frontline administrators involved in the systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling in general medical practice. Design Qualitative using focus group interviews. Setting West of Scotland general medical practices in three National Health Service (NHS) territorial board areas. Participants Convenience samples of administrators (receptionists, healthcare assistants and phlebotomists). Methods Transcript data were subjected to content analysis. Results A total of 40 administrative staff were recruited. Four key themes emerged: (1) system variations and weaknesses (eg, lack of a tracking process is a known risk that needs to be addressed). (2) Doctor to administrator communication (eg, unclear information can lead to emotional impacts and additional workload). (3) Informing patients of test results (eg, levels of anxiety and uncertainty are experienced by administrators influenced by experience and test result outcome) and (4) patient follow-up and confidentiality (eg, maintaining confidentiality in a busy reception area can be challenging). The key findings were explained in terms of sociotechnical systems theory. Conclusions The study further confirms the safety-related problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the communication and psychosocial issues that can affect the health and well-being of staff and patients alike. However, opportunities exist for practices to identify barriers to safe care, and plan and implement system improvements to accommodate or mitigate the potential for human error in this complex area.

Bowie, Paul; Halley, Lyn; McKay, John

2014-01-01

113

Pathways to Attrition: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Justifications for Police Designations of Sexual Assault Complaints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present analysis is a reframing of an earlier study conducted by the author to compensate for perceived deficiencies in previous studies on police decisions in sexual assault complaints. Specifically, qualitative comparative analysis was employed at the micro-social level to reveal justification scenarios, employed by investigating…

Soulliere, Danielle M.

2005-01-01

114

Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

2007-01-01

115

The Identification of Regional Industrial Clusters Using Qualitative Input–Output Analysis (QIOA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titze M., Brachert M. and Kubis A. The identification of regional industrial clusters using qualitative input–output analysis (QIOA), Regional Studies. The ‘cluster theory’ has become one of the main concepts promoting regional competitiveness, innovation, and growth. As most empirical applications focus on measures of concentration of one industrial branch in order to identify regional clusters, the appropriate analysis of specific

Mirko Titze; Matthias Brachert; Alexander Kubis

2011-01-01

116

Interrogating accountability : An illustration of the use of Leximancer software for qualitative data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper has a dual purpose, being to report on an interrogation of concepts and contexts of accountability used in the accounting literature and to illustrate the application of a qualitative data analysis software tool in this interrogation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A content analysis was undertaken of 114 journal articles related to accountability and published in highly ranked accounting

Ken Crofts; Jayne Bisman

2010-01-01

117

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within…

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

118

Employing Online S-P Diagnostic Table for Qualitative Comments on Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major concerns of adaptive testing studies have concentrated on effectiveness and efficiency of the system built for the research experiments. It has been criticised that such general information has fallen short of providing qualitative descriptions regarding learning performance. Takahiro Sato of Japan proposed an analytical diagram called…

Wang, Chien-hwa; Chen, Cheng-ping

2013-01-01

119

Dynamics within the Bully/Victim Paradigm: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research examined whether high school students ethically justify bullying behaviour within a school context. Ten students, purposefully selected because of their specific roles within the bully/victim paradigm, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data analysis using the constant comparative method associated with grounded…

Cranham, Joy; Carroll, Annemaree

2003-01-01

120

A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

Vorell, Matthew S.

2011-01-01

121

Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

2013-05-01

122

Organizational Analysis With Results Using Transactional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OARTA (Organization Analysis with Results Using Transactional Analysis) is a way of thinking designed to resolve problems and reach goals through action-oriented research and analysis--a learning experience in which members of an organization can develop themselves and their organization. (ABM)

Clary, Thomas C.; Clary, Erica W.

1976-01-01

123

Thematic Analysis of Iranian Female Adolescents' Perceptions About HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate common opinions and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Iranian teenager girls. Methods: This Qualitative study (face-to-face interviews with tape recording) was conducted among fifty female teenager school students in Urmia-Iran. Results: The thematic analysis indicated the main information sources for HIV/AIDS among teenage girls to be their mother and teachers. The participants had little concern about the dissemination of HIV/AIDS in Iran. Using a common syringe is mentioned as the main risk factor for HIV transmission. There were some misconceptions about the at-risk group among teenage girls. Conclusions: Considering the misconceptions among the teenage girls, their beliefs should be reformed and reorganized in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV. The best practice is training life skills in the school level.

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; FayyazJahani, Farshid; Ahmadnezhad, Somayyeh; Karamyyar, Mohammad; BazarganHejazi, Shahrzad

2013-01-01

124

Interviews with the dead: using meta-life qualitative analysis to validate Hippocrates' theory of humours  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hippocrates devised his theory of the 4 humours (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile) 24 centuries ago. Since then, medicine has evolved into a complex body of confusing and sometimes contradictory facts. The authors, seeing a need to determine the validity of his theory, hired a psychic. METHODS: The psychic interviewed 4 eminent ancient physicians, including Hippocrates. A randomized double-blind cross-over design was used for this meta-life qualitative analysis. RESULTS: All of the interviewees agreed that the theory of humours is an accurate model to explain disease and personality. INTERPRETATION: Hiring a psychic to conduct after-death interviews with key informants is a useful way to validate scientific theories.

Secretion, F; Conjur, G S; Attitude, S P

1998-01-01

125

Voices of the self in psychotherapy: A qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Approaches that view the self as constituted by socio-cultural processes and as plural, consisting of a multiplicity of states, positions, functions, etc., have flourished in the last decades. This paper explores the multi-voiced nature of the self, drawing upon Lacan's theory of subjectivity and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Subjectivity is seen as constituted through language as expressed in the speech of the subject's important early others. The psychoanalytic concept of transference, understood as a semiotic process of enacting early interpersonal patterns in the subject's present relations, provides a link between the unfolding of subjectivity in the present and its historical continuity. The articulation of subjectivity is discussed through a micro-analysis of extracts from sessions of a long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The analysis demonstrates the enactment of transferential dialogical positions at the beginning of the therapy and traces their recognition by the client through the gradual development of increasingly reflexive subject positions towards the end of therapy. It is argued that the aim of therapy should be the facilitation of a complex subjectivity, whereby the different subject positions can be fluently articulated within an overall reflexive frame. PMID:11802838

Georgaca, Eugenie

2001-06-01

126

Voices of the self in psychotherapy: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Approaches that view the self as constituted by socio-cultural processes and as plural, consisting of a multiplicity of states, positions, functions, etc., have flourished in the last decades. This paper explores the multi-voiced nature of the self, drawing upon Lacan's theory of subjectivity and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism. Subjectivity is seen as constituted through language as expressed in the speech of the subject's important early others. The psychoanalytic concept of transference, understood as a semiotic process of enacting early interpersonal patterns in the subject's present relations, provides a link between the unfolding of subjectivity in the present and its historical continuity. The articulation of subjectivity is discussed through a micro-analysis of extracts from sessions of a long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The analysis demonstrates the enactment of transferential dialogical positions at the beginning of the therapy and traces their recognition by the client through the gradual development of increasingly reflexive subject positions towards the end of therapy. It is argued that the aim of therapy should be the facilitation of a complex subjectivity, whereby the different subject positions can be fluently articulated within an overall reflexive frame. PMID:11453173

Georgaca, E

2001-06-01

127

Service Learning in School Counselor Preparation: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Traverse Outreach Project (TOP) is a service learning model of counselor preparation. This article reports on the efficacy of the project to prepare school counselors using a service learning pedagogy. Results indicate that service learning was an effective method of integrating the theory and practice of school counseling. (Author)

Arman, John F.; Scherer, David

2002-01-01

128

An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a revised laboratory set-up for performing flame tests that enables students to pay more attention to the results of the tests and less attention to the manipulation of equipment. Employs a watch glass to add the analytical solutions to the flame. (DDR)

Bare, William D.; Bradley, Tom; Pulliam, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

129

Potential For Qualitative Analysis Using Organic Emission Spectra In Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation into the potential of using the emission spectra of organic molecules arising from a hydrogen-entrained air flame to obtain structural information has been made. Results for several alcohols show that the technique can be used to distinguish between geometrical isomers.

Michael L. Parsons

1969-01-01

130

Qualitative analysis of algal secretions with multiple mass spectrometric platforms  

PubMed Central

Lipid secretions from algae pose a great opportunity for engineering biofueler feedstocks. The lipid exudates could be interesting from a process engineering perspective because lipids could be collected directly from the medium without harvesting and disrupting cells. We here report on the extracellular secretions of algal metabolites from the strain UTEX 2341 (Chlorella minutissima) into the culture medium. No detailed analysis of these lipid secretions has been performed to date. Using multiple mass spectrometric platforms, we observed around 1000 compounds and were able to annotate 50 lipids by means of liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF), direct infusion with positive and negative electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These compounds were annotated by tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) database matching and retention time range filtering. We observed a series of triacylglycerols (TG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylglycerols, as well as betaine lipids diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserines (DGTS).

Kind, Tobias; Meissen, John K.; Yang, Dawei; Nocito, Fernando; Vaniya, Arpana; Cheng, Yu-Shen; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Fiehn, Oliver

2013-01-01

131

Integrated syphilis/HIV screening in China: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The last decade has seen enormous advances in HIV treatment and care, but how to implement scaled up HIV testing, prevention, and treatment in low-income areas still presents a formidable public health challenge. South China faces expanding syphilis and sexually transmitted HIV epidemics, but health systems characteristics important for scaling up syphilis and HIV testing have not been defined. Methods A purposive sample to ensure public, private, and public-private hybrid STI clinic inclusion was selected in a South China city. Eight key informant interviews were conducted with the STI clinic manager, followed by eight focus group discussions with physicians. Data collection relied on a semi-structured format that included questions in each of the following domains: 1) clinical facilities; 2) laboratory capacity with a focus on syphilis/HIV diagnosis; 3) clinic personnel; 4) physical space with a focus on locations to disclose confidential results; 5) financial support. Results Public STI clinics had free syphilis testing/treatment and laboratory facilities to perform essential syphilis and HIV tests. However, despite serving a large number of STI patients, private STI clinics lacked nontreponemal syphilis testing, HIV testing, and had fewer connections to the public health infrastructure. Formally trained assistant physicians were 2.5 times as common as physicians at STI clinics. Only one of the 8 sites had onsite voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services available. Conclusion These STI case studies reveal the potential for expanding integrated syphilis/HIV services at public STI clinics in China. More health services research is needed to guide scale-up of syphilis/HIV testing in China.

2010-01-01

132

Evidence-based health information from the users' perspective - a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based information is a precondition for informed decision-making and participation in health. There are several recommendations and definitions available on the generation and assessment of so called evidence-based health information for patients and consumers (EBHI). They stress the importance of objectively informing people about benefits and harms and any uncertainties in health-related procedures. There are also studies on the comprehensibility, relevance and user-friendliness of these informational materials. But to date there has been little research on the perceptions and cognitive reactions of users or lay people towards EBHI. The aim of our study is to define the spectrum of consumers’ reaction patterns to written EBHI in order to gain a deeper understanding of their comprehension and assumptions, as well as their informational needs and expectations. Methods This study is based on an external user evaluation of EBHI produced by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), commissioned by the IQWiG. The EBHI were examined within guided group discussions, carried out with lay people. The test readers’ first impressions and their appraisal of the informational content, presentation, structure, comprehensibility and effect were gathered. Then a qualitative text analysis of 25 discussion transcripts involving 94 test readers was performed. Results Based on the qualitative text analysis a framework for reaction patterns was developed, comprising eight main categories: (i) interest, (ii) satisfaction, (iii) reassurance and trust, (iv) activation, (v) disinterest, (vi) dissatisfaction and disappointment, (vii) anxiety and worry, (viii) doubt. Conclusions Many lay people are unfamiliar with core characteristics of this special information type. Two particularly critical issues are the description of insufficient evidence and the attendant absence of clear-cut recommendations. Further research is needed to examine strategies to explain the specific character of EBHI so as to minimize unintended or adverse reaction patterns. The presented framework describes the spectrum of users’ reaction patterns to EBHI. It may support existing best practice models for editing EBHI.

2013-01-01

133

Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse in Family Court Cases: A Qualitative Analysis of Psychiatric Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allegations of child sexual abuse in Family Court cases have gained increasing attention. The study investigates factors involved in Family Court cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse. A qualitative methodology was employed to examine Records of Judgement and Psychiatric Reports for 20 cases distilled from the data corpus of 102 cases. A seven-stage methodology was developed utilising a thematic analysis

Fiona A. Black; Robert D. Schweitzer; Frank T. Varghese

2012-01-01

134

Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse in Family Court Cases: A Qualitative Analysis of Psychiatric Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allegations of child sexual abuse in Family Court cases have gained increasing attention. The study investigates factors involved in Family Court cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse. A qualitative methodology was employed to examine Records of Judgement and Psychiatric Reports for 20 cases distilled from the data corpus of 102 cases. A seven-stage methodology was developed utilising a thematic analysis

Fiona A. Black; Robert D. Schweitzer; Frank T. Varghese

2011-01-01

135

Foucauldian scientificity: rethinking the nexus of qualitative research and educational policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay calls for qualitative policy analysis that can engage strategically with the increased calls for the usefulness of social policy toward the improvement of educational practice. Michel Foucault’s concept of scientificity is used as a tool against the ‘repositivization’ at work in neo?liberal times and its ‘rage for accountability’ where refusing to concede science to scientism appears to be

Patti Lather

2006-01-01

136

An investigation of key growth industry sectors in Wales using Multi-Sectoral Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of key sector identification in regional economies. Whilst the paper questions the desirability of policy focusing on the promotion of key sectors, it suggests that tools are generally underdeveloped to identify these sectors. The paper suggests that multi-sectoral qualitative analysis provides one means of forming conclusions on sector potentials.

Jane Bryan; Calvin Jones; Max Munday

2004-01-01

137

A Qualitative Organic Analysis that Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then…

Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

2007-01-01

138

Choosing Qualitative Data Analysis Software: Atlas\\/ti and Nudist Compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing between Nudist and Atlas\\/ti, the main qualitative data analysis software packages can be difficult. To assist researchers in making this choice, I have conceptualised their differences along two dimensions, related to the qualities of the software and of the research project. The software dimension is structural design, and the project dimension is complexity. Software structure is dichotomised between structured,

Christine Barry

1998-01-01

139

Teaching an Introductory Course in Qualitative Analysis in Order to Enhance Learning General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study which was designed to determine the effect of a 25-hour introductory qualitative analysis course on high school students' understanding of formal concepts related to electrolytes. Suggests that introductory concrete experiences better prepare students to deal with more formal abstract concepts. (TW)

Shamai, Ruth; Stavy, Ruth

1986-01-01

140

A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

2011-01-01

141

Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

Hauser, Laura

2013-01-01

142

Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

2003-01-01

143

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

2012-01-01

144

Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila

C. Fraustoreyes; C. Medinagutierrez; R. Satoberru; L. R. Sahagún

2005-01-01

145

Noticing in Task Performance and Learning Outcomes: A Qualitative Analysis of Instructional Effects in Interlanguage Pragmatics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to provide an in-depth qualitative analysis of instructional effects in L2 pragmatics by exploring the manner in which Japanese EFL learners' noticing of target English request forms is constrained by different types of treatment tasks and the subsequent effect of the learners' noticing on their learning outcomes. Following the…

Takahashi, Satomi

2005-01-01

146

Qualitative Analysis of Heterosexual Women's Experience of Sexual Pain and Discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this qualitative analysis, the author explored heterosexual women's accounts of the lived experience of sexual pain and discomfort. The author's aim was to expand theoretical and empirical knowledge in the area of female sexual dysfunction by providing a detailed description of the subjective experience of female sexual concerns. Empirical phenomenological methodology was used to analyze the data generated during

Olga Sutherland

2012-01-01

147

Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the qualitative analysis of a model related to the immune response to the evolution of the progression of endothe- lial cells which have lost their dierentiation and start their evolution toward methastatic states. We prove the existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem related to the model. The asymptotic behavior in time of our solutions is

Elena De Angelis; Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin; Ecole Normale Superieure

2003-01-01

148

Iranian cancer patients' perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehran’s hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes) emerged from the data analysis: 1) God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God), 2) Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes) and 3) Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources). Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources.

2012-01-01

149

Qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationships analysis of multicomponent potential bioglasses.  

PubMed

The results of a qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationships analysis of multicomponent potential bioglasses of composition (2 - y) SiO2 x 1 Na2O x 1.1 CaO x y P2O5 x x ZnO (x = 0, 0.16, 0.35, 0.78 and y = 0.10, 0.20, 0.36) are presented. Quantitative models are obtained by means of structural descriptors derived by molecular dynamics simulations and experimental data measured for density, thermal analysis, 29Si and 31P magic angle spinning NMR, and chemical durability in water. Analysis of the crystal species obtained upon glass crystallization helped in the rationalization of the structural role of the different components. Finally, glass surface characterization with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction after soaking in acellular simulated body fluid demonstrated the in vitro bioactivity of the newly obtained 1.80 SiO2 x 1 Na2O x 1.1 Ca x 0.20 P2O5 x 0.16 ZnO (HP5Z5) glass, corresponding to x = 0.16 and y = 0.20. PMID:16863158

Linati, Laura; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi; Menziani, M Cristina; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Segre, Ulderico

2005-03-24

150

Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.  

PubMed

Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection. PMID:16730627

Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

2006-09-01

151

Including Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the 2008 CMS Payment Policy: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Research Summary Background With its 2008 reimbursement policy change, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sought to link payment and quality. CMS stopped reimbursing hospitals for additional treatment costs due to hospital-acquired conditions, such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Little is yet known about the impact of this policy. Objective To examine stakeholders’ views about the inclusion of CAUTIs in the 2008 CMS payment policy and its potential impact on hospital practices. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of infection preventionists. This included 36 infection preventionists from a purposive sample of non-federal, acute care U.S. hospitals. An interview guide refined through iterative development was used, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded thematically. Qualitative methodology employed grounded theory tools, including open coding and constant comparative analysis. Results Two main themes emerged: 1) participants’ attitudes toward the inclusion of CAUTIs in the CMS policy, including issues of the infection’s significance, opportunity costs, and financial incentives; and 2) participants’ views about advances in clinical organizational behaviors and limited defensive practice. Conclusions Equivocal attitudes toward CMS’ policy targeting CAUTIs were somewhat discordant with the reported improvements in CAUTI prevention in response to the policy. Perhaps “stick” pay-for-performance policies can complement “carrot” policies in coaxing quality improvement. To support such a conclusion, the field needs more research on multiple stakeholders’ views on other selected hospital-acquired conditions in the policy. CMS could also benefit from continued feedback from stakeholders on the policy and its perceived consequences. Level of Evidence – VI (Polit & Beck, 2012)

Palmer, Jennifer A.; Lee, Grace M.; Dutta-Linn, M. Maya; Wroe, Peter; Hartmann, Christine W.

2014-01-01

152

Qualitative femur bone tensile strength analysis in radiographic images using wavelets - biomed 2011.  

PubMed

In this work, the tensile strength of femur bone is qualitatively analyzed using radiographic images. The sub anatomic tensile regions were delineated from conventional planar radiographic femur images using digital image processing algorithms. The normal and abnormal images are then subjected to Daubechies5, coiflet5 and Haar wavelets decomposed at three levels to derive approximation and detail coefficients. The qualitative analyses were also performed on the delineated images to derive apparent mineralization and total area. The values of higher order energy parameter are derived for both approximation and detail coefficients in each level of decomposition and are correlated with apparent mineralization for analysis. Results show that the low values of energy correlates well with abnormalities in all levels of decomposition for all the three wavelets. Among all, the values of energy derived out of approximation coefficient using Haar wavelets show higher degrees of correlations in both primary tensile and secondary tensile regional strength. The variations between normal and abnormal were also found to be statistically significant. Poor correlation was observed in the case of detailed coefficients for all the wavelets irrespective of levels. Among all wavelets, the parameters decomposed at level one approximation coefficient of Haar wavelet appear to be a useful predictor for classifying normal and abnormal samples. This could be attributed to sensitivity of adopted wavelets to the architectural changes and discontinuities in regional distribution of trabecular pattern in tensile region. It appears that this methodology could be used for gross abnormality detection, micro-damage studies and modeling the mechanics of soft tissue in diseases. Thus wavelet extracted feature on tensile trabeculae regions of radiographic femur images could be a used as an index for automated screening of bone strength. PMID:21525609

Sangeetha, S; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

2011-01-01

153

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

2010-01-01

154

Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in systematic reviews of complex interventions: a worked example  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews that address policy and practice questions in relation to complex interventions frequently need not only to assess the efficacy of a given intervention but to identify which intervention - and which intervention components - might be most effective in particular situations. Here, intervention replication is rare, and commonly used synthesis methods are less useful when the focus of analysis is the identification of those components of an intervention that are critical to its success. Methods Having identified initial theories of change in a previous analysis, we explore the potential of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to assist with complex syntheses through a worked example. Developed originally in the area of political science and historical sociology, a QCA aims to identify those configurations of participant, intervention and contextual characteristics that may be associated with a given outcome. Analysing studies in these terms facilitates the identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for the outcome to be obtained. Since QCA is predicated on the assumption that multiple pathways might lead to the same outcome and does not assume a linear additive model in terms of changes to a particular condition (that is, it can cope with ‘tipping points’ in complex interventions), it appears not to suffer from some of the limitations of the statistical methods often used in meta-analysis. Results The worked example shows how the QCA reveals that our initial theories of change were unable to distinguish between ‘effective’ and ‘highly effective’ interventions. Through the iterative QCA process, other intervention characteristics are identified that better explain the observed results. Conclusions QCA is a promising alternative (or adjunct), particularly to the standard fall-back of a ‘narrative synthesis’ when a quantitative synthesis is impossible, and should be considered when reviews are broad and heterogeneity is significant. There are very few examples of its use with systematic review data at present, and further methodological work is needed to establish optimal conditions for its use and to document process, practice, and reporting standards.

2014-01-01

155

Analytical and Methodological Issues in the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software: A Description of Three Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents perspectives on the use of data analysis software in the process of qualitative research. These perspectives were gained in the conduct of three qualitative research studies that differed in theoretical frames, areas of interests, and scope. Their common use of a particular data analysis software package allows the exploration…

Margerum-Leys, Jon; Kupperman, Jeff; Boyle-Heimann, Kristen

156

Experiences of Academic Members About their Professional Challenges: a Content Analysis Qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: University faculty members of different disciplines in any country, by giving better quality services, will further accelerate the development of their respective countries. This study aims to explore the experiences of faculty members about their professional challenges. Aim: In this qualitative study, which was conducted in 2013, fifteen faculty members in the departments of clinical and basic sciences of Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences in northern Iran were chosen for semi-structured in-depth interviews by purposive sampling method. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and content analysis was performed. Results: After immersion and data analysis, three main themes were emerged including: “Imbalances in academic members’ tasks in different areas”, “Weakness of evaluation and promotion system” and “Failure to provide the infrastructure educational facilities”. The main themes and sub-themes are explained by the help of participants’ direct quotations. Conclusions: This study suggested that it is better to take effective measures to improve the faculty members’ situation and therefore increase their efficiency, effectiveness and productivity.

Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Danesh, Mahmonier

2014-01-01

157

Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of a LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e. sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e. insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistence with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

Li, J. D.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A. Z.; Dai, Y. J.; Miao, C. Y.; Di, Z. H.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y. W.

2013-02-01

158

Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of an LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e., sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e., insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistency with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

Li, J.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A.; Dai, Y.; Miao, C.; Di, Z.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y.

2013-08-01

159

Simple optical method of qualitative assessment of sperm motility: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of quality of the sperm ejaculate is one of the most important steps in artificial fertilization procedure. The main aim of semen storage centres is to characterise the best semen quality for fertilization. Reliable information about sperm motility is also one the most important parameters for in vitro laboratory procedures. There exist very expensive automated methods for semen analysis but they are unachievable for most of laboratories and semen storage centres. Motivation for this study is to elaborate a simple, cheap, objective and repeatable method for semen motility assessment. The method enables to detect even small changes in motility introduced by medical, physical or chemical factors. To test the reliability of the method we used cryopreserved bull semen from Lowicz Semen Storage Centre. The examined sperm specimen was warmed in water bath and then centrifuged. The best semen was collected by the swim-up technique and diluted to a proper concentration. Several semen concentrations and dilutions were tested in order to find the best probe parameters giving repeatable results. For semen visualization we used the phase-contrast microscope with a CCD camera. A PC computer was used to acquire and to analyse the data. The microscope table equipped with a microscope glass pool 0.7mm deep instead of some conventional plane microscope slides was stabilised at the temperature of 37°C. The main idea of our method is based on a numerical processing of the optical contrast of the sperm images which illustrates the dynamics of the sperm cells movement and on appropriate analysis of a grey scale level of the superimposed images. An elaborated numerical algorithm allows us to find the relative amount of motile sperm cells. The proposed method of sperm motility assessment seems to be objective and repeatable.

Sozanska, Agnieszka; Kolwas, Krystyna; Galas, Jacek; Blocki, Narcyz; Czyzewski, Adam

2005-09-01

160

Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.  

PubMed

This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed. PMID:24830187

Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

2014-01-01

161

Morality and moral conflicts in hospice care: results of a qualitative interview study.  

PubMed

Hospices consider themselves places that practise a holistic form of terminal care, encompassing physical and psychological symptoms, and also the social and spiritual support for a dying patient. So far, the underlying ethical principles have been treated predominantly in terms of a normative theoretical discussion. The interview study discussed in this paper is a qualitative investigation into general and hospice-related conceptions of morality among full-time and voluntary workers in German inpatient hospices. It examines moral conflicts and efforts leading to their solution. The main ideas identified include moral neutrality towards the patients and their requests, the capability of acceptance, the idea of self-restraint with respect to the dying patient and the principle of respect for the natural course of dying. Essential triggers for moral conflicts were the inadequate education of patients, problems of acceptance in view of incurable disease, and disagreements between members of patients' families. The interviewees expressed their scepticism towards formal institutions of ethical counselling. The study has shown a type of virtue ethics that forms an integral part of the overall concept of hospice care, which cannot be treated separately from a holistic idea of care at the end of life. PMID:20713533

Salloch, Sabine; Breitsameter, Christof

2010-10-01

162

Qualitative Results from a Flight Investigation to Determine Aileron Effectiveness of Two Rocket-Propelled 1/20-Scale Models of the MX -76 Missile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free-flight tests of two rocket-propelled l/20-scale models of the Bell MX-776 missile have been conducted to obtain measurements of the aileron deflection required to counteract the induced rolling moments caused by combined angles of attack and sideslip and thus to determine whether the ailerons provided were capable of controlling the model at the attitudes produced by the test conditions. Inability to obtain reasonably steady-state conditions and superimposed high-frequency oscillations in the data precluded any detailed analysis of the results obtained from the tests. For these reasons, the data presented are limited largely to qualitative results.

Stevens, Joseph E.

1955-01-01

163

Content Analysis and Qualitative Study of Hemodialysis Patients, Family Experience and Perceived Social Support  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatments such as hemodialysis prolong the life of chronic renal failure disease patients who must tolerate many physical, emotional, social and economic difficulties. Therefore, social support is considered as a vital area of investigation for such patients. Objectives: In this qualitative research, a grounded theory approach was used and written as a content analysis form to study hemodialysis patients and family experience of perceived social support. Patients and Methods: Three nurses, 4 general practitioners, a specialist and two family members who participated were interviewed from April to September 2012 in Urmia, Iran. Interviews were guided to divulge the perception of changes in their lives, needs for social support for disease complications, and the type of treatment process. Purposive sampling continued up to data saturation. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin Method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: The research results are shown in 3 steps. In the first step, 113 categories and four main themes from 993 first codes were explored. Social support was explored based on the implications of five general themes including “Perceived Threats Caused by Disease Complications”, “Searching for Social Support”, “Accessible Social Support”, “Beliefs and Values”, and “Perceived Social Support”. Conclusions: The core variable of our research is acceptance of the reality of the conditions caused by the disease. The research finalized our knowledge about patient problems regarding social support and revealed many problems of supporting patients by Health Team Members, family members and organizations. The findings suggest that individual aspects of patient experiences must be considered if social support is to be given and Healthcare Providers have to facilitate positive health services.

Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Habibzadeh, Hosein

2014-01-01

164

Qualitative Analysis of Models with Different Treatment Protocols to Prevent Antitbiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

This paper is concerned with the qualitative analysis of two models (Bonhoeffer et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997), 12106–12111) for different treatment protocols to prevent antibiotic resistance. Detailed qualitative analysis about the local or global stability of the equilibria of both models is carried out in term of the basic reproduction number R0. For the model with a single antibiotic therapy, we show that if R0 < 1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; if R0 > 1, then the disease endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. For the model with multiple antibiotic therapies, stabilities of various equilibria are analyzed and combining treatment is shown better than cycling treatment. Numerical simulations are performed to show that the dynamical properties depend intimately upon the parameters.

Sun, Hong-Rui; Lu, Xinxin; Ruan, Shigui

2010-01-01

165

New results from FRECOPA analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New results from the ongoing analysis of the FRECOPA's (FREnch COoperative PAssive payload) system hardware are discussed. FRECOPA (AO138) was one of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF satellite. The experiment was located on the trailing edge (Tray B3) and was exposed to UV radiation (11,100 equivalent sun hours), approximately equal to 34,000 thermal cycles, higher vacuum levels than the leading edge, a low atomic oxygen flux, and minor doses of protons and electrons. Due to LDEF's extended mission (5.8 years), CNES decided to set up a team to analyze the FRECOPA system. Initial results were presented at the First Post-Retrieval Conference, June, 1991. The results obtained since then are summarized.

Durin, Christian

1993-01-01

166

Turner's syndrome: a qualitative and quantitative analysis of EEG background activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed on the EEG background activity in 62 Danish girls and women with Turner's syndrome (30 with karyotype 45,X and 32 with other karyotypes) whose ages ranged from 6 to 47 years (87% were aged 15 years or more) and age-matched controls. The pooled data and a case-control study showed characteristic features in Turner

Takayuki Tsuboi; Johannes Nielsen; Itaru Nagayama

1988-01-01

167

Qualitative Analysis of Fourteen White Solids and Two Mixtures Using Household Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a revised and expanded version of a previously published qualitative analysis scheme for the identification of 11 white solids using materials readily available in drugstores, supermarkets, or variety stores. Phenolphthalein has been eliminated because the FDA banned its use in over-the-counter laxatives; instead, tests for pH are conducted using red cabbage indicator. Once commonly used by diabetics to

Maria Oliver-Hoyo; Deedee Allen; Sally Solomon; Bryan Brook; Justine Ciraolo; Shawn Daly; Leia Jackson

2001-01-01

168

Students’ Experiences and Perceived Benefits of a Sex Education Curriculum: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative evaluation explored the experiences and perceived benefits of students who participated in an abstinence-plus sex education program at enrollment and conclusion. The sample included 1130 inner-city high school students, 73.7% of whom were Hispanic. Thematic analysis was used to identify main themes in responses made by students to 3 open-ended questions. The most common preparticipation request was for

Peggy B. Smith; Janet P. Realini; Ruth S. Buzi; Mario Martinez

2011-01-01

169

A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32 months) had no significant effect on sanitation conditions. Conclusions Findings corroborate those from a similar study in Belize, and comparison suggests the need for financial community support and the possibly tenuous reliance on local champions in the absence of adequate government support for operations and maintenance. Sub-determinants to the necessary conditions are also discussed which have implications for school sanitation in Bangladesh and may have broader relevance for other low-income countries though further research is needed.

2014-01-01

170

Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934) suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. FTIR (400 cm(-1) to 4000 cm(-1) region) and Raman (140 to 2400 cm(-1) region) Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg's angle (2?) of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable. PMID:22171318

Sahoo, Subhashree; Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti; Mishra, Subash Chandra

2011-07-01

171

Nurses'experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Following professional standards is the main concern of all managers in organizations. The functions of nurses are essential for both productivity and improving health organizations. In human resources management, supporting nursing profession is of ultimate importance. However, nurses’ experiences of perceived support, which are affected by various factors in workplace, have not been clearly explained yet. Thus, this study aimed to explain nurses’ experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors. Materials and Methods: This study is a qualitative research in which 12 nurses were selected through purposive sampling among nurses in university hospitals affiliated to University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran, during 2011-2012. Data collection was conducted through deep interviews with semi-structural questions. All interviews were first recorded and then transcribed. Finally, data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results: The four main themes indicated that nurses experienced their workplace as non-supportive. Themes such as poor organizational climate, low social dignity, poor work conditions, and managers’ ignorance to individual and professional values were considered as inhibitory factors to support. Conclusion: Nursing managers can promote nurses’ positive support perceptions through recognizing inhibitory factors and applying fair solutions and take benefits of their positive consequences including high efficacy, self-esteem, and organizational commitment to promote the quality of care.

Sodeify, Roghieh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

2013-01-01

172

Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking.

Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

2014-01-01

173

Qualitative analysis of common definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences.  

PubMed

Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE's) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

O'Sullivan, Teresa A; Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S

2014-06-17

174

A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An exploratory, qualitative directed content analysis examined 15 narrative case summaries written by APNs and fieldnotes from biweekly case conferences. Results: Three central themes emerged: patients and caregivers having the necessary information and knowledge, care coordination, and the caregiver experience. An additional category was also identified, APNs going above and beyond. Implications: APNs implemented individualized approaches and provided care that exceeds the type of care typically staffed and reimbursed in the American health care system by applying a Transitional Care Model, advanced clinical judgment, and doing whatever was necessary to prevent negative outcomes. Reimbursement reform as well as more formalized support systems and resources are necessary for APNs to consistently provide such care to patients and their caregivers during this vulnerable time of transition.

Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M.Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

2012-01-01

175

Learning effects of thematic peer-review: a qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care.  

PubMed

This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984. Experiential learning, Experience as the source of learning development. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hill). It was part of an educational programme on spiritual care in nursing for third-year undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in the Netherlands. Reflective journals (n=203) kept by students throughout the peer-review process were analysed qualitatively The analysis shows that students reflect on spirituality in the context of personal experiences in nursing practice. In addition, they discuss the nursing process and organizational aspects of spiritual care. The results show that the first two phases in the experiential learning cycle appear prominently; these are 'inclusion of actual experience' and 'reflecting on this experience'. The phases of 'abstraction of experience' and 'experimenting with new behaviour' are less evident. We will discuss possible explanations for these findings according to factors related to education, the students and the tutors and make recommendations for follow-up research. PMID:19027200

van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

2009-05-01

176

A qualitative analysis of case managers' use of harm reduction in practice.  

PubMed

The harm reduction approach has become a viable framework within the field of addictions, yet there is limited understanding about how this approach is implemented in practice. For people who are homeless and have co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Housing First model has shown promising results in employing such an approach. This qualitative study utilizes ethnographic methods to explore case managers' use of harm reduction within Housing First with a specific focus on the consumer-provider relationship. Analysis of observational data and in-depth interviews with providers and consumers revealed how communication between the two regarding the consumer's substance use interacted with the consumer-provider relationship. From these findings emerged a heuristic model of harm reduction practice that highlighted the profound influence of relationship quality on the paths of communication regarding substance use. This study provides valuable insight into how harm reduction is implemented in clinical practice that ultimately has public health implications in terms of more effectively addressing high rates of addiction that contribute to homelessness and health disparities. PMID:22520277

Tiderington, Emmy; Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

2013-01-01

177

Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested. PMID:22833855

Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

2012-01-01

178

Research productivity in Syria: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of current status  

PubMed Central

Context: Scientific research output measured by the number and quality of publications reflects the research productivity of a certain community. Aims: To examine the quantity and quality of research produced by Syrian institutions with particular emphasis on the clinical and biomedical research. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational analysis of research originating from Syrian institutions indexed by Medline and Science Citation Index (SciVerse) Scopus bibliographic databases. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Medline and SciVerse was conducted including data from Jan 01, 1980 till February 2011 searching for authors affiliated with Syrian institutions. Clinical and biomedical research data were further analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The total of manuscripts indexed by SciVerse originating from Syrian institutions during the last 3 decades is 3540. A total of 458 publications cover clinical and biomedical subject areas. The quality of these 458 publications was evaluated by the citation frequency and impact factor of publishing journals with h-index of 24. Conclusions: Although the spectrum of research originating from Syrian institutions is broad, the overall number of publications particularly in clinical and biomedical subjects is minuscule and of limited quality. The presented data indicate the need to promote research capabilities and to bridge the gap in research productivity by Syrian institutions.

Diab, Maria M.; Taftaf, Rokana M. O.; Arabi, Mohammad

2011-01-01

179

A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

2012-01-01

180

The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

Anyan, Frederick

2013-01-01

181

Object orientated automated image analysis: quantitative and qualitative estimation of inflammation in mouse lung.  

PubMed

Historically, histopathology evaluation is performed by a pathologist generating a qualitative assessment on thin tissue sections on glass slides. In the past decade, there has been a growing interest for tools able to reduce human subjectivity and improve workload. Whole slide scanning technology combined with object orientated image analysis can offer the capacity of generating fast and reliable results. In the present study, we combined the use of these emerging technologies to characterise a mouse model for chronic asthma. We monitored the inflammatory changes over five weeks by measuring the number of neutrophils and eosinophils present in the tissue, as well as, the bronchiolar associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) area on whole lungs sections. We showed that inflammation assessment could be automated efficiently and reliably. In comparison to human evaluation performed on the same set of sections, computer generated data was more descriptive and fully quantitative. Moreover optimisation of our detection parameters allowed us to be to more sensitive and to generate data in a larger dynamic range to traditional experimental evaluation, such as bronchiolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cell counts obtained by flow cytometry. We also took advantage of the fact that we could increase the number of samples to be analysed within a day. Such optimisation allowed us to determine the best study design and experimental conditions in order to increase statistical significance between groups. In conclusion, we showed that combination of whole slide digital scanning and image analysis could be fully automated and deliver more descriptive and biologically relevant data over traditional methods evaluating histopathological pulmonary changes observed in this mouse model of chronic asthma. PMID:18673504

Apfeldorfer, Coralie; Ulrich, Kristina; Jones, Gareth; Goodwin, David; Collins, Susie; Schenck, Emanuel; Richard, Virgile

2008-01-01

182

Object orientated automated image analysis: quantitative and qualitative estimation of inflammation in mouse lung  

PubMed Central

Historically, histopathology evaluation is performed by a pathologist generating a qualitative assessment on thin tissue sections on glass slides. In the past decade, there has been a growing interest for tools able to reduce human subjectivity and improve workload. Whole slide scanning technology combined with object orientated image analysis can offer the capacity of generating fast and reliable results. In the present study, we combined the use of these emerging technologies to characterise a mouse model for chronic asthma. We monitored the inflammatory changes over five weeks by measuring the number of neutrophils and eosinophils present in the tissue, as well as, the bronchiolar associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) area on whole lungs sections. We showed that inflammation assessment could be automated efficiently and reliably. In comparison to human evaluation performed on the same set of sections, computer generated data was more descriptive and fully quantitative. Moreover optimisation of our detection parameters allowed us to be to more sensitive and to generate data in a larger dynamic range to traditional experimental evaluation, such as bronchiolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cell counts obtained by flow cytometry. We also took advantage of the fact that we could increase the number of samples to be analysed within a day. Such optimisation allowed us to determine the best study design and experimental conditions in order to increase statistical significance between groups. In conclusion, we showed that combination of whole slide digital scanning and image analysis could be fully automated and deliver more descriptive and biologically relevant data over traditional methods evaluating histopathological pulmonary changes observed in this mouse model of chronic asthma.

Apfeldorfer, Coralie; Ulrich, Kristina; Jones, Gareth; Goodwin, David; Collins, Susie; Schenck, Emanuel; Richard, Virgile

2008-01-01

183

Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. Objectives: This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Results: Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. Conclusions: The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status.

Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

184

A qualitative analysis of a consensus process to develop quality indicators of injury care  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus methodologies are often used to create evidence-based measures of healthcare quality because they incorporate both available evidence and expert opinion to fill gaps in the knowledge base. However, there are limited studies of the key domains that are considered during panel discussion when developing quality indicators. Methods We performed a qualitative content analysis of the discussions from a two-day international workshop of injury control and quality-of-care experts (19 panel members) convened to create a standardized set of quality indicators for injury care. The workshop utilized a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness method. Workshop proceedings were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used constant comparative analysis to analyze the transcripts of the workshop to identify key themes. Results We identified four themes in the selection, development, and implementation of standardized quality indicators: specifying a clear purpose and goal(s) for the indicators to ensure relevant data elements were included, and that indicators could be used for system-wide benchmarking and improving patient outcomes; incorporating evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives to identify important clinical problems and potential measurement challenges; considering context and variations between centers in the health system that could influence either the relevance or application of an indicator; and contemplating data collection and management issues, including availability of existing data sources, quality of data, timeliness of data abstraction, and the potential role for primary data collection. Conclusion Our study provides a description of the key themes of discussion among a panel of clinical, managerial, and data experts developing quality indicators. Consideration of these themes could help shape deliberation of future panels convened to develop quality indicators.

2013-01-01

185

Blind analysis of fortified pesticide residues in carrot extracts using GC-MS to evaluate qualitative and quantitative performance.  

PubMed

Unlike quantitative analysis, which must commonly undergo an extensive method validation process in labs to assure quality of results, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food is generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced MS techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when making analyte identifications. All analytes and matrices have unique characteristics that make this current approach less effective than desirable in many real-world situations. Just as performed in quantitative method validation studies, collection of distinguishing factors of selectivity versus concentration, such as analyte retention time variabilities, ion ratios, matrix background evaluations, choice of ions, and the number of ions to use, provides specific information about the particular application to assess its quality. Empirical analysis of many blind samples to check the rates of false positives and negatives should be performed, at least to better evaluate LOD and reduce the chances of a serious qualitative problem. Familiarization training and review of results by the analyst(s) increase performance, and in any case, the traditional use of two independent analyses should still be relied upon to make chemical confirmations. In this study, an experimental approach to evaluate GC-MS using SIM with a quadrupole instrument and an MS/MS (ion trap) was conducted to assess the qualitative factors of both methods for 16 pesticides fortified (or not) in carrot extracts. Rates of false positives and negatives were compared using different identification criteria, and no single set of conditions was found to be superior for all analytes. PMID:19877146

Lehotay, Steven J; Gates, Robert A

2009-11-01

186

Qualitative analysis of parents' experience of hearing loss of their school going children of a rural area of Nagpur  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Qualitative research methods provide a means of collecting and interpreting narrative or observational data about such interactions, leading to a deeper understanding of the process of health care delivery. This approach was used to clarify key themes from parents’ comments about challenges on paths to detect hearing impairment. Materials and Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design is used. In-depth interviews by using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGD) were held with parents, and other study groups. A study was conducted in Deaf Dum Rural School, Saoner, Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India. Purposive voluntary sampling is utilized. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews and FGD were conducted in private rooms. A FGD guide covered open-ended comments to the set of questions. Results: Parents of 65 children (59%) replied to the questionnaire. Out of them, 55 (85.6%) were the parents of school children resides in the hostel. The majority of the children have profound hearing impairment (75.86%). Theme analysis revealed perceptions about causes, ways, and means of early detection, and powerful emotions experienced by parents at FGD. Conclusions: Reaching beyond numerical analyses, qualitative studies allow for expression of junior doctors, Deaf and Dump School teacher and parents’ thoughts, feelings, and experiences. This study provides a means of collecting and interpreting narrative or observational data.

Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre, Sushama S.; Alone, Swapnil

2012-01-01

187

A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience.

Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

2013-01-01

188

Application of loop analysis for the qualitative assessment of surveillance and control in veterinary epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Background Systems for animal disease mitigation involve both surveillance activities and interventions to control the disease. They are complex organizations that are described by partial or imprecise data, making it difficult to evaluate them or make decisions to improve them. A mathematical method, called loop analysis, can be used to model qualitatively the structure and the behavior of dynamic systems; it relies on the study of the sign of the interactions between the components of the system. This method, currently widely used by ecologists, has to our knowledge never been applied in the context of animal disease mitigation systems. The objective of the study was to assess whether loop analysis could be applied to this new context. We first developed a generic model that restricted the applicability of the method to event-based surveillance systems of endemic diseases, excluding the emergence and eradication phases. Then we chose the mitigation system of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Cambodia as an example of such system to study the application of loop analysis to a real disease mitigation system. Results Breaking down the generic model, we constructed a 6-variables model to represent the HPAI H5N1 mitigation system in Cambodia. This construction work improved our understanding of this system, highlighting the link between surveillance and control which is unclear in traditional representations of this system. Then we analyzed the effect of the perturbations to this HPAI H5N1 mitigation system that we interpreted in terms of investment in a given compartment. This study suggested that increasing intervention at a local level can optimize the system’s efficiency. Indeed, this perturbation both decreases surveillance and intervention costs and reduces the disease’s occurrence. Conclusion Loop analysis can be applied to disease mitigation systems. Its main strength is that it is easy to design, focusing on the signs of the interactions. It is a simple and flexible tool that could be used as a precursor to large-scale quantitative studies, to support reflection about disease mitigation systems structure and functioning.

2013-01-01

189

Quantitative and qualitative bowel analysis using mannitol, water and iodine-based endoluminal contrast agent on 64-row detector CT  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the performance of mannitol as a luminal contrast as compared to water and positive contrast in evaluation of bowel on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods: Three hundred patients were randomly selected for this study and were divided equally into three groups. Each subject received 1500 ml of oral contrast. Group 1 received 3% mannitol in water, group 2 received diluted iodinated positive contrast, and group 3 received plain water without additives. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for distension, fold visibility, and overall image quality were analyzed by actual diameter measurement and point scale system at different bowel levels. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's HSD Post-hoc test and Pearson's Chi-square (exact test) test were applied. Results: Group 1 showed better results for small bowel distension, intraluminal homogeneity, and visibility of mucosal folds on quantitative and qualitative analysis with statistically significant P value (P<0.001). The ileo-caecal junction distension and mural feature visibility was better with mannitol (P < 0.001). No significant difference in distension of stomach and duodenum was found between the three groups. Conclusion: Mannitol as endoluminal contrast increases the diagnostic accuracy of the investigative studies in comparison to water and iodine-based contrast by producing significantly better bowel distension and visibility of mural features with improved image quality without additional adverse effects.

Prakashini, K; Kakkar, Chandan; Sambhaji, Charudutt; Shetty, Chandrakant M; Rao, Vedula Rajanikanth

2013-01-01

190

Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work  

PubMed Central

Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. Results We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. Conclusions This study illustrates how behavior analysis can be used to understand discrepancies between planned and observed behaviors. By examining the contextual conditions that may influence behaviors, improvements in implementation strategies can be suggested. Thereby, the adherence to a planned intervention can be improved, and/or revisions of the intervention be suggested.

2011-01-01

191

Factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medication in Greece: results from a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Although hypertension constitutes a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, research on adherence to antihypertensive treatment has shown that at least 75% of patients are not adherent because of the combined demographic, organizational, psychological, and disease- and medication-related factors. This study aimed to elicit hypertensive patients’ beliefs on hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, and their role to adherence. Methods: Transcripts from semistructured interviews and focus groups were content analyzed to extract participants’ beliefs about hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, and attitudes toward patient–physician and patient–pharmacist relationships. Results: Hypertension was considered a very serious disease, responsible for stroke and myocardial infarction. Participants expressed concerns regarding the use of medicines and the adverse drug reactions. Previous experience with hypertension, fear of complications, systematic disease management, acceptance of hypertension as a chronic disease, incorporation of the role of the patient and a more personal relationship with the doctor facilitated adherence to the treatment. On the other hand, some patients discontinued treatment when they believed that they had controlled their blood pressure. Conclusion: Cognitive and communication factors affect medication adherence. Results could be used to develop intervention techniques to improve medication adherence.

Tsiantou, Vassiliki; Pantzou, Polina; Pavi, Elpida; Koulierakis, George; Kyriopoulos, John

2010-01-01

192

Students' experiences and perceived benefits of a sex education curriculum: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

A qualitative evaluation explored the experiences and perceived benefits of students who participated in an abstinence-plus sex education program at enrollment and conclusion. The sample included 1130 inner-city high school students, 73.7% of whom were Hispanic. Thematic analysis was used to identify main themes in responses made by students to 3 open-ended questions. The most common preparticipation request was for information about sexually transmitted infections. At program conclusion, the most common response theme involved the quality of course delivery. Students indicated that they appreciated the facilitators who allowed open conversations. The implications of these findings to sex education programs are discussed. PMID:21707329

Smith, Peggy B; Realini, Janet P; Buzi, Ruth S; Martinez, Mario

2011-01-01

193

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of talons of diurnal bird of prey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to establish qualitative and quantitative differences and similarities among talons lacking the keratin sheath in diurnal raptors. We set out to find a tool that allows for the determination of toe (I-IV) and hindlimb (left or right) identity. Different methodologies were used, such as classical anatomical descriptions and Fourier analysis of the medial contour of the ungual phalanx. A series of measurements and ratios were obtained and analysed using t-tests and principal components analysis. The qualitative descriptors are more important than quantitative analyses for assessing ungual phalanx identity. They allowed us to differentiate between hindlimbs and among toes corresponding to the talons of D-I, D-II and D-III, while the assignment of D-IV was complicated by its symmetry. The t-test showed that digits I and II did not differ in any measurement or ratio, whereas it showed several differences among the other digits. Fourier analysis was useful only when it was applied to one species with a large number of specimens. This work is an important contribution to the paleontological field where it is common to find isolated phalanges, and consequently, their identification is very difficult. PMID:23464628

Clelia Mosto, M; Patricia Tambussi, C

2014-02-01

194

The use of linear ion trap for qualitative analysis of phytochemicals in Korean ginseng tea.  

PubMed

A new approach to qualitative analysis of ginsenosides in challenging matrices was developed on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Using the extracts from samples of ginseng tea, the approach was validated. Analysis of extracts was carried out using a reversed-phase chromatography with SB-C18 sorbent. For compound identification, electrospray ionization and a quadrupole/linear ion trap mass-spectrometer in different modes were used. A meticulous study of the fragmentation of ginsenosides in the linear ion trap and its application for analysis of these compounds was performed in this work. The accuracy of the identification was proven with standards of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Re, Rf, Rd, Rb2, Rb3 and Rc. PMID:23280398

Stavrianidi, Andrey; Rodin, Igor; Braun, Arkady; Shpigun, Oleg

2013-06-01

195

Qualitative analysis of patients' feedback from a PROMs survey of cancer patients in England  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined how free-text comments from cancer survivors could complement formal patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), as part of the England PROMs survey programme for cancer. Design A qualitative content analysis was conducted of responses to a single open-ended free-text question placed at the end of the cross-sectional population-based postal questionnaire. Setting Individuals were identified through three UK Cancer Registries and questionnaires were posted to their home addresses. Participants A random sample of individuals (n=4992) diagnosed with breast, colorectal, non-Hodgkins lymphoma or prostate cancer at 1, 2, 3 and 5?years earlier. Results 3300 participants completed the survey (68% response rate). Of these 1056 (32%) completed the free-text comments box, indicating a high level of commitment to provide written feedback on patient experience. Almost a fifth (19%) related experiences of excellent care during the treatment phase, with only 8% reporting negative experiences. This contrasted with experiences of care after primary cancer treatment where the majority were negative. Factors impacting negatively upon patient-reported outcomes included the emotional impact of cancer; poor experiences of treatment and care; comorbidities, treatment side effects, social difficulties and inadequate preparation for a wide range of sometimes long-lasting on-going physical and psychological problems. Mediating factors assisting recovery incorporated both professional-led factors, such as quality of preparation for anticipated problems and aftercare services, and participant-led factors, such as learning from other cancer survivors and self-learning through trial and error. The support of friends and family was also a factor in participants' outcomes. Conclusions This analysis of free-text comments complements quantitative analysis of PROMs measure's by illuminating relationships between factors that impact on quality of life (QoL) and indicate why cancer patients may experience significantly worse QoL than the general population. The data suggest more systematic preparation and aftercare for individuals to self-manage post-treatment problems might improve QoL outcomes among cancer survivors.

Corner, Jessica; Wagland, Richard; Glaser, Adam; Richards, Sir Mike

2013-01-01

196

Community nurse assessment of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors--a qualitative analysis within the CroHort study.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to identify major determinants of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors among subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The data for the qualitative analysis were obtained from the Croatian Adult Health Cohort Study (CroHort). The data analysis was based on the principles of Grounded Theory. We have generated the concept of an individual in a vicious circle of risky health behaviour, defined by the low level of motivation and unfavourable personal characteristics which in interaction with unsupportive social environment adversely influence one's health behaviour, leading to negative health outcomes that produce negative effects on one's motivation and social environment. Community nurses assessed that the respondents often weren't adequately recognising their CVD risk and were very reluctant about the change in their risky habits. Our results are supported by the quantitative analysis and are complementing other analyses of the cardiovascular risks within the CroHort study. PMID:22338744

Andri?, Adriana; Vuleti?, Silvije

2012-01-01

197

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MDMA, MDEA, MA and amphetamine in urine by head-space\\/solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and GC\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of some amphetamines and their analogs isolated from urine samples by solid phase micro-extraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers are reported. The analytical method employed was gas-chromatography\\/mass spectrometry of head space samples.

F. Centini; A. Masti; I. Barni Comparini

1996-01-01

198

Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

Franck, Bruno M.

1990-01-01

199

Mindfulness-based stress reduction in breast cancer: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

There have been few qualitative investigations evaluating Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in breast cancer populations. The nested qualitative analysis reported here explores the acceptability and the perceived effect of MBSR. As part of a larger randomised controlled evaluative trial, 92 participants with stages 0 to III breast cancer completed a short proforma following week 8 of a MBSR programme conducted at The Haven, an integrated cancer support centre in London, UK in 2005-2006. Following thematic analysis, the most positive experiences from participants (n = 92) were reported to be; 1) being calmer, centred, at peace, connected and more confident; 2) the value of mindfulness practice; 3) being more aware; 4) coping with stress, anxiety and panic; 5) accepting things as they are, being less judgemental of myself and others; 6) improved communication and personal relationships and 7) making time and creating space for myself. All participants asked (n = 39) said that following MBSR training they had become more mindful. These understandings will be able to help shape the future teaching of MBSR in breast cancer. PMID:23059436

Hoffman, Caroline J; Ersser, Steven J; Hopkinson, Jane B

2012-11-01

200

A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors  

SciTech Connect

Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola.

Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Letzring, S. A.; Hegelich, B. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2008-10-15

201

A Qualitative Secondary Evaluation of Statewide Follow-Up Interviews for Abnormal Newborn Screening Results for Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Hemoglobinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to assess parental acceptability of large-scale, telephone follow-up regarding their infants' newborn screening (NBS) results indicating carrier status for sickle cell hemoglobinopathy (SCH) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Analysis of 195 interview transcripts focused on parents' responses to two open-ended questions “What was your reaction to being called by me?” and “What do you think of the state newborn screening program having follow-up people calling parents like you?” Responses were coded using conventional content analysis procedures and non-parametric tests were performed to analyze quantitative data. Results Most parents reported favorable opinions about the follow-up. Favorable opinions were associated with several emotional reactions to receiving follow-up (p<0.001), and three reasons why parents found the interview beneficial (p<0.05): it provided information, clarified NBS results, and answered questions. Seventeen parents of SCH carriers reportedly had not been told their infant's NBS results and received them for the first time during the follow-up interview. Conclusion Parents of CF and SCH carrier infants had favorable opinions and identified specific benefits to receiving follow-up contact. This analysis demonstrates an information deficit among carrier parents and illustrates the importance of NBS follow-up and need for comprehensive communication and counseling.

La Pean, Alison; Collins, Jenelle L.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Eskra, Kerry L.; Roedl, Sara; Tluczek, Audrey; Farrell, Michael H.

2011-01-01

202

Analysis of EUVE Experiment Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tests to validate an antenna pointing concept for spin-stabilized satellites using a data relay satellite are described. These tests show that proper antenna pointing on an inertially-stabilized spacecraft can lead to significant access time through the relay satellite even without active antenna pointing. We summarize the test results, the simulations to model the effects of antenna pattern and space loss, and the expected contact times. We also show how antenna beam width affects the results.

Horan, Stephen

1996-01-01

203

Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women.

Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

2014-01-01

204

The experiences of unpartnered men with prostate cancer: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how men without partners make decisions about prostate cancer treatment, manage treatment side effects, and obtain information and support. Background In 2009, it was projected that over 230,000 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. While treatment options vary, these options result in changes within the man that can affect his quality of life. Research has shown that often spouses play a central role in men’s choice of treatment and in maintaining men’s quality of life. In addition, spouses are the major providers of emotional support and physical care. However, little is known about how men without partners cope with prostate cancer. Prior research seldom addresses how diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer affects the quality of life of men without partners. Methods Because very little is known about the needs of men without partners managing prostate cancer, qualitative analysis of data obtained during semi-structure interviews provided respondents with an opportunity to share the lived experience of prostate cancer. A semi-structured interview was conducted with selected, consenting men. The sample was drawn from the ongoing R01 study of men with prostate cancer (PROSTQA). Results The sample for this study included 17 unpartnered prostate cancer survivors. The ages of participants ranged from 47 to 72 with a mean age of 63. The participants had between zero and two co-morbidities with an average of one co-morbidity per participant. The sample was 82% Caucasian and 17% Black. A total of 35% of the participants reported “some college” (n = 6), 30% graduated from college (n = 5), and 23% went to graduate school (n = 4). One participant reported that he was a high school graduate and one had less than a high school education. Five themes emerged from the data: going it alone, diagnosis and prostate cancer treatment decision-making, sources of information and support, the aftermath of prostate cancer, and coping strategies. Conclusions This study provides information about unpartnered men’s prostate cancer experience. This information will help health care professionals to meet the needs of unpartnered more effectively and help them to assist men as they adapt to living with this chronic illness.

Harden, Janet; Burke, Matthew; Sanda, Martin G.; Hardy, Jill; Bailey, Donald E.

2014-01-01

205

Stories Behind the Symptoms: A Qualitative Analysis of the Narratives of 9\\/11 Rescue and Recovery Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study of the experiences of rescue and recovery workers\\/volunteers at Ground Zero following the terrorist attacks\\u000a of 9\\/11\\/01 is reported. Information was extracted from a semi-structured clinical evaluation of 416 responders who were the\\u000a initial participants in a large scale medical and mental health screening and treatment program for 9\\/11 responders. Qualitative\\u000a analysis revealed themes that spanned four

Corey B. Bills; Nancy Dodson; Jeanne M. Stellman; Steven Southwick; Vansh Sharma; Robin Herbert; Jacqueline M. Moline; Craig L. Katz

2009-01-01

206

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Urinary Lipids in the Nephrotic Syndrome*  

PubMed Central

A qualitative and quantitative analysis of urinary lipids in the nephrotic syndrome is presented. The following lipids were identified in the urine of patients with the nephrotic syndrome: free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. Glass paper chromatography identified the cholesterol esters as palmitate, oleate, linoleate, and arachidonate, and identified the phospholipids as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Urinary lipid excretion was much greater in patients with the nephrotic syndrome than in patients with chronic renal disease and minimal proteinuria, or in patients with hyperlipidemia from other causes. Urinary lipid excretion varied widely among the 13 patients with the nephrotic syndrome studied, and no quantitative correlation with serum lipid levels was observed. However, qualitatively at least, the proportion of cholesterol esters excreted in the urine was similar to the proportion of these esters in plasma. A good correlation was found between lipid excretion and glomerular permeability. Furthermore, during steroid therapy urinary lipid excretion decreased concomitant with a decrease in proteinuria. All these observations support the idea that lipiduria in the nephrotic syndrome is related to protein loss and that most of the lipid in the urine enters the glomerular filtrate in the form of lipoproteins.

Klahr, Saulo; Tripathy, K.; Bolanos, Oscar

1967-01-01

207

Results Of PLACES Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses performed to support PLACES data reduction and data interpretation are presented. Beacon receiver measurements of the scattering of a 100 MHz pseudo-noise beacon signal BPSK modulated at a 10 MHz rate were made during an occulatati...

C. W. Prettie

1982-01-01

208

Adherence with oral chemotherapy: results from a qualitative study of the behaviour and representations of patients and oncologists.  

PubMed

Oral chemotherapy is increasingly used in oncology. Poor adherence, that is, non-respect of medical advice about taking the therapy and surveillance of adverse effects, is the main risk associated with this administration route. Poor adherence may be explained by non-adherence by the patient to the treatment, misunderstanding the advice or it could also reflect the poor adaptation of the healthcare team to a new administration route. Here we report the results from a qualitative study that aimed to describe and understand existing practice for capecitabine, an oral chemotherapy, which is used for the treatment of metastatic breast and colon cancer. We interviewed 42 patients who were receiving oral capecitabine in groups and individually as well as 10 prescribers. This study was carried out in two specialist cancer centres. The results showed a wide diversity in the prescribers' practices, who make decisions based on their experience of practice guidelines for intravenous chemotherapies. Although the results for the patients do not suggest deliberate non-adherence, they show poor observance of the dose schedule. The most important result of this study is the patient's inability to identify and to report important signs of harmful toxicity. PMID:20649809

Regnier Denois, V; Poirson, J; Nourissat, A; Jacquin, J-P; Guastalla, J P; Chauvin, F

2011-07-01

209

A Philosophical Analysis of the General Methodology of Qualitative Research: A Critical Rationalist Perspective.  

PubMed

Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison-rather than generalization-is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research. PMID:22592885

Rudnick, Abraham

2012-05-17

210

Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack of practical tools to encourage behavioural change was a key barrier for obese parents. Conclusions Well-funded, targeted social marketing campaigns will play an important role in the prevention and management of obesity. It is important that these campaigns are comprehensively evaluated and are backed up with structural supports to enable and encourage population subgroups to act upon messages.

2014-01-01

211

Event-specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis for genetically modified canola T45.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been the main technical support for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To date, GMO-specific PCR detection strategies have been developed basically at four different levels, such as screening-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific detection methods. Event-specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMO detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of exogenous integrant. GM canola, event T45, with tolerance to glufosinate ammonium is one of the commercial genetically modified (GM) canola events approved in China. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of T45 canola was cloned and revealed by means of TAIL-PCR. Specific PCR primers and TaqMan probes were designed based upon the revealed sequence, and qualitative and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection assays employing these primers and probe were developed. In qualitative PCR, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for T45 canola in 100 ng of genomic DNA. The quantitative PCR assay showed limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) of 5 and 50 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed canola samples with known GM contents were detected employing the developed real-time PCR assay, and expected results were obtained. These results indicated that the developed event-specific PCR methods can be used for identification and quantification of T45 canola and its derivates. PMID:17177494

Yang, Litao; Pan, Aihu; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Dabing

2006-12-27

212

Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5 nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila from aged tequilas. The first three PCs of the Raman spectra, that provide the 99% of the total variance of the data set, were used for the samples classification. The PCA1 and PCA2 are related with the water (or ethanol) content of the sample, whereas the PCA3 is related with the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra.

Frausto-Reyes, C.; Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Sato-Berrú, R.; Sahagún, L. R.

2005-09-01

213

Women's lives in transition: a qualitative analysis of the fertility decline in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The fertility decline that began in Bangladesh in the late 1980s and continues has prompted diverse theories to explain it. In this qualitative analysis of 21 focus-group sessions with rural women ranging in age from the teens to late 40s and living in the villages of the Matlab area, the women's perceptions of their changing society and of the influence of the family planning program are examined. The women's statements reveal their awareness of the social and economic transition they are undergoing and their interest in family-size limitation, which is bolstered by a strong family planning program. Although the shifts in economic and social circumstances are not large, in conjunction with the strong family planning program they constitute a powerful force for change in attitudes, ideas, and behavior among these women. PMID:8923653

Simmons, R

1996-01-01

214

Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5 nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila from aged tequilas. The first three PCs of the Raman spectra, that provide the 99% of the total variance of the data set, were used for the samples classification. The PCA1 and PCA2 are related with the water (or ethanol) content of the sample, whereas the PCA3 is related with the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra. PMID:16043061

Frausto-Reyes, C; Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Sato-Berrú, R; Sahagún, L R

2005-09-01

215

[Qualitative and quantitative analysis of various elements in chromite ore by ICP-AES].  

PubMed

Kind of the elements in chromite ore was firstly determined by ICP-AES. Twenty nine elements, such as Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Zn, Ca and Ni, were contained in the chromite sample based on the qualitative analysis. Then the contents of main elements Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, T, Si, Mn and V were measured. The chromite samples processing procedures have two steps, the first is decomposition by nitrate carbonate and sodium tetraborate at 950 degrees C for 30 min, then leaching by dilute hydrochloric acid at 80 degrees C for 10 min. The method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy with the RSDs between 0.48% and 2.05% and the recovery rates between 90.5% and 111.3%. PMID:20302125

Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Shi-li; Wang, Xiao-hui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

216

Impact of a general practice based group parenting programme: quantitative and qualitative results from a controlled trial at 12 months  

PubMed Central

Aims: To test the effectiveness at one year of the Webster Stratton Parents and Children Series group parenting programme in a population sample of parents. Methods: In a multicentre block randomised controlled trial, parents of children aged 2–8 years in 116 families who scored in the upper 50% on a validated behaviour inventory, took part in Webster-Stratton's 10 week parenting programme led by trained and supervised health visitors. The following outcome measures were used: Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory, Goodman Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire, Parenting Stress Index, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Results: The intervention significantly reduced child behaviour problems and improved mental health at immediate and 6 month follow ups. One year differences between control and intervention groups were not significant. Qualitative results suggest that these findings might be attributable in part to either Hawthorne effects or contamination of control group. At interview parents described ways in which the programme had improved their mental health. They reported gains in confidence and feeling less stressed. Some also reported beneficial changes in their own and their children's behaviour and improved relationships with their children. Some spoke of a need for further sessions to support the behaviour changes they had managed to make, and some the desire for attendance by both parents. Conclusions: Parenting programmes have the potential to promote mental health and reduce social inequalities, but further work is needed to improve long term effectiveness.

Stewart-Brown, S; Patterson, J; Mockford, C; Barlow, J; Klimes, I; Pyper, C

2004-01-01

217

“Can't Really Trust That, So What Can I Trust?”: A Polyvocal, Qualitative Analysis of the Psychology of Mistrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment in carrying out, as a group, a phenomenological analysis of a qualitative interview on the topic of mistrust. One in-depth interview was analyzed phenomenologically by each of the six members of our group. We then shared and discussed our individual analyses to generate a consensual analysis. Finally, additional or divergent perspectives were offered by individual

Nigel King; Linda Finlay; Peter Ashworth; Jonathan A. Smith; Darren Langdridge; Trevor Butt

2008-01-01

218

Post16 physics and chemistry uptake: combining large-scale secondary analysis with in-depth qualitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served three distinct purposes in the design of this

Gillian Hampden-Thompson; Fred Lubben; Judith Bennett

2011-01-01

219

Work related musculoskeletal disorders amongst therapists in physically demanding roles: qualitative analysis of risk factors and strategies for prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). Methods A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Results Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Conclusions Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted.

2011-01-01

220

Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

Malin, Jane T. (inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (inventor); Harris, Richard A. (inventor)

1990-01-01

221

Qualitative analysis of the overhand throw by undergraduates in education using a distance learning computer program.  

PubMed

The purpose was to (a) examine whether computer-based distance learning could enhance the qualitative analysis skills (error detection in the overhand throw) of undergraduates in education and (b) examine the effectiveness of several methods of information presentation (video file and text) on distance learning. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, to detect errors in an incorrect throwing motion of a model on the computer screen. Group 1 (n=13) was the control; Group 2 (n=13) viewed a video of the appropriate throwing mechanics; Group 3 (n=13) viewed text information describing the appropriate mechanics of the overhand throw; and Group 4 (n=16) received a combination of video and text information. On Day 1 participants took a pretest. Treatment and testing occurred on Days 2 through 8. Then 5 days later participants took a retention test. One-way analysis of variance confirmed no significant differences between groups at Pretest (Day 1). An analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated learning over practice. Paired-sample t tests between Days 1 and 8 showed the video plus text group without significant change. PMID:14738367

McKethan, Robert N; Kernodle, Michael W; Brantz, Douglas; Fischer, Joseph

2003-12-01

222

Talking to Children about Maternal BRCA1/2 Genetic Test Results: A Qualitative Study of Parental Perceptions and Advice  

PubMed Central

Family communication is the primary, initial means of educating the next, at-risk generation about hereditary cancer risk. In this study, in-depth parent narratives provided self-report of motivations, planning, satisfactions and regrets associated with sharing or not sharing maternal BRCA1/2 test results with young children and advice for parents considering disclosure and for genetic counselors. Interviews were conducted with 32 mothers tested for BRCA1/2 with children ages 8–21 years and 24 of their co-parents; interview narratives were analyzed qualitatively. Parents were concerned with both protecting and educating children about hereditary cancer risk. They expressed confidence that parents can constructively convey genetic information to minor children. Telling relieved most parents and satisfied a sense of parental duty. Parents strongly advised child-specific, age-appropriate tailoring of genetic information and emphasized conveying the positive, preventive utility of genetic information to children. Immunizing effects of disclosure were viewed as providing forewarning about and preparation for possible later family cancer diagnoses. Parents choosing not to tell children were advised to consider future disclosure. Narratives about parental sharing of BRCA1/2 test results with minor children support the feasibility of parental discussion of maternal genetic test results to the next at-risk generation. Results suggest development of intervention tools for parents would support decision-making and family communication and potentially reduce parental worry and regret. Recommendations are made for more active involvement by genetic counselors with tested parents around the topic of delivery of genetic information to children.

Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Garber, Judy E.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Hewitt, Larissa; Hamilton, Jennifer; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

2012-01-01

223

"Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden.

Rofail, Diana; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H.; Berardo, Carmen Galani

2014-01-01

224

Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study  

SciTech Connect

Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

2012-05-01

225

Developing an observing attitude: A qualitative analysis of meditation diaries in a MBSR clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an 8-week training that is designed to teach participants mindful awareness of the present moment. In randomized clinical trials (RCTs), MBSR has demonstrated efficacy in various conditions including reducing chronic pain related distress and improving quality of life in healthy individuals. There have, however, been no qualitative studies investigating participants’ descriptions of changes experienced over multiple time-points during the course of the program. This qualitative study of a MBSR cohort (N=8 healthy individuals) in a larger RCT examined participants’ daily diary descriptions of their home-practice experiences. The study used a two-part method, combining grounded theory with a close-ended coding approach. The grounded theory analysis revealed that during the trial, all participants, to varying degrees, described moments of distress related to practice; at the end of the course, all participants who completed the training demonstrated greater detail and clarity in their descriptions, improved affect, and the emergence of an observing self. The closed-ended coding schema carried out to shed light on the development of an observing self, revealed that the emergence of an observing self was not related to the valence of participants’ experiential descriptions: even participants whose diaries contained predominantly negative characterizations of their experience throughout the trial were able, by the end of the trial, to demonstrate an observing, witnessing attitude towards their own distress. Conclusion Progress in MBSR may rely less on the valence of participants’ experiences and more on the way participants describe and relate to their own inner experience.

Kerr, Catherine E.; Josyula, Krishnapriya; Littenberg, Ronnie

2011-01-01

226

Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.  

PubMed

Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. PMID:24117678

Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

2014-01-01

227

Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices-a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be aware that patients may not contact them about results, and they need to publicise their results handling processes to patients and take steps to reassure patients about confidentiality with regards to administrators.

2014-01-01

228

What makes the everyday life of Swedish adolescent girls less stressful: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Stress is a widespread phenomenon in society today, not least among children and adolescents. Stress-related ill-health has increased in this population and affects girls to a greater extent than boys. Against this background, it is important to acquire knowledge about measures that prevent stress, especially in girls. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate adolescent girls' experiences and reflections about what makes everyday life less stressful. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen 17-year-old girls. The analysis comprised both manifest and latent content and revealed the girls' own experiences of and reflections about what makes everyday life less stressful. Three categories, 'Enjoyment and Recovery', 'Trust' and 'Insight and Influence', and nine subcategories emerged. The latent content of these categories is described by the theme 'access to sources of strength'. It is essential that persons in the girls' surroundings are aware of all sources that provide the strength to resist and prevent stress in everyday life. A climate has to be created in all arenas of the girls' everyday life in which they can access these sources of strength. Utilizing the girls' experiences and views about what needs to be done is the first step towards a preventive and promotive mode of working on their own circumstances and wishes. This approach is consistent with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which emphasizes the importance of involving the target group. PMID:20233834

Haraldsson, Katarina; Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Hildingh, Cathrine; Marklund, Bertil

2010-06-01

229

Interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain in Qu?bec's private sector: results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Collaboration and interprofessional practices are highly valued in health systems, because they are thought to improve outcomes of care for persons with complex health problems, such as low back pain. Physiotherapists, like all health providers, are encouraged to take part in interprofessional practices. However, little is known about these practices, especially for private sector physiotherapists. This study aimed to: 1) explore how physiotherapists working in the private sector with adults with low back pain describe their interprofessional practices, 2) identify factors that influence their interprofessional practices, and 3) identify their perceived effects. Methods Participants were 13 physiotherapists, 10 women/3 men, having between 3 and 21 years of professional experience. For this descriptive qualitative study, we used face-to-face semi-structured interviews and conducted content analysis encompassing data coding and thematic regrouping. Results Physiotherapists described interprofessional practices heterogeneously, including numerous processes such as sharing information and referring. Factors that influenced physiotherapists’ interprofessional practices were related to patients, providers, organizations, and wider systems (e.g. professional system). Physiotherapists mostly viewed positive effects of interprofessional practices, including elements such as gaining new knowledge as a provider and being valued in one’s own role, as well as improvements in overall treatment and outcome. Conclusions This qualitative study offers new insights into the interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain, as perceived by the physiotherapists’ themselves. Based on the results, the development of strategies aiming to increase interprofessionalism in the management of low back pain would most likely require taking into consideration factors associated with patients, providers, the organizations within which they work, and the wider systems.

2014-01-01

230

Depression and Substance Abuse in Two Divergent High School Cultures: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative and qualitative methods explored the relationships among depression and substance use across suburban (164 students) and inner-city (242 students) high schools. Qualitative analyses suggest that quantitative differences in these relationships may be related to the meanings of depression and substance use in the cultural context. (SLD)

Way, Niobe; And Others

1994-01-01

231

Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation in Counseling Psychology: Strategies for Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of various strategies and methods of engaging in qualitative data interpretations and analyses in counseling psychology. The authors explore the themes of self, culture, collaboration, circularity, trustworthiness, and evidence deconstruction from multiple qualitative methodologies. Commonalities and differences…

Yeh, Christine J.; Inman, Arpana G.

2007-01-01

232

From Print to Pixels: Practitioners' Reflections on the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studied how individual qualitative researchers perceive that their research procedures and perspectives have been influenced by the adoption of computer assisted qualitative data software. The study focused on Nud*Ist software (non-numerical Unstructured Data; Indexing, Searching, and Theorizing). The seven participants ranged from new…

Gilbert, Linda S.

233

Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray data and behavioral models of regulation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a mathematical framework that allows to test the compatibility between differential data and knowledge on genetic and metabolic interactions. Within this framework, a behavioral model is represented by a labeled oriented interaction graph; its predictions can be compared to experimental data. The comparison is qualitative and relies on a system of linear qualitative equations derived from the interaction

A. Siegel; O. Radulescu; J. Ou; S. Lagarrigue; Campus de Beaulieu

234

Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray data and behavioral models of regulation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a mathematical framework that allows to test the compatibility between differential data and knowledge on genetic and metabolic interactions. Within this framework, a behavioral model is represented by a labeled oriented interaction graph; its predictions can be compared to experimental data. The comparison is qualitative and relies on a system of linear qualitative equations derived from the interaction

A. Siegel; O. Radulescu; M. Le Borgne; P. Veber; J. Ouy; S. Lagarrigue

2006-01-01

235

State of Qualitative Research in Engineering Education: Meta-Analysis of JEE Articles, 2005-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent calls for expanding the scope and rigor of engineer- ing education research, use of qualitative methods to answer research questions that can not be answered through quantitative methods is taking on increasing significance. Well-designed qualitative studies often build on epistemological consistency across theoretical perspectives, research questions, and research methods. We examine recent articles published in the Journal of

MIRKA KORO-LJUNGBERG

236

Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

Murakami, Yusuke

2013-01-01

237

Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

238

Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

Christina Goulding

2005-01-01

239

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

240

Learner feedback and educational outcomes with an internet-based ambulatory curriculum: a qualitative and quantitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Online medical education curricula offer new tools to teach and evaluate learners. The effect on educational outcomes of using learner feedback to guide curricular revision for online learning is unknown. Methods In this study, qualitative analysis of learner feedback gathered from an online curriculum was used to identify themes of learner feedback, and changes to the online curriculum in response to this feedback were tracked. Learner satisfaction and knowledge gains were then compared from before and after implementation of learner feedback. Results 37,755 learners from 122 internal medicine residency training programs were studied, including 9437 postgraduate year (PGY)1 residents (24.4?% of learners), 9864 PGY2 residents (25.5?%), 9653 PGY3 residents (25.0?%), and 6605 attending physicians (17.0?%). Qualitative analysis of learner feedback on how to improve the curriculum showed that learners commented most on the overall quality of the educational content, followed by specific comments on the content. When learner feedback was incorporated into curricular revision, learner satisfaction with the instructive value of the curriculum (1?=?not instructive; 5?=?highly instructive) increased from 3.8 to 4.1 (p?

2012-01-01

241

Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

2014-01-01

242

Women and Feminism in Technical CommunicationA Qualitative Content Analysis of Journal Articles Published in 1989 through 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative content analysis identifies 40 articles about women and feminism published in five technical communication journals in a period of nine years, beginning with the publication of Mary Lay's award-winning “Interpersonal Conflict in Collaborative Writing” in 1989. Along with numeric trends about the frequency of articles about women and feminism in technical communication journals, this study also identifies major

ISABELLE THOMPSON

1999-01-01

243

“I Need to Talk About It”: A Qualitative Analysis of Trauma-Exposed Women’s Reasons for Treatment Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder do not seek or receive effective treatment. Understanding the reasons why an individual chooses to seek treatment or prefers one treatment to another is a critical step to improve treatment seeking. To begin to understand these reasons, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the reasons women gave for choosing a

Frank N. Angelo; Helen E. Miller; Lori A. Zoellner; Norah C. Feeny

2008-01-01

244

Engineering and Technology: The Public's Perspective--Part 2: A Qualitative Analysis for the National Academy of Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report for the National Academy of Engineering's Office of Public Awareness represents the second phase of an examination of public opinion about engineering and technology. This document presents an analysis of six qualitative, focused group discussions or focus groups. Five of these groups were college educated Americans and one was…

Doble, John; Komarnicki, Mary

245

Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H[subscript 2]S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures is an essential experiment carried out in high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels all over the world especially in India and South Asia. The classical technique uses H[subscript 2]S, which is highly toxic and has adverse effects on humans and the environment. Increasing awareness…

Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita

2008-01-01

246

Simultaneous qualitative analysis of volatile and nonvolatile organic contamination on silicon wafer by online pyrolysis mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new analytical setup that aims for a qualitative analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile organic contamination simultaneously from one whole silicon wafer. The aim was to develop a screening method that can be used for the identification of the source(s) of organic contamination for quality control in the manufacturing process. The model compounds used in the

Raimo A. Ketola; Jari Kiuru; Virpi Tarkiainen; Arto Kiviranta; Jaakko Räsänen; Heini Ritala; Simo Eränen

2005-01-01

247

Application of probabilistic neural networks in qualitative analysis of near infrared spectra: determination of producing area and variety of loquats.  

PubMed

Near infrared (NIR) spectra of a sample can be treated as a signature, allowing samples to be grouped on basis of their spectral similarities. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with probabilistic neural networks (PNN) have been used to discriminate producing area and variety of loquats. Two varieties of loquats ('Dahongpao' and 'Jiajiaozhong') picked from two producing areas of 'Tangxi' and 'Cunan' in Zhejiang province were analyzed in this study. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied before PNN modeling and the results indicated that the dimension of the vast spectral data can be effectively reduced. For each model, half samples were used to train the network and the remaining half were used to test the network. The results of the PCA-PNN models for discriminating the variety of samples from the same producing area or for discriminating the producing area of the same variety samples were much better than those of the PCA-PNN models for discriminating variety or producing area of all loquat samples. The results of this study show that NIRS combined with PCA-PNN is a feasible way for qualitative analysis of discriminating fruit producing areas and varieties. PMID:17693303

Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Huirong

2007-08-13

248

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of surface-acoustic-wave-based ultraviolet photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with multiple optical sensing areas is presented by depositing patterned ZnO films on a LiNbO3 substrate. Two different types of electrodes, uniform interdigital transducer (IDT) and slanted finger interdigital transducer (SFIT), are designed and fabricated to analyze the performances of SAW array UV photodetectors. By tuning ultraviolet wavelengths, qualitative characteristics of SAW UV photodetectors are observed through the measurements of SAW attenuation. Quantitative analyses of the photodetectors are presented by varying light intensities. Moreover, dynamic responses of SAW array UV photodetectors under the illumination of different optical wavelengths are also demonstrated. Ultraviolet light of 350 nm with power densities of 8.46 and 18.34 ?W/cm2 is detectable from a UV photodetector with uniform IDT and SFIT, respectively. This study not only indicates that a SAW-based UV sensor is a potential candidate of array UV photodetectors but also provides a comprehensive analysis of SAW UV photodetectors.

Wang, Wei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Ju; Ma, Chein-Ching

2013-08-01

249

Qualitative and quantitative environmental analysis by capillary column gas chromatography/lightpipe Fourier transform infrared spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A new state-of-art commercial gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared (GC/FT-IR) lightpipe-containing system has been evaluated for its applicability to qualitative and quantitative environmental analysis of typical environmental contaminants. This system exhibited minimum identifiable quantities, for many compounds, in the 10-50-ng range. On a wide-bore capillary column, quantitation curves generated from chromatogram peak areas were linear over the 10-250-ng range. The mean correlation coefficient for 38 quantitation calibration curves on 24 standards was 0.976. The selectivity of the new system was evaluated with standards, soil, and still-bottom samples. It was demonstrated with 27 standards that no discernible loss in identification selectivity occurred when a narrow-band infrared detector (spectral cutoff 750 cm/sup -1/) was used in place of a midband detector (cutoff 700 cm/sup -1/). This allows the meaningful utilization of the extra sensitivity associated with narrower frequency range infrared detectors.

Gurka, D.F.; Pyle, S.M.

1988-08-01

250

A qualitative comparative analysis of the conditions affecting early maternal transfer patterns.  

PubMed

In Arkansas, almost all of the high-risk-pregnancy resources are concentrated in a single place, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). During the 6-month period before a telemedicine programme started, there were five operational telemedicine sites in the state, and during the subsequent 12-month period, there were 13 telemedicine sites in operation. Data were gathered on birth-related transfers during the two periods. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to assess the effect of different combinations of telemedical and hospital-level resources on the timing of maternal transfers. Early (pre-33-week gestational age) maternal transfers occurred in period 1 (before the telemedicine programme started), only from areas with level-2 hospital resources and no telemedicine access; early transfers also occurred in period 2 from areas with level-2 hospital resources and either telemedicine access or no telemedicine access. We conclude that combinations of resources affect physician decisions regarding transfer and that QCA is a useful tool for examining the growth and development of telemedicine systems. PMID:17227603

Britt, David W

2006-01-01

251

Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B.; Manurung, M.; Kurniawan, K. H.

2013-09-01

252

Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

SciTech Connect

Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B. [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Manurung, M. [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia)] [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, K. H. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)] [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)

2013-09-03

253

Social influences on the transition to injection drug use among young heroin sniffers: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little attention has been placed on preventing transition from non-injection to injection drug use. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the spheres that influence young drug users’ transition from heroin sniffing to injecting among a sample from Baltimore, MD, USA. Nineteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (ages 16–29) injection drug users who had begun

Susan G. Sherman; L. Smith; G. Laney; S. A. Strathdee

2002-01-01

254

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

255

Qualitative Amino Acid Analysis of Small Peptides by GC/MS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments designed to help undergraduate students gain experience operating instruments and interpreting gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data are presented. Experimental reagents, procedures, analysis, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

Mabbott, Gary A.

1990-01-01

256

System monitoring and diagnosis with qualitative models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantial foundation of tools for model-based reasoning with incomplete knowledge was developed: QSIM (a qualitative simulation program) and its extensions for qualitative simulation; Q2, Q3 and their successors for quantitative reasoning on a qualitative framework; and the CC (component-connection) and QPC (Qualitative Process Theory) model compilers for building QSIM QDE (qualitative differential equation) models starting from different ontological assumptions. Other model-compilers for QDE's, e.g., using bond graphs or compartmental models, have been developed elsewhere. These model-building tools will support automatic construction of qualitative models from physical specifications, and further research into selection of appropriate modeling viewpoints. For monitoring and diagnosis, plausible hypotheses are unified against observations to strengthen or refute the predicted behaviors. In MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), multiple hypothesized models of the system are tracked in parallel in order to reduce the 'missing model' problem. Each model begins as a qualitative model, and is unified with a priori quantitative knowledge and with the stream of incoming observational data. When the model/data unification yields a contradiction, the model is refuted. When there is no contradiction, the predictions of the model are progressively strengthened, for use in procedure planning and differential diagnosis. Only under a qualitative level of description can a finite set of models guarantee the complete coverage necessary for this performance. The results of this research are presented in several publications. Abstracts of these published papers are presented along with abtracts of papers representing work that was synergistic with the NASA grant but funded otherwise. These 28 papers include but are not limited to: 'Combined qualitative and numerical simulation with Q3'; 'Comparative analysis and qualitative integral representations'; 'Model-based monitoring of dynamic systems'; 'Numerical behavior envelopes for qualitative models'; 'Higher-order derivative constraints in qualitative simulation'; and 'Non-intersection of trajectories in qualitative phase space: a global constraint for qualitative simulation.'

Kuipers, Benjamin

1991-01-01

257

Personalized genomic results: analysis of informational needs.  

PubMed

Use of genomic information in healthcare is increasing; however data on the needs of consumers of genomic information is limited. The Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) is a longitudinal study investigating the utility of personalized medicine. Participants receive results reflecting risk of common complex conditions and drug-gene pairs deemed actionable by an external review board. To explore the needs of individuals receiving genomic information we reviewed all genetic counseling sessions with CPMC participants. A retrospective qualitative review of notes from 157 genetic counseling inquiries was conducted. Notes were coded for salient themes. Five primary themes; "understanding risk", "basic genetics", "complex disease genetics", "what do I do now?" and "other" were identified. Further review revealed that participants had difficulty with basic genetic concepts, confused relative and absolute risks, and attributed too high a risk burden to individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Despite these hurdles, counseled participants recognized that behavior changes could potentially mitigate risk and there were few comments alluding to an overly deterministic or fatalistic interpretation of results. Participants appeared to recognize the multifactorial nature of the diseases for which results were provided; however education to understand the complexities of genomic risk information was often needed. PMID:24488620

Schmidlen, Tara J; Wawak, Lisa; Kasper, Rachel; García-España, J Felipe; Christman, Michael F; Gordon, Erynn S

2014-08-01

258

A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of factors associated with trends in narrowing health inequalities in England.  

PubMed

This study explores why progress with tackling health inequalities has varied among a group of local authority areas in England that were set targets to narrow important health outcomes compared to national averages. It focuses on premature deaths from cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the local authority gap for these outcomes narrowed. Survey and secondary data were used to create dichotomised conditions describing each area. For cancers, ten conditions were found to be associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: presence/absence of a working culture of individual commitment and champions; spending on cancer programmes; aspirational or comfortable/complacent organisational cultures; deprivation; crime; assessments of strategic partnership working, commissioning and the public health workforce; frequency of progress reviews; and performance rating of the local Primary Care Trust (PCT). For CVD, six conditions were associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: a PCT budget closer or further away from target; assessments of primary care services, smoking cessation services and local leadership; presence/absence of a few major programmes; and population turnover. The method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis was used to find configurations of these conditions with either the narrowing or not narrowing outcomes. Narrowing cancer gaps were associated with three configurations in which individual commitment and champions was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with a group of conditions that had in common a high level of bureaucratic-type work. Narrowing CVD gaps were associated with three configurations in which a high assessment of either primary care or smoking cessation services was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with two configurations that both included an absence of major programmes. The article considers substantive and theoretical arguments for these configurations being causal and as pointing to ways of improving progress with tackling health inequalities. PMID:21640455

Blackman, Tim; Wistow, Jonathan; Byrne, David

2011-06-01

259

Life impact of ankle fractures: Qualitative analysis of patient and clinician experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle fractures are one of the more commonly occurring forms of trauma managed by orthopaedic teams worldwide. The impacts of these injuries are not restricted to pain and disability caused at the time of the incident, but may also result in long term physical, psychological, and social consequences. There are currently no ankle fracture specific patient-reported outcome measures with a robust content foundation. This investigation aimed to develop a thematic conceptual framework of life impacts following ankle fracture from the experiences of people who have suffered ankle fractures as well as the health professionals who treat them. Methods A qualitative investigation was undertaken using in-depth semi-structured interviews with people (n=12) who had previously sustained an ankle fracture (patients) and health professionals (n=6) that treat people with ankle fractures. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Each phrase was individually coded and grouped in categories and aligned under emerging themes by two independent researchers. Results Saturation occurred after 10 in-depth patient interviews. Time since injury for patients ranged from 6 weeks to more than 2 years. Experience of health professionals ranged from 1 year to 16 years working with people with ankle fractures. Health professionals included an Orthopaedic surgeon (1), physiotherapists (3), a podiatrist (1) and an occupational therapist (1). The emerging framework derived from patient data included eight themes (Physical, Psychological, Daily Living, Social, Occupational and Domestic, Financial, Aesthetic and Medication Taking). Health professional responses did not reveal any additional themes, but tended to focus on physical and occupational themes. Conclusions The nature of life impact following ankle fractures can extend beyond short term pain and discomfort into many areas of life. The findings from this research have provided an empirically derived framework from which a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure can be developed.

2012-01-01

260

Does the New Formulation of OxyContin® Deter Misuse? A Qualitative Analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand changing illicit drug use patterns in rural Appalachia since a new formulation of OxyContin® was released with the goal of deterring diversion and misuse. Participants (n = 25) from a longitudinal study of rural drug users (N = 192) were approached to participate in semistructured qualitative interviews between April and June 2011. The primary finding is that the majority of participants switched from using the original formulation OxyContin to immediate-release oxycodone. We discuss the implications and limitations of these findings. PMID:24354546

Buer, Lesly-Marie; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl

2014-05-01

261

Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics.

Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

262

Who should decide? Qualitative analysis of panel data from public, patients, healthcare professionals, and insurers on priorities in health care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore the arguments underlying the choices of patients, the public, general practitioners, specialists, and health insurers regarding priorities in health care. DESIGN: A qualitative analysis of data gathered in a series of panels. Members were asked to economise on the publicly funded healthcare budget, exemplified by 10 services. RESULTS: From a medical point of view, both panels of healthcare professionals thought most services were necessary. The general practitioners tried to achieve the budget cuts by limiting access to services to those most in need of them or those who cannot afford to pay for them. The specialists emphasised the possibilities of reducing costs by increasing the efficiency within services and preventing inappropriate utilisation. The patients mainly economised by limiting universal access to preventive and acute services. The "public" panels excluded services that are relatively inexpensive for individual patients. Moreover, they emphasised the individual's own responsibility for health behaviour and the costs of health care, resulting in the choice for copayments. The health insurers emphasised the importance of including services that relate to a risk only, as well as feasibility aspects. CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial differences in the way the different groups approached the issue of what should be included in the basic package. Healthcare professionals seem to be most aware of the importance of maintaining equal access for everyone in need of health care.

Stronks, K.; Strijbis, A. M.; Wendte, J. F.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.

1997-01-01

263

Qualitative Analysis of Workflow Modifications Used to Generate the Reference Standard for the 2010 i2b2/VA Challenge  

PubMed Central

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) team partnered to generate the reference standard for the 2010 i2b2/VA challenge task on concept extraction, assertion classification, and relation classification. The purpose of this paper is to report an in-depth qualitative analysis of the experience and perceptions of human annotators for these tasks. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify key constructs and themes related to these annotation tasks. Interventions were embedded with these tasks using pre-annotation of clinical concepts and a modified annotation workflow. From the human perspective, annotation tasks involve an inherent conflict between bias, accuracy, and efficiency. This analysis deepens understanding of the biases, complexities and impact of variations in the annotation process that may affect annotation task reliability and reference standard validity that are generalizable for other similar large-scale clinical corpus annotation projects.

South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Barrus, Robyn; DuVall, Scott L.; Uzuner, Ozlem; Weir, Charlene

2011-01-01

264

Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID:24238144

Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-12-01

265

Including catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the 2008 CMS payment policy: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The study presented in this article addresses the impact of the 2008 nonpayment policy of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) on catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) from the perspective of infection preventionists. With rich qualitative data, it sheds light on the day-to-day impact of this recent health policy on CAUTI prevention. PMID:23556374

Palmer, Jennifer A; Lee, Grace M; Dutta-Linn, M Maya; Wroe, Peter; Hartmann, Christine W

2013-01-01

266

Self-Authoring a Civic Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Change-Oriented Service Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study explored how undergraduate students' involvement with change-oriented service-learning contributed to their civic-political development. Using Baxter Magolda's notion of self-authorship as an analytic lens, findings suggested that students' involvement with change-oriented service-learning led to (a)…

Iverson, Susan V.; James, Jennifer H.

2013-01-01

267

Injured Workers’ Underreporting in the Health Care Industry: An Analysis Using Quantitative, Qualitative, and Observational Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underreporting of occupational injuries was examined in four health care facilities using quantitative, qualitative, and observational data. Occupational Safety and Health Administration logs accounted for only one-third of the workers’ compensation records; 45 percent of injured workers followed by survey had workers’ compensation claims. Workers reported 63 percent of serious occupational injuries. Underreporting is explained by time pressure and workers’

MONICA GALIZZI; PETRA MIESMAA; LAURA PUNNETT; CRAIG SLATIN

2010-01-01

268

Recounting the K-12 School Experiences of Adults Who Stutter: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study qualitatively explored the primary and secondary (K-12) school experiences of adults who stutter. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 participants, a first focus group interview with 6 participants, and a second focus group interview with 4 participants. Participants discussed the various ways in which…

Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.; Hughes, Stephanie

2012-01-01

269

Addressing Privilege and Oppression in Counselor Training and Practice: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored how 16 counselors conceptualize and address issues of privilege and oppression in the counseling session as well as how they perceive their training with respect to these constructs. In an effort to bridge multicultural training and counselor practice, implications for counselor training are provided based on the…

Hays, Danica G.; Dean, Jennifer K.; Chang, Catherine Y.

2007-01-01

270

A Qualitative Analysis of Sources of Teacher Stress: Consequences for Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data drawn from a qualitative study of teachers' perceptions of work stress is presented. Linkages between teacher stress and teacher performance are firmly established. Study data are discussed in terms of the Performance Adaptation Syndrome, a term used to describe the deleterious effects of prolonged work stress on instructional ability.…

Blase, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

271

A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

Snyder, Catherine

2012-01-01

272

A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

2012-01-01

273

Adolescent Psychosocial Maturity and Alcohol Use: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Longitudinal Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N=1,198) in Reykjavik, Iceland were followed from ages 15 to 17 to explore their levels of psychosocial maturity in relation to alcohol consumption. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to examine interpersonal understanding, skills, and personal meaning in relation to alcohol use. Adolescents' psychosocial maturity,…

Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

2002-01-01

274

Transcription and Analysis of Qualitative Data in a Study of Women Who Sexually Offended against Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on sexual violence is often conducted within the qualitative paradigm. However, many writers have described the lack of specific detail provided with regard to decisions and processes involved in transcribing and analyzing this type of data. In this article, I will provide a description and discussion of the organization, categorization,…

McNulty, Elizabeth Anne

2012-01-01

275

Examining the Cultural Adjustment Experiences of African International College Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the cultural adjustment experiences of 12 Kenyan, Nigerian, and Ghanaian international college students through semistructured interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), 7 primary domains or themes related to these students' cultural adjustment…

Constantine, Madonna G.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Caldwell, Leon D.; Utsey, Shawn O.

2005-01-01

276

Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

2014-01-01

277

Content Mapping Techniques for Qualitative and Semiqualitative Analysis with the Electron Microbeam Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content mapping of small surface areas with the electron microbeam probe can be used to quickly obtain very effectively both qualitative and quantitative information. An automatic content mapping device is available with the Hitachi Perkin-Elmer XMA-S Ele...

J. S. Solomon W. L. Baun

1970-01-01

278

What Do Patients Choose to Tell Their Doctors? Qualitative Analysis of Potential Barriers to Reattributing Medically Unexplained Symptoms  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite both parties often expressing dissatisfaction with consultations, patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) prefer to consult their general practitioners (GPs) rather than any other health professional. Training GPs to explain how symptoms can relate to psychosocial problems (reattribution) improves the quality of doctor–patient communication, though not necessarily patient health. OBJECTIVE To examine patient experiences of GPs’ attempts to reattribute MUS in order to identify potential barriers to primary care management of MUS and improvement in outcome. DESIGN Qualitative study. PARTICIPANTS Patients consulting with MUS whose GPs had been trained in reattribution. A secondary sample of patients of control GPs was also interviewed to ascertain if barriers identified were specific to reattribution or common to consultations about MUS in general. APPROACH Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews. RESULTS Potential barriers include the complexity of patients’ problems and patients’ judgements about how to manage their presentation of this complexity. Many did not trust doctors with discussion of emotional aspects of their problems and chose not to present them. The same barriers were seen amongst patients whose GPs were not trained, suggesting the barriers are not particular to reattribution. CONCLUSIONS Improving GP explanation of unexplained symptoms is insufficient to reduce patients’ concerns. GPs need to (1) help patients to make sense of the complex nature of their presenting problems, (2) communicate that attention to psychosocial factors will not preclude vigilance to physical disease and (3) ensure a quality of doctor–patient relationship in which patients can perceive psychosocial enquiry as appropriate.

Rogers, Anne; Salmon, Peter; Gask, Linda; Dowrick, Chris; Towey, Maria; Clifford, Rebecca; Morriss, Richard

2008-01-01

279

Linking Data to Decision-Making: Applying Qualitative Data Analysis Methods and Software to Identify Mechanisms for Using Outcomes Data  

PubMed Central

A multiple case study was conducted to examine how staff in child out-of-home care programs used data from an Outcomes Management System (OMS) and other sources to inform decision-making. Data collection consisted of thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with clinicians, managers, and directors from two treatment foster care programs and two residential treatment centers, and individuals involved with developing the OMS; and observations of clinical and quality management meetings. Case study and grounded theory methodology guided analyses. The application of qualitative data analysis software is described. Results show that although staff rarely used data from the OMS, they did rely on other sources of systematically collected information to inform clinical, quality management, and program decisions. Analyses of how staff used these data suggest that improving the utility of OMS will involve encouraging staff to participate in data-based decision-making, and designing and implementing OMS in a manner that reflects how decision-making processes operate.

Patel, Vaishali N.; Riley, Anne W.

2007-01-01

280

Results from the ANITA experiment (Analysis A)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ANITA (ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna) is a balloon-borne neutrino telescope which consists of an array of 32 broadband horn antennas. It successfully completed a 35 day flight over Antarctica during the 2006-2007 austral summer. The primary goal of ANITA is to search for astrophysical neutrinos with energies E > 1019 eV by detecting radio Cherenkov signals from neutrino-induced showers in the Antarctic ice. There are two independent data analysis groups in the ANITA experiment based on data blinding and analysis methods. We present results from one of the analysis groups with an event blinding approach.

Nam, Jiwoo; ANITA Collaboration; Gorham, P. W.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Du Vernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D. J.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J. G.; Liewer, K. M.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miocinovic, P.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K. J.; Reil, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Rosen, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Varner, G. S.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.

2008-11-01

281

Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

282

Optical Analysis and Qualitative Discrimination of Vortex-Flame Interaction in a Plane Premixed Shear Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain practical schemes of vortex–flame interactions, a series of organized eddies formed in the plane premixed shear layer is investigated, instead of a single vortex ring or a single vortex tube. The plane premixed shear layer is first formed between two parallel uniform propane–air mixture streams. For getting clear qualitative pictures of vortex–flame interactions in the plane premixed shear

Norio Ohiwa; Yojiro Ishino

2006-01-01

283

Biosensors for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of quorum sensing signal molecules.  

PubMed

Biosensors are biological tools that can be used to assay bacterial cultures for quorum sensing signal molecules (QSSMs) both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. QSSMs can be extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures using organic solvents and tentatively identified via thin layer chromatography in combination with biosensor overlays. Alternatively, QSSMs can be quantified in spent culture supernatants or solvent extracts using biosensor-based spectrophotometric, luminescence, or fluorescence assays. PMID:24818910

Fletcher, Matthew; Cámara, Miguel; Barrett, David A; Williams, Paul

2014-01-01

284

Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, Craig M.

2013-07-31

285

Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.  

PubMed

The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis. PMID:22823104

Rennie, David L

2012-09-01

286

Direct qualitative analysis of triacylglycerols by electrospray mass spectrometry using a linear ion trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated from a biological sample provide a challenge for mass spectrometric analysis because of the\\u000a complexity of naturally occurring TAGs, which may contain different fatty acyl substituents resulting in a large number of\\u000a molecular species having the identical elemental composition. We have investigated the use of mass spectrometry to obtain\\u000a unambiguous information as to the individual TAG molecular

Andrew M. McAnoy; Christine C. Wu; Robert C. Murphy

2005-01-01

287

A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations  

PubMed Central

Background Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. Methods A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Results Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Conclusions Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to information can act as a solution.

2014-01-01

288

Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

2013-01-01

289

The Catalonia World Health Organization demonstration project for palliative care implementation: quantitative and qualitative results at 20 years.  

PubMed

Catalonia (Spain) has a total population of 7.3 million citizens for whom the National Health Service (NHS) provides health care that is free at the point of access. The prevalence of terminally ill patients is between 30,100 and 39,600. Twenty years ago, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with the Catalan Department of Health and the Catalan Institute of Oncology, began a demonstration project (WHO Demonstration Project) in palliative care (PC) with the aim of implementing specialist PC services, generating experience in this field, identifying areas for improvement, and introducing educative procedures (clinical and nonclinical). Over the past 20 years, 237 PC clinical services (72 home care support teams, 49 hospital support teams, 60 units with 742 dedicated beds, 50 outpatient clinics, and six psychosocial support teams) have been implemented. In the five years since the previous evaluation, 57 new clinical services (15 new hospital support teams, 36 outpatient clinics, and six psychosocial support teams among others) and four nonclinical services (education, research, WHO Collaborating Center, and planning) have been implemented. During the year 2010, a total of 46,200 processes were undertaken for the care of 23,100 patients, of whom 12,100 (52%) had cancer and 11,000 (48%) had other chronic advanced diseases. The overall yearly costs are around €52,568,000, with an overall savings of €69,300,000 (€2275 per patient, net savings to the NHS of €16,732,000). In the last five years, three qualitative evaluations and a benchmarking process have been performed to identify weak points and inequities in care provision among districts. Systematic assessments indicate high cost-effectiveness of care as well as high levels of satisfaction by patients and their relatives, thus reinforcing the principle that access to PC under the auspices of the NHS at the end of life is a basic human right. PMID:22265127

Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Caja, Carmen; Espinosa, Jose; Bullich, Ingrid; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Porta-Sales, Josep; Trelis, Jordi; Esperalba, Joaquim; Stjernsward, Jan

2012-04-01

290

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

291

Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations.

2011-01-01

292

Qualitative Meta-synthesis Techniques for Analysis of Public Opinions for in-depth Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public opinions toward social concerns are worth to be noticed for decision makers to undertake any policies and their outcomes. Social psychologists usually undertake a series of investigations to access the interaction underneath the common thinking or actions. The design and statistic processing of the questionnaires always require a lot of manpower. In this paper, two technologies, denoted as CorMap and iView, for qualitative meta-synthesis which aims to acquire and extract assumptions, hypothesis or even just common grounds for further investigation, are applied to a free-association test on social risk.

Tang, Xijin

293

Relevance of aerosol size spectrum analysis as support to qualitative source apportionment studies.  

PubMed

This work presents a diagnostic methodology in support to source apportionment studies to identify remote and local pollution sources. It is based on the temporal analysis of both PM size distributions and PM size fraction correlation along with natural radioactivity measurements as index of Planetary Boundary Layer dynamic. A correlation drop is indicative of changing aerosol sources. When this observation is coupled with decreasing level of natural radioactivity and increasing aerosol concentration, be it coarse or fine, it is indicative of the inflow of remote polluted air masses. The methodology defines in which size range operates the contribution of remote pollution sources. It was applied to two PM10 pollution episodes: the first involved the advection of coarse PM, the second entailed the inflow of two air masses, one transporting coarse dust and the other fine PM. Dust models and backward trajectories analysis confirmed such results, indicating the air mass provenience. PMID:22766004

Manigrasso, M; Febo, A; Guglielmi, F; Ciambottini, V; Avino, P

2012-11-01

294

Security analysis software needs: Survey results  

SciTech Connect

A survey of approximately thirty (30) electric utilities in the United States determined the status of the use of Static Security Analysis programs in their Energy Control Centers. The objective of the survey was to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing applications software. This data could prove useful to the industry in selecting new areas of research and development as well as possible improvements in the current generation of security analysis programs. The survey included telephone interviews with twenty-eight (28) utilities, as well as visits to five (5) utilities. A set of twelve (12) questions, some of which had multiple parts, was prepared and used to obtain the responses. In addition, following completion of the initial survey, six (6) utilities generously agreed to provide detailed written descriptions of certain key aspects of their experiences in implementing Static Security Analysis applications. This report contains both the results of the survey and the six (6) papers prepared by the utilities. 11 tabs.

Virmani, S.; McNair, H.D. (EPIC Engineering, Inc., Los Altos, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

295

Leaf Dimorphism Of Microgramma Squamulosa (Polypodiaceae): a qualitative and quantitative analysis focusing on adaptations to epiphytism.  

PubMed

The epiphytic fern Microgramma squamulosa occurs in the Neotropics and shows dimorphic sterile and fertile leaves. The present study aimed to describe and compare qualitatively and quantitatively macroscopic and microscopic structural characteristics of the dimorphic leaves of M. squamulosa, to point more precisely those characteristics which may contribute to epiphytic adaptations. In June 2009, six isolated host trees covered by M squamulosa were selected close to the edge of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Macroscopic and microscopic analyzes were performed from 192 samples for each leaf type, and permanent and semi-permanent slides were prepared. Sections were observed under light microscopy using image capture software to produce illustrations and scales, as well as to perform quantitative analyses. Fertile and sterile leaves had no qualitative structural differences, being hypostomatous and presenting uniseriate epidermis, homogeneous chlorenchyma, amphicribal vascular bundle, and hypodermis. The presence of hypodermal tissue and the occurrence of stomata at the abaxial face are typical characteristics ofxeromorphic leaves. Sterile leaves showed significantly larger areas (14.80cm2), higher sclerophylly index (0.13g/cm2) and higher stomatal density (27.75stomata/mm2) than fertile leaves. The higher sclerophylly index and the higher stomatal density observed in sterile leaves are features that make these leaves more xeromorphic, enhancing their efficiency to deal with limited water availability in the epiphytic environment, compared to fertile leaves. PMID:23894982

Rocha, Ledyane Dalgallo; Droste, Annette; Gehlen, Günther; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

2013-03-01

296

Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred to as watershed management. Watershed management includes soil and water conservation to create water resources, management of drinking water, improving hygiene and sanitation, plantation of trees, improving agriculture, formation of self-help groups and proper utilisation and management of available natural resources. For successful implementation of such a solution, understanding of perceptions of the tribal community members with regard to public health and socioeconomic implications of watershed management is essential. Methods A qualitative study with six focus group discussions (FGDs), three each separately for men and women, was conducted among tribal community members of the Maharashtra state of India. The data collected from the FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. Results “Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management” was identified as the main theme. Participants perceived that their health problems and socio-economic development are directly and/or indirectly dependent upon water availability. They further perceived that watershed management could directly or indirectly result in reduction of their public health related challenges like waterborne diseases, seasonal migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence, as well as drudgery of women and may enhance overall empowerment of families through agricultural development. Conclusions Tribal people perceived that water scarcity is the main reason for their physical, mental and social health problems and a major obstacle for their overall development. The perceptions of tribal participants indicate that infectious diseases, migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence and drudgery of women are end results of water scarcity and efforts to increase water availability through watershed management may help them to achieve their right to health which is embedded in their right to access to water.

2013-01-01

297

Patient Navigation from the Paired Perspectives of Cancer Patients and Navigators: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Patient navigation for cancer care assesses and alleviates barriers to health care services. We examined paired perspectives of cancer patients and their navigators to examine the process of patient navigation. We explored the strengths, limitations, and our own lessons learned about adopting the novel methodology of multiperspective analysis. Methods As part of a larger RCT, patients and navigators were interviewed separately. We reviewed interviews with 18 patient-navigator dyads. Dyad summaries were created that explicitly incorporated both patient and navigator perspectives. Emerging themes and verbatim quotations were reflected in the summaries. Results Paired perspectives were valuable in identifying struggles that arose during navigation. These were represented as imbalanced investment and relational amelioration. Patients and navigators had general consensus about important patient needs for cancer care, but characterized these needs differently. Conclusion Our experience with multiperspective analysis revealed a methodology that delivers novel relational findings, but is best conducted de novo rather than as part of a larger study. Practice Implications Multiperspective analysis should be more widely adopted with clear aims and analytic strategy that strengthen the ability to reveal relational dynamics. Navigation training programs should anticipate navigator struggles and provide navigators with tools to manage them.

Yosha, Amanat M.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Hendren, Samantha; Salamone, Charcy M.; Sanders, Mechelle; Fiscella, Kevin; Epstein, Ronald M.

2011-01-01

298

Phosphorylation analysis by mass spectrometry: myths, facts, and the consequences for qualitative and quantitative measurements.  

PubMed

The mass spectrometric analysis of protein phosphorylation is still far from being routine, and the outcomes thereof are often unsatisfying. Apart from the inherent problem of substoichiometric phosphorylation, three arguments as to why phosphorylation analysis is so problematic are often quoted, including (a) increased hydrophilicity of the phosphopeptide with a concomitant loss during the loading onto reversed-phase columns, (b) selective suppression of the ionization of phosphopeptides in the presence of unmodified peptides, and (c) lower ionization/detection efficiencies of phosphopeptides as compared with their unmodified cognates. Here we present the results of a study investigating the validity of these three arguments when using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We utilized a set of synthetic peptide/phosphopeptide pairs that were quantitated by amino acid analysis. Under the applied conditions none of the experiments performed supports the notions of (a) generally increased risks of losing phosphopeptides during the loading onto the reversed-phase column because of decreased retention and (b) the selective ionization suppression of phosphopeptides. The issue of ionization/detection efficiencies of phosphopeptides versus their unphosphorylated cognates proved to be less straightforward when using electrospray ionization because no evidence for decreased ionization/detection efficiencies for phosphopeptides could be found. PMID:16204703

Steen, Hanno; Jebanathirajah, Judith A; Rush, John; Morrice, Nicolas; Kirschner, Marc W

2006-01-01

299

Challenges of implementing a medication management evidence-based practice in a community mental health setting: results of a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The Medication Management Approaches in Psychiatry (MedMAP) is a medication management evidence-based practice (EBP) to guide the use of psychotropic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia. This qualitative study examined facilitators and barriers to implementing MedMAP in community mental health treatment settings. Audio-taped qualitative interviews were conducted with practitioners and administrators involved in a MedMAP implementation project conducted in six community mental health centers. Data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis of transcribed interviews. Findings indicate that facilitators to MedMAP implementation included practitioner recognition of the value of MedMAP, consumer involvement, collaboration, continuity of care, and fidelity assessments. Barriers to MedMAP implementation included problematic technology, work flow issues, lack of flexibility in prescribers' ability to implement MedMAP guidelines, regulatory and financial barriers, and consumer insurance status. Recommendations for improving future implementation efforts of MedMAP emphasize technological readiness, development of innovative models of care delivery, an emphasis on treatment guided by outcomes, and active leadership to promote EBPs within organizations and academic settings. PMID:24963852

El-Mallakh, Peggy; Howard, Patricia B; Bond, Gary R; Roque, Autumn P

2014-07-01

300

The challenges of including sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a qualitative survey  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic review methodology includes the rigorous collection, selection, and evaluation of data in order to synthesize the best available evidence for health practice, health technology assessments, and health policy. Despite evidence that sex and gender matter to health outcomes, data and analysis related to sex and gender are frequently absent in systematic reviews, raising concerns about the quality and applicability of reviews. Few studies have focused on challenges to implementing sex/gender analysis within systematic reviews. Methods A multidisciplinary group of systematic reviewers, methodologists, biomedical and social science researchers, health practitioners, and other health sector professionals completed an open-ended survey prior to a two-day workshop focused on sex/gender, equity, and bias in systematic reviews. Respondents were asked to identify challenging or ‘thorny’ issues associated with integrating sex and gender in systematic reviews and indicate how they address these in their work. Data were analysed using interpretive description. A summary of the findings was presented and discussed with workshop participants. Results Respondents identified conceptual challenges, such as defining sex and gender, methodological challenges in measuring and analysing sex and gender, challenges related to availability of data and data quality, and practical and policy challenges. No respondents discussed how they addressed these challenges, but all proposed ways to address sex/gender analysis in the future. Conclusions Respondents identified a wide range of interrelated challenges to implementing sex/gender considerations within systematic reviews. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to identify these challenges from the perspectives of those conducting and using systematic reviews. A framework and methods to integrate sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews are in the early stages of development. A number of priority items and collaborative initiatives to guide systematic reviewers in sex/gender analysis are provided, based on the survey results and subsequent workshop discussions. An emerging ‘community of practice’ is committed to enhancing the quality and applicability of systematic reviews by integrating considerations of sex/gender into the review process, with the goals of improving health outcomes and ensuring health equity for all persons.

2014-01-01

301

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of illicit drug mixtures on paper currency using Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

Measurement of illicit drugs on paper currency is of interest for evidentiary purposes in legal cases involving the drug trade. Current methods, primarily based on mass spectrometry, are destructive and prevent re-analysis of the evidence. This article details a method based on Raman microspectroscopy that is able to collect spectra from individual crystals on the surface of paper currency. Mixtures of isoxsuprine and norephedrine, which are non-pharmacologically active drug surrogates, as well as lidocaine and benzocaine, common excipients in street drugs, were doped in small quantities onto US currency. Significant fluorescence interference resulted from the underlying dollar bill. This work presents two methods for reducing the fluorescence background, photobleaching and background subtraction, which both worked well. Finally, a method for determining the percent composition of individual components in heterogeneous mixtures was developed by systematically sampling the surface of the dollar bill. Results were accurate within a few percent, although the method was quite time consuming. PMID:16390588

Noonan, Kathryn Y; Beshire, Melissa; Darnell, Jason; Frederick, Kimberley A

2005-12-01

302

Mortality as an indicator of patient safety in orthopaedics: lessons from qualitative analysis of a database of medical errors  

PubMed Central

Background Orthopaedic surgery is a high-risk specialty in which errors will undoubtedly occur. Patient safety incidents can yield valuable information to generate solutions and prevent future cases of avoidable harm. The aim of this study was to understand the causative factors leading to all unnecessary deaths in orthopaedics and trauma surgery reported to the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) over a four-year period (2005–2009), using a qualitative approach. Methods Reports made to the NPSA are categorised and stored in the database as free-text data. A search was undertaken to identify the cases of all-cause mortality in orthopaedic and trauma surgery, and the free-text elements were used for thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated based on the incidents reported. This included presenting the number of times categories of incidents had the same or similar response. Superordinate and subordinate categories were created. Results A total of 257 incident reports were analysed. Four main thematic categories emerged. These were: (1) stages of the surgical journey – 118/191 (62%) of deaths occurred in the post-operative phase; (2) causes of patient deaths – 32% were related to severe infections; (3) reported quality of medical interventions – 65% of patients experienced minimal or delayed treatment; (4) skills of healthcare professionals – 44% of deaths had a failure in non-technical skills. Conclusions Most complications in orthopaedic surgery can be dealt with adequately, provided they are anticipated and that risk-reduction strategies are instituted. Surgeons take pride in the precision of operative techniques; perhaps it is time to enshrine the multimodal tools available to ensure safer patient care.

2012-01-01

303

Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: final qualitative results from prospective national evaluation in "early adopter" hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the implementation and adoption of the NHS detailed care records service in “early adopter” hospitals in England. Design Theoretically informed, longitudinal qualitative evaluation based on case studies. Setting 12 “early adopter” NHS acute hospitals and specialist care settings studied over two and a half years. Data sources Data were collected through in depth interviews, observations, and relevant documents relating directly to case study sites and to wider national developments that were perceived to impact on the implementation strategy. Data were thematically analysed, initially within and then across cases. The dataset consisted of 431 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders, including hospital staff, developers, and governmental stakeholders; 590 hours of observations of strategic meetings and use of the software in context; 334 sets of notes from observations, researchers’ field notes, and notes from national conferences; 809 NHS documents; and 58 regional and national documents. Results Implementation has proceeded more slowly, with a narrower scope and substantially less clinical functionality than was originally planned. The national strategy had considerable local consequences (summarised under five key themes), and wider national developments impacted heavily on implementation and adoption. More specifically, delays related to unrealistic expectations about the capabilities of systems; the time needed to build, configure, and customise the software; the work needed to ensure that systems were supporting provision of care; and the needs of end users for training and support. Other factors hampering progress included the changing milieu of NHS policy and priorities; repeatedly renegotiated national contracts; different stages of development of diverse NHS care records service systems; and a complex communication process between different stakeholders, along with contractual arrangements that largely excluded NHS providers. There was early evidence that deploying systems resulted in important learning within and between organisations and the development of relevant competencies within NHS hospitals. Conclusions Implementation of the NHS Care Records Service in “early adopter” sites proved time consuming and challenging, with as yet limited discernible benefits for clinicians and no clear advantages for patients. Although our results might not be directly transferable to later adopting sites because the functionalities we evaluated were new and untried in the English context, they shed light on the processes involved in implementing major new systems. The move to increased local decision making that we advocated based on our interim analysis has been pursued and welcomed by the NHS, but it is important that policymakers do not lose sight of the overall goal of an integrated interoperable solution.

2011-01-01

304

Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

Rabello-Soares, M. C.

2013-12-01

305

Qualitative in vitro NMR analysis of creatine ethyl ester pronutrient in human plasma.  

PubMed

There are a number of forms of creatine available that attempt to improve the solubility and permeability, with the anticipation this will result in an improved pharmacokinetic profile and ultimately an enhanced ergogenic response. Previous research has shown that the different salt forms can improve solubility resulting in slightly altered pharmacokinetic profiles, however specific data exploring the conversion of esterified derivatives to creatine is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the assertion that creatine ethyl ester undergoes enzymatic conversion to creatine in human tissues. The IN VITRO response of creatine ethyl ester to incubation in human plasma was examined by H-NMR analysis. Lyophilized human plasma was reconstituted in D2O and phosphate-buffered saline and 1.5 mg of the analyte was added. Following incubation at 37 degrees C for 4 h and subsequent protein precipitation, the supernatant was analyzed by NMR, utilizing the diagnostic chemical shift of the methylene signal to determine the species present in solution, I.E. creatine ethyl ester, creatine, or creatinine. Both creatine and creatinine were run in parallel as control experiments and each assay was run in triplicate. As expected both creatine and creatinine remained unchanged. However, conversion of creatine ethyl ester to creatine by the esterases in human plasma was not observed to any detectable extent and the only species detected after the incubation period was creatinine. While not a definitive characterization of the IN VIVO behavior, these results strongly warrant a complete IN VIVO pharmacokinetic analysis of creatine ethyl ester since it appears these "pronutrients" may actually provide large exogenous sources of pharmacologically inactive creatinine rather than ergogenic creatine. PMID:19585404

Giese, M W; Lecher, C S

2009-10-01

306

Conversations between carers and people with schizophrenia: a qualitative analysis using leximancer.  

PubMed

We examined conversations between people with schizophrenia (PwS) and family or professional carers with whom they interacted frequently. We allocated PwS to one of two communication profiles: Low-activity communicators talked much less than their conversational partners, whereas high-activity communicators talked much more. We used Leximancer text analytics software to analyze the conversations. We found that carers used different strategies to accommodate to the PwS's behavior, depending on the PwS's communication profile and their relationship. These findings indicate that optimal communication strategies depend on the PwS's conversational tendencies and the relationship context. They also suggest new opportunities for qualitative assessment via intelligent text analytics technologies. PMID:20675536

Cretchley, Julia; Gallois, Cindy; Chenery, Helen; Smith, Andrew

2010-12-01

307

The group selection questionnaire: a qualitative analysis of potential group members.  

PubMed

The Group Selection Questionnaire (GSQ) has been shown to predict which individuals will improve during group psychotherapy. The present study sought to quantitatively and qualitatively describe those who are predicted to benefit (low scorers) and not benefit (high scorers) from group, based on their GSQ scores. High and low scorers were selected from two samples-a "non-clinical" group of undergraduates in an introductory psychology course and a "clinical" group of clients from a university counseling center. Analyses of differences in GSQ scores and interview transcripts indicated that low scorers anticipated benefits from groups, found it easy to share feelings and opinions, felt they were a part of groups, and described themselves as open. High scorers reported being passive, private, reserved, and unlikely to share feelings. PMID:19817577

Krogel, Julieann; Beecher, Mark E; Presnell, Jennifer; Burlingame, Gary; Simonsen, Collin

2009-10-01

308

Modeling approaches for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of cellular signaling networks  

PubMed Central

A central goal of systems biology is the construction of predictive models of bio-molecular networks. Cellular networks of moderate size have been modeled successfully in a quantitative way based on differential equations. However, in large-scale networks, knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is often too limited to allow for the set-up of predictive quantitative models. Here, we review methodologies for qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. In particular, we focus on three different but related formalisms facilitating modeling of signaling processes with different levels of detail: interaction graphs, logical/Boolean networks, and logic-based ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Albeit the simplest models possible, interaction graphs allow the identification of important network properties such as signaling paths, feedback loops, or global interdependencies. Logical or Boolean models can be derived from interaction graphs by constraining the logical combination of edges. Logical models can be used to study the basic input–output behavior of the system under investigation and to analyze its qualitative dynamic properties by discrete simulations. They also provide a suitable framework to identify proper intervention strategies enforcing or repressing certain behaviors. Finally, as a third formalism, Boolean networks can be transformed into logic-based ODEs enabling studies on essential quantitative and dynamic features of a signaling network, where time and states are continuous. We describe and illustrate key methods and applications of the different modeling formalisms and discuss their relationships. In particular, as one important aspect for model reuse, we will show how these three modeling approaches can be combined to a modeling pipeline (or model hierarchy) allowing one to start with the simplest representation of a signaling network (interaction graph), which can later be refined to logical and eventually to logic-based ODE models. Importantly, systems and network properties determined in the rougher representation are conserved during these transformations.

2013-01-01

309

The role of endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis in qualitative and quantitative data analysis.  

PubMed

The current study is the first scientometric analysis of research activity and output in the field of inflammatory disorders of the heart (endo-, myo- and pericarditis). Scientometric methods are used to compare scientific performance on national and on international scale to identify single areas of research interest. Interest and research productivity in inflammatory diseases of the heart have increased since 1990. The majority of publications about inflammatory heart disorders were published in Western Europe and North America. The United States of America had a leading position in terms of research productivity and quality; half of the most productive authors in this study came from American institutions. The analysis of international cooperation revealed research activity in countries that are less established in the field of inflammatory heart disorder research, such as Brazil, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. These results indicate that future research of heart inflammation may no longer be influenced predominantly by a small number of countries. Furthermore, this study revealed weaknesses in currently established scientometric parameters (i.e., h-index, impact factor) that limit their suitability as measures of research quality. In this respect, self-citations should be generally excluded from calculations of h-index and impact factor. PMID:20049235

Schöffel, Norman; Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A; Quarcoo, David

2009-12-01

310

Qualitative research in marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Purpose,– To discuss and,analyse,three themes,in qualitative research in marketing,which,are objects of both frustration and confusion: analysis and interpretation; theory generation; and a quest for scientific pluralism and individual researcher lifestyles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Underpinning the discussion is that complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, chaos, change, uncertainty and unpredictability are characteristics of a market economy; that qualitative and subjective interpretation is necessary,to add

E. Gummesson

2005-01-01

311

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Andrographis paniculata by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R² > 0.9995) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02 ?g/mL to 0.06 ?g/mL and 0.06 ?g/mL to 0.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption. PMID:24084022

Song, Yong-Xi; Liu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Zhao; Qin, Jian-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan

2013-01-01

312

CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) to be launched in the later part of '01) that combine a new generation of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a high precision three axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and SLR tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the surface forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies. Gravity field modeling status and plans will be discussed.

Lemoine, Frank G.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Colombo, O. L.; Ray, Richard D.; Thompson, B.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, Teresa A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

313

Perceptions and Experiences of Women in Karachi, Pakistan Regarding Secondary Infertility: Results from a Community-Based Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans.

Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

2012-01-01

314

Interacting oscillations in neural control of breathing: modeling and qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

In mammalian respiration, late-expiratory (late-E, or pre-inspiratory) oscillations emerge in abdominal motor output with increasing metabolic demands (e.g., during hypercapnia, hypoxia, etc.). These oscillations originate in the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) and couple with the respiratory oscillations generated by the interacting neural populations of the Bötzinger (BötC) and pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) complexes, representing the kernel of the respiratory central pattern generator. Recently, we analyzed experimental data on the generation of late-E oscillations and proposed a large-scale computational model that simulates the possible interactions between the BötC/pre-BötC and RTN/pFRG oscillations under different conditions. Here we describe a reduced model that maintains the essential features and architecture of the large-scale model, but relies on simplified activity-based descriptions of neural populations. This simplification allowed us to use methods of dynamical systems theory, such as fast-slow decomposition, bifurcation analysis, and phase plane analysis, to elucidate the mechanisms and dynamics of synchronization between the RTN/pFRG and BötC/pre-BötC oscillations. Three physiologically relevant behaviors have been analyzed: emergence and quantal acceleration of late-E oscillations during hypercapnia, transformation of the late-E activity into a biphasic-E activity during hypercapnic hypoxia, and quantal slowing of BötC/pre-BötC oscillations with the reduction of pre-BötC excitability. Each behavior is elicited by gradual changes in excitatory drives or other model parameters, reflecting specific changes in metabolic and/or physiological conditions. Our results provide important theoretical insights into interactions between RTN/pFRG and BötC/pre-BötC oscillations and the role of these interactions in the control of breathing under different metabolic conditions. PMID:20927576

Rubin, Jonathan E; Bacak, Bartholomew J; Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rybak, Ilya A

2011-06-01

315

Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a researcher may conduct a basic qualitative research. This paper deals specifically with research of learning, older adults, and in a rural area. This paper became the foundation for the research of my dissertation. I discuss the sample and the criteria for the sample. I also describe the sources of…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

316

The preservice microteaching course and science teachers' instructional decisions: A qualitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this investigation was to qualitatively investigate the effects of a microteaching course on preservice science teachers' perceptions of teaching, instructional decisions, and changes in beliefs which occur throughout the course. A total of 17 preservice teachers constituted the sample for this investigation. In addition to viewing and self-critiquing the videotapes of their lessons, students received both oral and written feedback from peers and instructors. Subjects were also required to complete a reaction questionnaire concerning their beliefs/perceptions prior to the first presentation as well as following each of the four required presentations. Systematic comparisons among students' self-critiques and reaction questionnaires yielded a total of 12 categories of concerns/beliefs about teaching. These categories pertained to either Concerns for Self or Concerns for Students. Although the subjects appeared to proceed through a developmental process beginning with concerns for self and moving toward concerns for students, analyses of subjects' comments about students revealed that such remarks were actually egocentric. Additionally, the data indicated that preservice teachers view planning as a complex, two-component process (i.e., the physical act of writing a plan and the subsequent mental rehearsal of that plan.).

Gess-Newsome, Julie; Lederman, Norman G.

317

Psychosocial barriers to engagement with an eating disorder service: a qualitative analysis of failure to attend.  

PubMed

Patient non-attendance and failure to engage with health services may be costly to the individual in terms of the delays in obtaining appropriate treatment and the unnecessary suffering and discomfort this may entail. Non-attendance is also costly to health services because of administrative and clinical time lost and the opportunity costs of not treating other patients. Patients who have been referred to eating disorders clinics by general practitioners appear to have high rates of non-attendance or dropping out immediately after assessment. The reasons behind their failure to engage are poorly understood. After undertaking a comprehensive audit in a major eating disorder unit in London we undertook a qualitative study of non-attenders in order to obtain the reasons behind non-engagement. We found that while participants tend to open their explanations with practical difficulties (e.g., child-minding) or service- related factors, what commonly emerged from their narratives were profound social-psychological problems and the ambivalence of confronting or losing a relationship with food that was both comforting and debilitating. Some participants described a world of imprisonment which precluded the likelihood of firm engagement with services. We suggest that such people may require better identification and outreach provision. PMID:21932972

Leavey, Gerard; Vallianatou, Christina; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Rae, Sophie; Gunputh, Vanessa

2011-01-01

318

A silly expression: Consultants' implicit and explicit understanding of Medical Humanities. A qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The term Medical Humanities has still not been established in the wider medical, educational and academic communities. This qualitative study, conducted across three acute care trusts, is an exploration of whether clinicians were familiar with the term Medical Humanities, and if so, what the term meant to them and whether they considered the associated concepts relevant to medical practice and education. Reactions to the term Medical Humanities were varied: many clinicians had not heard of the term before, some were unsure what it meant, others displayed mistrust or contempt for it. Explicit definitions that were elicited were categorised (inductively) according to three main approaches to the understanding of Medical Humanities: Humanistic-holistic, Humanities-medicine seperate and Intellectual exercise. Findings indicate that the lack of clarity about the term Medical Humanities among experienced healthcare professionals, contrasts with their sophisticated implicit knowledge of key issues frequently associated with Medical Humanities. Thus, while some clinicians could not define Medical Humanities and some definitions separated humanities from medicine, all clinicians implicitly acknowledged the importance of Medical Humanities issues within their clinical and teaching practices during conversations prior to any mention of the term. It appears that clinicians as role models for medical students can inadvertently convey an ambivalent position towards the Medical Humanities that encompass the very values and attitudes they are trying to inculcate, sending out mixed messages to the novices. PMID:23673809

Knight, L V

2006-12-01

319

The investigation of deaths in custody: A qualitative analysis of problems and prospects.  

PubMed

The right to be treated humanely when detained is universally recognized. Deficiencies in detention conditions and violence, however, subvert this right. When this occurs, proper medico-legal investigations are critical irrespective of the nature of death. Unfortunately, the very context of custody raises serious concerns over the effectiveness and fairness of medico-legal examinations. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and discuss the practical and ethical difficulties encountered in the medico-legal investigation following deaths in custody. Data for this manuscript come from a larger project on Death in Custody that examined the causes of deaths in custody and the conditions under which these deaths should be investigated and prevented. A total of 33 stakeholders from forensic medicine, law, prison administration or national human rights administration were interviewed. Data obtained were analyzed qualitatively. Forensic experts are an essential part of the criminal justice process as they offer evidence for subsequent indictment and eventual punishment of perpetrators. Their independence when investigating a death in custody was deemed critical and lack thereof, problematic. When experts were not independent, concerns arose in relation to conflicts of interest, biased perspectives, and low-quality forensic reports. The solutions to ensure independent forensic investigations of deaths in custody must be structural and simple: setting binding standards of practice rather than detailed procedures and relying on preexisting national practices as opposed to encouraging new practices that are unattainable for countries with limited resources. PMID:24931858

Wangmo, Tenzin; Ruiz, Géraldine; Sinclair, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice Simone

2014-07-01

320

Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.  

PubMed

Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed. PMID:23984485

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

2013-01-01

321

A QUALITATIVE APPROACH TO UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR THE PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand best-estimate calculations of the peak local fuel enthalpy during a rod ejection accident, an assessment of the uncertainty has been completed. The analysis took into account point kinetics parameters which would be available from a three-dimensional core model and engineering judgment as to the uncertainty in those parameters. Sensitivity studies to those parameters were carried out using the best-estimate code PARCS. The results showed that the uncertainty (corresponding to one standard deviation) in local fuel enthalpy would be determined primarily by the uncertainty in ejected rod worth and delayed neutron fraction. For an uncertainty in the former of 8% and the latter of 5%, the uncertainty in fuel enthalpy varied from 51% to 69% for control rod worth varying from $1.2 to $1.0. Also considered in the uncertainty were the errors introduced by uncertainties in the Doppler reactivity coefficient, the fuel pellet specific heat, and assembly and fuel pin peaking factors.

DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; YANG,C.

2000-06-19

322

Politics and its intersection with coverage with evidence development: a qualitative analysis from expert interviews  

PubMed Central

Background Pressures on health care budgets have led policy makers to discuss how to balance the provision of costly technologies to populations in need and making coverage decisions under uncertainty. Coverage with evidence development (CED) is being employed to meet these challenges. Methods Twenty-four interviews were carried out between June 2009 and December 2010 with researchers, decision makers and policy makers from Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States. Three phases of coding occurred, the first being manual coding where the interviews were read and notes were taken and nodes were extracted and imputed. NVIVO coding was applied to the interview transcripts, with both broad general searches for word usages and imputed nodes. Results Four overarching thematic areas emerged out of contextual analysis of the interviews – (1) what constitutes CED; (2) the lack of a systematic approach/governance structure; (3) the role of the pharmaceutical industry and overt political considerations in CED; and (4) alternatives and barriers to CED. We explore these themes and then use concrete examples of CED projects in each of the four countries to illustrate the political issues that our interviewees raised. Conclusion Until the underlying political nature of CED is recognized then fundamental questions about its usefulness and operation will remain unresolved.

2013-01-01

323

"I am a nice person when I do yoga!!!": a qualitative analysis of how yoga affects relationships.  

PubMed

Purpose: To develop a better understanding of how yoga practice affects one's interpersonal relationships. Design: Qualitative. Method: Content analysis was used to qualitatively analyze written comments (n = 171) made regarding yoga improving interpersonal relationships in a large cross-sectional survey of yoga practitioners (N = 1,067). Findings: Four themes were identified: Yoga practice leads to personal transformation, increases social interaction, provides coping mechanisms to weather relationship losses and difficulties, and leads to spiritual transcendence. Practitioners believed that their interpersonal relationships improved because their attitude and perspective had changed, making them more patient, kind, mindful, and self-aware. They expressed an aspect of community that was both practical (they met new friends) and spiritual (they felt they belonged). They thought they could better weather difficulties such as divorce and death. A number discussed feeling a sense of purpose and that their practice contributed to a greater good. Conclusions: There appears to be an aspect of community associated with yoga practice that may be beneficial to one's social and spiritual health. Yoga could be beneficial for populations at risk for social isolation, such as those who are elderly, bereaved, and depressed, as well as individuals undergoing interpersonal crises. PMID:24166108

Ross, Alyson; Bevans, Margaret; Friedmann, Erika; Williams, Laurie; Thomas, Sue

2014-06-01

324

Literacy learning in secondary school science classrooms: A cross-case analysis of three qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the

Deborah R. Dillon; David G. O'Brien; Elizabeth B. Moje; Roger A. Stewart

1994-01-01

325

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of methanogenic communities in mesophilically and psychrophilically cultivated anaerobic granular biofilims.  

PubMed

Anaerobic granulation describes the self-immobilisation of methanogenic consortia into dense, particulate biofilms. This procedure underpins the operation of several categories of high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment system. Full-scale anaerobic granular sludge plants have been generally operated in the mesophilic (20-45 degrees C) or thermophilic (45-65 degrees C) temperature range. On the other hand, recent studies highlighted the economic advantages of treating wastewaters at their discharge temperatures (mostly under 18 degrees C), removing a costly heating process and increasing net biogas yield. However, as yet, relatively little information is available about the microbial behaviour and interactions in anaerobic granular sludge formed under psychrophilic conditions. To this end, and in order to provide a microbial insight into low-temperature anaerobic granulation, we monitored the changes in methanogenic community structure, associated with the changes in process performance. Three, laboratory-scale, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) bioreactors treating a synthetic glucose wastewater were tested at two temperatures of 37+/-1 degrees C (R1) and 15+/-1 degrees C (R2 and 3). Quantitative real-time PCR and specific methanogenic activity assays highlighted a community shift towards hydrogenotrophic methanogens, particularly the order Methanomicrobiales in the low-temperature bioreactors. Corresponding to this, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis identified the emergence and maintenance of a Methanocorpusculum-like organism. Our results indicate that hydrogenotrophic methanogens, particularly the Methanomicrobiales-related populations, are likely to play important roles in low-temperature anaerobic granular sludge systems. This suggests that the process efficiency could be improved by facilitating the growth and retention of this group. PMID:19539975

O'Reilly, Joe; Lee, Changsoo; Collins, Gavin; Chinalia, Fabio; Mahony, Thérèse; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2009-08-01

326

Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects  

PubMed Central

Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Results Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. Conclusions This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial.

2014-01-01

327

Why physicians and nurses ask (or don't) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1) explore physicians’ and nurses’ experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2) determine the variations by discipline; and 3) identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Methods Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher’s Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Results Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated) provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The experiences of these nurses and physicians suggest that more supports (e.g., supportive work environments, training, mentors, consultations, community resources, etc.) are needed by practitioners. These findings reflect the results of previous research yet offer perspectives on why barriers persist. Multifaceted and intersectoral approaches that address individual, interpersonal, workplace and systemic issues faced by nurses and physicians when inquiring about IPV are required. Comprehensive frameworks are needed to further explore the many issues associated with IPV inquiry and the interplay across these issues.

2012-01-01

328

Natural Time Analysis of Seismicity: Recent Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural time analysis introduced almost a decade ago[1] may uncover novel dynamic features hidden in the time series of complex systems and has been applied[2] to diverse fields. For a time series comprising N events, the natural time for the occurrence of the k-th event of energy Qk is defined by ?k=k/N and the analysis is made by studying the evolution of the pair (?k,pk ), where pk=Qk/?Qn is the normalized energy. In natural time analysis of seismicity, the variance ?1 of natural time ? weighted for pk calculated from seismic catalogues serves as an order parameter [2]. The Japan seismic catalog was analyzed in natural time by employing a sliding natural time window of fixed length comprised of the number of events that would occur in a few months. This is a crucial time scale since it corresponds to the average lead time of the observed Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activities [2]. The following results are obtained: First, the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibit [3] a clearly detectable minimum approximately at the time of the initiation of the pronounced SES activity observed [4] almost two months before the onset of the volcanic-seismic swarm activity in 2000 in the Izu Island region, Japan. This is the first time that before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two different geophysical observables. Second, these two phenomena were shown to be also linked in space[3]. Third, minima of the order parameter fluctuations of seismicity were observed [5] a few months before all shallow earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger that occurred from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the M9 Tohoku earthquake) in Japanese area. Among these minima, the minimum before the M9 Tohoku earthquake was the deepest. Additional recent results are forwarded which shed more light on the importance of the aforementioned minima for earthquake prediction purposes. [1] Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V. and Skordas, E. S. Phys. Rev. E (2002) 66, 011902 [2] Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V. and Skordas, E. S. Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series Springer-Verlag (2011) [3] Varotsos P.A.; Sarlis N.V.; Skordas E.S. and Lazaridou M.S., Tectonophysics (2013) 589, 116-125 [4] Uyeda, S.; Kamogawa, M; and Tanaka, H. J. Geophys. Res., (2009) 114, B02310 [5] Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P. A.; Nagao, T.; Kamogawa, M.; Tanaka, H. and Uyeda, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2013) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312740110

Varotsos, P.; Uyeda, S.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Nagao, T.; Kamogawa, M.

2013-12-01

329

Optimal climate policy is a utopia: from quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate–economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that

2004-01-01

330

Multivariate processing strategies for enhancing qualitative and quantitative analysis based on infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry is gaining increased attention in environmental applications because of its great flexibility. Usually, pattern recognition techniques are used for automatic analysis of large amount of collected data. However, challenging problems are the constantly changing background and high calibration cost. As aircraft is flying, background is always changing. Also, considering the great variety of backgrounds and high expense of data collection from aircraft, cost of collecting representative training data is formidable. Instead of using airborne data, data generated from simulation strategies can be used for training purposes. Training data collected under controlled conditions on the ground or synthesized from real backgrounds can be both options. With both strategies, classifiers may be developed with much lower cost. For both strategies, signal processing techniques need to be used to extract analyte features. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are applied either in interferogram or spectral domain for features extraction. Then, pattern recognition methods are applied to develop binary classifiers for automated detection of air-collected methanol and ethanol vapors. The results demonstrate, with optimized signal processing methods and training set composition, classifiers trained from ground-collected or synthetic data can give good classification on real air-collected data. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry is emerging as a promising tool for noninvasive blood glucose detection. In combination with multivariate calibration techniques, NIR spectroscopy can give quick quantitative determinations of many species with minimal sample preparation. However, one main problem with NIR calibrations is degradation of calibration model over time. The varying background information will worsen the prediction precision and complicate the multivariate models. To mitigate the needs for frequent recalibration and improve robustness of calibration models, signal processing methods can be used to decrease the influence of such non-constant background variation. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are also applied to NIR single-beam spectra collected during short-term and long-term studies. The prediction performance of the calibration models demonstrates, with suppression of non-constant background information by optimal wavelet processing procedures, robustness of calibration models with time can be significantly improved.

Wan, Boyong

331

Service learning in Guatemala: using qualitative content analysis to explore an interdisciplinary learning experience among students in health care professional programs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interprofessional collaboration among health care professionals yields improved patient outcomes, yet many students in health care programs have limited exposure to interprofessional collaboration in the classroom and in clinical and service-learning experiences. This practice gap implies that students enter their professions without valuing interprofessional collaboration and the impact it has on promoting positive patient outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the interprofessional experiences of students in health care professional programs as they collaborated to provide health care to Guatemalan citizens over a 7-day period. Methods In light of the identified practice gap and a commitment by college administration to fund interprofessional initiatives, faculty educators from nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy conducted a qualitative study to explore a service-learning initiative focused on promoting interprofessional collaboration. Students collaborated in triads (one student from each of the three disciplines) to provide supervised health care to underserved Guatemalan men, women, children, and infants across a variety of community and health care settings. Eighteen students participated in a qualitative research project by describing their experience of interprofessional collaboration in a service-learning environment. Twice before arriving in Guatemala, and on three occasions during the trip, participants reflected on their experiences and provided narrative responses to open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis methodology was used to describe their experiences of interprofessional collaboration. Results An interprofessional service-learning experience positively affected students’ learning, their growth in interprofessional collaboration, and their understanding and appreciation of health care professions besides their own. The experience also generated feelings of gratitude for the opportunity to be a member of an interprofessional team and to serve those in need by giving of themselves. Conclusion The findings support service learning as a platform to encourage interprofessional collaboration among students in health care professional programs. The research will inform future service-learning experiences in which interdisciplinary collaboration is an outcome of interest.

Fries, Kathleen S; Bowers, Donna M; Gross, Margo; Frost, Lenore

2013-01-01

332

A qualitative analysis of a significant barrier to organ and tissue donation: receiving less-than-optimal medical care.  

PubMed

A key reason for the shortage of transplantable organs and tissue in the United States is the degree of resistance among the public to donating organs and tissue after death. In this article, we explore a single barrier to donation: the concern that medical personnel might provide "less-than-optimal" care to intended donors. Using 2 qualitative methodologies-analysis of family discussions about donation and analysis of in-depth interviews about donation-we explore what participants' discourse reveals about the variations and texture of this concern. The analysis revealed 4 aspects of this concern: (a) Participants expressed different versions of less-than-optimal care, each reflecting different assumptions about how medical personnel may approach the treatment of potential donors. (b) Participants expressed their concerns by describing hypothetical scenarios of medical treatment. These scenarios were designed to play up the plausibility of receiving less-than-optimal care and situated the speaker as the victim in the scenario. (c) Participants' uncertainty about the quality of medical treatment was sufficient grounds for not donating. (d) Participants expressed their concerns about medical treatment in terms of the perceived corruptibility of sociocultural institutions, including medical institutions. This analysis also revealed the lines of reasoning through which participants overcame a concern about receiving less-than-optimal-care. In our view, the most promising line of reasoning expressed by participants was to trust the legal and procedural protections built into the recovery process. PMID:20183368

Denvir, Paul; Pomerantz, Anita

2009-10-01

333

Danish and Finnish PISA results in a comparative, qualitative perspective: How can the stable and distinct differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA results be explained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant\\u000a differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA\\u000a studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g. reading, science and\\u000a math, while Danish students score

Frans Ørsted Andersen

2010-01-01

334

Reasons for readmission in an underserved high-risk population: a qualitative analysis of a series of inpatient interviews  

PubMed Central

Objective To gather qualitative data to elucidate the reasons for readmissions in a high-risk population of underserved patients. Design We created an instrument with 27 open-ended questions based on current interventions. Setting Yale-New Haven Hospital. Patients Patients at the Yale Adult Primary Care Center (PCC). Measurements We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews of patients who had four or more admissions in the previous 6?months and were currently readmitted to the hospital. Results We completed 17 interviews and identified themes relating to risk of readmission. We found that patients went directly to the emergency department (ED) when they experienced a change in health status without contacting their primary provider. Reasons for this included poor telephone or urgent care access and the belief that the PCC could not treat acute illness. Many patients could not name their primary provider. Conversely, every patient except one reported being able to obtain medications without undue financial burden, and every patient reported receiving adequate home care services. Conclusions These high-risk patients were receiving the formal services that they needed, but were making the decision to go to the ED because of inadequate access to care and fragmented primary care relationships. Formal transitional care services are unlikely to be adequate in reducing readmissions without also addressing primary care access and continuity.

Long, Theodore; Genao, Inginia; Horwitz, Leora I

2013-01-01

335

A Qualitative Analysis of Vietnamese Adolescent Identity Exploration within and outside an Ethnic Enclave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on identity development explorations enables a greater understanding of contexts that affect immigrant adolescents. Utilizing thematic and grounded narrative analysis of 46 journal writings, during a one-month period, from first and second generation Vietnamese adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 18 (26 residents of a culturally and…

Vo-Jutabha, Easter Dawn; Dinh, Khanh T.; McHale, James P.; Valsiner, Jaan

2009-01-01

336

Recursive Frame Analysis: Reflections on the Development of a Qualitative Research Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…

Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

2012-01-01

337

An Easy and Low-Cost Technique for the Qualitative Analysis of Silicates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an analytical method that may be used to replace the more difficult, traditional approach for the analysis of silicates. It is argued that this method allows the use of smaller samples and is more sensitive than other techniques. (CW)

Vitale, Daniel

1990-01-01

338

Design and Analysis Problems Associated with Qualitative Data in Educational Research. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project addresses a series of methodological and theoretical statistical problems in the analysis of categorical data using loglinear and logistic response models, which grow directly out of problems in the study of the American educational system, and in basic educational research. The project focuses on the adaptation and…

Fienberg, Stephen E.; Larntz, Kinley

339

A qualitative analysis of GHB use among gay men: Reasons for use despite potential adverse outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) among a sample of gay men in New York City, who identify GHB as their most frequently used club drug. The sample was drawn from a larger longitudinal investigation of club drug using men. Thematic analysis yielded findings regarding perceived stigma for GHB use, tolerance of potential adverse side effects, and reasons

Joseph J. Palamar; Perry N. Halkitis

2006-01-01

340

USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

341

Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for rapid qualitative screening of toxic glycols in glycerin-containing products.  

PubMed

In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration released guidance recommending testing of glycerin used in regulated consumer products, such as cough syrup preparations, toothpaste, and other pharmaceutical and food products, for the toxic compounds ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Regulatory laboratories routinely test glycerin, and products containing glycerin or related compounds for these toxic glycols, using an official gas chromatographic method, to ensure the safety of these products. The current work describes a companion technique to compliment this GC-FID method utilizing Orbitrap mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time ionization to rapidly screen these samples qualitatively, with results in as little as five seconds, with no sample preparation required. This allows the more time and resource intensive method to be reserved for those rare cases when these compounds are detected, potentially greatly improving laboratory efficiency. The technique was evaluated for qualitative sensitivity and repeatability, and compared against the GC-FID method. The method appears to perform well against these metrics. PMID:23584076

Self, Randy L

2013-06-01

342

Illumination with a Dim Bulb? What do social scientists learn by employing qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) in the service of multi-method designs?  

PubMed Central

Although there has been much optimistic discussion of integrating quantitative and qualitative findings into sociological analysis, there remains a gap regarding the application of mixed approaches. We examine the potential gains and pitfalls of such integration in the context of the growing analytic power of contemporary qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) programs. We illustrate the issues with our own research in a mixed-methods project examining low fertility in Italy, a project that combines analysis of large nationally representative survey data with qualitative in-depth interviews with women across four (4) cities in Italy. Despite the enthusiasm for mixed-methods research, the available software appears to be underutilized. In addition, we suggest that the sociological research community will want to address several conceptual and inferential issues with these approaches.

White, Michael J.; Judd, Maya D.; Poliandri, Simone

2012-01-01

343

Qualitative analysis and HPLC isolation and identification of procyanidins from Vicia faba.  

PubMed

The soluble proanthocyanidins of the coloured seed coats of Vicia faba L. were isolated and separated by solvent partition. The chemical characteristics of the proanthocyanidins were elucidated by total oxidation and partial degradation in the presence of phloroglucinol followed by HPLC analysis. The native extract of proanthocyanidins contained (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin units. Oligomeric procyanidins were purified by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the accessible compounds were isolated by RP-HPLC using a Licrospher Li 100 Column. The structures of the purified oligomeric procyanidins were elucidated using a procedure involving TLC, UV spectroscopy, ESI-MS and HPLC analysis of the products from the phloroglucinol reaction. The major condensed tannins of Vicia faba comprise six compounds identified as two A-type procyanidin dimers, the procyanidin dimers B1, B2 and B3, and a procyanidin trimer. PMID:15116939

Merghem, Rachid; Jay, Maurice; Brun, Nathalie; Voirin, Bernard

2004-01-01

344

Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative

Baumgartner, Ilse

2012-01-01

345

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of naphthenic acids in natural waters surrounding the Canadian oil sands industry.  

PubMed

The Canadian oil sands industry stores toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) in large tailings ponds adjacent to the Athabasca River or its tributaries, raising concerns over potential seepage. Naphthenic acids (NAs; C(n)H(2n-Z)O(2)) are toxic components of OSPW, but are also natural components of bitumen and regional groundwaters, and may enter surface waters through anthropogenic or natural sources. This study used a selective high-resolution mass spectrometry method to examine total NA concentrations and NA profiles in OSPW (n = 2), Athabasca River pore water (n = 6, representing groundwater contributions) and surface waters (n = 58) from the Lower Athabasca Region. NA concentrations in surface water (< 2-80.8 ?g/L) were 100-fold lower than previously estimated. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished sample types based on NA profile, and correlations to water quality variables identified two sources of NAs: natural fatty acids, and bitumen-derived NAs. Analysis of NA data with water quality variables highlighted two tributaries to the Athabasca River-Beaver River and McLean Creek-as possibly receiving OSPW seepage. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of NA profiles in surface waters of the region, and demonstrates the need for highly selective analytical methods for source identification and in monitoring for potential effects of development on ambient water quality. PMID:23134288

Ross, Matthew S; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Fennell, Jon; Davies, Martin; Johnson, James; Sliva, Lucie; Martin, Jonathan W

2012-12-01

346

Qualitative drug analysis of hair extracts by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A technique using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) is applied to a qualitative analysis of three sample extracts from hair suspected of containing various drug compounds. The samples were also subjected to a quantitative target analysis for codeine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), methadone, and benzylpiperazine (BZP) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). GCxGC/TOFMS provided a non-specific procedure that identified various drugs, metabolites, and impurities not included in the target analysis. They included cocaine, diazepam, and methaqualone (quaalude). Comprehensive GCxGC separation was achieved using twin-stage cryo-modulation to focus eluant from a DB-5 ms (5% phenyl) to a BPX50 (50% phenyl) GC column. The TOF mass spectrometer provided unit mass resolution in the mass range m/z 5-1000 and rapid spectral acquisition (< or = 500spectra/s). Clean mass spectra of the individual components were obtained using mass spectral deconvolution software. The 'unknown' components were identified by comparison with mass spectra stored in a library database. PMID:20471020

Guthery, Bill; Bassindale, Tom; Bassindale, Alan; Pillinger, Colin T; Morgan, Geraint H

2010-06-25

347

Using EOF analysis to qualitatively analyze, and identify inhomogeneities in, data from ground-based aerosol monitoring instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is performed on ground-based shadowband radiometer and Sun photometer data. The data come from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) instruments located at the central and extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) research site of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, as well as the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) 102 and 105 and the CIMEL Sun photometer CSPHOT located at the central facility at SGP. The EOFs show the variability in total aerosol optical depth and provide some qualitative information on the separation of the coarse and fine aerosol modes. In addition, as has been demonstrated previously with satellite data, EOF analysis also exposes several flaws and inconsistencies within the ground-based data sets. These inhomogeneities include optical depth anomalies in some MFRSR filters, wavelength shifts in the RSS, and problems with the data transmitter of the CIMEL instrument. Therefore EOF analysis is shown to be a quick and effective means not only of assessing the general aerosol behavior in the air above a particular monitoring instrument, but also of identifying both known and unanticipated influences on the data coming from within the instrument itself.

Gianelli, S. M.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

2007-10-01

348

Analysis of a silent voice: a qualitative inquiry of embroidery created by a patient with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A poster-sized piece of embroidery, completed in the 1960s, hangs in the Glore Psychiatric Museum, a testament to the daily experience of a woman who rarely spoke and was diagnosed with schizophrenia. The embroidery document was analyzed by three researchers who came to agreement on themes via triangulation and constant comparison. The woman's lived experience was considered. The analysis found that although the patient was silent, she was connected in interesting ways to the environment around her. Implications for nursing care include awareness of the importance of milieu to patients, that silence should not be inferred to be detachment, and nurses should continue to develop creative ways to engage patients who may communicate in nontraditional ways. PMID:23586361

Blakeman, John R; Samuelson, Sheryl J; McEvoy, Kimberly N

2013-06-01

349

Evidence for grief as the major barrier faced by Alzheimer caregivers: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Feelings of loss and grief are frequent companions for current Alzheimer's family caregivers. Increased acknowledgment and understanding of caregiver grief among researchers has led to more comprehensive explorations of the multifaceted nature of caregiver grief and loss. Absent from the literature, however, is an exploration of anticipatory grief as an actual barrier to the task of caregiving. Through an analysis of 353 open-ended survey responses, the present article explores links between anticipatory grief, ambiguous loss, and principal barriers that family members face as dementia caregivers across the state of Indiana. By drawing parallels between caregiver responses and the Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory subscales, this article illustrates that the fundamental barrier experienced by current Alzheimer's caregivers appears to be a combination of anticipatory grief and ambiguous loss rather than hands-on care issues. The implications of this finding for future caregiver research and interventions are discussed. PMID:18166611

Frank, Jacquelyn B

350

[Mental conflict of urban Korean housewives--a qualitative analysis of 20 interviews].  

PubMed

This study analysed marital conflicts, related factors, and adjustments to those conflicts described by urban Korean women. The purpose was to discover directions for resolutions that would enhance the helpfulness of volunteers or professionals working with women in counselling settings. The investigator interviewed 20 married women, all mothers and housewives living in Seoul, attending marriage encounter programs and the Lifeline telephone counselling service. An interview schedule using six open-ended questions guided the data collection which took place between May 31 and December 29, 1988. Content analysis of the data revealed, in order of reported frequency, the following areas of conflict: relationships between husband wife, relationships with children, relationships between the wife and her mother-in-Law, unsatisfied sexual needs, the husband's extra marital relationships, lack of self actualization and financial matters. Analysis of the data suggested the following factors were related to the conflicts: reasons for marriage, traditional views about marriage and divorce including to accept a marriage arranged by the parents, the husband's traditional attitude toward the sex role of the wife, the husband's patriarchal authoritarianism, and his attitude toward the wife's employment outside the home. The women thought these conflicts severely affected their relationships within the family, particularly with their children. Literature suggests links with such poor parent-child-family relationships and adolescent or young people's social problems. Volunteers or professionals working with married women in counselling situations need to be conscious of the possibility of these conflicts during assessment, and direct their guidance toward such conflict resolution. The researcher makes several suggestions which include the need for the husband to give emotional support to his wife, to recognize the worth of housework, to share the work of the home, to find ways to enhance the wife's self-actualization and to ease dreary housework routines by providing modern appliances. PMID:2811261

Cho, Y S

1989-08-31

351

Security analysis software needs: Survey results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of approximately thirty (30) electric utilities in the United States determined the status of the use of Static Security Analysis programs in their Energy Control Centers. The objective of the survey was to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing applications software. This data could prove useful to the industry in selecting new areas of research and development as

S. Virmani; H. D. McNair

1990-01-01

352

Quantitative and qualitative image quality analysis of super resolution images from a low cost scanning laser ophthalmoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lurking epidemic of eye diseases caused by diabetes and aging will put more than 130 million Americans at risk of blindness by 2020. Screening has been touted as a means to prevent blindness by identifying those individuals at risk. However, the cost of most of today's commercial retinal imaging devices makes their use economically impractical for mass screening. Thus, low cost devices are needed. With these devices, low cost often comes at the expense of image quality with high levels of noise and distortion hindering the clinical evaluation of those retinas. A software-based super resolution (SR) reconstruction methodology that produces images with improved resolution and quality from multiple low resolution (LR) observations is introduced. The LR images are taken with a low-cost Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO). The non-redundant information of these LR images is combined to produce a single image in an implementation that also removes noise and imaging distortions while preserving fine blood vessels and small lesions. The feasibility of using the resulting SR images for screening of eye diseases was tested using quantitative and qualitative assessments. Qualitatively, expert image readers evaluated their ability of detecting clinically significant features on the SR images and compared their findings with those obtained from matching images of the same eyes taken with commercially available high-end cameras. Quantitatively, measures of image quality were calculated from SR images and compared to subject-matched images from a commercial fundus imager. Our results show that the SR images have indeed enough quality and spatial detail for screening purposes.

Murillo, Sergio; Echegaray, Sebastian; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter; Bauman, Wendall

2011-03-01

353

District Contributions to School Leaders' Sense of Efficacy: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, based on interviews with 31 principals, was undertaken in response to quantitative evidence from a larger mixed-methods project that found school leaders' collective efficacy to be a crucial link joining district leadership and conditions to school conditions and student learning. Results of this study suggest that districts contribute…

Leithwood, Kenneth; Strauss, Tiiu; Anderson, Stephen E.

2007-01-01

354

Faculty and Student Perceptions of Dual Relationships within Counselor Education: a Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how counselor education faculty and students determine the ethical appropriateness of dilemmas portraying dual relationships in friendships, mentoring, monetary interactions, and romantic-sexual relationships. Results suggest that, unlike most students, faculty trust the ability of counselor educators to maintain objectivity and avoid…

Kolbert, Jered B.; Morgan, Barbara; Brendel, Johnston M.

2002-01-01

355

A Generalized Qualitative-Response Model and the Analysis of Management Fraud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management fraud has become a topic of increasing interest to the public accounting profession. Prior research indicates that management fraud is seldom experienced by audiGtors. As a result, it is doubtful that auditors have a well-developed cognitive model for making fraud risk assessments as part of the audit planning process. Early research studies attempted to identify factors that could be

J. V. Hansen; J. B. McDonald; W. F. Messier Jr.; T. B. Bell

1996-01-01

356

Relationship Advice in Top-Selling Men's Magazines: A Qualitative Document Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of men's magazines contain advice columns which counsel readers on relationships. The viewers heed the information provided to them and apply it to their own lives and relationships. As a result, it is imperative to study the relationship advice men are seeking in these magazines. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intimate relational content and

Roy Spalding; Toni Schindler Zimmerman; Christine A. Fruhauf; James H. Banning; Joanna Pepin

2010-01-01

357

Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

Gardner, Robin P.; Ai, Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

2011-10-01

358

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Delivery Through the Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have proven that focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles can deliver large molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) locally, transiently and non-invasively. In this study, the cellular effects, the size estimation of the opening and the amount delivered were inferred through qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular delivery to the brain parenchyma in a murine model. The ultimate purpose was to build the foundation for future ultrasound-facilitated neurodegenerative disease treatment in humans. A bolus of microbubbles at 1 ?l/g body weight concentration was intravenously injected. Pulsed FUS was applied to the left hippocampus through the intact skin and skull followed by intravenously administration of fluorescence-conjugated dextran at 3 kDa, 10 kDa and 70 kDa. The brain were either sectioned for fluorescence imaging or homogenized for quantitative analysis. The concentration of 3 kDa, 10 kDa and 70 kDa dextrans delivered to the left brain hemisphere was quantified to be 7.9+/-4.9 ?g/g, 2.4+/-1.3 ?g/g and 0.9+/-0.47 ?g/g of brain weight. Smooth muscle cells engulfing the arterioles exhibited higher fluorescence in the case of 70 kDa dextran, compared to the 3 kDa dextran, demonstrating that fluorescence imaging can help with the understanding of the type of mechanism of molecular uptake by different brain cells.

Wang, Shougang; Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Morrison, Barclay; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2009-04-01

359

Anterior mediastinal fat in Behçet's disease: qualitative and quantitative CT analysis.  

PubMed

The fat-rich anterior mediastinum could be a sensitive window for monitoring minute changes in vascularity induced by systemic vasculitis. To evaluate this hypothesis, an analysis of anterior mediastinal fat in patients with Behçet's disease and a control group was conducted. This study included 43 patients diagnosed with Behçet's disease within the last 11 years who underwent CT scan; 55 patients were selected as a control population. Mediastinal fat was classified according to CT morphology. Comparison of serum inflammatory markers was performed for evaluation of disease activity according to morphologic types, and average Hounsfield unit of the anterior mediastinum was measured. Significantly higher mean CT attenuation was observed in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the control group (-48.5 ± 33.5 vs. -67.7 ± 18.7, respectively, P < 0.05). Mediastinal fat types were classified as follows: pure fatty tissue (2 vs. 31 % [Behçet's disease vs. control group]), diffuse soft tissue infiltration (16 vs. 29 %), tubular structures (21 vs. 4 %), mixed infiltration with tubular structures (42 vs. 15 %), and evident thymic tissue (19 vs. 22 %). The value for mean mediastinal attenuation was significantly higher in the group with a high level of C-reactive protein than in the normal level group. The mean CT attenuation of anterior mediastinal fat is significantly higher in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the normal group. Although pathologic confirmation is needed, the cause is postulated to be either inflammatory neovascularization or minimal thymic hyperplasia induced by Behçet's disease. PMID:24113897

Lee, Sang Yub; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Hui Joong; Choi, Sun Ju; Hahm, Myong Hun; Yoon, Sung Won

2013-12-01

360

Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.  

PubMed

Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype. PMID:24222464

Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

2014-01-01

361

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unambiguous identification and quantification of hazardous materials is of increasing importance in many sectors such as waste disposal, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and environmental protection. One particular problem in waste disposal and chemical manufacturing is the identification of solvents into chlorinated or non-chlorinated. In this work we have used Raman spectroscopy as the basis for a discrimination and quantification method for chlorinated solvents. Raman spectra of an extensive collection of solvent mixtures (200+) were collected using a JY-Horiba LabRam, infinity with a 488 nm excitation source. The solvent mixtures comprised of several chlorinated solvents: dichloromethane, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, mixed with solvents such as toluene, cyclohexane and/or acetone. The spectra were then analysed using a variety of chemometric techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Principal Component Regression) and machine learning (Neural Networks and Genetic Programming). In each case models were developed to identify the presence of chlorinated solvents in mixtures at levels of ~5%, to identify the type of chlorinated solvent and then to accurately quantify the amount of chlorinated solvent.

Conroy, Jennifer; Ryder, Alan G.; Leger, Marc N.; Hennessey, Kenneth; Madden, Michael G.

2005-06-01

362

Global qualitative analysis of a ratio-dependent predator–prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Ratio-dependent predator–prey models are favored by many animal ecologists recently as more suitable ones for predator–prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves searching process. However, such models are not well studied in the sense that most\\u000a results are local stability related. In this paper, we consider the global behaviors of solutions of a ratio-dependent predator–prey\\u000a systems. Specifically, we shall show that ratio

Yang Kuang; Edoardo Beretta

1998-01-01

363

Qualitative analysis of subcutaneous Lispro and regular insulin injections for stress hyperglycemia: A pilot numerical study.  

PubMed

Increased glucose variability (GV) is an independent risk factor for mortality in the critically ill; unfortunately, the optimal insulin therapy that minimizes GV is not known. We simulate the glucose-insulin feedback system to study how stress hyperglycemia (SH) states, taken to be a non-uniform group of physiologic disorders with varying insulin resistance (IR) and similar levels of hyperglycemia, respond to the type and dose of subcutaneous (SQ) insulin. Two groups of 100 virtual patients are studied: those receiving and those not receiving continuous enteral feeds. Stress hyperglycemia was facilitated by doubling the gluconeogenesis rate and IR was stepwise varied from a borderline to a high value. Lispro and regular insulin were simulated with dosages that ranged from 0 to 6 units; the resulting GV was analyzed after each insulin injection. The numerical model used consists of a set of non-linear differential equations with two time delays and five adjustable parameters. The results show that regular insulin decreased GV in both patient groups and rarely caused hypoglycemia. With continuous enteral feeds and borderline to mild IR, Lispro showed minimal effect on GV; however, rebound hyperglycemia that increased GV occurred when the IR was moderate to high. Without a nutritional source, Lispro worsened GV through frequent hypoglycemia episodes as the injection dose increased. The inferior performance of Lispro is a result of its rapid absorption profile; half of its duration of action is similar to the glucose ultradian period. Clinical trials are needed to examine whether these numerical results represent the glucose-insulin dynamics that occur in intensive care units, and if such dynamics are present, their clinical effects should be evaluated. PMID:24769252

Strilka, Richard J; Armen, Scott B; Indeck, Matthew C

2014-09-01

364

Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

2011-01-01

365

The State of Qualitative Research in Gifted Education as Published in American Journals: An Analysis and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research has become a more familiar form of inquiry in gifted education, judging its quality and value remains obscure and problematic to the field. This article analyzes and critiques published studies for the purpose of understanding the state of qualitative research in gifted education. Data for this study are from the major…

Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige; Dabbs, Charlotte Simms

2007-01-01

366

Typology of Analytical Errors in Qualitative Educational Research: An Analysis of the 2003-2007 Education Science Dissertations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…

Karadag, Engin

2010-01-01

367

Prediction and Analysis of Canonical EF Hand Loop and Qualitative Estimation of Ca2+ Binding Affinity  

PubMed Central

The diversity of functions carried out by EF hand-containing calcium-binding proteins is due to various interactions made by these proteins as well as the range of affinity levels for Ca2+ displayed by them. However, accurate methods are not available for prediction of binding affinities. Here, amino acid patterns of canonical EF hand sequences obtained from available crystal structures were used to develop a classifier that distinguishes Ca2+-binding loops and non Ca2+-binding regions with 100% accuracy. To investigate further, we performed a proteome-wide prediction for E. histolytica, and classified known EF-hand proteins. We compared our results with published methods on the E. histolytica proteome scan, and demonstrated our method to be more specific and accurate for predicting potential canonical Ca2+-binding loops. Furthermore, we annotated canonical EF-hand motifs and classified them based on their Ca2+-binding affinities using support vector machines. Using a novel method generated from position-specific scoring metrics and then tested against three different experimentally derived EF-hand-motif datasets, predictions of Ca2+-binding affinities were between 87 and 90% accurate. Our results show that the tool described here is capable of predicting Ca2+-binding affinity constants of EF-hand proteins. The web server is freely available at http://202.41.10.46/calb/index.html.

Mazumder, Mohit; Padhan, Narendra; Bhattacharya, Alok; Gourinath, Samudrala

2014-01-01

368

Living with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Physical, Psychological, and Social Sequelae  

PubMed Central

Women with metastatic breast cancer face a wide range of medical, practical, and emotional challenges that impact their quality of life. Research to date, however, has not focused on the quality-of-life concerns of metastatic breast cancer patients with significant distress. The present study examined a range of concerns among distressed metastatic breast cancer patients, including physical and emotional distress, social functioning, and existential issues. Forty-four distressed women with metastatic breast cancer wrote their deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their illness. These essays were thematically analyzed for effects of the illness on quality of life. Three themes were identified in patients’ essays. First, metastatic breast cancer and its treatment may result in a number of quality-of-life concerns, including physical symptom burden, emotional distress, body image disturbance, and disrupted daily activities. Second, social constraints on disclosure of cancer-related concerns may exacerbate patients’ distress. Third, many women experience a heightened awareness of life’s brevity and search for meaning in their cancer experience. Results highlight a range of quality-of-life concerns following a metastatic breast cancer diagnosis and suggest that addressing social constraints on cancer-related disclosure and the search for meaning may improve patients’ psychological adjustment.

Mosher, Catherine E.; Johnson, Courtney; Dickler, Maura; Norton, Larry; Massie, Mary Jane; DuHamel, Katherine

2014-01-01

369

Impact of necrotising fasciitis on quality of life: A qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Mortality rates from severe necrotising soft tissue infections are improving progressively, therefore more emphasis should be placed on assessing and improving the quality of life of surviving patients. We investigated the functional and psychological issues, ability to social integration and self-perception of appearance in such patients presenting to our unit over 4 years. To conduct the study, we used the Short Form-36 and the Derriford Appearance Scale-24, which were distributed to those willing to participate. Ten patients have returned fully completed questionnaires. The overall quality of life and level of distress about the changed appearance were moderate (average SF-36 score of 65.8, DAS-24 score of 38). Statistical correlations between the scores and demographics were carried out using the Spearman rank correlation test. The capability of psychosocial adjustment was shown to improve with longer follow-up time and older age. However pain, physical limitations and energy levels were considerably more relevant in the older individuals and improved slower with time compared to psychological issues. Our results act as a good indicator of the quality of life in people dealing with the aftermath of necrotising soft tissue infections, but further, more extensive studies are required to achieve comprehensive and statistically significant results. PMID:24252250

Pikturnaite, Jurga; Soldin, Mark

2014-08-01

370

A quantative and qualitative analysis of science communication in the greek mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing interest on how science is communicated by the mass media. Studies have been done in order to define the amount and the quality of science information passing from the experts to the public through newspapers, radio broadcasts and TV programs. In this study, we have tried to find the amount of science presented in 4 Greek newspapers and 4 major Greek TV channels. We've also done an initial evaluation on the quality of the newspaper science articles. The results show that the amount of scientific content in TV and newspapers in Greece, is comparable to those in larger and more scientifically advanced countries such as Canada, USA and Great Britain. The quality of the newspaper articles was studied under a simple but relevant coding scheme. The results demonstrate that scientists do not write popularizing articles but they play an important role as experts. The more serious newspapers provide more reliable information in the form of integrated articles and not as fragmentary science news. Furthermore, Greek newspapers avoid publishing articles on controversial scientific issues and they present science as abstract and authoritative.

Matsopoulos, N.; Zoulias, M.

371

Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition, a scale was developed for rating the relative effectiveness of whole-class discussions in terms of student participation. This study provides a tool for measuring productive whole-class discussions, as well as practical applications for peer leader (or teacher) training.

Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

372

Brief Report: A Qualitative Analysis of Discussions about HIV in Families of Parents with HIV  

PubMed Central

Objective?To explore communication about HIV prevention, risk behaviors, and transmission in families affected by HIV.?Methods?Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 parents with HIV, 27 children (9- to 17-years old), and 19 adult children (?18-years old) across the U.S. Coders reviewed transcripts, identified themes, and coded transcripts.?Results?Youth felt uncomfortable discussing HIV with their parent who has HIV because they worried about upsetting and reminding the parent of his/her illness. Adult children reported learning about HIV prevention by watching how the illness affected their parents. Few siblings reported talking with one another about HIV because they worried about upsetting their brother/sister and about their sibling unintentionally disclosing the parent's illness to others.?Conclusions?Discussions between youth and their parent with HIV and their siblings vary, highlighting the need for further research in this area.

Cowgill, Burton O.; Bogart, Laura M.; Parra, Michelle T.; Ryan, Gery; Elliott, Marc N.; Park, Susan K.; Patch, Jennifer; Schuster, Mark A.

2009-01-01

373

Why some MSM present late for HIV testing: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Although initiatives are under way in the UK to diagnose HIV infection early, late presentation is still a major issue and often results in serious health complications for the individual and has implications for society, including high costs and increased rates of transmission. Intervention strategies in the UK have aimed at increasing testing opportunities but still a significant proportion of those with HIV infection either decline testing or continue to test late. The main objective of this study is to identify ideas and themes as to why testing was not carried out earlier in men who have sex with men (MSM) who presented with late HIV infection. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with MSM presenting late with a CD4 cell count of <200. A structured framework approach was used to analyse the data collected and generate ideas as to why they did not seek testing earlier. Seventeen MSM were interviewed and four main themes were identified: psychological barriers, including fear of illness and dying, stigma surrounding testing for HIV and in living with a positive diagnosis, perceived low risk for contracting HIV despite participants reporting having a good understanding of HIV and its transmission and strong views that a more active approach by healthcare services, including general practice, is necessary if the uptake of HIV testing is to increase. Late presentation with HIV infection continues to be a problem in the UK despite government initiatives to expand opportunities for testing. Recurring themes for late testing were a low perceived risk for HIV infection and a fear of HIV and a positive diagnosis. Population-targeted health promotion alongside a more proactive approach by healthcare professionals and making HIV testing more convenient and accessible may result in earlier testing. PMID:21780956

Dowson, Lucy; Kober, Catherine; Perry, Nicky; Fisher, Martin; Richardson, Daniel

2012-01-01

374

The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources.

2014-01-01

375

Ecology-centered experiences among children and adolescents: A qualitative and quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research involved two studies that considered ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the opportunity to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences. To do this, I carried out a yearlong ethnographic study at an urban community garden located in a large city in the Southeastern United States. Through participant observations and informal interviews of community garden staff and participants, I found children had opportunities to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences (e.g., interaction with animals) along with other experiences (e.g., playing games, reading books). In light of previous research that shows urban children have diminished ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---because of their lack of ecology-centered experiences (Coley, 2012), the present study may have implications for urban children to learn about ecology. As an extension of Study 1, I carried out a second study (Study 2) to investigate how ecology-centered experiences contribute to adolescents' environmental attitudes and behaviors in light of other contextual factors, namely environmental responsibility support, ecological thought, age and gender. Study 2 addressed three research questions. First, does ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---predict environmental attitudes and behaviors (EAB)? Results showed ecological thought did not predict EAB, an important finding considering the latent assumptions of previous research about the relationship between these two factors (e.g., Brugger, Kaiser, & Roczen, 2011). Second, do two types of contextual support, ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) and environmental responsibility support (i.e., support through the availability of environmentally responsible models) predict EAB? As predicted, results showed that ecology-centered experiences predicted EAB; yet, when environmental responsibility support was taken into consideration, ecology-centered experiences no longer predicted EAB. These findings suggested environmental responsibility support was a stronger predictor than ecology-centered experiences. Finally, do age and gender predict EAB? Consistent with previous research (e.g., Alp, Ertepiner, Tekkaya, & Yilmaz, 2006), age and gender significantly predicted EAB.

Orton, Judy

376

Interpreter-mediated diabetes consultations: a qualitative analysis of physician communication practices  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-provider communication, in particular physicians’ ability to listen to their patients, and support them in making difficult lifestyle changes, is an essential component of effective diabetes care. Clinical communication around diabetes can be especially challenging when language barriers are present, and may contribute to poor diabetes management and outcomes. Clinicians need to be aware of and address potential communication difficulties associated with interpreter-mediated consultations. The purpose of our study was to explore how physicians communicate in interpreter-mediated consultations with diabetic patients, and how their communication behaviors may impact diabetes communication and care. Method We analyzed transcripts from 8 audio recorded, outpatient consultations at the Basel University Hospital general medicine outpatient clinic involving Turkish-speaking patients, German-speaking physicians, and Turkish-German interpreters (both community interpreters and family members). Results Clinicians used closed questions when asking about symptoms and glucose control. When providing information and explanation, they spoke in long and complex speech turns. They often directed their speech to interpreters or became sidetracked by family members’ questions or requests for information. Patients’ participation in the consultation was minimal, and limited to brief answers to clinicians’ questions. Conclusions Clinicians need to be aware of common pitfalls that diminish patient-centeredness during interpreter-mediated consultations, and learn strategies to avoid them. Attention to established guidelines on triadic communication is recommended, as is hands-on training with interpreters.

2013-01-01

377

Qualitative analysis of Kantowski-Sachs metric in a generic class of f(R) models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate, from the dynamical systems perspective, the evolution of a Kantowski-Sachs metric in a generic class of f(R) models. We present conditions (i.e., differentiability conditions, existence of minima, monotony intervals, etc.) for a free input function related to the f(R), that guarantee the asymptotic stability of well-motivated physical solutions, specially, self-accelerated solutions, allowing to describe both inflationary- and late-time acceleration stages of the cosmic evolution. We discuss which f(R) theories allows for a cosmic evolution with an acceptable matter era, in correspondence to the modern cosmological paradigm. We find a very rich behavior, and amongst others the universe can result in isotropized solutions with observables in agreement with observations, such as de Sitter, quintessence-like, or phantom solutions. Additionally, we find that a cosmological bounce and turnaround are realized in a part of the parameter-space as a consequence of the metric choice.

Leon, Genly; Roque, Armando A.

2014-05-01

378

A qualitative analysis of the determinants in the choice of a French journal reviewing procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1993 and 2010, two French journals (Aster and Didaskalia) coming from different backgrounds but belonging to the same institution used to publish papers on research in science and technology education. The merging of these journals made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This merging occurred at a time when research is becoming increasingly international which partly determines some of the reviewing procedure choices. In order for a francophone international journal to survive, it needs to take this internationalization into account in a reasoned manner. The author of this article, as a chief editor of RDST (Recherches en Didactique des Sciences et des Technologies)—the journal resulting from the merging- taking part in this merger, analyses the social, cultural and pragmatic determinants which impacted the choices made in reviewing procedures. This paper describes how these diversity of factors leads us to drop the idea of a standard reviewing procedure which would be valid for all journals.

Morge, Ludovic

2014-05-01

379

Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral flow dipstick immunoassay for rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking. In this study a lateral flow dipstick immunoassay was developed for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate (ATS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in anti-malarial drugs. Methods This assay was based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against ATS. ATS-bovine serum albumin and goat anti-mouse IgG, used as the test capture reagent and the control capture reagent, were coated on the nitrocellulose membrane to form the test line and control line, respectively. The conjugate pad was saturated with the gold-labelled anti-ATS mAb. Results The indicator range of the dipsticks, defined as lowest concentration of the target analytes between which the test line was not visible, were 100-200 and 200-500 ng mL-1 for ATS and DHA, respectively. No competitive inhibition was observed up to 5,000 ng mL-1 of quinine, chloroquine diphosphate salt, primaquine phosphate, pyrimethamine, lumefantrine, amodiaquine, piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate or pyronaridine tetraphosphate. Semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials with the dipsticks produced result agreeable with those determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Storage test showed that the indicator range for artemisinins remained unchanged after a week at 37°C and increased four-folds after six months of storage at 4°C or ambient temperature. Conclusions The new selected mAb 3D82G7 with high avidity and broad cross reactivity for artemisinins was used to develop and optimize a dipstick immunoassay for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in anti-malarial drugs. The semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials, and the specificity test of the artemisinin-related drugs both proved the accurate performance of the developed dipsticks for semi-quantitation of ACT samples. The dipstick may be used as a point-of-care device for identifying substandard and counterfeit ATS- and DHA-containing anti-malarial drugs.

2014-01-01

380

Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4%) were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG); diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support.

2012-01-01

381

A Lacanian view on Balint group meetings: a qualitative analysis of two case presentations  

PubMed Central

Background GPs’ subjectivity is an intrinsic instrument in their daily work. By offering GPs a platform to present and discuss difficult interactions with patients, Balint group work be might provide them an opportunity to explore and articulate aspects of their subjectivity. In order to get a more profound understanding of what participation in a Balint group can offer, we focused on the process of change that can be observed during Balint group meetings. To that end, this study scrutinized two Balint group case discussions on a micro-level. Method Two cases were selected from a larger data set of 68 audio-taped case discussions in four Balint groups. In order to shed light on the type of change that characterizes the presenter’s narrative, we used Lacan’s theoretical distinction between imaginary and symbolic modes of relating to the other. Results In both case discussions, the GPs presenting the case initially appeared to be stuck in a fixed image of a situation, referred to as ‘imaginary relating to the other.’ Through a range of interactions with the group, the presenters were encouraged to explore different subject positions, which allowed them to broaden their initial image of the situation and to discover other issues at stake. This was referred to as a more symbolic way of relating to the other. Conclusion This study throws light on the type of change Balint group participation allows for and on the way this might be achieved. We conclude that Balint group work is potentially beneficial to the participating GPs as well as to the relationship with their patients.

2014-01-01

382

A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Since Mexico's joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1994, it has witnessed rapid industrialization. A byproduct of this industrialization is increasing population exposure to environmental pollutants, of which some have been associated with childhood disease. We therefore identified and assessed the adequacy of existing international and Mexican governance instruments and policy tools to protect children from environmental hazards. Methods We first systematically reviewed PubMed, the Mexican legal code and the websites of the United Nations, World Health Organization, NAFTA and OECD as of July 2007 to identify the relevant governance instruments, and analyzed the approach these instruments took to preventing childhood diseases of environmental origin. Secondly, we interviewed a purposive sample of high-level government officials, researchers and non-governmental organization representatives, to identify their opinions and attitudes towards children's environmental health and potential barriers to child-specific protective legislation and implementation. Results We identified only one policy tool describing specific measures to reduce developmental neurotoxicity and other children's health effects from lead. Other governance instruments mention children's unique vulnerability to ozone, particulate matter and carbon monoxide, but do not provide further details. Most interviewees were aware of Mexican environmental policy tools addressing children's health needs, but agreed that, with few exceptions, environmental policies do not address the specific health needs of children and pregnant women. Interviewees also cited state centralization of power, communication barriers and political resistance as reasons for the absence of a strong regulatory platform. Conclusions The Mexican government has not sufficiently accounted for children's unique vulnerability to environmental contaminants. If regulation and legislation are not updated and implemented to protect children, increases in preventable exposures to toxic chemicals in the environment may ensue.

2010-01-01

383

Archetypal trajectories of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress in family care givers of patients with lung cancer: secondary analysis of serial qualitative interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess if family care givers of patients with lung cancer experience the patterns of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress typical of the patient, from diagnosis to death. Design Secondary analysis of serial qualitative interviews carried out every three months for up to a year or to bereavement.Setting South east Scotland.Participants 19 patients with lung cancer and

Scott A Murray; Marilyn Kendall; Kirsty Boyd; Liz Grant; Gill Highet; Aziz Sheikh

2010-01-01

384

Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

New method of qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), based on the combination of extraction of purines and pyrimidines to the solid phase (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was proposed. Use of SPE and lyophilization of samples allowed for the first time to detect the presence of di- and triphosphonucleotides in human CSF. Concentration

Joanna Czarnecka; Marek Cie?lak; Komoszy?ski Micha?

2005-01-01

385

Why strong tobacco control measures "can't" be implemented in the U.S. Military: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine recently called for a tobacco-free military, citing evidence that high rates of tobacco use harm readiness and create enormous costs for the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration. The pro-tobacco activities of the tobacco industry and others, sometimes supported by military authorities even when prohibited by policy, have created a culture highly hospitable to smoking. Through qualitative secondary analysis of data from interviews and focus groups, this article explores the reasons enlisted personnel and their supervisors, installation tobacco control managers, and service policy leaders give for why tobacco control policy change "cannot" effectively be achieved. Three primary reasons were given: policies would impinge on the "right to smoke," policies would be unenforceable and lead to disciplinary breakdown, and the rights of civilian workers on military installations precluded policy enforcement. Yet evidence suggests that these reasons are not only invalid, but inconsistent with military policies addressing other threats to the health of personnel. This pervasive tobacco "exceptionalism" is a significant barrier to achieving a tobacco-free military. The military, Congress, and the President should re-evaluate the "can'ts" that have prevented effective action, and act to regulate and eventually abolish tobacco use in the armed forces. PMID:23113448

Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

2012-10-01

386

Hip dysplasia, pelvic obliquity, and scoliosis in cerebral palsy: a qualitative analysis using 3D CT reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five patients with cerebral palsy, hip dysplasia, pelvic obliquity, and scoliosis were evaluated retrospectively using three dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) scans of the proximal femur, pelvis, and lumbar spine to qualitatively evaluate their individual deformities by measuring a number of anatomical landmarks. Three dimensional reconstructions of the data were visualized, analyzed, and then manipulated interactively to perform simulated osteotomies of the proximal femur and pelvis to achieve surgical correction of the hip dysplasia. Severe deformity can occur in spastic cerebral palsy, with serious consequences for the quality of life of the affected individuals and their families. Controversy exists regarding the type, timing and efficacy of surgical intervention for correction of hip dysplasia in this population. Other authors have suggested 3DCT studies are required to accurately analyze acetabular deficiency, and that this data allows for more accurate planning of reconstructive surgery. It is suggested here that interactive manipulation of the data to simulate the proposed surgery is a clinically useful extension of the analysis process and should also be considered as an essential part of the pre-operative planning to assure that the appropriate procedure is chosen. The surgical simulation may reduce operative time and improve surgical correction of the deformity.

Russ, Mark D.; Abel, Mark F.

1998-06-01

387

Thin layer chromatography-application in qualitative analysis on presence of coumarins and flavonoids in plant material.  

PubMed

Drugs, natural medicinal plant, animals and mineral materials, have a large and various application in official pharmacy and medicine. Carriers of multilateral pharmacological effects that those drugs shown, are chemically define as active components that are present in them. Methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis are used for the chemical investigation of components that drugs contain. Method of thin layer chromatography has been shown as very reliable. According to the chemical investigation of single drugs, it is possible to define a group of compound or single compound comparing them with standards. Relating to the usage of method of thin layer chromatography, it has been carried out investigation on presence of coumarins and flavonoids in domestic plant material that have wide everyday usage. Coumarins and flavonoids from the point of view of chemical belonging are phenol derivatives with important pharmacological effects. Applying method of thin layer chromatography, it is detected presence of coumarins and flavonoids substances in plant material that has been tested. Anethi graveolens fructus et folium (fruit and leaf of dill), Anethum graveolens L., Apiaceae, Avenae sativae fructus (fruit of oats), Avena sativa L., Poaceae and Asperulae odoratae herba (sweet woodruff), Asperula odorata L., Rubiaceae. Chromatograms are developed in systems cyclohexane-ethylacetat (13:7) and toluene-ether (1:1) saturated with 10% acetic acid, and visualisation by observing on UV lamp (254 and 366 nm), spraying with reagents KOH (10% ethanol solution) and diphenylboryloxyethylamine (1% methanol solution). PMID:16232145

Kovac-Besovi?, Elvira E; Duri?, Kemal

2003-07-01

388

Experiences of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC): a qualitative analysis of mothers' experiences.  

PubMed

Fear and anxiety are recurring problems for parents of food-allergic children. However, no study has described parents' experiences of introducing food to their children after double-blind provocation. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate mothers' experiences during their child's negative Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge (DBPCFC) and the following reintroduction of food. Eight mothers were interviewed and a qualitative content analysis displayed two themes and six subthemes. The first theme, 'living with fear of the unknown', included the subthemes of 'fear of losing control', 'having faith even though fear prevails', 'reintroducing despite fear' and 'fear of causing harm'. In the second theme, the mothers described the challenging process of 're-evaluating earlier experiences' through the sub-themes of 'daring to take new challenges' and 'refraining from new challenges'. Our study indicates that the maternal perspective--not only the professional perspective--needs to be taken into account if mothers are to succeed in the challenging process of reintroducing foods. PMID:20212057

Strinnholm, Asa; Brulin, Christine; Lindh, Viveca

2010-06-01

389

Spectral analysis of tremor: understanding the results.  

PubMed Central

Spectral analysis of a tremor record can sometimes produce a spectrum with multiple components of significant amplitude. The problem is to determine whether the presence of several peaks represents the coexistence of separate tremor mechanisms or be a consequence of fluctuations in the frequency or amplitude of a single tremor. The spectrum of a tremor whose frequency or amplitude vary and are independent has the recognisable pattern of a central carrier frequency with sidebands of equal amplitudes distributed symmetrically around the carrier. However, if tremor amplitude and frequency fluctuate and are not independent, (frequency proportional to amplitude or frequency inversely proportional to amplitude), the spectrum has a pattern of sidebands which are asymmetrical in amplitudes and may resemble the spectrum of the combined signal from different independent oscillators. The investigation of sidebands in spectra has been neglected in tremor studies and multiple irregular peaks on a tremor spectrum have sometimes been used wrongly as evidence for the coexistence of multiple tremor mechanisms or frequency components assumed to be concurrent.

Gresty, M; Buckwell, D

1990-01-01

390

Between Two Worlds: A Multi-Institutional Qualitative Analysis of Students' Reflections on Joining the Medical Profession  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recent changes in healthcare system and training mandates have altered the clinical learning environment. We incorporated reflective writing into Internal Medicine clerkships (IMcs) in multiple institutions so students could consider the impact of clerkship experiences on their personal and professional development. We analyzed student reflections to inform curricula and support learning. METHODS We qualitatively analyzed the reflections of students at 3 US medical schools during IMcs (N?=?292) to identify themes, tone, and reflective quality using an iterative approach. Chi-square tests assessed differences between these factors and across institutions. FINDINGS Students openly described powerful experiences. Major themes focused on 4 categories: personal issues (PI), professional development (PD), relational issues (RI), and medical care (MC). Each major theme was represented at each institution, although with significant variability between institutions in many of the subcategories including student role (PI), development-as-a-physician (PD), professionalism (PD) (p?analysis suggests that students at 3 institutions reflect on similar experiences. Theme variability across institutions implies curricula should be tailored to local culture. Reflective quality analysis suggests students are better equipped to reflect on certain experiences over others, which may impact learning. Student reflections can function as a mirror for our organizations, offer institutional feedback for support and improvement, and inform curricula for learners and faculty.

Harrell, Heather E.; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Cifu, Adam S.; Alper, Eric; Johnson, Krista M.; Hatem, David

2008-01-01

391

Analysing qualitative data: more than 'identifying themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often, qualitative researchers rely on the pres entation of key themes supported by quotes from participants' text as the primary form of anal ysis and reporting of their data. In this paper I argue that qualitative data require and sup port much deeper analysis. Strategies that might assist researchers to enrich their analysis o f qualitative data are described.

Pat Bazeley

392

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds using transient and steady-state responses of a thick-film tin oxide gas sensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of gases, by means of semiconductor sensor arrays and pattern-recognition techniques such as artificial neural networks, has been the goal of a great deal of work over the last few years. However, the lack of selectivity, repeatability and drifts of the sensors, have limited the applications of these systems to qualitative or semi-quantitative gas analysis. While the steady-state

Eduard Llobet; Jesús Brezmes; Xavier Vilanova; Jesús E. Sueiras; Xavier Correig

1997-01-01

393

Linking HIV-positive Jail Inmates to Treatment, Care, and Social Services After Release: Results from a Qualitative Assessment of the COMPASS Program  

PubMed Central

Approximately 17% of individuals living with HIV/AIDS pass through the correctional system each year. Jails provide a unique opportunity to diagnose and treat HIV infection among high-risk, transient populations with limited access to medical services. In 2007, the US Health Resources and Services Administration funded a multi-site demonstration project entitled Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care in Jail Settings that aims to improve diagnosis and treatment services for HIV-positive jail detainees and link them to community-based medical care and social services upon release. We performed an evaluation of the Rhode Island demonstration site entitled Community Partnerships and Supportive Services for HIV-Infected People Leaving Jail (COMPASS). Through in-depth qualitative interviews among 20 HIV-positive COMPASS participants in Rhode Island, we assessed how COMPASS impacted access to health care and social services utilization. Most individuals were receiving HIV treatment and care services upon enrollment, but COMPASS enhanced linkage to medical care and follow-up visits for HIV and other co-morbidities for most participants. Several participants were successfully linked to new medical services as a result of COMPASS, including one individual newly diagnosed with HIV and another who had been living with HIV for many years and was able to commence highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While many individuals reported that COMPASS support prevented substance abuse relapse, ongoing substance abuse nevertheless remained a challenge for several participants. Most participants enrolled in one or more new social services as a result of COMPASS, including Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, food assistance, and housing programs. The primary unmet needs of COMPASS participants were access to mental health services and stable housing. Intensive case management of HIV-positive jail detainees enhances access to medical and social support services and helps prevent relapse to substance abuse. Expanding intensive case management programs, public housing, and mental health services for recently released HIV-positive detainees should be public health priorities.

Cornwall, Alexandra; Fu, Jeannia; Bazerman, Lauri; Loewenthal, Helen; Beckwith, Curt

2010-01-01

394

Computational analysis of vertebrate phototransduction: Combined quantitative and qualitative modeling of dark- and light-adapted responses in amphibian rods  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the generality of two models of vertebrate phototransduction. The approach was to quantitatively optimize each model to the full waveform of high-quality, dark-adapted (DA), salamander rod flash responses. With the optimal parameters, each model was then used to account for signature, qualitative features of rod responses from three experimental paradigms (stimulus/response, “S/R suite”): (1) step responses; (2) the intensity dependence of the period of photocurrent saturation (Tsat vs. ln(I)); and (3) light-adapted (LA) incremental flash sensitivity as a function of background intensity. The first model was the recent successful model of Nikonov et al. (1998). The second model replaced the instantaneous Ca2+ buffering used in the Nikonov et al. model with a dynamic buffer. The results showed that, in the absence of the dynamic Ca2+ buffer, the Nikonov et al. model does not have sufficient flexibility to provide a good fit to the flash responses, and, using the same parameters, reproduce the salient features of the S/R suite—critical features at step onset and offset are absent; the Tsat function has too shallow a slope; and the model cannot generate the empirically observed I-range of Weber-Fechner LA behavior. Some features could be recovered by changing parameters, but only at the expense of the fit to the reference (Ref) data. When the dynamic buffer is added, the model is able to achieve an acceptable fit to the Ref data while reproducing several features of the S/R suite, including an empirically observed Tsat function, and an extended range of LA flash sensitivity adhering to Weber’s law. The overall improved behavior of the model with a dynamic Ca2+ buffer indicates that it is an important mechanism to include in a working model of phototransduction, and that, despite the slow kinetics of amphibian rods, Ca2+ buffering should not be simulated as an instantaneous process. However, neither model was able to capture all the features with the same parameters yielding the optimal fit to the Ref data. In addition, neither model could maintain a good fit to the Ref data when five key biochemical parameters were held at their current known values. Moreover, even after optimization, a number of important parameters remained outside their empirical estimates. We conclude that other mechanisms will need to be added, including additional Ca2+-feedback mechanisms. The present research illustrates the importance of a hybrid qualitative/quantitative approach to model development, and the limitations of modeling restricted sets of data.

HAMER, RUSSELL D.

2006-01-01

395

From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

Pearl, Judea

1994-01-01

396

Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners' records  

PubMed Central

Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people.

2014-01-01

397

Scalable analysis tools for sensitivity analysis and UQ (3160) results.  

SciTech Connect

The 9/30/2009 ASC Level 2 Scalable Analysis Tools for Sensitivity Analysis and UQ (Milestone 3160) contains feature recognition capability required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks focused around sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ). These feature recognition capabilities include crater detection, characterization, and analysis from CTH simulation data; the ability to call fragment and crater identification code from within a CTH simulation; and the ability to output fragments in a geometric format that includes data values over the fragments. The feature recognition capabilities were tested extensively on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including the ability to visualize CTH tracer particles and the ability to visualize output from within an S3D simulation.

Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Fabian, Nathan; Scott, W. Alan; Moreland, Kenneth D.

2009-09-01

398

Numerical Taxonomic Analysis of Some Strains of Rhizobium spp. That Uses a Qualitative Coding of Immunodiffusion Reactions.  

PubMed

Antigenic relationships among seven strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were examined by immunodiffusion reactions, in which cells of each strain were reacted against each of the seven corresponding antisera. Similar analyses were performed with Rhizobium trifolii (28 strains), Rhizobium meliloti (9 strains), and rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany (13 strains). Antigens and antisera were reacted within each species only; serological interspecies cross-reactions were not performed. The results, scored qualitatively as reactions of identity, cross-reactions, or no reaction, were formed into datum matrices and used to analyze the relationships between strains by applying the association measure of Bray and Curtis (J. R. Bray and J. T. Curtis, Ecol. Monogr. 27:325-349, 1957) and the UPGMA clustering algorithm (P. H. A. Sneath and R. R. Sokal, Numerical Taxonomy, 1973). No two strains were regarded as being serologically identical unless each gave the same results as the other in each immunodiffusion reaction against every antiserum. Despite the high level of cross-reactions and reactions of identity (totalling 93% of all cell-antiserum combinations) among strains of R. trifolii and R. meliloti, no strains were identical by the criterion described above; however, the strains of these species clustered rapidly and fused at the 70% similarity level. The B. japonicum strains and the rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany were much less cross-reactive (67 and 86% of all combinations were negative, respectively), and they clustered more slowly. The strains of B. japonicum fused completely only at the 4% similarity level, whereas of the 13 cowpea-nodulating strains, 4 reacted as two pairs of identical strains and 6 remained unfused. PMID:16347692

Dudman, W F; Belbin, L

1988-07-01

399

Numerical Taxonomic Analysis of Some Strains of Rhizobium spp. That Uses a Qualitative Coding of Immunodiffusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Antigenic relationships among seven strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were examined by immunodiffusion reactions, in which cells of each strain were reacted against each of the seven corresponding antisera. Similar analyses were performed with Rhizobium trifolii (28 strains), Rhizobium meliloti (9 strains), and rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany (13 strains). Antigens and antisera were reacted within each species only; serological interspecies cross-reactions were not performed. The results, scored qualitatively as reactions of identity, cross-reactions, or no reaction, were formed into datum matrices and used to analyze the relationships between strains by applying the association measure of Bray and Curtis (J. R. Bray and J. T. Curtis, Ecol. Monogr. 27:325-349, 1957) and the UPGMA clustering algorithm (P. H. A. Sneath and R. R. Sokal, Numerical Taxonomy, 1973). No two strains were regarded as being serologically identical unless each gave the same results as the other in each immunodiffusion reaction against every antiserum. Despite the high level of cross-reactions and reactions of identity (totalling 93% of all cell-antiserum combinations) among strains of R. trifolii and R. meliloti, no strains were identical by the criterion described above; however, the strains of these species clustered rapidly and fused at the 70% similarity level. The B. japonicum strains and the rhizobia of the cowpea miscellany were much less cross-reactive (67 and 86% of all combinations were negative, respectively), and they clustered more slowly. The strains of B. japonicum fused completely only at the 4% similarity level, whereas of the 13 cowpea-nodulating strains, 4 reacted as two pairs of identical strains and 6 remained unfused.

Dudman, William F.; Belbin, Lee

1988-01-01

400

Evaluating Fidelity in Home-Visiting Programs a Qualitative Analysis of 1058 Home Visit Case Notes from 105 Families  

PubMed Central

Objective Implementation fidelity is a key issue in home-visiting programs as it determines a program’s effectiveness in accomplishing its original goals. This paper seeks to evaluate fidelity in a 27-month program addressing maternal and child health which took place in France between 2006 and 2011. Method To evaluate implementation fidelity, home visit case notes were analyzed using thematic qualitative and computer-assisted linguistic analyses. Results During the prenatal period, home visitors focused on the social components of the program. Visitors discussed the physical changes in pregnancy, and psychological and social environment issues. Discussing immigration, unstable employment and financial related issues, family relationships and dynamics and maternity services, while not expected, were found in case notes. Conversely, health during pregnancy, early child development and postpartum mood changes were not identified as topics within the prenatal case notes. During the postnatal period, most components of the intervention were addressed: home visitors observed the mother’s adaptation to the baby; routine themes such as psychological needs and medical-social networks were evaluated; information on the importance of social support and on adapting the home environment was given; home visitors counseled on parental authority, and addressed mothers’ self-esteem issues; finally, they helped to find child care, when necessary. Some themes were not addressed or partially addressed: health education, child development, home environment, mother’s education plans and personal routine, partner support and play with the child. Other themes were not expected, but found in the case notes: social issues, mother-family relationship, relation with services, couple issues, quality of maternal behavior and child’s language development. Conclusions In this program, home visitors experienced difficulties addressing some of the objectives because they gave precedence to the families“ urgent needs. This research stresses the importance of training home visitors to adapt the intervention to the social, psychological and health needs of families.

Saias, Thomas; Lerner, Emilie; Greacen, Tim; Simon-Vernier, Elodie; Emer, Alessandra; Pintaux, Eleonore; Guedeney, Antoine; Dugravier, Romain; Tereno, Susana; Falissard, Bruno; Tubach, Florence; Revah-Levy, Anne

2012-01-01

401

Effectiveness of Quantitative Skills, Qualitative Skills, and Gender in Determining Computer Skills and Attitudes: A Causal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author investigated the relationships among Turkish students' perceived computer skills, computer attitudes, quantitative skills, qualitative skills, and gender. The author collected data from a total of 362 undergraduate students. He found that gender was a significant variable to predict computer attitudes but not perceived…

Varank, Ilhan

2007-01-01

402

The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

2012-01-01

403

A qualitative analysis of exemplary elementary science teachers' use and practice of the National Science Education Teaching Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissertation's purpose was to document and discuss what 10 elementary science teachers, deemed exemplary by administrators, do in the science classroom to reflect the National Science Education Teaching Standards. To make implications for teacher education this report also explored these teachers' science professional development backgrounds. A qualitative triangulated approach of surveys, interviews and observations was used to document actualities,

Margaret Evans Pittman

2000-01-01

404

Predictors of Success in Individuals with Learning Disabilities: A Qualitative Analysis of a 20Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described here is part of a larger longitudinal project tracing the lives of a group of individuals with learning disabilities who attended the Frostig Center more than 20 years ago. The purpose of the larger project has been to identify variables that predict successful outcomes for adults with learning disabilities. This article focuses on the qualitative findings obtained

Roberta J. Goldberg; Eleanor L. Higgins; Marshall H. Raskind; Kenneth L. Herman

2003-01-01

405

"Emotions Are a Window into One's Heart": A Qualitative Analysis of Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions across Three Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents' beliefs about the role of emotions in the…

Parker, Alison E.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred, Jr.; Thompson, Julie A.; Beale, Karen S.

2012-01-01

406

The Experience of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women in the Northwestern United States: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unique experience of HIV/AIDS among rural women in the United States was explored using qualitative interviews with 7 women who are HIV positive. Based on these interviews, eight themes emerged. These included (a) daily powerful emotions, (b) emotional and physical abandonment, (c) romantic betrayal, (d) medical treatment issues, (e) loss and…

Mphande-Finn, Joyce T.; Sommers-Flanagan, John

2007-01-01

407

Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

Forde, Amanda

2011-01-01

408

Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Ma?opolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 the Marshal Office of Ma?opolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Ma?opolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Ma?opolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of areas (municipalities) according to erosion control needs is visible. The study shows that, high-resolution satellite imagery and OBIA may be efficiently used for P-factor mapping and thus contribute to a refined soil erosion risk assessment.

Drzewiecki, Wojciech; W??yk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafra?ska, Beata

2014-06-01

409

Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Ma?opolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 the Marshal Office of Ma?opolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Ma?opolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Ma?opolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of areas (municipalities) according to erosion control needs is visible. The study shows that, high-resolution satellite imagery and OBIA may be efficiently used for P-factor mapping and thus contribute to a refined soil erosion risk assessment.

Drzewiecki, Wojciech; W??yk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafra?ska, Beata

2013-04-01

410

Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries.

Huston, P.; Rowan, M.

1998-01-01

411

Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.

Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md.

2014-01-01

412

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Aconitum Alkaloids in Raw and Processed Chuanwu and Caowu by HPLC in Combination with Automated Analytical System and ESI/MS/MS  

PubMed Central

HPLC in combination with automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS was used to analyze aconitine (A), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), and their benzoyl analogs in the Chinese herbs Caowu and Chuanwu. First, an HPLC method was developed and validated to determine A, MA, and HA in raw and processed Caowu and Chuanwu. Then an automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS were applied to analyze these alkaloids and their semihydrolyzed products. The results obtained from automated analytical system are identical to those from ESI/MS/MS, which indicated that the method is a convenient and rapid tool for the qualitative analysis of herbal preparations. Furthermore, HA was little hydrolyzed by heating processes and thus it might account more for the toxicity of processed aconites. Hence, HA could be used as an indicator when one alkaloid is required as a reference to monitor the quality of raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu. In addition, the raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu can be distinguished by monitoring the ratio of A and MA to HA.

Sun, Aimin; Gao, Bo; Ding, Xueqing; Huang, Chi-Ming; But, Paul Pui-Hay

2012-01-01

413

Towards steady-state direct solid sample analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: qualitative evaluation of an intraplasmic powdered sample digester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of reactor designed for continuous halogen-assisted digestion and analysis of powdered samples was evaluated. Two different halogenating gas introduction methods were tested, as well as the use of an internal baffle to increase the residence time of the solids inside the reactor. Studies were carried out on Al 2O 3 and CuO as model compounds for optimization of the reactor's parameters, such as the carrier gas flow, the fraction of halogenating gas and the feed rate, using Freon-12 as the halogenating gas. A qualitative study of a pseudo fluidized bed reactor (PFBR) was also performed on a soil sample certified reference material (SO-4). The internal gas flow rate had to be kept to an absolute minimum in order to minimize cooling of the PFBR's inner walls. Pre-mixing of the halogenating reagent into the solid aerosol carrier resulted in a much more efficient reaction than separate flow introduction. The use of a baffle drastically improved the digestion efficiency by virtue of an increased solid residence time. The argon plasma did not have a sufficiently high heat transfer capability to ensure proper operation of the PFBR under continuous sample loading. The porosity of the graphite used for the PFBR construction caused some tailing and memory effects due to analyte seepage into the reactor's walls.

Hamier, Jan; Salin, Eric D.

1998-08-01

414

Qualitative landslide susceptibility assessment by multicriteria analysis: A case study from San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo, Cuba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological information can be combined with decision-support tools to assess landslide hazard and risk. A heuristic model was applied to a rural municipality in eastern Cuba. The study is based on a terrain mapping units (TMU) map, generated at 1:50,000 scale by interpretation of aerial photos, satellite images and field data. Information describing 603 terrain units was collected in a database. Landslide areas were mapped in detail to classify the different failure types and parts. Three major landslide regions are recognized in the study area: coastal hills with rockfalls, shallow debris flows and old rotational rockslides denudational slopes in limestone, with very large deep-seated rockslides related to tectonic activity and the Sierra de Caujerí scarp, with large rockslides. The Caujerí scarp presents the highest hazard, with recent landslides and various signs of active processes. The different landforms and the causative factors for landslides were analyzed and used to develop the heuristic model. The model is based on weights assigned by expert judgment and organized in a number of components such as slope angle, internal relief, slope shape, geological formation, active faults, distance to drainage, distance to springs, geomorphological subunits and existing landslide zones. From these variables a hierarchical heuristic model was applied in which three levels of weights were designed for classes, variables, and criteria. The model combines all weights into a single hazard value for each pixel of the landslide hazard map. The hazard map was then divided by two scales, one with three classes for disaster managers and one with 10 detailed hazard classes for technical staff. The range of weight values and the number of existing landslides is registered for each class. The resulting increasing landslide density with higher hazard classes indicates that the output map is reliable. The landslide hazard map was used in combination with existing information on buildings and infrastructure to prepare a qualitative risk map. The complete lack of historical landslide information and geotechnical data precludes the development of quantitative deterministic or probabilistic mo