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Sample records for qualitative analysis results

  1. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  2. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  3. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  4. Factors influencing European consumer uptake of personalised nutrition. Results of a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Kuznesof, Sharron; Robinson, Jenny; Rankin, Audrey; Orr, Karen; Duffy, Maresa; Poínhos, Rui; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz; Macready, Anna; Gallagher, Caroline; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Riemer, Martina; Traczyk, Iwona; Gjelstad, Ingrid M F; Mavrogianni, Christina; Frewer, Lynn J

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this research was to explore consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition and to compare these across three different levels of "medicalization": lifestyle assessment (no blood sampling); phenotypic assessment (blood sampling); genomic assessment (blood and buccal sampling). The protocol was developed from two pilot focus groups conducted in the UK. Two focus groups (one comprising only "older" individuals between 30 and 60 years old, the other of adults 18-65 yrs of age) were run in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Germany (N=16). The analysis (guided using grounded theory) suggested that personalised nutrition was perceived in terms of benefit to health and fitness and that convenience was an important driver of uptake. Negative attitudes were associated with internet delivery but not with personalised nutrition per se. Barriers to uptake were linked to broader technological issues associated with data protection, trust in regulator and service providers. Services that required a fee were expected to be of better quality and more secure. An efficacious, transparent and trustworthy regulatory framework for personalised nutrition is required to alleviate consumer concern. In addition, developing trust in service providers is important if such services to be successful. PMID:23500415

  5. Communicating BRCA1/2 genetic test results within the family: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dancyger, Caroline; Wiseman, Mel; Jacobs, Chris; Smith, Jonathan A; Wallace, Melissa; Michie, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer reveals significant risk information about one's chances of developing cancer. It is important to study communication processes in families where members are undergoing genetic testing because the information received is crucial not just to the individual concerned but also to other members of the biological family. This study investigates family communication of BRCA1/2 test results from both the informants' and recipients' perspectives. A total of 10 female patients and 22 of their relatives were interviewed. Patients' and their relatives described feelings of responsibility for sharing genetic information within the family to enable others to reduce their risks of developing cancer. However, there were limits to an individuals' responsibility once key family members had been informed, who then had to take responsibility for continuing dissemination of information. Whilst there was an implicit responsibility to inform the family of a mutation, information was edited or withheld in the best interest of relatives, dependent upon their perceived emotional readiness, resilience and current life stage and circumstances. The pre-existing family culture and the impact previous cancer diagnoses had upon the family also influenced the process of communication. Findings are discussed in relation to extant literature and implications for clinical practice are considered. PMID:21797732

  6. Redundancy Analysis for Qualitative Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israels, Abby Z.

    1984-01-01

    Redundancy analysis (also called principal components analysis of instrumental variables) is generalized to qualitative variables; it then gives implicitly a simultaneous "optimal" scaling of the dependent, qualitative variables. Examples are taken from the Dutch Life Situation Survey 1977. (Author/BW)

  7. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

  8. Rock surface roughness measurement using CSI technique and analysis of surface characterization by qualitative and quantitative results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtar, Husneni; Montgomery, Paul; Gianto; Susanto, K.

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop image processing that is widely used in geo-processing and analysis, we introduce an alternative technique for the characterization of rock samples. The technique that we have used for characterizing inhomogeneous surfaces is based on Coherence Scanning Interferometry (CSI). An optical probe is first used to scan over the depth of the surface roughness of the sample. Then, to analyse the measured fringe data, we use the Five Sample Adaptive method to obtain quantitative results of the surface shape. To analyse the surface roughness parameters, Hmm and Rq, a new window resizing analysis technique is employed. The results of the morphology and surface roughness analysis show micron and nano-scale information which is characteristic of each rock type and its history. These could be used for mineral identification and studies in rock movement on different surfaces. Image processing is thus used to define the physical parameters of the rock surface.

  9. Secondary Students' Perceptions about Learning Qualitative Analysis in Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2001-01-01

    Grade 10 students in Singapore find qualitative analysis one of the more difficult topics in their external examinations. Fifty-one grade 10 students from three schools were interviewed to investigate their perceptions about learning qualitative analysis. The results showed that students found qualitative analysis tedious and difficult to…

  10. Loneliness during inpatient rehabilitation: results of a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen D; Hogg, Toni; Dolley, Pamela J

    2016-03-01

    The current study provides evidence of patient loneliness during inpatient rehabilitation, an incidental, yet important finding from a qualitative study. Patients, staff and community volunteers in our rehabilitation centre completed semistructured in-depth interviews that were subjected to a thematic analysis. Results indicated that some patients had unmet social needs and experienced profound loneliness despite being surrounded by staff and patients. Further investigation to quantify the prevalence, intensity and effects of loneliness during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted. PMID:26579697

  11. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  12. Data fusion qualitative sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. The data fusion software developed by CRC was initially demonstrated on a data set collected at the Hanford Site where three types of data were combined. These data were (1) seismic reflection, (2) seismic refraction, and (3) depth to geologic horizons. The fused results included a contour map of the top of a low-permeability horizon. This report discusses the results of a sensitivity analysis of data fusion software to variations in its input parameters. The data fusion software developed by CRC has a large number of input parameters that can be varied by the user and that influence the results of data fusion. Many of these parameters are defined as part of the earth model. The earth model is a series of 3-dimensional polynomials with horizontal spatial coordinates as the independent variables and either subsurface layer depth or values of various properties within these layers (e.g., compression wave velocity, resistivity) as the dependent variables.

  13. Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: qualitative analysis of interim results from a prospective national evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ann; Cresswell, Kathrin; Takian, Amirhossein; Petrakaki, Dimitra; Crowe, Sarah; Cornford, Tony; Barber, Nicholas; Avery, Anthony; Fernando, Bernard; Jacklin, Ann; Prescott, Robin; Klecun, Ela; Paton, James; Lichtner, Valentina; Quinn, Casey; Ali, Maryam; Morrison, Zoe; Jani, Yogini; Waring, Justin; Marsden, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe and evaluate the implementation and adoption of detailed electronic health records in secondary care in England and thereby provide early feedback for the ongoing local and national rollout of the NHS Care Records Service. Design A mixed methods, longitudinal, multisite, socio-technical case study. Setting Five NHS acute hospital and mental health trusts that have been the focus of early implementation efforts and at which interim data collection and analysis are complete. Data sources and analysis Dataset for the evaluation consists of semi-structured interviews, documents and field notes, observations, and quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed thematically with a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. Main results Hospital electronic health record applications are being developed and implemented far more slowly than was originally envisioned; the top-down, standardised approach has needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice, which hospital trusts want in order to support local activity. Despite considerable delays and frustrations, support for electronic health records remains strong, including from NHS clinicians. Political and financial factors are now perceived to threaten nationwide implementation of electronic health records. Interviewees identified a range of consequences of long term, centrally negotiated contracts to deliver the NHS Care Records Service in secondary care, particularly as NHS trusts themselves are not party to these contracts. These include convoluted communication channels between different stakeholders, unrealistic deployment timelines, delays, and applications that could not quickly respond to changing national and local NHS priorities. Our data suggest support for a “middle-out” approach to implementing hospital electronic health records, combining government direction with increased local autonomy, and for restricting detailed electronic health record sharing to local health communities. Conclusions Experiences from the early implementation sites, which have received considerable attention, financial investment and support, indicate that delivering improved healthcare through nationwide electronic health records will be a long, complex, and iterative process requiring flexibility and local adaptability both with respect to the systems and the implementation strategy. The more tailored, responsive approach that is emerging is becoming better aligned with NHS organisations’ perceived needs and is, if pursued, likely to deliver clinically useful electronic health record systems. PMID:20813822

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis: Interpretation of Electropherograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    In this chapter the basic information on qualitative and quantitative analysis in CE is provided. Migration time and spectral data are described as the most important parameters used for identification of compounds. The parameters that negatively influence qualitative analysis are briefly mentioned. In the quantitative analysis section the external standard and internal standard calibration methods are described. Variables influencing peak height and peak area in capillary electrophoresis are briefly summarized. Also, a discussion on electrodisperssion and its influence on a observed peak shape is provided.

  15. Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul D.

    The reanalysis of data to answer the original research question with better statistical techniques or to answer new questions with old data is not uncommon in quantitative studies. Meta analysis and research syntheses have increased with the increase in research using similar statistical analyses, refinements of analytical techniques, and the…

  16. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  17. Comprehensive Qualitative Analysis for High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Byrl

    Described is a qualitative analysis laboratory procedure for high school chemistry students. The paper received the Science Teaching Achievement Recognition (STAR) award. The procedure acquaints students with certain ions and uses the knowledge of ions to devise a flow-chart for separating and identifying these ions in an unknown solution. (SL)

  18. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  19. Qualitative versus Quantitative Results: An Experimental Introduction to Data Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a qualitative test by performing a more sensitive quantitative test on the same sample. Methodology for testing urinary glucose with a spectrophotometer at 630 nm and with commercial assaying glucose strips is presented. (MVL)

  20. Experiences of Kratom Users: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; Hart, Elaine; Erowid, Fire; Erowid, Earth; Trabold, Nicole; Yee, Kaila; Parkhurst, Kimberly A; Priddy, Brittany M; Walsh, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available in the West and is used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. There has, however, been little scientific research into the short- and long-term effects of kratom in humans, and much of the information available is anecdotal. To supplement the increasing scientific understanding of kratom's pharmacology and research into its effects in animals, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of first-hand descriptions of human kratom use that were submitted to, and published by, a psychoactive substance information website (Erowid.org). Themes that emerged from these experience reports indicate that kratom may be useful for analgesia, mood elevation, anxiety reduction, and may aid opioid withdrawal management. Negative response themes also emerged, indicating potential problems and unfavorable "side" effects, especially stomach upset and vomiting. Based on our analyses, we present preliminary hypotheses for future examination in controlled, quantitative studies of kratom. PMID:26595229

  1. Blogging Medical Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Alig, Stefan K.; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students’ learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners. PMID:23467720

  2. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Shannon, Sarah E

    2005-11-01

    Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care. PMID:16204405

  3. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  4. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative. PMID:22450402

  5. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  6. Early Child Grammars: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Morphosyntactic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legendre, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a series of 5 analyses of spontaneous production of verbal inflection (tense and person-number agreement) by 2-year-olds acquiring French as a native language. A formal analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results is developed using the unique resources of Optimality Theory (OT; Prince & Smolensky, 2004). It is…

  7. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.

  8. Filtrates and Residues: Qualitative Analysis of Some Transition Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilner, Cary

    1985-01-01

    Describes a qualitative analysis laboratory in which students examine specific precipitates that can be used to identify copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron cations. The objective of the laboratory is to determine which test or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each cation and to use the results to identify several unknowns. (JN)

  9. “How are patient characteristics relevant for physicians' clinical decision making in diabetes?: An analysis of qualitative results from a cross-national factorial experiment”

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Stephen M; Renfrew, Megan R; Marceau, Lisa D; Roland, Martin; McKinlay, John B

    2008-01-01

    Variations in medical practice have been widely documented and are a linchpin in explanations of health disparities. Evidence shows that clinical decision making varies according to patient, provider and health system characteristics. However, less is known about the processes underlying these aggregate associations and how physicians interpret various patient attributes. Verbal protocol analysis (otherwise known as ‘think-aloud’) techniques were used to analyze open-ended data from 244 physicians to examine which patient characteristics physicians identify as relevant for their decision making. Data are from a vignette-based factorial experiment measuring the effects of: (a) patient attributes (age, gender, race and socioeconomic status); (b) physician characteristics (gender and years of clinical experience); and (c) features of the healthcare system in two countries (USA, United Kingdom) on clinical decision making for diabetes. We find that physicians used patients’ demographic characteristics only as a starting point in their assessments, and proceeded to make detailed assessments about cognitive ability, motivation, social support and other factors they consider predictive of adherence with medical recommendations and therefore relevant to treatment decisions. These non-medical characteristics of patients were mentioned with much greater consistency than traditional biophysiologic markers of risk such as race, gender, and age. Types of explanations identified varied somewhat according to patient characteristics and to the country in which the interview took place. Results show that basic demographic characteristics are inadequate to the task of capturing information physicians draw from doctor-patient encounters, and that in order to fully understand differential clinical decision making there is a need to move beyond documentation of aggregate associations and further explore the mental and social processes at work. PMID:18703267

  10. Moral stress and burnout: qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe and interpret the narrative of an Australian nurse's experience of burnout. A qualitative content analysis was used for the text of the interview. The main findings of this study concern moral stress and burnout. Three themes were identified: shortcomings and health problems; hovering between suffering and desire; and responsibility for oneself. All themes are related to the nurse's identity, the nurse's personal experience of, and reflections on, ethical problems and the existential issues of suffering, and the responsibilities and difficulties nurses face. The findings are explained and discussed in light of several theories. In conclusion, nurses' needs have to be recognized. They need both emotional support and the right to receive systematic clinical supervision to help them reflect on their practical work and interpret the needs of patients. PMID:12603722

  11. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  12. Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to characterize the maintenance environment and processes in order to collect suitable and cost-effective data. Also, enacting such a program and getting usable data sets takes time. A short term substitute is therefore needed. We propose in this paper a characterization process aimed specifically at maintenance and based on a general qualitative analysis methodology. This process is rigorously defined in order to be repeatable and usable by people who are not acquainted with such analysis procedures. A basic feature of our approach is that actual implemented software changes are analyzed in order to understand the flaws in the maintenance process. Guidelines are provided and a case study is shown that demonstrates the usefulness of the approach.

  13. Applying Knowledge of Qualitative Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted two qualitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing qualitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…

  14. Computing in Qualitative Analysis: A Healthy Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Lyn; Richards, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the potential impact of computers in qualitative health research. Describes the original goals, design, and implementation of NUDIST, a qualitative computing software. Argues for evaluation of the impact of computer techniques and for an opening of debate among program developers and users to address the purposes and power of computing…

  15. Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

  16. Qualitative content analysis of suicidal ideation in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong Ju; Sohn, Ki-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate for ages 15-24 increased recently in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicidal ideation using the qualitative content analysis in South Korean college students. The data were collected with non-structured open questions in 134 college students and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified 2 categories, 6 themes, and 21 theme clusters. Two categories are emerged: (1) facilitators of suicidal ideation, and (2) inhibitors of suicidal ideation. This study identified that the facilitators of suicidal ideation are physical, psychological and societal concerns, and suggested that the inhibitors of suicidal ideation are influenced by religious and cultural context. These results presented that Buddhism and Confucianism had influence on reasons to not attempting suicide behavior as the inhibitor of suicidal ideation. In conclusion, cultural context should be considered to develop strategies for the suicide prevention in South Korean college student. PMID:21706996

  17. [Bicycle helmet effectiveness in children: qualitative analysis of the literature].

    PubMed

    Lastennet, F; Sizun, J; Dobrzynski, M; de Parscau, L

    2001-11-01

    In order to assess bicycle helmet effectiveness in preventing head injury in children, we performed an international qualitative and systematic review using the criteria of the French Health Accreditation and Evaluation National Agency (ANAES) developed for recommendations in clinical practice (formulation of a question, judgment criteria, collecting references, quality analysis, interpretation of results). Two hundred and thirty-four papers dealing with the subject were identified through a MEDLINE search. Two hundred and fifteen of them were eliminated as they did not meet selected criteria. Four were eliminated because of language criteria. On the 14 meeting all selection criteria, five were judged satisfactory according to qualitative criteria. All five conclude in favor of the effectiveness of the bicycle helmet even when taking bias into account. The real protection afforded by wearing a bicycle helmet militates in favor of its habitual use. PMID:11760679

  18. Analysis of Qualitative Data with Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Lynch, Kathleen Kelley

    The microcomputer offers social science field researchers a valuable tool for managing qualitative research data. In addition to the flexibility and efficiency of the microcomputer, the logic governing its programming and operation imposes a framework on the research process which necessitates that research decisions and strategies be explicit and…

  19. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  20. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  1. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  2. Professional socialization in nursing: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Ladan; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Khayyer, Mohammad; Zare, Najaf; Ebadi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Being a nurse is more than just a series of business activities and skills. In fact, it is a part of the process of socialization, which is internalization and development of professional identity. Professional socialization is necessary for involving the students in professional practices. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative research was to increase the understanding of professional socialization in nursing and explore the related factors from the perspective of registered nurses and nursing students. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative design, data were collected on 43 nurses with a variety of experiences using semi-structured interviews and focus groups in the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results: The data analysis revealed two main categories: (1) sense of belonging with three sub-categories of theory-practice incongruence, educational experiences and tacit knowledge and (2) forming professional identity consisting of three sub-categories of relatedness, internal motivation and role model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that in nursing, sense of belonging and professional identity contributes to professional socialization; it is suggested that these factors, which improve socialization in nurses, be taken into account by authorities. PMID:25183987

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Analgesic Tablets: An Experiment Employing High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Rodney W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the qualitative analysis of several over-the-counter analgesic tablets. Background information, procedures used (including high pressure liquid chromatography), and typical student results are included. (JN)

  4. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of

  5. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of probabilistic and deterministic fiber tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jan; Grötsch, Adrian; Betz, Daniel; Barbieri, Sebastiano; Friman, Ola; Stieltjes, Bram; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Hahn, Horst K.

    2010-03-01

    Fiber tracking (FT) and quantification algorithms are approximations of reality due to limited spatial resolution, model assumptions, user-defined parameter settings, and physical imaging artifacts resulting from diffusion sequences. Until now, correctness, plausibility, and reliability of both FT and quantification techniques have mainly been verified using histologic knowledge and software or hardware phantoms. Probabilistic FT approaches aim at visualizing the uncertainty present in the data by incorporating models of the acquisition process and noise. The uncertainty is assessed by tracking many possible paths originating from a single seed point, thereby taking the tensor uncertainty into account. Based on the tracked paths, maps of connectivity probabilities can be produced, which may be used to delineate risk structures for presurgical planning. In this paper, we explore the advantages and disadvantages of probabilistic approaches compared to deterministic algorithms and give both qualitative and quantitative comparisons based on clinical data. We focus on two important clinical applications, namely, on the reconstruction of fiber bundles within the proximity of tumors and on the quantitative analysis of diffusion parameters along fiber bundles. Our results show that probabilistic FT is superior and suitable for a better reconstruction at the borders of anatomical structures and is significantly more sensitive than the deterministic approach for quantification purposes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an alternative tracking approach, called variational noise tracking, is qualitatively comparable with a standard probabilistic method, but is computationally less expensive, thus, enhancing its appeal for clinical applications.

  7. Student Perspectives of Competition: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Lucius, Jennifer Evens; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The present study involved action research of appraising business students' individual assessments of a classroom competition exercise in which they participated for a university semester. Analysis of in-depth interviews held with each student show four over-arching themes shared by the participants. First, students showed significant self-insight…

  8. Emotional loneliness in sexual murderers: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Milsom, Jacci; Beech, Anthony R; Webster, Stephen D

    2003-10-01

    This study compared levels of emotional loneliness between sexual murderers and rapists who had not gone on to kill their victim/s. All participants were life-sentenced prisoners in the United Kingdom. Assessment consisted of a semistructured interview and was subjected to grounded theory analysis. This approach is defined as the breaking down, naming, comparing, and categorizing of data. As such, it is distinguished from other qualitative methods by the process of constant comparison. This continual sifting and comparing elements assists in promoting conceptual and theoretical development. The results of this process found that sexual murderers, compared to rapists, reported significantly higher levels of grievance towards females in childhood, significantly higher levels of peer group loneliness in adolescence, and significantly higher levels of self as victim in adulthood. PMID:14571534

  9. ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed. PMID:26825556

  10. Chinese Retirees' Learning Interests: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Angela; Chi, Iris; Chiang, Vico

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two semistructured focus group interviews with 17 retirees that explore the issues these retirees perceived as central to their learning in later life (LLL). Focus is especially placed on the factors leading to their learning interests after retirement. A total of six themes (past experience in adulthood and…

  11. Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program. PMID:21605353

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Suicide Ideation among Manitoban Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Ryan; Morrissette, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Canadian studies examining suicide among rural and farm populations remain scarce. To better understand this phenomenon, a qualitative research paradigm was used to analyze encounter forms of 29 individuals (24 men, 5 women) who called the Manitoban Farm and Rural Stress Line. Content analysis revealed 7 major themes: (a) coping mechanisms, (b)…

  13. Qualitative analysis of the e-cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heifets, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of the electron cloud formation is presented. Two mechanisms of the cloud formation, generation of jets of primary photo-electrons and thermalization of electrons in the electron cloud, are analyzed and compared with simulations for the NLC damping ring.

  14. Utilizing Problem-Based Learning in Qualitative Analysis Lab Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Randall W.; Bevsek, Holly M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of qualitative analysis (QA) laboratory experiments utilizing a problem-based learning (PBL) module has been designed and implemented. The module guided students through the experiments under the guise of cleaning up a potentially contaminated water site as employees of an environmental chemistry laboratory. The main goal was the

  15. Validation of Competencies in E-Portfolios: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Hanft, Anke; Baecker, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the example of an Internet-based advanced studies course to show how the portfolio method, as a competence-based form of examination, can be integrated in a blended learning design. Within the framework of a qualitative analysis of project portfolios, we examined which competencies are documented and how students reflected on their…

  16. Utilizing Problem-Based Learning in Qualitative Analysis Lab Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Randall W.; Bevsek, Holly M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of qualitative analysis (QA) laboratory experiments utilizing a problem-based learning (PBL) module has been designed and implemented. The module guided students through the experiments under the guise of cleaning up a potentially contaminated water site as employees of an environmental chemistry laboratory. The main goal was the…

  17. The Use of Modelling for Theory Building in Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Ann R. J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to exemplify and enhance the place of modelling as a qualitative process in educational research. Modelling is widely used in quantitative research as a tool for analysis, theory building and prediction. Statistical data lend themselves to graphical representation of values, interrelationships and operational…

  18. Undergraduate Education Students' Perspectives on Classroom Technologies: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Rose M.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated what uses of technology preservice teacher education students planned for their careers after using constructivist technology tools, specifically semantic networks and expert system generation, in their own course. A qualitative analysis of student essays showed positive student attitudes toward using the same…

  19. Qualitative research on adolescent pregnancy: a descriptive review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Spear, Hila J; Lock, Sharon

    2003-12-01

    This study examined qualitative research on adolescent pregnancy to determine designs and methods used and to discover emergent themes across studies. Most of the 22 studies reviewed were described as qualitative or phenomenological by design and included samples comprising either African-American and Caucasian participants or African-Americans exclusively. Based on analysis of the collective primary findings of the sample articles, four themes were identified: (a) factors influencing pregnancy; (a) pregnancy resolution; (c) meaning of pregnancy and life transitions; and (d) parenting and motherhood. Overall, the studies revealed that most adolescent females perceive pregnancy as a rite of passage and a challenging yet positive life event. More qualitative studies are needed involving participants from various ethnic backgrounds, on males' perceptions relative to adolescent pregnancy and fatherhood, and about decision-making relevant to pregnancy resolution, intimacy, and peer relationships. PMID:15058536

  20. Data mining: qualitative analysis with health informatics data.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Brian; Castellani, John

    2003-09-01

    The new computational algorithms emerging in the data mining literature--in particular, the self-organizing map (SOM) and decision tree analysis (DTA)--offer qualitative researchers a unique set of tools for analyzing health informatics data. The uniqueness of these tools is that although they can be used to find meaningful patterns in large, complex quantitative databases, they are qualitative in orientation. To illustrate the utility of these tools, the authors review the two most popular: the SOM and DTA. They provide a basic definition of health informatics, focusing on how data mining assists this field, and apply the SOM and DTA to a hypothetical example to demonstrate what these tools are and how qualitative researchers can use them. PMID:14502965

  1. A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

  2. A computational approach to qualitative analysis in large textual datasets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

  3. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  4. Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within a 2-week period in all units (n = 53) in nursing homes located in New York City. Narrative reconstructions were created for each event based on information from residents and staff who were involved as well as other sources. The event reconstructions were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common features of RRA events. Results: Analysis of the 122 event reconstructions identified 13 major forms of RRA, grouped under five themes. The resulting framework demonstrated the heterogeneity of types of RRA, the importance of considering personal, environmental, and triggering factors, and the potential emotional and physical harm to residents. Implications: These results suggest the need for person-centered and environmental interventions to reduce RRA, as well as for further research on the topic. PMID:22048811

  5. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

  6. Qualitative Measurement of Landscape Structure in an Urbanizing Region: A New Method and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Landscape pattern analysis typically involves the mathematical derivation of quantitative metrics from classified rasterized aerial images and/or maps. Recent work by architect Christopher Alexander, however, suggests a new holistic approach to the measurement of landscape structure, based on properties of the relationships between coherent wholes. Measurement of these properties and relationships relies upon qualitative judgment and aesthetic perception, but can be quantified using ordinal scaling and tests of intersubject agreement. I demonstrate how these qualitative pattern measures can be assessed through the use of aerial orthophotographs, and describe preliminary results relating them to an indicator of biodiversity in the urbanizing Pacific Northwest (USA) landscape. I conducted a double-blind survey in which subjects used Alexander's properties to compare aerial photographs of 1 km2 landscapes along an urban to rural gradient in the vicinity of Seattle, Washington. The photographs were of locations with measured avian biodiversity, and represent a range of land-cover types and development patterns. Subjects compared 23 pairs of images, using aesthetic judgement to choose the one in each pair that they felt expresses Alexander's properties to a greater degree. Preliminary results indicate that intersubjective agreement is significantly better than chance for most image pairs (p <= 0.05), and that for most subjects the photographs judged higher in Alexander's properties correspond to the locations with higher bird species richness, at a frequency significantly greater than would be expected by chance (p <= 0.05).

  7. Correlating Traditional Ayurvedic and Modern Medical Perspectives on Cancer: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Frederick M.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bodeker, Gerard; Abrams, Donald; Lad, Vasant; Adler, Shelley R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To characterize Ayurvedic perspectives on the etiopathogenesis and supportive treatments for a biomedical diagnosis of cancer. Methods: Hour-long, digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 10 experienced Ayurvedic clinicians, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using techniques of qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Four major themes were identified. The Ayurvedic description of the pathophysiology of cancer uses traditional concepts translated into a modern context. Although the biomedical treatment of cancer is considered valuable, from an Ayurvedic perspective it results in degeneration and depletion. In cases where biomedical treatment of cancer is not feasible, an Ayurvedic approach focusing on strengthening digestion, eliminating toxins, reducing tumor growth, and improving tissue metabolism is useful. An Ayurvedic approach to cancer supportive care focuses on restoring equilibrium, building strength, and rejuvenation. Conclusion: Ayurvedic medicine offers a unique perspective on the biomedical diagnosis of cancer that emphasizes restoring wholeness, uses natural remedies, includes a focus on emotional health, and emphasizes prevention strategies. PMID:24341342

  8. Informal Payments for Health Care in Iran: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    PARSA, Mojtaba; ARAMESH, Kiarash; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; KANDI, Mohammad Jafar; LARIJANI, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Informal payments to health care providers have been reported in many African, Asian and European countries. This study aimed to investigate different aspects of these payments that are also known as under-the-table payments in Iran. Methods This is an in-depth interview-based qualitative study conducted on 12 purposively chosen clinical specialists. The interviewees answered 9 questions including the ones about, definitions of informal payments, the specialties and hospitals mostly involved with the problem, how they are paid, factors involved, motivation of patients for the payments, impact of the payments on the health care system and physician-patient relationship and the ways to face up with the problem. The findings of the study were analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Results Six topics were extracted from the interviews including definitions, commonness, varieties, motivations, outcomes and preventive measures. It was revealed that under-the-table payments are the money taken (either in private or public portions) from patients in addition to what formally is determined. This problem is mostly seen in surgical services and the most important reason for it is unrealistic tariffs. Conclusion Regarding the soaring commonness of informal payments rooted in underpayments of health expenditures in some specialties, which deeply affect the poor, the government has to boost the capitation and to invest on health sectors through supporting the health insurance companies and actualizing the health care costs in accord with the real price of the health care delivered. PMID:26060779

  9. Qualitative Research in the CJA/RCV: An 18-Year Analysis (1995-2012).

    PubMed

    Humble, Áine M; Green, Maureen

    2016-03-01

    Some researchers have suggested that qualitative research is increasing in the gerontology field, but little systematic analysis has tested this assertion. Using the Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement as a case study, we analysed articles reporting on original research from 1995 to 2012. One in four articles were qualitative, and results in three-year intervals show a clear increase in qualitative research findings during this 18-year time frame: (a) 1995-1997: 10 per cent; (b) 1998-2000: 19 per cent; (c) 2001-2003: 25 per cent; (d) 2004-2006: 25 per cent; (e) 2007-2009: 29 per cent; and (f) 2010-2012: 43 per cent. In all time intervals (with the exception of 2004-2006), French language articles were more likely to use a qualitative research design compared to English language articles. Topics, methodologies, and data collection strategies are also discussed. PMID:26778076

  10. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Morse, Janice M

    2015-09-01

    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. PMID:26184336

  11. Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

    2004-11-01

    An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

  12. Mass Spectrometer Analysis Results

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. After undergoing initial separation ...

  13. Qualitative analysis of certain generalized classes of quadratic oscillator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Bijan; Ghosh, Samiran; Pal, Barnali; Poria, Swarup

    2016-02-01

    We carry out a systematic qualitative analysis of the two quadratic schemes of generalized oscillators recently proposed by Quesne [J. Math. Phys. 56, 012903 (2015)]. By performing a local analysis of the governing potentials, we demonstrate that while the first potential admits a pair of equilibrium points one of which is typically a center for both signs of the coupling strength λ, the other points to a centre for λ < 0 but a saddle λ > 0. On the other hand, the second potential reveals only a center for both the signs of λ from a linear stability analysis. We carry out our study by extending Quesne's scheme to include the effects of a linear dissipative term. An important outcome is that we run into a remarkable transition to chaos in the presence of a periodic force term fcosωt.

  14. Major Sources of Difficulty in Students' Understanding of Basic Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the major sources of students' difficulties in qualitative analysis (QA), 51 grade 10 students (15 to 17 year old) from three secondary schools were interviewed. The results found that the major sources of students' difficulties in understanding QA are formation of precipitates, formation of complex salts and addition of acid.

  15. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  16. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  17. Researchers’ views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results. PMID:23807616

  18. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  19. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, A.

    1971-01-01

    A better understanding of the physico-chemical principles underlying the formation of calculus has led to a need for more precise information on the chemical composition of stones. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi which is suitable for routine use is presented. The procedure involves five simple qualitative tests followed by the quantitative determination of calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and oxalate. These data are used to calculate the composition of the stone in terms of calcium oxalate, apatite, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. Analytical results and derived values for five representative types of calculi are presented. PMID:5551382

  20. Psychiatrists' experiences of being stalked: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Louise; Reiss, David; Whyte, Seán; Christopherson, Simon; Petch, Edward; Penny, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Stalking is a well-recognized social phenomenon, one that particularly affects health care professionals, especially psychiatrists and other mental health workers; however, the nature and effects of stalking of psychiatrists have not been examined in detail. This study is a qualitative thematic analysis of the free-text responses of 2,585 psychiatrists in the United Kingdom (approximately 25% of all U.K. psychiatrists), almost 11 percent of whom described being stalked according to a strict research definition, and 21 percent of whom perceived themselves as having been stalked. It demonstrates that threat minimization, negative psychological impact, awareness of vulnerability, and difficulty obtaining help were major themes in how psychiatrists viewed their experiences of being stalked. It shows how some psychiatrists coped better than others and makes suggestions for appropriate professional support. PMID:23771932

  1. Utilization of Morning Report by Acute Care Surgery Teams: Results from a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Patricia L.; Collins, Courtney; Santry, Heena P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rigor of hand-offs is increasingly scrutinized in the era of shift-based patient care. Acute Care Surgery (ACS) embraced such a model of care; however, little is known about hand-offs in ACS programs. Methods We conducted 18 open-ended interviews with ACS leaders representing diverse geographic and practice settings. Two independent reviewers analyzed interviews using an inductive approach to elucidate themes regarding use of morning report (NVivo qualitative analysis software). Results 12/18 respondents reported a morning report but only 6/12 included attending-to-attending hand-offs. 1/12 incentivized attendings to participate, 2/12 included nursing staff, and 2/12 included physician extenders. Cited benefits of morning report were safe and effective information exchange (2/12), quality improvement (2/12), multidisciplinary discussion (1/12), and resident education (2/12). 3/12 respondents cited time commitment as the main limitation of morning report. Conclusions Morning report is under-utilized among ACS programs; however, if implemented strategically, it may improve patient care and resident education. PMID:24157348

  2. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  3. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Adolescent HIV Testing: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Olson, Kari; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative data, this article explored the circumstances leading to HIV testing among 59 HIV-infected adolescents recruited from New York City HIV clinics. Results showed differences between the heterosexual women and the gay and bisexual men. Most of the young women were tested during routine health care or self-initiated tests, and most were asymptomatic when they tested positive. Their testing decisions were sometimes based on assessments of their boyfriends’ risk behaviors, rather than their own. Many males were experiencing symptoms of illness when they tested positive, and about half of these recognized their symptoms as related to HIV and sought tests. Some young men expressed fear of learning about positive test results, which delayed their testing, and some providers did not initially recommend HIV testing for males who presented with symptoms. The article concludes that consideration of these gender and sexual orientation-related concerns can facilitate HIV testing among adolescents. PMID:20303793

  4. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of capillaroscopic findings in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lambova, Sevdalina Nikolova; Hermann, Walter; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    No guidelines for the application of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the capillaroscopic examination in the rheumatologic practice exist. The aims of the study were to compare qualitative and quantitative analysis of key capillaroscopic parameters in patients with common rheumatic diseases and to assess the reproducibility of the qualitative evaluation of the capillaroscopic parameters, performed by two different investigators. Two hundred capillaroscopic images from 93 patients with different rheumatic diseases were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively by two different investigators. The distribution of the images according to the diagnosis and the microvascular abnormalities was as follows-group 1: 73 images from systemic sclerosis patients ("scleroderma" type pattern), group 2: 10 images from dermatomyositis ("scleroderma-like" pattern), group 3: 25 images from undifferentiated connective tissue disease and different forms of overlap (24 "scleroderma-like"), group 4: 26 images from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, group 5: 46 images from rheumatoid arthritis and group 6: 20 images from primary Raynaud's phenomenon patients. All the images were mixed and blindly presented to both investigators. For comparison of the quantitative and qualitative method, investigator 1 assessed presence of dilated, giant capillaries and avascular areas quantitatively by the available software programme and his estimates were compared with the results of investigator 2, who assessed the parameters qualitatively. In addition, the capillaroscopic images were evaluated qualitatively by the investigator 1 and 2 for presence of dilated, giant capillaries, avascular areas and haemorrhages. The comparison of the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the two investigators demonstrated statistically significant difference between the two methods for the detection of dilated and giant capillaries (P < 0.05) but no significant difference regarding the detection of avascular areas (P > 0.05). As we further analysed the results for the capillaroscopic images, demonstrating a "scleroderma" and a "scleroderma-like" pattern (170/200), analogous results were found for the evaluated parameters. Among the 20 capillaroscopic images from patients with primary RP, the estimates for the absence of giant capillaries and avascular areas were equal in 100% (P > 0.05). Comparing the qualitative assessment of the two investigators, a statistically significant difference between estimates of the two investigators was found for the presence of dilated capillaries (P < 0.05), while for giant capillaries, avascular areas and haemorrhages the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The results of the study have shown that qualitative assessment of capillaroscopic parameters in patients with rheumatic diseases is an adequate method for the everyday rheumatologic practice, especially in cases with primary RP for exclusion presence of microangiopathy. No significant difference between qualitative and quantitative methods of assessment was found for the detection of avascular areas. However, the quantitative analysis is more precise especially for the detection of capillary dilation. A good reproducibility of the qualitative evaluation, performed by two different investigators was also found. PMID:22147109

  5. Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

  6. Qualitative Analysis of Written Reflections during a Teaching Certificate Program

    PubMed Central

    Castleberry, Ashley N.; Payakachat, Nalin; Ashby, Sarah; Nolen, Amanda; Carle, Martha; Neill, Kathryn K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the success of a teaching certificate program by qualitatively evaluating the content and extent of participants’ reflections. Methods. Two investigators independently identified themes within midpoint and final reflection essays across six program years. Each essay was evaluated to determine the extent of reflection in prompted teaching-related topic areas (strengths, weaknesses, assessment, feedback). Results. Twenty-eight themes were identified within 132 essays. Common themes encompassed content delivery, student assessment, personal successes, and challenges encountered. Deep reflection was exhibited, with 48% of essays achieving the highest level of critical reflection. Extent of reflection trended higher from midpoint to final essays, with significant increases in the strengths and feedback areas. Conclusion. The teaching certificate program fostered critical reflection and self-reported positive behavior change in teaching, thus providing a high-quality professional development opportunity. Such programs should strongly consider emphasizing critical reflection through required reflective exercises at multiple points within program curricula. PMID:26941436

  7. Qualitative Analysis of Written Reflections during a Teaching Certificate Program.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Ashley N; Payakachat, Nalin; Ashby, Sarah; Nolen, Amanda; Carle, Martha; Neill, Kathryn K; Franks, Amy M

    2016-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate the success of a teaching certificate program by qualitatively evaluating the content and extent of participants' reflections. Methods. Two investigators independently identified themes within midpoint and final reflection essays across six program years. Each essay was evaluated to determine the extent of reflection in prompted teaching-related topic areas (strengths, weaknesses, assessment, feedback). Results. Twenty-eight themes were identified within 132 essays. Common themes encompassed content delivery, student assessment, personal successes, and challenges encountered. Deep reflection was exhibited, with 48% of essays achieving the highest level of critical reflection. Extent of reflection trended higher from midpoint to final essays, with significant increases in the strengths and feedback areas. Conclusion. The teaching certificate program fostered critical reflection and self-reported positive behavior change in teaching, thus providing a high-quality professional development opportunity. Such programs should strongly consider emphasizing critical reflection through required reflective exercises at multiple points within program curricula. PMID:26941436

  8. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  9. Caring for an Individual with Autism Disorder: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Kenneth W.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.; McCammon, Susan L.; Lamson, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caregivers in this qualitative study reported the multidimensional implications of having a child with autism on their family's lives and overall functioning. Method: The Effects of the Situation Questionnaire (Yatchmenoff, Koren, Friesen, Gordon, & Kinney, 1998) was used to gather qualitative data from 80 caregivers. Colaizzi's (1978)

  10. [Analysis of the stability and adaptability of near infrared spectra qualitative analysis model].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wu; Li, Wei-jun; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Li-ping

    2014-06-01

    The stability and adaptability of model of near infrared spectra qualitative analysis were studied. Method of separate modeling can significantly improve the stability and adaptability of model; but its ability of improving adaptability of model is limited. Method of joint modeling can not only improve the adaptability of the model, but also the stability of model, at the same time, compared to separate modeling, the method can shorten the modeling time, reduce the modeling workload; extend the term of validity of model, and improve the modeling efficiency. The experiment of model adaptability shows that, the correct recognition rate of separate modeling method is relatively low, which can not meet the requirements of application, and joint modeling method can reach the correct recognition rate of 90%, and significantly enhances the recognition effect. The experiment of model stability shows that, the identification results of model by joint modeling are better than the model by separate modeling, and has good application value. PMID:25358155

  11. Schizophrenia Patient or Spiritually Advanced Personality? A Qualitative Case Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Srinivasan, T M; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Many aspects of spiritual experience are similar in form and content to symptoms of psychosis. Both spiritually advanced people and patients suffering from psychopathology experience alterations in their sense of 'self.' Psychotic experiences originate from derangement of the personality, whereas spiritual experiences involve systematic thinning out of the selfish ego, allowing individual consciousness to merge into universal consciousness. Documented instances and case studies suggest possible confusion between the spiritually advanced and schizophrenia patients. Clinical practice contains no clear guidelines on how to distinguish them. Here we use a case presentation to help tabulate clinically useful points distinguishing spiritually advanced persons from schizophrenia patients. A 34-year-old unmarried male reported to our clinic with four main complaints: lack of sense of self since childhood; repeated thoughts questioning whether he existed or not; social withdrawal; and inability to continue in any occupation. Qualitative case analysis and discussions using descriptions from ancient texts and modern psychology led to the diagnosis of schizophrenia rather than spiritual advancement. PMID:25543321

  12. Qualitative soil mineral analysis by EDXRF, XRD and AAS probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Virendra; Agrawal, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil minerals study is vital in terms of investigating the major soil forming compounds and to find out the fate of minor and trace elements, essential for the soil-plant interaction purpose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a popular technique to search out the phases for different types of samples. For the soil samples, however, employing XRD is not so straightforward due to many practical problems. In the current approach, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to have an idea of the minerals present, in qualitative manner, in the soil under study. PCA was used on the elemental concentrations data of 17 elements, determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. XRD analysis of soil samples has been done also to identify the minerals of major elements. Some prior treatments, like removal of silica by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) slurry and grinding with alcohol, were given to samples to overcome the peak overlapping problems and to attain fine particle size which is important to minimize micro-absorption corrections, to give reproducible peak intensities and to minimize preferred orientation. A 2θ step of 0.05°/min and a longer dwell time than normal were used to reduce interferences from background noise and to increase the counting statistics. Finally, the sequential extraction procedure for metal speciation study has been applied on soil samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to find the concentrations of metal fractions bound to various forms. Applying all the three probes, the minerals in the soils can be studied and identified, successfully.

  13. Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

  14. Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

  15. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is

  16. The Development of a Web-Based Virtual Environment for Teaching Qualitative Analysis of Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dwyer, D. W.; Logan-Phelan, T. M.; O'Neill, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper describes the design and development of a qualitative analysis course and an interactive web-based teaching and assessment tool called VSE (virtual structural environment). The widespread reliance on structural analysis programs requires engineers to be able to verify computer output by carrying out qualitative analyses.…

  17. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  18. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  19. Qualitative Data Analysis for Health Services Research: Developing Taxonomy, Themes, and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Devers, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide practical strategies for conducting and evaluating analyses of qualitative data applicable for health services researchers. Data Sources and Design We draw on extant qualitative methodological literature to describe practical approaches to qualitative data analysis. Approaches to data analysis vary by discipline and analytic tradition; however, we focus on qualitative data analysis that has as a goal the generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory germane to health services research. Principle Findings We describe an approach to qualitative data analysis that applies the principles of inductive reasoning while also employing predetermined code types to guide data analysis and interpretation. These code types (conceptual, relationship, perspective, participant characteristics, and setting codes) define a structure that is appropriate for generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory. Conceptual codes and subcodes facilitate the development of taxonomies. Relationship and perspective codes facilitate the development of themes and theory. Intersectional analyses with data coded for participant characteristics and setting codes can facilitate comparative analyses. Conclusions Qualitative inquiry can improve the description and explanation of complex, real-world phenomena pertinent to health services research. Greater understanding of the processes of qualitative data analysis can be helpful for health services researchers as they use these methods themselves or collaborate with qualitative researchers from a wide range of disciplines. PMID:17286625

  20. Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Han, Seunggu J.; Rolston, John D.; Ivan, Michael E.; Kuperman, Rachel A.; Chang, Edward F.; Gupta, Nalin; Sullivan, Joseph E.; Auguste, Kurtis I.

    2015-01-01

    Object Resection is a safe and effective treatment option for children with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, but some patients continue experience seizures after surgery. While most studies of pediatric epilepsy surgery focus on predictors of postoperative seizure outcome, these factors are often not modifiable, and the reasons for surgical failure may remain unclear. Methods The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of children and adolescents who received focal resective surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of factors associated with persistent postoperative seizures were conducted. Results Records were reviewed from 110 patients, ranging in age from 6 months to 19 years at the time of surgery, who underwent a total of 115 resections. At a mean 3.1-year follow-up, 76% of patients were free of disabling seizures (Engel Class I outcome). Seizure freedom was predicted by temporal lobe surgery compared with extra-temporal resection, tumor or mesial temporal sclerosis compared with cortical dysplasia or other pathologies, and by a lower preoperative seizure frequency. Factors associated with persistent seizures (Engel Class II–IV outcome) included residual epileptogenic tissue adjacent to the resection cavity (40%), an additional epileptogenic zone distant from the resection cavity (32%), and the presence of a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome (28%). Conclusions While seizure outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery may be improved by the use of high-resolution neuroimaging and invasive electrographic studies, a more aggressive resection should be considered in certain patients, including hemispherectomy if a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome is suspected. Family counseling regarding treatment expectations is critical, and reoperation may be warranted in select cases. PMID:25127098

  1. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disparities in incidence and mortality for lung cancer in African Americans are well documented; however, the extent to which disparities reflect differences in patient perceptions of tobacco and lung cancer treatment is unclear. The objective of this study was to explore African Americans’ knowledge of lung cancer, perceived risk, interest in smoking cessation, attitudes toward lung cancer treatment, and lung cancer diagnosis and treatment experiences. Patients and Methods. The cohort comprised 32 African-American current and former smokers without a cancer diagnosis who participated in focus groups and 10 African Americans with lung cancer who participated in in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results. Participants without a cancer diagnosis were aware of the link between smoking and lung cancer, the common symptoms of the disease, and its poor prognosis. They desired specific, personalized smoking-cessation information. If diagnosed, the majority reported, they would seek medical care. Most believed that insurance and socioeconomic factors were more likely to affect treatment access than racial discrimination. Participants with a cancer diagnosis were also aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. They felt their treatment plans were appropriate and trusted their physicians. Most did not believe that race affected their care. Conclusion. This qualitative study suggests that African-American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment. PMID:25795634

  2. Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Stigma Among Latinos Receiving Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Interian, Alejandro; Martinez, Igda E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Vega, William A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study sought to describe the role of stigma in antidepressant adherence among Latinos. Methods The study utilized data generated from six focus groups of Latino outpatients receiving antidepressants (N=30). By using a grounded theory approach, qualitative analysis focused specifically on the role of stigma in antidepressant treatment, as well as salient Latino values. Results Perceptions of stigma were related to both the diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressant medication. Qualitative analyses showed that antidepressant use was seen as implying more severe illness, weakness or failure to cope with problems, and being under the effects of a drug. Reports of stigma were also related to social consequences. Also, the perceived negative attributes of antidepressant use were at odds with self-perceived cultural values. Conclusions Stigma was a prominent concern among Latinos receiving antidepressants, and stigma often affected adherence. Furthermore, culture is likely to play an important role in the communication of stigma and its associated complications. PMID:18048562

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16α-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

  5. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face

  7. Work-Related Daydreams: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…

  8. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,

  9. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,…

  10. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.; Huberman, A. Michael; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny Saldaña, author of "The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers." Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and…

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

  12. Ethical Analysis of a Qualitative Researcher's Unease in Encountering a Participant's Existential Ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fergusson, Marìa Elisa; Grace, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Gaining in-depth understanding of the experiences of persons who have suffered traumatic events with physical and psychological sequelae is important for building effective interventions. However, qualitative research of this kind can be emotionally difficult for the researcher whose research interests derive from practice experiences with the population studied. It may be difficult for the researcher to separate the role of inquirer from that of practitioner. We explore this issue using ethical analysis to differentiate the responsibilities of the researcher from those of the clinician. In the first part of the chapter, we provide some background on the population studied and traumatic spinal cord injury and its aftermath as context for the issues raised by the narrative. Then, we describe briefly the first author's research exploring the meaning of bodily changes and embodiment in persons who have suffered a traumatic spinal cord injury. We provide the part of Jack's story that most troubled the researcher and led her to discuss the situation with an ethics colleague. Finally, we use the tools of moral reasoning, ethical analysis, and principles of research ethics to explore the pertinent excerpt of the narrative. The resulting clarifications are laid out for the reader with the intent of assisting other qualitative researchers in determining the extent and limits of their obligations to participants of qualitative studies, especially those that explore sensitive issues. PMID:26673376

  13. The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

  14. MARIKA - A model revision system using qualitative analysis of simulations. [of human orientation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.

  15. Organizing "mountains of words" for data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2010-04-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semiquantitative coding and analysis. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. PMID:20222777

  16. A Simple Card Trick: Teaching Qualitative Data Analysis Using a Deck of Playing Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Yet today, despite recent welcome additions, relatively little is written about teaching qualitative research. Why is that? This article reports out a relatively simple, yet appealing, pedagogical move, a lesson the author uses to teach qualitative data analysis. Data sorting and categorization, the use of tacit and explicit theory in data…

  17. Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

    2012-01-01

    A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

  18. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  19. The Voices of Higher Education Service-Learning Directors: A Qualitative Inductive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    This research explored issues surrounding service-learning directors (SLDs) within higher education institutions, including who they are, how they became SLDs, and what they experience in the role. Qualitative data were drawn from in-depth interviews of 11 SLDs, as well as review of their vitaes. A qualitative inductive analysis was conducted in…

  20. [Dentistry in Wikipedia: A quantitative and qualitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Annette; Türp, Jens C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific quality of the 265 dental articles that were present in January 2008 in the German-language version of Wikipedia. For this purpose, the Wikipedia entries were examined for their correctness by comparing them with the current dental literature. Every article was classified as having "textbook quality", "partial textbook quality" or "missing textbook quality". Of the 261 usable articles, 28% were qualitatively comparable to a textbook, while 56% had partial textbook quality. About 16% of the articles fell into the third group. Almost half of the Wikipedia entries fulfilled the qualitative standards, whereas the remaining articles were characterized by omissions. Hence, individuals interested in dental topics should not exclusively rely on Wikipedia. For a cursory overview, however, a search in Wikipedia appears to be in order. PMID:21261123

  1. Explaining nutritional habits and behaviors of low socioeconomic status women in Sanandaj: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Roya; Zamani-alavijeh, Fereshteh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health and behavior are closely related subjects because disease is typically rooted in individuals’ unhealthy behaviors and habits. This study aims to identify women’s nutritional habits and behaviors in order to design interventions to promote nutritional literacy. Methods This qualitative research is part of a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study, conducted based on content analysis. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussions, and in-depth interviews with married women, aged 18–50 years, who were referred to four health care centers in Sanandaj in 2013–2014. Results Nutritional habits and behaviors of participants were classified into two categories: representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption pattern and representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method. For the former, eight consumption pattern subcategories were formed: meat, dairy, fast food, local foods, fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, and oils. The latter (representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method), included two subcategories: consumption method in line with health and consumption method inconsistent with health. Conclusion Results of this qualitative study provide a solid foundation for development and designing interventions to nutritional literacy promotion based on needs. The designed intervention to healthy nutritional behavior should be based on empowering women and providing facilitator factors of a healthy diet. While designing this study, with a holistic perspective, individual and social aspects of a healthy diet should be taken into account. PMID:26955443

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Quality of Life of Individuals With Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Ashley M.; Mandal, Konoy; Lundgren, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quality of a broad range of life domains using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Method: Forty-eight individuals seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder (mean age = 29.8 years, female = 100%, white = 96.4%) from 2007 to 2009 completed the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; a medical chart review confirmed diagnosis and treatment history. Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) and bulimia nervosa (n = 24) were compared. Body mass index (kg/m2), treatment history, number of comorbid psychiatric conditions, and eating disorder severity were used to predict quality of life. Finally, an inductive content analysis was performed on qualitative QOLI responses to contextualize the quantitative findings. Results: Participants with anorexia nervosa, compared to those with bulimia nervosa, reported significantly less satisfaction with the domain of relatives (F1,46 = 5.35; P = .025); no other significant group differences were found. The only significant predictor of QOLI global score was number of previous treatments (F1,41 = 8.67; P = .005; R2 = 0.175). Content analysis of qualitative data yielded complementary findings to the quantitative data; interesting group differences emerged for satisfaction with health with implications for measuring quality of life domains. Conclusions: Across several life domains, individuals seeking treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa appear to have similar levels of satisfaction, as evidenced by numeric and descriptive responses. Satisfaction with relatives, however, appears to differ between groups and suggests a specific target for intervention among patients in treatment for anorexia nervosa (eg, a family-based intervention such as the Maudsley approach). The use of quantitative and qualitative assessments, such as the QOLI, provides more clinically meaningful, contextualized information about quality of life than traditional self-report assessments alone. PMID:26445689

  3. Introducing handheld computing into a residency program: preliminary results from qualitative and quantitative inquiry.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, B.; Gadd, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Although published reports describe specific handheld computer applications in medical training, we know very little yet about how, and how well, handheld computing fits into the spectrum of information resources available for patient care and physician training. This paper reports preliminary quantitative and qualitative results from an evaluation study designed to track changes in computer usage patterns and computer-related attitudes before and after introduction of handheld computing. Pre-implementation differences between residents and faculty s usage patterns are interpreted in terms of a "work role" construct. We hypothesize that over time residents and faculty will adopt, adapt, or abandon handheld computing according to how, and how well, this technology supports their successful completion of work role-related tasks. This hypothesis will be tested in the second phase of this pre- and post-implementation study. PMID:11825224

  4. [Social and cultural determinants of dental health practices in Morocco: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Msefer, Souad; Taleb, Wafae; Naji, Jamaleddine

    2004-01-01

    The objective of any health education program is to inculcate healthy life habits to improve the health status of the target population. The evaluation of an oral hygiene health education program for Moroccan schoolchildren implemented a decade ago by oral surgeons does not reveal any improvement of their dental health. To understand the obstacles to the acquisition of good oral hygiene habits, we conducted a qualitative survey of knowledge, attitude, and practices, based on semi-directive interviews with focus groups of children who had participated in the program. The results show that social and cultural determinants play an important role in the lack of impact of these programs and that Bourdieu's theory of action should be applied to understand the processes by which living conditions affect individuals'practices. Thus to inculcate healthy lifestyle habits, an ecological approach that takes into consideration the social, cultural, and economic environment is most likely to induce the emergence of favourable social conditions. PMID:15745873

  5. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  6. Enhancing genomic laboratory reports: A qualitative analysis of provider review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet L; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Stuckey, Heather; Green, Jamie; Feldman, Lynn; Zallen, Doris T; Bonhag, Michele; Segal, Michael M; Fan, Audrey L; Williams, Marc S

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on the responses of physicians who reviewed provider and patient versions of a genomic laboratory report designed to communicate results of whole genome sequencing. Semi-structured interviews addressed concept communication, elements, and format of example genome reports. Analysis of the coded transcripts resulted in recognition of three constructs around communication of genome sequencing results: (1) Providers agreed that whole genomic sequencing results are complex and they welcomed a report that provided supportive interpretation information to accompany sequencing results; (2) Providers strongly endorsed a report that included active clinical guidance, such as reference to practice guidelines, if available; and (3) Providers valued the genomic report as a resource that would serve as the basis to facilitate communication of genome sequencing results with their patients and families. Providers valued both versions of the report, though they affirmed the need for a provider-oriented report. Critical elements of the report included clear language to explain the result, as well as consolidated yet comprehensive prognostic information with clear guidance over time for the clinical care of the patient. Most importantly, it appears a report with this design has the potential not only to return results but also serves as a communication tool to help providers and patients discuss and coordinate care over time. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26842872

  7. Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

  8. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation. PMID:26920289

  9. Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

  10. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  11. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  12. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  13. Patient perspectives on test result communication in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, Ian J; Bentham, Louise M; Lilford, Richard J; McManus, Richard J; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase, efficient systems for the communication of blood test results to patients are lacking. This is a concern in terms of both patient safety and patient satisfaction. Aim To gain an understanding of patient perspectives on organisational and technological aspects of current and prospective systems for communicating laboratory test results in primary care, and the influences that impact patients’ preferred methods for receiving results. Design and setting Qualitative study using patient focus groups in four primary care practices in Birmingham, UK. Method The primary care practices were purposively selected to ensure they varied in size, socioeconomic environment, and the default pathways they used to communicate test results. A total of 26 patients from the four practices who had had a recent blood test were recruited. Over a 6 month period in 2011, six, 1-hour focus groups were conducted at the four practices involved in the study. Results Patients expressed a preference for receiving results from the ordering GP or a clinically qualified member of staff. Suggestions for refining current systems included improved access to phlebotomy appointments, better management of patient telephone calls, and a clear, accessible protocol for the communication of results. Conclusion Despite the testing and result communication process being a core activity in primary care, it was found that practices could improve their service in a number of areas. Patients described frequent delays and inconsistency in both the level of information and the method of communication, as well as dissatisfaction with non-clinical staff relaying results. Patient preferences for result communication based on their experience of current systems have produced practical suggestions to improve processes. PMID:25733434

  14. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F.

    2008-04-15

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  15. Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, A M; Brown, R G; Marsden, C D

    1986-01-01

    Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive changes found in Parkinson's disease as compared with normal elderly subjects and arthritis patients. As with previous studies, the patients with Parkinson's disease scored significantly higher than normal controls on various self-ratings of depression and anxiety but, in this study, did not differ from those with arthritis. Qualitatively, both the Parkinson's disease and the arthritis groups had depression characterised by pessimism and hopelessness, decreased motivation and drive, and increased concern with health. In contrast, the negative affective feelings of guilt, self-blame and worthlessness were absent in both patient groups. This pattern of depression was significantly associated with severity of illness and functional disability. However, these factors account for only a modest proportion of the variability in test scores. Probable unexplored factors are individual differences in coping style and availability of support. PMID:3701347

  16. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  17. Exploring spirituality in Iranian healthy elderly people: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Abolfazl; Anoosheh, Monireh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foroughan, Mahshid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spirituality is recognized as a personally important matter to the elderly, and there are evidences of its impact on their health. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of spirituality from the perspectives of Iranian healthy elderly individuals. Materials and Methods: A conventional qualitative content analysis of carried out with 21 healthy elderly people from both male and female genders were chosen using a purposive sampling method in Tehran in 2010-2011. Data collection was done through semi structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the participants experiences and perceptions on spirituality, using a central question what characterizes the spirituality in the Iranian healthy elderly people? Results: The following categories emerged from the data analysis: (1) Spiritual health, with four sub categories including saying prayer as a calming factor; beneficence as a way to God; loss of psychological and spiritual support; faith as a way to happiness; (2) spiritual beliefs, with three sub categories including seeking help from God in difficulties; God's power over life and death; doing good deeds is the God's will; and (3) religious practice with three sub categories including saying prayer; reading Quran; and going to mosque, religious ceremonies and pilgrimage. Conclusions: In this study was found that spirituality was a fundamental element in elderly individuals lives that help them to adapt with daily living conditions. PMID:23983748

  18. Requirements for nurse supervisor training: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Khadijeh; Nasiriani, Khadijeh; Salimi, Tahere

    2016-01-01

    Background: Supervisors should have certain characteristics and adequate preparation for their roles. Yet, there are no well-educated experts knowing about the supervisor's role and responsibilities and how to train them. So, this research was conducted with the purpose of finding the factors affecting nursing supervisor training. Materials and Methods: This research is an inductive content analysis. Participants were 25 in number, consisting of nurses and supervisors in Shahid Sadoughi University hospitals. The participants were chosen by a purposive sampling method. Data collection was done by semi-structured interviews and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results: Findings included two main themes: Firstly, establishment of a supervisory infrastructure that includes “making the appointments and retention of supervisors, clarifying the duties and authority of supervisor, developing supervisory culture, specializing supervision, and conducting practice-based training” and secondly, comprehensive supervisory competencies that include “acquiring scientific, managing, communicative, professional, ethical, pedagogical, and supporting adequacy.” Conclusions: Clinical supervisor has a major role in ensuring the quality of nursing care. This leads to improvements in patient care and nurses’ personal and professional development. So, it is necessary that for effective supervision in nursing, first an infrastructure is provided for supervision and then the comprehensive competency of a supervisor is enhanced to apply effective supervision. PMID:26985224

  19. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed…

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed

  2. New results from FRECOPA analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian

    1993-01-01

    New results from the ongoing analysis of the FRECOPA's (FREnch COoperative PAssive payload) system hardware are discussed. FRECOPA (AO138) was one of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF satellite. The experiment was located on the trailing edge (Tray B3) and was exposed to UV radiation (11,100 equivalent sun hours), approximately equal to 34,000 thermal cycles, higher vacuum levels than the leading edge, a low atomic oxygen flux, and minor doses of protons and electrons. Due to LDEF's extended mission (5.8 years), CNES decided to set up a team to analyze the FRECOPA system. Initial results were presented at the First Post-Retrieval Conference, June, 1991. The results obtained since then are summarized.

  3. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  4. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+ Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+ survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on

  5. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Lüdecke, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

  6. Gravitational microlensing of a reverberating quasar broad-line region - I. Method and qualitative results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garsden, H.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission-line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a 'flare') passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disc - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensing, while not strong, can produce significant observable effects that will help in differentiating the properties of BELRs. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI: ), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.

  7. Qualitative Analysis of an Educational Intervention with HIV-Discordant Heterosexual Latino Couples

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Methods Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. Results After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. Conclusion This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples. PMID:22263299

  8. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

  9. Qualitative environmental analysis for industrial districts implantation using geoprocessing techniques.

    PubMed

    Baretta, Luciane; Veronez, Maurício Roberto; Reinhardt, Alessandro Ott

    2008-12-01

    Industrial districts became important instruments which are used by the Public Power to induce economic decentralization and create new development poles. For this reason the legislative process is an indispensable means to define the priorities in the uses of soil, also to conduct and follow the process of industrial registration. However, the industrial district establishment shall not be analyzed by taking into account just the economic factor, but also the environmental issue of the enterprise. Thus, this research has the objective of determining adequate places for industrial districts implantation, having as a pilot area the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Geographic Information System for execution of spatial analysis and criteria creation on a large volume of environmental information will be used as a tool, which will be guided by the Municipal, State and Federal legislation and a Quickbird satellite image that covers the interest area. The main information used on this research are: altimeter, hydrography, soil use, pedology, geology and infrastructure. The results are visualized in scenarios modeled in accordance with the restrictions imposed upon the information, allowing at the end, to combine all scenarios and create through the multiple criteria method a map that indicates adequate places for implantation of industrial districts. PMID:19151443

  10. Breastfeeding and Smoking among Low-Income Women: Results of a Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldade, Kate; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

    2009-01-01

    Background The benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers have been well established, yet rates of breastfeeding remain well below national recommendations in the United States and even lower for women who smoke during pregnancy. Primary goals of this study were to explore contextual factors that contribute to breastfeeding intentions and behavior and to examine how smoking status affected women’s decision making about breastfeeding. Methods This paper is based on a longitudinal qualitative study of smoking, pregnancy, and breastfeeding among 44 low-income women in the southwest U.S. who smoked during pregnancy. Each woman was interviewed 9 times; 6 times during pregnancy and 3 times postpartum using semistructured questionnaires. Interviews lasted 1 to 3 hours and were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Results Despite 36 (82%) respondents stating that they intended to breastfeed for an average duration of 8 months, rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration were much lower than intentions. By 6 months postpartum, only two women were breastfeeding exclusively. Conclusions Women perceived that a strong risk of harming the baby was posed by smoking while breastfeeding and received little encouragement to continue breastfeeding despite an inability to stop smoking. The perceptions of the toxic, addictive, and harmful effects of smoking on breastmilk constitution and quantity factored into reasons why women weaned their infants from breastfeeding much earlier than the recommended 6 months. The results indicate a need for more consistency and routine in educating women on the relationship between smoking and breastfeeding and in promoting breastfeeding in spite of smoking postpartum. (BIRTH 35:3 September 2008) PMID:18844649

  11. Heroin shortage in Coastal Kenya: A rapid assessment and qualitative analysis of heroin users’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Mital, Sasha; Miles, Gillian; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Muthui, Mercy; Needle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While relatively rare events, abrupt disruptions in heroin availability have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality risk among those who are heroin dependent. A heroin shortage occurred in Coast Province, Kenya from December 2010 to March 2011. This qualitative analysis describes the shortage events and consequences from the perspective of heroin users, along with implications for health and other public sectors. Methods As part of a rapid assessment, 66 key informant interviews and 15 focus groups among heroin users in Coast Province, Kenya were conducted. A qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken in Atlas.ti. to identify salient themes related to the shortage. Results Overall, participant accounts were rooted in a theme of desperation and uncertainty, with emphasis on six sub-themes: (1) withdrawal and strategies for alleviating withdrawal, including use of medical intervention and other detoxification attempts; (2) challenges of dealing with unpredictable drug availability, cost, and purity; (3) changes in drug use patterns, and actions taken to procure heroin and other drugs; (4) modifications in drug user relationship dynamics and networks, including introduction of risky group-level injection practices; (5) family and community response; and (6) new challenges with the heroin market resurgence. Conclusions The heroin shortage led to a series of consequences for drug users, including increased risk of morbidity, mortality and disenfranchisement at social and structural levels. Availability of evidence-based services for drug users and emergency preparedness plans could have mitigated this impact. PMID:26470646

  12. Initiation and Continuation of Smoking in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the cause for many preventable deaths worldwide. The rate of smoking has not increased in Iran in the past two decades, but its increase among adolescents and young adults is a concern. This study investigates the risk factors of initiation and continuation of smoking in Iran using a qualitative approach. Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers and 6 non-smokers in 4 selected cities in Iran. Data were collected with deep and semi-structured interviews, verbatim transcription and simultaneously coding. Then, they were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three themes and 16 subcategories emerged. The themes were personal inefficacy with 6 subgroups included inadequate information, low age, curiosity, consideration of smoking not as a major problem, wrong beliefs, and making reasons. Family inefficacy with 4 subgroups included poor authority, lack of reaction, existence of stressors, and history of smoking. Vulnerable social environment with 6 subgroups included poverty, social stressors, magnification of smoking, network of cigarette smoking, smoking as a norm and convenience of access. Conclusion: Recognition of smoking among children, modification of wrong beliefs about smoking, empowerment of the individuals against smoking from the very childhood, consideration of familial stress and crisis, and ultimately, paying attention to the role of social variables will play a major role in prevention of smoking and encouraging individuals to quit smoking. PMID:25349865

  13. Imagery use by injured athletes: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Driediger, Molly; Hall, Craig; Callow, Nichola

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge and increase our understanding of imagery use by athletes in sport-injury rehabilitation using a qualitative approach. The participants were 10 injured athletes who were receiving physiotherapy at the time they were interviewed. During the interviews, the athletes provided extensive information about their use of imagery during injury rehabilitation and it was clear that they believed imagery served cognitive, motivational and healing purposes in effectively rehabilitating an injury. Cognitive imagery was used to learn and properly perform the rehabilitation exercises. They employed motivational imagery for goal setting (e.g. imagined being fully recovered) and to enhance mental toughness, help maintain concentration and foster a positive attitude. Imagery was used to manage pain. The methods they employed for controlling pain included using imagery to practise dealing with expected pain, using imagery as a distraction, imagining the pain dispersing, and using imagery to block the pain. With respect to what they imaged (i.e. the content of their imagery), they employed both visual and kinaesthetic imagery and their images tended to be positive and accurate. It was concluded that the implementation of imagery alongside physical rehabilitation should enhance the rehabilitation experience and, therefore, facilitate the recovery rates of injured athletes. Moreover, it was recommended that those responsible for the treatment of injured athletes (e.g. medical doctors, physiotherapists) should understand the benefits of imagery in athletic injury rehabilitation, since it is these practitioners who are in the best position to encourage injured athletes to use imagery. PMID:16368636

  14. Laboratory test ordering and results management systems: a qualitative study of safety risks identified by administrators in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Halley, Lyn; McKay, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences and perceptions of frontline administrators involved in the systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling in general medical practice. Design Qualitative using focus group interviews. Setting West of Scotland general medical practices in three National Health Service (NHS) territorial board areas. Participants Convenience samples of administrators (receptionists, healthcare assistants and phlebotomists). Methods Transcript data were subjected to content analysis. Results A total of 40 administrative staff were recruited. Four key themes emerged: (1) system variations and weaknesses (eg, lack of a tracking process is a known risk that needs to be addressed). (2) Doctor to administrator communication (eg, unclear information can lead to emotional impacts and additional workload). (3) Informing patients of test results (eg, levels of anxiety and uncertainty are experienced by administrators influenced by experience and test result outcome) and (4) patient follow-up and confidentiality (eg, maintaining confidentiality in a busy reception area can be challenging). The key findings were explained in terms of sociotechnical systems theory. Conclusions The study further confirms the safety-related problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the communication and psychosocial issues that can affect the health and well-being of staff and patients alike. However, opportunities exist for practices to identify barriers to safe care, and plan and implement system improvements to accommodate or mitigate the potential for human error in this complex area. PMID:24503302

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of Common Concerns about Challenges Facing Pharmacy Experiential Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Craddick, Karen; Eccles, Dayl; Kwasnik, Abigail; O’Sullivan, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To qualitatively analyze free-text responses gathered as part of a previously published survey in order to systematically identify common concerns facing pharmacy experiential education (EE) programs. Methods. In 2011, EE directors at all 118 accredited pharmacy schools in the US were asked in a survey to describe the most pressing issues facing their programs. Investigators performed qualitative, thematic analysis of responses and compared results against demographic data (institution type, class size, number of practice sites, number and type of EE faculty member/staff). Expert and novice investigators identified common themes via an iterative process. To check validity, additional expert and novice reviewers independently coded responses. The Cohen kappa coefficient was calculated and showed good agreement between investigators and reviewers. Results. Seventy-eight responses were received (66% response rate) representing 75% of publicly funded institutions and 71% of schools with class sizes 51-150. Themes identified as common concerns were site capacity, workload/financial support, quality assurance, preceptor development, preceptor stipends, assessment, onboarding, and support/recognition from administration. Good agreement (mean percent agreement 93%, ƙ range=0.59-0.92) was found between investigators and reviewers. Conclusion. Site capacity for student placements continues to be the foremost concern for many experiential education programs. New concerns about preceptor development and procedures for placing and orienting students at individual practice sites (ie, “onboarding”) have emerged and must be addressed as new accreditation standards are implemented. PMID:25741022

  16. Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within

  17. Using Qualitative Observation To Document Group Processes in Accelerated Schools Training: Techniques and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Katherine; Batten, Constance

    This paper describes the use of qualitative observation techniques for gathering and analyzing data related to group processes during an Accelerated Schools Model training session. The purposes for this research were to observe the training process in order better to facilitate present continuation and future training, to develop questions for…

  18. Employing Online S-P Diagnostic Table for Qualitative Comments on Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chien-hwa; Chen, Cheng-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major concerns of adaptive testing studies have concentrated on effectiveness and efficiency of the system built for the research experiments. It has been criticised that such general information has fallen short of providing qualitative descriptions regarding learning performance. Takahiro Sato of Japan proposed an analytical diagram called…

  19. Hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation to analyze the market position from data with two qualitative and p-2 quantitative variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginanjar, Irlandia

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the market position will be easier, efficient, and informative when based on a perceptual map, that can display objects and characteristics. With perceptual map we can identify the information about the objects similarity, the characteristics relationships, and relationship between the object and the characteristics. Characteristics of the object are usually more than two variables, those variables that sometimes are qualitative and some are quantitative. Based on that this paper introduce a method of analysis called hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation (HCAC), this method is the incorporation of correspondence analysis (CA) with biplot of correlation, where the mapped of two qualitative variables is using CA, and for quantitative variables is using correlations. HCAC produces a perceptual map that displays the object, the qualitative characteristics, and quantitative characteristics in a single map, without changing the quantitative data into qualitative data, so that the information obtained is more complete. A reference for mapping quality is counted from the first and second cumulative percent of eigenvalues where resulting from CA.

  20. Pathways to Attrition: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Justifications for Police Designations of Sexual Assault Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulliere, Danielle M.

    2005-01-01

    The present analysis is a reframing of an earlier study conducted by the author to compensate for perceived deficiencies in previous studies on police decisions in sexual assault complaints. Specifically, qualitative comparative analysis was employed at the micro-social level to reveal justification scenarios, employed by investigating…

  1. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  2. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy

  3. Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research. PMID:24047204

  4. A Qualitative Analysis of the Lesbian Connection's Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin,Terry McVannel

    2006-01-01

    Letters submitted to the discussion forum of the Lesbian Connection between 2000 and 2002 were analyzed to identify issues of importance to lesbians. The analysis revealed 5 discussion categories: (a) isolation, safety, and aging; (b) children; (c) lesbian relationships and sexuality; (d) physical and mental health; and (e) political issues. The…

  5. Qualitative Data Analysis in Cross-Cultural Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troman, Geoff; Jeffrey, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale research projects, conducted in a cross-European context, are increasingly attractive to educational researchers and policy-makers. However, this form of comparative research across cultures brings problems concerning the standardization of data collection and analysis, particularly where ethnographic research is concerned, as it…

  6. Visual Education Textbooks in the 1920s: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    This exploration of the origins of educational communications and technology as a field focuses on the 1920s when the visual education movement first appeared. An explanation of the study precedes separate reviews of 13 primary sources--i.e., visual education textbooks--and draws on them to provide evidence for an analysis of the ideas and forces…

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  8. A New Computer-Aided Technique for Qualitative Document Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David; Ecclesfield, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    The ever-increasing production of digital textual data in a wide variety of forms presents both opportunities and challenges to researchers. The opportunities derive from the rich availability of secondary data with which to work. The challenges are the familiar ones of lack of time and resources to undertake the analysis. The qualitative…

  9. A qualitative analysis of immigrant population health practices in the Girona Healthcare Region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The research we present here forms part of a two-phase project - one quantitative and the other qualitative - assessing the use of primary health care services. This paper presents the qualitative phase of said research, which is aimed at ascertaining the needs, beliefs, barriers to access and health practices of the immigrant population in comparison with the native population, as well as the perceptions of healthcare professionals. Moroccan and sub-Saharan were the immigrants to who the qualitative phase was specifically addressed. The aims of this paper are as follows: to analyse any possible implications of family organisation in the health practices of the immigrant population; to ascertain social practices relating to illness; to understand the significances of sexual and reproductive health practices; and to ascertain the ideas and perceptions of immigrants, local people and professionals regarding health and the health system. Methods Qualitative research based on discursive analysis. Data gathering techniques consisted of discussion groups with health system users and semi-structured individual interviews with healthcare professionals. The sample was taken from the Basic Healthcare Areas of Salt and Banyoles (belonging to the Girona Healthcare Region), the discussion groups being comprised of (a) 6 immigrant Moroccan women, (b) 7 immigrant sub-Saharan African women and (c) 6 immigrant and native population men (2 native men, 2 Moroccan men and 2 sub-Saharan men); and the semi-structured interviews being conducted with the following healthcare professionals: (a) 3 gynaecologists, (b) 3 nurses and 1 administrative staff. Results Use of the healthcare system is linked to the perception of not being well, knowledge of the healthcare system, length of time resident in Spain and interiorization of traditional Western medicine as a cure mechanism. The divergences found among the groups of immigrants, local people and healthcare professionals with regard to healthcare education, use of the healthcare service, sexual and reproductive healthcare and reticence with regard to being attended by healthcare personnel of the opposite sex demonstrate a need to work with the immigrant population as a heterogeneous group. Conclusions The results we have obtained support the idea that feeling unwell is a psycho-social process, as it takes place within a specific socio-cultural situation and spans a range of beliefs, perceptions and ideas regarding symptomology and how to treat it. PMID:20587020

  10. Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

  11. Female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions regarding sexual health education in Iranian schools: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Javadnoori, Mojgan; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite so many unmet sexual health education (SHE) needs of adolescents, socio-cultural challenges have caused this issue to be ignored in different scoieties. This study investigated Iranian female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions with respect to SHE that they received at schools, and what they really needed, expected, and preferred. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, seven focus group discussions (44 adolescents) and 13 individual in-depth interviews were conducted among female adolescents aged 14-18 in Mashhad and Ahvaz, Iran, to explore adolescents’ experiences and perceptions towards SHE in Iranian schools. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analyzing adolescents’ perspectives and experiences revealed their great dissatisfaction with SHE in schools. Emerged categories included: lack of obligation and priority for SHE, sexual reticence and evading, making adolescents frightened of sexual issues, inconsistency of SHE with adolescents’ needs, unqualified educators, and lack of appropriate educational materials. Conclusion: This study found some similarities between expectations of Iranian adolescents and those of adolescents from other cultures about an SHE program. Adolescents showed great abilities to appraise health services delivered for them, and so any program for sexual health promotion in adolescents ought to address adolescents’ needs, demands, and aspirations. Their contribution can provide insights for tailoring SHE programs for adolescents. PMID:23922603

  12. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha C; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  13. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  14. A Qualitative Analysis of User Experiences With a Self-Tracker for Activity, Sleep, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent increase in chronic diseases and an aging population warrant the necessity of health self-management. As small electronic devices that track one’s activity, sleep, and diet, called self-trackers, are being widely distributed, it is prudent to investigate the user experience and the effectiveness of these devices, and use the information toward engineering better devices that would result in increased efficiency and usability. Objective The aim of this study was to abstract the constructs that constitute the user experiences of the self-tracker for activity, sleep, and diet. Additionally, we aimed to develop and verify the Health Information Technology Acceptance Model-II (HITAM-II) through a qualitative data analysis approach. Methods The study group consisted of 18 female college students who participated in an in-depth interview after completing a 3-month study of utilizing a self-tracker designed to monitor activity, sleep, and diet. The steps followed in the analysis were: (1) extraction of constructs from theoretical frameworks, (2) extraction of constructs from interview data using a qualitative methodology, and (3) abstraction of constructs and modeling of the HITAM-II. Results The constructs that constitute the HITAM-II are information technology factors, personal factors, social factors, attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior. These constructs are further divided into subconstructs to additionally support the HITAM-II. Conclusions The HITAM-II was found to successfully describe the health consumer’s attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior from another perspective. The result serves as the basis for a unique understanding of the user experiences of HIT. PMID:24594898

  15. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff

    PubMed Central

    Langhan, Melissa L.; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C.; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practise. We elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. Methods A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within ten emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Results Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practise, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use, and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff, and user friendliness were facilitators. Conclusions This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

  16. Maritime shipping as a high reliability industry: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, T.; Roberts, K.; Bea, R.

    1994-10-01

    The maritime oil shipping industry has great public demands for safe and reliable organizational performance. Researchers have identified a set of organizations and industries that operate at extremely high levels of reliability, and have labelled them High Reliability Organizations (HRO). Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster of 1989, public demands for HRO-level operations were placed on the oil industry. It will be demonstrated that, despite enormous improvements in safety and reliability, maritime shipping is not operating as an HRO industry. An analysis of the organizational, environmental, and cultural history of the oil industry will help to provide justification and explanation. The oil industry will be contrasted with other HRO industries and the differences will inform the shortfalls maritime shipping experiences with regard to maximizing reliability. Finally, possible solutions for the achievement of HRO status will be offered.

  17. An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Bradley, Tom; Pulliam, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Describes a revised laboratory set-up for performing flame tests that enables students to pay more attention to the results of the tests and less attention to the manipulation of equipment. Employs a watch glass to add the analytical solutions to the flame. (DDR)

  18. Transdisciplinary care in the emergency department: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kelli; Crawford, Kimberley; Jones, Tamsin; Blight, Renee; Trenham, Catherine; Williams, Allison; Griffiths, D; Morphet, Julia

    2016-03-01

    In response to increasing demands some emergency departments have introduced transdisciplinary care coordination teams. Such teams comprise staff from multiple disciplines who are trained to perform roles outside their usual scope of practice. This study aimed to critically evaluate the patient, carer and ED staff perceptions of the transdisciplinary model of care in an emergency department in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital. The evaluation of the transdisciplinary team involved interviews with patients and carers who have received the transdisciplinary team services, and focus groups with emergency nursing and transdisciplinary team staff. Analysis of the data revealed that the transdisciplinary model provided an essential service, where staff members were capable of delivering care across all disciplines. The ability to perform comprehensive patient assessments ensured safe discharge, with follow-up services in place. The existence of this team was seen to free up time for the emergency nursing staff, enabling them to see other patients, and improving department efficiency while providing quality care and increasing staff satisfaction. This study identified several important factors which contributed to the success of the transdisciplinary team, which was well integrated into the larger emergency department team. PMID:26248807

  19. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubský, Vít Krejčiřík, David

    2014-10-15

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  20. Are physicians prepared for whole genome sequencing? a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Christensen, K D; Vassy, J L; Jamal, L; Lehmann, L S; Slashinski, M J; Perry, D L; Robinson, J O; Blumenthal-Barby, J; Feuerman, L Z; Murray, M F; Green, R C; McGuire, A L

    2016-02-01

    Although the integration of whole genome sequencing (WGS) into standard medical practice is rapidly becoming feasible, physicians may be unprepared to use it. Primary care physicians (PCPs) and cardiologists enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of WGS received genomics education before completing semi-structured interviews. Themes about preparedness were identified in transcripts through team-based consensus-coding. Data from 11 PCPs and 9 cardiologists suggested that physicians enrolled in the trial primarily to prepare themselves for widespread use of WGS in the future. PCPs were concerned about their general genomic knowledge, while cardiologists were concerned about how to interpret specific types of results and secondary findings. Both cohorts anticipated preparing extensively before disclosing results to patients by using educational resources with which they were already familiar, and both cohorts anticipated making referrals to genetics specialists as needed. A lack of laboratory guidance, time pressures, and a lack of standards contributed to feeling unprepared. Physicians had specialty-specific concerns about their preparedness to use WGS. Findings identify specific policy changes that could help physicians feel more prepared, and highlight how providers of all types will need to become familiar with interpreting WGS results. PMID:26080898

  1. Qualitative flow cytometric analysis of Malaysian myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients.

    PubMed

    Mohadese Hashem, Broojerdi; Rajesh, Ramasamy; Sabariah, M Noor; Zainina, Binti Seman

    2012-02-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of haematological malignancies categorized by ineffective hematopoiesis that result in dysplasia. Although morphological diagnosis is a traditional and standard technique that is used for the diagnosis of MDS, the heterogeneous blood and bone marrow characteristics of MDS patients can potentially obscure the right diagnosis. Thus, we have utilized flow cytometric immunophenotyping as a supportive mechanism to obtain a more accurate and faster method for detection of abnormal markers in MDS. Flow cytometry was used for analyzing bone marrow samples from newly diagnosed MDS patients to investigate the abnormal antigen expression patterns in granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, lymphoid lineages and myeloid precursors. The results were compared with those obtained from cases that had Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) as a control. The most common abnormality found in the granulocytic lineage was the decrease of CD10. Low expressions of CD13 were the most frequent abnormality in the monocytic lineage. The erythroid lineage was found to have low expression of CD235A+/CD71+, reduce of CD71 and decreased CD235a. In conclusion, this method is useful for confirming cases in which it is difficult to make a diagnosis by morphology. PMID:22582553

  2. Geodimeter measurements from Mishennaya Observatory: Analysis of observation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiarov, V. F.; Levin, V. E.; Saprykin, A. V.

    1992-02-01

    The data obtained by geodimeter measurements from the Mishennaya Observatory, city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, are presented. Temporal sequences of horizontal deformations along lines 7-50 km long, are analyzed for the period 1979-1989. A qualitative model for the relationship between an earthquake and deformations along the polygonal lines is proposed. The results of the statistical analysis of observation sequences are given.

  3. Women’s Social Communication About IUDs: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nora; Steinauer, Jody; Valente, Thomas; Koblentz, Jenna; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Few U.S. women use an IUD, despite the method’s efficacy and ease of use. While studies have found that misconceptions about IUDs are prevalent, few have examined the influence of women’s social networks on perceptions of the method. METHODS Twenty-four interviews and three focus groups (comprising 14 participants) were conducted in 2013 with a diverse sample of women aged 15–45 recruited from family planning clinics and the community in San Francisco. Half of participants had used IUDs. Women were asked about their social communication concerning contraceptives, particularly IUDs, and about the content of the information they had received or given. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify themes of interest. RESULTS Women reported that communication with female friends and family members was a valued means of obtaining information about contraceptives, and that negative information (which often was incorrect) was more prevalent and memorable than positive information in such communication. Women heard about negative experiences with IUDs from social contacts and television commercials; clinicians were a major source of positive information. Women who had never used IUDs expressed interest in learning about potential side effects and how IUDs feel, while users reported emphasizing to friends and family the method’s efficacy and ease of use. CONCLUSIONS Misinformation and negative information about IUDs are prevalent in social communication, and the information transmitted through social networks differs from the information never-users wish to receive. Findings support the creation of peer-led interventions to encourage IUD users to share positive personal experiences and evidence-based information. PMID:24894575

  4. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil. PMID:26971405

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  6. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  7. A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

  8. Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

  9. A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues

  10. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  11. A Qualitative Organic Analysis that Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then…

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  13. Dealing with Complex Causality in Realist Synthesis: The Promise of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Fritz; Andereggen, Celine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors state two arguments: first, that the four categories of context, politics, polity, and policy make an adequate framework for systematic review being both exhaustive and parsimonious; second, that the method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is an appropriate methodical approach for gaining realistic results…

  14. "The Walls Were Closing in, and We Were Trapped": A Qualitative Analysis of Street Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews focusing on suicide were conducted with 80 street youth in agencies and on the streets of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants described their understandings of the phenomenon of suicide among street youth and the meanings suicide held for them. Qualitative analysis of the

  15. Noticing in Task Performance and Learning Outcomes: A Qualitative Analysis of Instructional Effects in Interlanguage Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Satomi

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to provide an in-depth qualitative analysis of instructional effects in L2 pragmatics by exploring the manner in which Japanese EFL learners' noticing of target English request forms is constrained by different types of treatment tasks and the subsequent effect of the learners' noticing on their learning outcomes. Following the

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of Mothers' Childrearing Behaviour towards Their Disabled Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2007-01-01

    The present study provides a qualitative analysis of mothers' childrearing behaviour focused on the coercive-inductive dimension, in particular in an effort to show that coerciveness is not always negative, but may be adaptive to the child's characteristics. Thirty-one mothers provided self-reports from a structured interview on their childrearing

  17. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the

  19. APREF Project: Results and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J.; Hu, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Asia-Pacific Reference Frame (APREF) Project is a regional initiative that seeks to improve the geodetic infrastructure of the Asia-Pacific region. As a joint effort of the Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), APREF is developing a start-of-the-art regional geodetic reference frame. In the Asia-Pacific region there are a substantial number of state-of-the-art GNSS networks, which are commonly operated by national mapping agencies or private sector organisations. These networks represent an important and significant investment by the respective governments and industry in their own spatial infrastructure. In the APREF initiative these networks are combined to realize a high-standard regional reference frame. The GNSS data of the network is processed by different Analysis Centres (ACs). The contributions of the different ACs are combined into a weekly solution by the APREF Central Bureau. This weekly solution is the core product of the APREF; it contains weekly estimates of the coordinates of the participating Asia-Pacific GNSS tracking stations and their covariance information. The APREF product, which is available since the first quarter of 2010, gives a reliable time-series of a regional reference frame in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and a quality assessment of the performance of the GNSS CORS stations included in the network. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the APREF network and an analysis of the first APREF products

  20. Quantitative 3D breast magnetic resonance imaging fibroglandular tissue analysis and correlation with qualitative assessments: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) has been linked to breast cancer risk based on mammographic density studies. Currently, the qualitative assessment of FGT on mammogram (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prone to intra and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to develop an objective quantitative FGT measurement tool for breast MRI that could provide significant clinical value. Methods An IRB approved study was performed. Sixty breast MRI cases with qualitative assessment of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT were randomly selected for quantitative analysis from routine breast MRIs performed at our institution from 1/2013 to 12/2014. Blinded to the qualitative data, whole breast and FGT contours were delineated on T1-weighted pre contrast sagittal images using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm which combines the region-based active contours and a level set approach. FGT (%) was calculated by: [segmented volume of FGT (mm3)/(segmented volume of whole breast (mm3)] ×100. Statistical correlation analysis was performed between quantified FGT (%) on MRI and qualitative assessments of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT. Results There was a significant positive correlation between quantitative MRI FGT assessment and qualitative MRI FGT (r=0.809, n=60, P<0.001) and mammographic density assessment (r=0.805, n=60, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between qualitative MRI FGT assessment and mammographic density assessment (r=0.725, n=60, P<0.001). The four qualitative assessment categories of FGT correlated with the calculated mean quantitative FGT (%) of 4.61% (95% CI, 0–12.3%), 8.74% (7.3–10.2%), 18.1% (15.1–21.1%), 37.4% (29.5–45.3%). Conclusions Quantitative measures of FGT (%) were computed with data derived from breast MRI and correlated significantly with conventional qualitative assessments. This quantitative technique may prove to be a valuable tool in clinical use by providing computer generated standardized measurements with limited intra or inter-observer variability. PMID:27190766

  1. Assessment of water quality management with a systematic qualitative uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Ma, Hwong-wen; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2007-03-01

    Uncertainty is an inevitable source of noise in water quality management and will weaken the adequacy of decisions. Uncertainty is derived from imperfect information, natural variability, and knowledge-based inconsistency. To make better decisions, it is necessary to reduce uncertainty. Conventional uncertainty analyses have focused on quantifying the uncertainty of parameters and variables in a probabilistic framework. However, the foundational properties and basic constraints might influence the entire system more than the quantifiable elements and have to be considered in initial analysis steps. According to binary classification, uncertainty includes quantitative uncertainty and non-quantitative uncertainty, which is also called qualitative uncertainty. Qualitative uncertainty originates from human subjective and biased beliefs. This study provides an understanding of qualitative uncertainty in terms of its conceptual definitions and practical applications. A systematic process of qualitative uncertainty analysis is developed for assisting complete uncertainty analysis, in which a qualitative network could then be built with qualitative relationship and quantifiable functions. In the proposed framework, a knowledge elicitation procedure is required to identify influential factors and their interrelationship. To limit biased information, a checklist is helpful to construct the qualitative network. The checklist helps one to ponder arbitrary assumptions that have often been taken for granted and may yield an incomplete or inappropriate decision analysis. The total maximum daily loads (TMDL) program is used as a surrogate for water quality management in this study. 15 uncertainty causes of TMDL programs are elicited by reviewing an influence diagram, and a checklist is formed with tabular interrogations corresponding to each uncertainty cause. The checklist enables decision makers to gain insight on the uncertainty level of the system at early steps as a convenient tool to review the adequacy of a TMDL program. Following the instruction of the checklist, an appropriate algorithm in a form of probability, possibility, or belief may then be assigned for the network. Consequently, the risk or evidence of the success of outcomes will be obtained. The incorporation of the systematic consideration of qualitative uncertainty into water quality management is expected to refine the decision-making process. PMID:17258295

  2. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  3. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of urine component in the toilet set using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, So Hyun; Park, Kwang Suk; Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Won Jin

    2004-07-01

    As a part of non-invasive and unaware measurement of physiological signal in the house of live-alone person, Raman spectroscopy was applied for urine component analysis in the toilet set. 785nm, 250-300mW output solid state diode laser and 2048 element linear silicon TE cooled CCD array were incorporated for this system. Several tests were performed for setting up Raman spectroscopy in non-constrained situation: toilet set in the house. The effect of dark current, integration time, warming up time of laser, property of probe and interference of water in the toilet were tested and controlled for appropriate measurement in this environment. The spectra were obtained immediately when the subject uses the toilet set, and they can be transmitted to the server though Bluetooth. Those spectra were pre-processed for removing or correcting the effect of undesired light scattering, sample path-length difference and baseline-effect. The preprocessed data were enhanced for more exact result of multivariate analysis. The training data was prepared for predicting unknown component and its concentration by using multivariate methods. Several kinds of multivariate methods: PCA, PCR, PLS were performed to validate what is the fittest method in this environment. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy"s spectra obtained in the house's toilet set, we could know the component and its concentration of urine which can be index of disease.

  4. Iranian cancer patients perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehrans hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes) emerged from the data analysis: 1) God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God), 2) Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes) and 3) Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources). Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources. PMID:23043231

  5. Pediatric nurses’ perception of factors associated with caring self-efficacy: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses, who are considered to form the largest group of professional healthcare providers, face the challenge of maintaining, promoting, and providing quality nursing care and to prepare themselves to function confidently and to care effectively. Among the factors affecting nursing performance, self-efficacy has been expected to have the greatest influence. However, the concept of caring self-efficacy was not considered and no research has been done in this field in Iran. This study was conducted to explore and identify the factors described by pediatric nurses as related to caring self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted through content analysis in 2013 in Iran. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling method from pediatric nurses and educators. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis of the interviews in this study led to the development of four main themes: (1) Professional knowledge of children caring, (2) experience, (3) caring motivation, and (4) efficient educational system as the factors influencing caring self-efficacy perception of pediatric nurses. Conclusions: This article presents the factors associated with the perception of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses’ perspective. This finding can be used by nursing administrators and instructors, especially in the area of pediatric caring, to enhance nursing professional practice and the quality of pediatric caring. PMID:25878702

  6. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

    2006-09-01

    Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection. PMID:16730627

  7. Qualitative Twitter analysis of participants, tweet strategies, and tweet content at a major urologic conference

    PubMed Central

    Borgmann, Hendrik; Woelm, Jan-Henning; Merseburger, Axel; Nestler, Tim; Salem, Johannes; Brandt, Maximilian P.; Haferkamp, Axel; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The microblogging social media platform Twitter is increasingly being adopted in the urologic field. We aimed to analyze participants, tweet strategies, and tweet content of the Twitter discussion at a urologic conference. Methods: A comprehensive analysis of the Twitter activity at the European Association of Urology Congress 2013 (#eau2013) was performed, including characteristics of user profiles, engagement and popularity measurements, characteristics and timing of tweets, and content analysis. Results: Of 218 Twitter contributors, doctors (45%) were the most frequent, ahead of associations (15%), companies (10%), and journals (3%). However, journals had the highest tweet/participant rate (22 tweets/participant), profile activity (median: 1177, total tweets, 1805 followers, 979 following), and profile popularity (follower/following ratio: 2.1; retweet rank percentile: 96%). Links in a profile were associated with higher engagement (p<0.0001) and popularity (p<0.0001). Of 1572 tweets, 57% were original tweets, 71% contained mentions, 20% contained links, and 25% included pictures. The majority of tweets (88%) were during conference hours, with an average of 24.7 tweets/hour and a peak activity of 71 tweets/hour. Overall, 59% of tweets were informative, led by the topics uro-oncology (21%), urologic research (21%), and urotechnology (12%). Limitations include the analysis of a single conference analysis, assessment of global profile and not domain-specific activity, and the rapid evolution in Twitter-using habits. Conclusion: Results of this single conference qualitative analysis are promising for an enrichment of the scientific discussions at urologic conferences through the use of Twitter. PMID:26977205

  8. When a diabetic foot ulcer results in amputation: a qualitative study of the lived experience of 15 patients.

    PubMed

    Foster, DeSales; Lauver, Lori S

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to complications resulting in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), foot infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. Almost 50,000 amputations performed every year in the United States are due to DFUs. A qualitative analysis using Colaizzi's step-by-step approach to phenomenology was conducted to describe the experiences of 15 patients with diabetes living with a foot amputation. Semi-structured interviews were recorded digitally,transcribed, and analyzed. The analysis included reading transcripts multiple times, identifying noteworthy verbatim statements, then abstracting key words and phrases; similar key words and phrases were grouped into a meaning unit. The researchers rereviewed original transcripts, verbatim statements, and extracted key words and phrases and devised meaning units to identify main themes. Rigor in this study was ensured by developing an audit trail that linked the meaning units and themes back to key words and verbatim statements in the original transcripts and then allowing the participant to ensure accuracy of recounted information. Five major themes emerged from the data regarding patient concern about the ability to be productive members of society (i.e., transitioning from having a nonhealing wound to living as a new amputee)--financial burden, powerlessness, social support, placing blame, and uncertainty in one's continued ability--each having implications for health care providers as well as patients. By considering the experience from the patient perspective, health care professionals may be better prepared to discuss patient concerns with follow-up care and day to-day living, especially in getting help with finances. Additional research is needed to uncover models of care that may help these patients remain productive members of society and reduce the burden of amputation on patient quality of life. PMID:25380097

  9. Analyzing Data Generated Through Deliberative Dialogue: Bringing Knowledge Translation Into Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, Katrina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Cole, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    Deliberative dialogue (DD) is a knowledge translation strategy that can serve to generate rich data and bridge health research with action. An intriguing alternative to other modes of generating data, the purposeful and evidence-informed conversations characteristic of DD generate data inclusive of collective interpretations. These data are thus dialogic, presenting complex challenges for qualitative analysis. In this article, we discuss the nature of data generated through DD, orienting ourselves toward a theoretically grounded approach to analysis. We offer an integrated framework for analysis, balancing analytical strategies of categorizing and connecting with the use of empathetic and suspicious interpretive lenses. In this framework, data generation and analysis occur in concert, alongside engaging participants and synthesizing evidence. An example of application is provided, demonstrating nuances of the framework. We conclude with reflections on the strengths and limitations of the framework, suggesting how it may be relevant in other qualitative health approaches. PMID:25896793

  10. Researchers’ perceptions of ethical challenges in cluster randomized trials: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) pose ethical challenges for investigators and ethics committees. This study describes the views and experiences of CRT researchers with respect to: (1) ethical challenges in CRTs; (2) the ethics review process for CRTs; and (3) the need for comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs. Methods Descriptive qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of 20 experienced CRT researchers. Results Informants expressed concern over the potential for bias that may result from requirements to obtain informed consent from research participants in CRTs. Informants suggested that the need for informed consent ought to be related to the type of intervention under study in a CRT. Informants rarely expressed concern regarding risks to research participants in CRTs, other than risks to privacy. Important issues identified in the research ethics literature, including fair subject selection and other justice issues, were not mentioned by informants. The ethics review process has had positive and negative impacts on CRT conduct. Informants stated that variability in ethics review between jurisdictions, and increasingly stringent ethics review in recent years, have hampered their ability to conduct CRTs. Many informants said that comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs would be helpful to researchers and research ethics committees. Conclusions Informants identified key ethical challenges in the conduct of CRTs, specifically relating to identifying subjects, seeking informed consent, and the use of gatekeepers. These data have since been used to identify topics for in-depth ethical analysis and to guide the development of comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs. PMID:23286245

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography: Diagnosis Value in Hypoechoic Renal Angiomyolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Wang, Wen-ping; Li, Cui-xian; Xue, Li-yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of enhancement features and quantitative parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating solid hypoechoic renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) from clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs). Materials and Methods We analyzed the enhancement features and quantitative parameters of CEUS in 174 hypoechoic renal masses (32 AMLs and 142 ccRCCs) included in the study. Results Centripetal enhancement pattern was more common in AMLs than in ccRCCs on CEUS (71.9% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001). At peak enhancement, all AMLs showed homogeneous enhancement (100% in AML, 27.5% in ccRCCs; p < 0.001). Quantitative analysis showed no significant difference between rise time and time to peak. Tumor-to-cortex (TOC) enhancement ratio in AMLs was significantly lower than that in ccRCCs (p < 0.001). The criteria of centripetal enhancement and homogeneous peak enhancement together with TOC ratio < 91.0% used to differentiate hypoechoic AMLs from ccRCCs resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 68.9% and 95.8%, respectively. Conclusion Both qualitative and quantitative analysis with CEUS are valuable in the differential diagnosis of hypoechoic renal AMLs from ccRCCs. PMID:25741195

  12. Qualitative Elemental Analyses of a Meteorite Sample Found in Turkey by Photo-activation Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertugay, C.; Boztosun, I.; Ozmen, S. F.; Dapo, H.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a meteorite sample provided from TÜBITAK National Observatory found in Turkey has been investigated by using a clinical linear accelerator that has endpoint energy of 18 MeV, and a high purity Germanium detector for qualitative elemental analysis within photo-activation analysis method. 21 nuclei ranging from 24Na to 149Nd have been identified in the meteorite sample.

  13. Simple optical method of qualitative assessment of sperm motility: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozanska, Agnieszka; Kolwas, Krystyna; Galas, Jacek; Blocki, Narcyz; Czyzewski, Adam

    2005-09-01

    The examination of quality of the sperm ejaculate is one of the most important steps in artificial fertilization procedure. The main aim of semen storage centres is to characterise the best semen quality for fertilization. Reliable information about sperm motility is also one the most important parameters for in vitro laboratory procedures. There exist very expensive automated methods for semen analysis but they are unachievable for most of laboratories and semen storage centres. Motivation for this study is to elaborate a simple, cheap, objective and repeatable method for semen motility assessment. The method enables to detect even small changes in motility introduced by medical, physical or chemical factors. To test the reliability of the method we used cryopreserved bull semen from Lowicz Semen Storage Centre. The examined sperm specimen was warmed in water bath and then centrifuged. The best semen was collected by the swim-up technique and diluted to a proper concentration. Several semen concentrations and dilutions were tested in order to find the best probe parameters giving repeatable results. For semen visualization we used the phase-contrast microscope with a CCD camera. A PC computer was used to acquire and to analyse the data. The microscope table equipped with a microscope glass pool 0.7mm deep instead of some conventional plane microscope slides was stabilised at the temperature of 37°C. The main idea of our method is based on a numerical processing of the optical contrast of the sperm images which illustrates the dynamics of the sperm cells movement and on appropriate analysis of a grey scale level of the superimposed images. An elaborated numerical algorithm allows us to find the relative amount of motile sperm cells. The proposed method of sperm motility assessment seems to be objective and repeatable.

  14. Including Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the 2008 CMS Payment Policy: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jennifer A.; Lee, Grace M.; Dutta-Linn, M. Maya; Wroe, Peter; Hartmann, Christine W.

    2014-01-01

    Research Summary Background With its 2008 reimbursement policy change, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sought to link payment and quality. CMS stopped reimbursing hospitals for additional treatment costs due to hospital-acquired conditions, such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Little is yet known about the impact of this policy. Objective To examine stakeholders’ views about the inclusion of CAUTIs in the 2008 CMS payment policy and its potential impact on hospital practices. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of infection preventionists. This included 36 infection preventionists from a purposive sample of non-federal, acute care U.S. hospitals. An interview guide refined through iterative development was used, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded thematically. Qualitative methodology employed grounded theory tools, including open coding and constant comparative analysis. Results Two main themes emerged: 1) participants’ attitudes toward the inclusion of CAUTIs in the CMS policy, including issues of the infection’s significance, opportunity costs, and financial incentives; and 2) participants’ views about advances in clinical organizational behaviors and limited defensive practice. Conclusions Equivocal attitudes toward CMS’ policy targeting CAUTIs were somewhat discordant with the reported improvements in CAUTI prevention in response to the policy. Perhaps “stick” pay-for-performance policies can complement “carrot” policies in coaxing quality improvement. To support such a conclusion, the field needs more research on multiple stakeholders’ views on other selected hospital-acquired conditions in the policy. CMS could also benefit from continued feedback from stakeholders on the policy and its perceived consequences. Level of Evidence – VI (Polit & Beck, 2012) PMID:23556374

  15. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature (T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours (t sun), and wind speed (U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers in Oral Submucous Fibrosis using Picrosirius Red Stain and Polarising Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Sekaran, Preethi; Narasimhan, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is an oral potentially malignant condition caused predominantly by areca nut chewing. Early recognition with accurate staging of the disease and appropriate treatment planning is of utmost importance to prevent the malignant transformation and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Picrosirius red stain is specific for collagen and enhances its birefringence under polarising light producing different colours in different stages of the disease. Aim To compare the clinical and functional staging with histopathologic staging methods used to assess the severity of OSMF and to perform a qualitative analysis of the collagen fibres in various histopathologic stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain and polarising microscope. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective study done on archival samples. The study sample included a total of 30 cases which was divided into two groups. Group I comprised of 20 OSMF samples and Group II comprised of 10 normal tissue samples. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging was performed for all OSMF samples. Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging was done using chi square test. Picrosirius red- stained sections of OSMF were analysed using polarising microscopy to evaluate the qualitative changes in the collagen fibers. Statistical Analysis Used Descriptive data which includes frequency and percentages were calculated for each group. Categorical data were analysed by chi-square test. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the functional and histopathological stage. Enhanced birefringence of the collagen fibers due to picrosirius red stain yielded characteristic prominent polarising colours in different stages of OSMF. Conclusion Comparison of functional staging with histopathologic grading is more reliable in determining the severity of the disease than the clinical staging. Production of characteristic polarising colours by various stages of picrosirius red stained sections of OSMF substantiates the use of picrosirius red stain and polarising microscope as a tool in assessing the severity of this condition thereby aiding in better treatment planning. PMID:27042575

  17. Why women engage in anal intercourse: results from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Rogala, Bridget

    2015-05-01

    This study used qualitative methods to assess why women engage in heterosexual anal (receptive) intercourse (AI) with a male partner. Four focus groups which comprised women from diverse ethnicities were conducted. All groups were digitally recorded for transcription; transcripts were analyzed using the methods of grounded theory to determine themes. Women's reasons for engaging in anal intercourse with a male partner can be described in broad categories including that the women wanted to have anal intercourse, either because of their own desire, to please a male partner, or they were responding to a quid pro quo situation. The riskiness of AI was assessed within relationship contexts. Past experience with AI including emotional and physical reactions was identified. Among the negative physical experiences of AI were pain and disliking the sensation, and uncomfortable side effects, such as bleeding of the rectum. Negative emotional experiences of AI included feelings of shame, disgust, and being offended by something her male partner did, such as spitting on his penis for lubrication. Positive physical experiences included liking the sensation. Many of the women also endorsed positive emotional experiences of AI, including that it was more intimate than vaginal sex, and that it was something they reserved only for special partners. The majority of AI episodes were unplanned and not discussed prior to initiation. Pain during AI was mitigated by the use of lubricants or illicit drugs. Even those women who found pleasure in AI expressed a preference for vaginal intercourse. PMID:25378264

  18. Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.

    PubMed

    Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed. PMID:24830187

  19. [Anorectal malformations and difficulties to talk about it. Results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Berglein, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Anorectal malformations cause life long conditions, making it necessary to find ways of communicating the disability in the social context. Incontinence, regular enemas, genital reconstruction, catheterization and scares are just some of the common difficulties affected people have to live with. Intimate disabilities like anorectal malformations cause feelings of shame and embarrassment, and are taboo in our society. Experiences of rejection or just the fear of it cause affected people to hide their disability. In a qualitative study, affected young adults talked about the impact of this disability on their lifes. All interviewees started to hide their condition sometime in older childhood and early adolescents. After a struggling process, torn between fears of discovery and rejection all of them found ways to communicate their condition. All interviewees described revealing their condition in stages and only to certain social groups. Trust is the main prerequisite for revelation. Trust has two aspects, first the person needs to trust that the information will not be spread and second there needs to be trust that the other person will be able to understand and accept the person despite their condition. Support through family, friends, and peers in a support group are helpful. Important in this process is once ability to accept their own condition. PMID:20229841

  20. Morality and moral conflicts in hospice care: results of a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Breitsameter, Christof

    2010-10-01

    Hospices consider themselves places that practise a holistic form of terminal care, encompassing physical and psychological symptoms, and also the social and spiritual support for a dying patient. So far, the underlying ethical principles have been treated predominantly in terms of a normative theoretical discussion. The interview study discussed in this paper is a qualitative investigation into general and hospice-related conceptions of morality among full-time and voluntary workers in German inpatient hospices. It examines moral conflicts and efforts leading to their solution. The main ideas identified include moral neutrality towards the patients and their requests, the capability of acceptance, the idea of self-restraint with respect to the dying patient and the principle of respect for the natural course of dying. Essential triggers for moral conflicts were the inadequate education of patients, problems of acceptance in view of incurable disease, and disagreements between members of patients' families. The interviewees expressed their scepticism towards formal institutions of ethical counselling. The study has shown a type of virtue ethics that forms an integral part of the overall concept of hospice care, which cannot be treated separately from a holistic idea of care at the end of life. PMID:20713533

  1. Race and Older Mothers’ Differentiation: A Sequential Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Riffin, Catherine; Taylor-Watson, Kadari; Pillemer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a process by which qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined to reveal patterns in the data that are unlikely to be detected and confirmed by either method alone. Specifically, we take a sequential approach to combining qualitative and quantitative data to explore race differences in how mothers differentiate among their adult children. We began with a standard multivariate analysis examining race differences in mothers’ differentiation among their adult children regarding emotional closeness and confiding. Finding no race differences in this analysis, we conducted an in-depth comparison of the Black and White mothers’ narratives to determine whether there were underlying patterns that we had been unable to detect in our first analysis. Using this method, we found that Black mothers were substantially more likely than White mothers to emphasize interpersonal relationships within the family when describing differences among their children. In our final step, we developed a measure of familism based on the qualitative data and conducted a multivariate analysis to confirm the patterns revealed by the in-depth comparison of the mother’s narratives. We conclude that using such a sequential mixed methods approach to data analysis has the potential to shed new light on complex family relations. PMID:21967639

  2. Analytical and Methodological Issues in the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software: A Description of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum-Leys, Jon; Kupperman, Jeff; Boyle-Heimann, Kristen

    This paper presents perspectives on the use of data analysis software in the process of qualitative research. These perspectives were gained in the conduct of three qualitative research studies that differed in theoretical frames, areas of interests, and scope. Their common use of a particular data analysis software package allows the exploration…

  3. Experiences of Academic Members About their Professional Challenges: a Content Analysis Qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Danesh, Mahmonier

    2014-01-01

    Background: University faculty members of different disciplines in any country, by giving better quality services, will further accelerate the development of their respective countries. This study aims to explore the experiences of faculty members about their professional challenges. Aim: In this qualitative study, which was conducted in 2013, fifteen faculty members in the departments of clinical and basic sciences of Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences in northern Iran were chosen for semi-structured in-depth interviews by purposive sampling method. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and content analysis was performed. Results: After immersion and data analysis, three main themes were emerged including: “Imbalances in academic members’ tasks in different areas”, “Weakness of evaluation and promotion system” and “Failure to provide the infrastructure educational facilities”. The main themes and sub-themes are explained by the help of participants’ direct quotations. Conclusions: This study suggested that it is better to take effective measures to improve the faculty members’ situation and therefore increase their efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. PMID:24825939

  4. A Qualitative Analysis of Cancer-Related Fatigue in Ambulatory Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Tami; Piper, Barbara Fliegel; Koczywas, Marianna; Munevar, Carla M.; Sun, Virginia; Uman, Gwen C.; Ferrell, Betty R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patients’ perceptions of the causes, relief, related symptoms, meaning, and suffering secondary to cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Two hundred and fifty two (n=252) patients with breast, lung, colon, and prostate cancers were enrolled in a quasi-experimental study to test the effects of a clinical intervention on reducing barriers to symptom management in ambulatory care. Analysis of data reported in this paper was derived from the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised (PFS-R). Using qualitative research methods and content analysis, written statements related to the impact of CRF were coded using the following themes: patients’ perceptions of cancer related fatigue, the causes, relief, related symptoms, meaning, and suffering. Comments were categorized and reviewed for content. Overall, CRF had a significant impact on the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual wellbeing. CRF limited the ability of participants to function, socialize, and participate in enjoyable activities. Emotional issues as a result of CRF were common. The negative impact of CRF on patient’s overall well-being alters the meaning and suffering related to the cancer experience. The assessment of personal meaning and suffering related to CRF is an important component of the multidimensional assessment of CRF. This will enable nurses to better understand the suffering related to CRF. PMID:22297018

  5. Explanatory models of medically unexplained symptoms: a qualitative analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are common in primary health care. Both patients and doctors are burdened with the symptoms that negatively affect patients' quality of life. General practitioners (GPs) often face difficulties when giving patients legitimate and convincing explanations for their symptoms. This explanation is important for reassuring patients and for maintaining a good doctor–patient communication and relationship. Objective To provide an overview of explanatory models for MUS. Study design We performed a systematic search of reviews in PsycINFO and PubMed about explanatory models of MUS. We performed a qualitative analysis of the data according to the principles of constant comparative analysis to identify specific explanatory models. Results We distinguished nine specific explanatory models of MUS in the literature: somatosensory amplification, sensitisation, sensitivity, immune system sensitisation, endocrine dysregulation, signal filter model, illness behaviour model, autonomous nervous system dysfunction and abnormal proprioception. The nine different explanatory models focus on different domains, including somatic causes, perception, illness behaviour and predisposition. We also found one meta‐model, which incorporates these four domains: the cognitive behavioural therapy model. Conclusion Although GPs often face difficulties when providing explanations to patients with MUS, there are multiple explanatory models in the scientific literature that may be of use in daily medical practice. PMID:22477946

  6. Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner. PMID:25512837

  7. Nurses’ perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians’ duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner. PMID:25512837

  8. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis by analytical instruments of compounds causing acute poisoning].

    PubMed

    Fuke, Chiaki

    2008-04-01

    In generally, the results of screening drugs or poisons by simple analytical techniques or screening kits show the possibility that the group of compounds detected is contained in the specimen. Then, qualitative and quantitative analyses by analytical instruments are required to identify the compound which is the cause of acute poisoning. Gas chromatograph-equipped electron ionization mass spectrometer is the most reliable apparatus of all analytical instruments. When the retention time and EI-mass spectrum of the detected peak by GC/MS analysis coincide with those of the reference standard and the blood level is abnormal, the compound is concluded to be the subject of the cause of acute poisoning. If we do not use GC/MS, we use two or more different analytical instruments or different analytical methods, and then we consider the overall results obtained from each analysis totally to identify the compound. In order to analyze drugs or poisons in biological materials using these instruments, pretreatment procedures are indispensable to identify the compound. The appropriate procedures increase sensitivity and specificity. When treating an acute poisoned patient, the use of analytical instruments tends to be avoided because it requires rapid investigation into the cause of acute poisoning. If the operator is proficient in using analytical instruments and the cause of acute poisoning is the compound that has been analyzed before, results using analytical instruments could give more useful information than using simple but rapid analytical techniques or screening kits. For this purpose, it is important to understand well the characteristics of the equipment to collect many reference standards, and to prepare for emergency analysis. PMID:18516967

  9. Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A.; Dai, Y.; Miao, C.; Di, Z.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of an LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e., sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e., insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistency with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

  10. Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. D.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A. Z.; Dai, Y. J.; Miao, C. Y.; Di, Z. H.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y. W.

    2013-02-01

    Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of a LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e. sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e. insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistence with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

  11. Qualitative Results from a Flight Investigation to Determine Aileron Effectiveness of Two Rocket-Propelled 1/20-Scale Models of the MX -76 Missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Joseph E.

    1955-01-01

    Free-flight tests of two rocket-propelled l/20-scale models of the Bell MX-776 missile have been conducted to obtain measurements of the aileron deflection required to counteract the induced rolling moments caused by combined angles of attack and sideslip and thus to determine whether the ailerons provided were capable of controlling the model at the attitudes produced by the test conditions. Inability to obtain reasonably steady-state conditions and superimposed high-frequency oscillations in the data precluded any detailed analysis of the results obtained from the tests. For these reasons, the data presented are limited largely to qualitative results.

  12. How do community pharmacists make decisions? Results of an exploratory qualitative study in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A.M.; Whyte, Brenna; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the complexity of pharmacy practice increases, pharmacists are required to make more decisions under ambiguous or information-deficient conditions. There is scant literature examining how pharmacists make decisions and what factors or values influence their choices. The objective of this exploratory research was to characterize decision-making patterns in the clinical setting of community pharmacists in Ontario. Methods: The think-aloud decision-making method was used for this study. Community pharmacists with 3 or more years’ experience were presented with 2 clinical case studies dealing with challenging situations and were asked to verbally reason through their decision-making process while being probed by an interviewer for clarification, justification and further explication. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a protocol analysis method. Results and Discussion: A total of 12 pharmacists participated in this study. Participants experienced cognitive dissonance in attempting to reconcile their desire for a clear and confrontation-free conclusion to the case discussion and the reality of the challenge presented within each case. Strategies for resolving this cognitive dissonance included strong emphasis on the educational (rather than decision-making) role of the pharmacist, the value of strong interpersonal relationships as a way to avoid conflict and achieve desired outcomes, the desire to seek external advice or defer to others’ authority to avoid making a decision and the use of strict interpretations of rules to avoid ambiguity and contextual interpretation. This research was neither representative nor generalizable but was indicative of patterns of decisional avoidance and fear of assuming responsibility for outcomes that warrant further investigation. Conclusion: The think-aloud method functioned effectively in this context and provided insights into pharmacists’ decision-making patterns in the clinical setting. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:90-98. PMID:27076820

  13. Assessment of rehabilitation needs in colorectal cancer treatment: Results from a mixed audit and qualitative study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wiedenbein, Liza; Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis; Hjort, Dorte; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    Background Systematic assessments of cancer patients' rehabilitation needs are a prerequisite for devising appropriate survivorship programs. Little is known about the fit between needs assessment outlined in national rehabilitation policies and clinical practice. This study aimed to explore clinical practices related to identification and documentation of rehabilitation needs among patients with colorectal cancer at Danish hospitals. Material and methods A retrospective clinical audit was conducted utilizing data from patient files randomly selected at surgical and oncology hospital departments treating colorectal cancer patients. Forty patients were included, 10 from each department. Semi-structured interviews were carried out among clinical nurse specialists. Audit data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data using thematic analysis. Results Documentation of physical, psychological and social rehabilitation needs initially and at end of treatment was evident in 10% (n = 2) of surgical patient trajectories and 35% (n = 7) of oncology trajectories. Physical rehabilitation needs were documented among 90% (n = 36) of all patients. Referral to municipal rehabilitation services was documented among 5% (n = 2) of all patients. Assessments at surgical departments were shaped by the inherent continuous assessment of rehabilitation needs within standardized fast-track colorectal cancer surgery. In contrast, the implementation of locally developed assessment tools inspired by the distress thermometer (DT) in oncology departments was challenged by a lack of competencies and funding, impeding integration of data into patient files. Conclusion Consensus must be reached on how to ensure more systematic, comprehensive assessments of rehabilitation needs throughout clinical cancer care. Fast-track surgery ensures systematic documentation of physical needs, but the lack of inclusion of data collected by the DT in oncological departments questions the efficacy of assessment tools and points to a need for distinguishing between surgical and oncological settings in national rehabilitation policies. PMID:26808254

  14. Barriers and bridges to infection prevention and control: results of a qualitative case study of a Netherlands' surgical unit

    PubMed Central

    Marck, Patricia B; Krogman, Naomi; Taylor, Geoff; Sales, Anne; Bonten, Marc J M; Gigengack-Baars, Ada C M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study are to observe the overall work environment including infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices on the target surgical unit; to analyse the policies and procedures in the hospital and unit environments; to analyse the barriers and bridges to IP&C that practitioners identify in visual narratives of their unit environment and to collect monthly specific IP&C-related anonymised data. Design In this qualitative case study analysis, a socio-ecological approach on health systems informed the research design and provided a framework to better understand the complexity of implementing effective IP&C. Setting The study was conducted on a surgical unit at a Netherlands' hospital that reported successful reductions in the prevalence of targeted multidrug-resistant organisms. Methods Research methods included unit observations (n=3), review of relevant policies and procedures, five practitioner-led photo walkabouts of the unit (n=7), three photo elicitation focus groups with practitioners (n=13) and the review of related IP&C data. Results The findings indicate some conditions and processes present that may influence the low prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms, including the ‘search and destroy’ active surveillance strategy, low occupancy rates, a centralised bed cleaning system and the presence of an active grass roots Hygiene in Practice group, which engages practitioners in several ongoing activities to promote IP&C on the units. Conclusions Further research on the benefits of practitioner-led community of practices on IP&C practices such as the Hygiene in Practice group is also recommended. Additional case studies to compare theses practices with other acute care hospital around the world would be a valuable way to better understand what IP&C programmes are most effective in which contexts and for what reasons. Further data are available by contacting the primary author directly. PMID:22397818

  15. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research area if more data on drought impacts become available.

  16. The Implication of Using NVivo Software in Qualitative Data Analysis: Evidence-Based Reflections.

    PubMed

    Zamawe, F C

    2015-03-01

    For a long time, electronic data analysis has been associated with quantitative methods. However, Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) are increasingly being developed. Although the CAQDAS has been there for decades, very few qualitative health researchers report using it. This may be due to the difficulties that one has to go through to master the software and the misconceptions that are associated with using CAQDAS. While the issue of mastering CAQDAS has received ample attention, little has been done to address the misconceptions associated with CAQDAS. In this paper, the author reflects on his experience of interacting with one of the popular CAQDAS (NVivo) in order to provide evidence-based implications of using the software. The key message is that unlike statistical software, the main function of CAQDAS is not to analyse data but rather to aid the analysis process, which the researcher must always remain in control of. In other words, researchers must equally know that no software can analyse qualitative data. CAQDAS are basically data management packages, which support the researcher during analysis. PMID:26137192

  17. Barriers to Employment as Experienced by Disabled People: A Qualitative Analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shier, Michael; Graham, John R.; Jones, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one-to-one…

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of Rater Behavior on an L2 Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three…

  19. Description and Analysis of the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Qualitative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephan; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    This qualitative report of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Girls' Education Activity (GEA) focuses on the results of project activities in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Section 1 outlines the overall purpose and goals of the GEA; contrasts the major tactics of the program in each country; and describes the…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Loneliness Dynamics Involved with College Long-Distance Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lorenzen, Kailee

    2014-01-01

    The present phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews of all 16 female, sophomore students involved in respective distance relationships at a private, selective, comprehensive, Midwest university. Among other results found in the study, the present article specifically addressed the loneliness dynamics involved with…

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Rater Behavior on an L2 Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three

  2. Sucrose quantitative and qualitative analysis from tastant mixtures based on Cu foam electrode and stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hui, Guohua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Jian; Zheng, Le

    2016-04-15

    Quantitative and qualitative determination of sucrose from complex tastant mixtures using Cu foam electrode was investigated in this study. Cu foam was prepared and its three-dimensional (3-D) mesh structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cu foam was utilized as working electrode in three-electrode electrochemical system. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning results exhibited the oxidation procedure of sucrose on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results indicated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sucrose from four tastant mixtures with low limit of detection (LOD) of 35.34μM, 49.85μM, 45.89μM, and 26.81μM, respectively. The existence of quinine, NaCl, citric acid (CA) and their mixtures had no effect on sucrose detection. Furthermore, mixtures containing different tastants could be discriminated by non-linear double-layered cascaded series stochastic resonance (DCSSR) output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak parameters of CV measurement data. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener analysis of commercial food. PMID:26675854

  3. Negative effects of internet interventions: a qualitative content analysis of patients' experiences with treatments delivered online.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Schmidt, Brad; Carlbring, Per

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions are defined as the delivery of health care-related treatments via an online or a smartphone interface, and have been shown to be a viable alternative to face-to-face treatments. However, not all patients benefit from such treatments, and it is possible that some may experience negative effects. Investigations of face-to-face treatments indicate that deterioration occurs in 5-10% of all patients. The nature and scope of other negative effects of Internet interventions is, however, largely unknown. Hence, the current study explored patients' reported negative experiences while undergoing treatments delivered via the Internet. Data from four large clinical trials (total N = 558) revealed that 9.3% of patients reported some type of negative effects. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the patients' responses to open-ended questions regarding their negative experiences. Results yielded two broad categories and four subcategories of negative effects: patient-related negative effects (insight and symptom) and treatment-related negative effects (implementation and format). Results emphasize the importance of always considering negative effects in Internet-based interventions, and point to several ways of preventing such experiences, including regular assessment of negative events, increasing the flexibility of treatment schedules and therapist contact, as well as prolonging the treatment duration. PMID:25705924

  4. Iranian Nurses’ Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients’ care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses’ status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran’s council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses’ status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including “the policy making framework”, “perceived status of nurses in policy making”, and “the manner of nurses’ participation in policy making”. The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran’s macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications. PMID:26089996

  5. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature☆

    PubMed Central

    Kertzman, Paulo; Lenza, Mario; Pedrinelli, André; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed. PMID:26229889

  6. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT). Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring), were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method), and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT constructs 'coherence' and 'cognitive participation' appeared to be crucial drivers in the initial stage of the process. Conclusions Stepped care for depression is received positively in primary care. While it is difficult for the implementation of a full stepped-care approach to occur within a short time frame, clinicians can make progress towards achieving a stepped-care approach, particularly within the context of a QIC. Creating a shared understanding within multidisciplinary teams of what constitutes depression, reaching a consensus about the content of depression care, and the division of tasks are important when addressing the implementation process. PMID:22293362

  7. Piltdown Man: Combining the Instruction of Scientific Ethics and Qualitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, John B.

    1999-11-01

    In combination with lectures on scientific method and the problems of scientific misconduct in a freshman chemistry course at The University of Alabama, a laboratory experiment was developed to allow students to feel some of the sense of scientific discovery associated with the exposure of the Piltdown Man fraud. This is accomplished by modifying a commonly performed freshman chemistry laboratory experiment, qualitative analysis of group III metal ions. Pieces of chalk are treated with chromium, manganese, and iron to simulate the treatment used to forge the Piltdown "fossils"; students can use techniques in qualitative analysis schemes for the group III ions to determine whether the samples are "forgeries" and if so which metal ion(s) were used.

  8. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in Asari Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Xie, De-mei; Liu, Guang-xue; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Zhang, Zi-wei; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-02-01

    To develop an analytic method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in 42 samples of two official species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma( ARR) (37 samples of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with different collection time and 5 samples of Asarum sieboldiivar. seoulense). The HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS methods for the qualitative and UPLC-PDA methods for the quantitative analysis were established. Dodecatetraenamides A, B were identified by comparing the retention time, UV absorption spectrum and quasi-molecular ion peak [ M + H]+ with the reference compound using HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS. The content of dodecatetraenamides A and B in ARR were determined by UPLC-PDA. The separation was successfully carried out on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column eluted with mobile phases of water (A) and acetonitrile (B) in gradient program (0-3 min, 35% B; 3-5 min, 35%-36% B; 5-6 min, 36%-43% B; 6 min-11 min 43% B; 11-12 min, 43%-100% B). The column temperature was 45 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The flow rate was 0.6 mL · min(-1). On one level mass spectrometry scanning, the results showed that the quasi-molecular ion [M + H] + of both dodecatetraenamides A and B were m/z 248.20. The quantitative method with UPLC-PDA has made the baseline separation of the constituents, which were reported as mixtures in the most literatures. The average recovery of dodecatetraenamides A and B were 97.90% and 99.86%, the relative standard deviation were 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. The contents of dodecatetraenamides A, B in all ARR samples was in the range of 0.11-3.89 and 0.24-6.65 mg · g(-1). Their contents reduced with the extension of storage time. Compared with the samples of 2013, the average content of the two constituents in the samples collected in year 2002-2003 reduced 34% and 36%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared the A. sieboldii var. seoulense and A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with the same collective time and production area, the average contents of the two constituents in latter were up to (1.59 ± 0.75) mg · g(-1) and (2.90 ± 1.17) mg · g(-1), respectively, significantly higher than that in A. sieboldii var. seoulense (dodecatetraenamide A were (0.78 ± 0.52) mg · g(-1), dodecatetraenamide B were (1.69 ± 0.83) mg · g(-1)) (P < 0.05). The content of the dodecatetraenamide A in overground part was in the range of 0.11-0.33 mg · g(-1), dodecatetraenamide B was 0. 24-0.60 mg · g(-1), which were much lower than that of the underground part of ARR (dodecatetraenamide A was in the range of 0.73-3.89 mg · g(-1), dodecatetraenamide B was 2.11-6.24 mg · g(-1)). The method was certified to be simple, accurate and reliable and could be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamide A and B in different species of ARR, also can be used for the comprehensive quality control of traditional Chinese medicine, Asari Radix et Rhizoma. PMID:26137692

  9. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  10. Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. Methods The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Results Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Conclusions Patients perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially reduce access barriers for those who might not otherwise consider using acupuncture. In addition, the community acupuncture model may offer individuals the opportunity for increased frequency of treatments, which raises pertinent questions about the doseresponse relationship of acupuncture and health outcomes. This study provides preliminary data for future evaluations of the quality and effectiveness of community acupuncture. Future studies should include the perspectives of patients who initiated, and subsequently, discontinued community acupuncture treatment. PMID:24168022

  11. A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32 months) had no significant effect on sanitation conditions. Conclusions Findings corroborate those from a similar study in Belize, and comparison suggests the need for financial community support and the possibly tenuous reliance on local champions in the absence of adequate government support for operations and maintenance. Sub-determinants to the necessary conditions are also discussed which have implications for school sanitation in Bangladesh and may have broader relevance for other low-income countries though further research is needed. PMID:24397540

  12. Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents’ and physicians’ experiences of stillbirth–a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate. In the months and years following a stillbirth, these parents continue to memorialize their children as part of their family. Conclusions Hospitals need to examine the physical environment for deliveries and, wherever possible, offer designated private areas with staff trained in stillbirth care. Training programs in obstetrics need to better address the bereavement needs of parents following a stillbirth, and research is needed to evaluate effective bereavement interventions, accounting for cultural variation. Critical improvements are also needed for mental health support beyond hospitalization. Finally, medical professionals and parents can play an important role in reversing the stigma that surrounds stillbirth. PMID:23181615

  13. Evidence-based health information from the users’ perspective – a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based information is a precondition for informed decision-making and participation in health. There are several recommendations and definitions available on the generation and assessment of so called evidence-based health information for patients and consumers (EBHI). They stress the importance of objectively informing people about benefits and harms and any uncertainties in health-related procedures. There are also studies on the comprehensibility, relevance and user-friendliness of these informational materials. But to date there has been little research on the perceptions and cognitive reactions of users or lay people towards EBHI. The aim of our study is to define the spectrum of consumers’ reaction patterns to written EBHI in order to gain a deeper understanding of their comprehension and assumptions, as well as their informational needs and expectations. Methods This study is based on an external user evaluation of EBHI produced by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), commissioned by the IQWiG. The EBHI were examined within guided group discussions, carried out with lay people. The test readers’ first impressions and their appraisal of the informational content, presentation, structure, comprehensibility and effect were gathered. Then a qualitative text analysis of 25 discussion transcripts involving 94 test readers was performed. Results Based on the qualitative text analysis a framework for reaction patterns was developed, comprising eight main categories: (i) interest, (ii) satisfaction, (iii) reassurance and trust, (iv) activation, (v) disinterest, (vi) dissatisfaction and disappointment, (vii) anxiety and worry, (viii) doubt. Conclusions Many lay people are unfamiliar with core characteristics of this special information type. Two particularly critical issues are the description of insufficient evidence and the attendant absence of clear-cut recommendations. Further research is needed to examine strategies to explain the specific character of EBHI so as to minimize unintended or adverse reaction patterns. The presented framework describes the spectrum of users’ reaction patterns to EBHI. It may support existing best practice models for editing EBHI. PMID:24112403

  14. Qualitative Data Analysis with Hypertext: A Case of New York City Crack Dealers

    PubMed Central

    Manwar, Ali; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2009-01-01

    Ethnography has become a useful method in procuring sensitive information from the ‘hidden population’ who may not be accessed with quantitative survey techniques. Researchers are generating huge amounts of qualitative/textual data. Qualitative data require careful planning in storage, coding, retrieval, and analysis. Personal computers have solved data management problems, but data analysis remains problematic. The paper describes some qualitative data management and analytic problems faced by a team of ethnographers engaged in a longitudinal epidemiological study of cocaine and crack distribution/abuse in New York City. Ethnographic data was collected through multi-session open-ended interviews with more than one hundred cocaine/crack dealers and extensive field-notes were kept. Compared to other programs, a hypertext software — Folio Views — was more useful in solving (a) data management and (b) analytical problems. Authors used this software to handle more than twenty-five thousand pages of texts; search and sort the database by any words or codes; and retrieve relevant textual materials needed to complete comparative and thematic analysis. Authors analyzed the data from outsiders' point of view (etic) as well as from the viewpoint of the subject populations (emic). PMID:19809524

  15. The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

    2004-11-01

    We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

  16. Coping Strategies to Hinder Intention to Leave in Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Habibzadeh, Hosein; Alilu, Leyla; Shakibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the high clinical challenges, differences in coping strategies, and high workload in nurses, there is a need to develop strategies to keep them in the profession. The aim of the present study was to explore the Iranian nurses’ coping strategies to deal with intention to leave. Methods: A qualitative content analysis was used to obtain rich data. We performed 13 in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Urmia Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran, selected through purposive sampling. Constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Three categories and eleven subcategories emerged during data analysis. The extracted categories and sub-categories consisted of (I) Self-empowerment (practical knowledge increase, responsibility, finding identification of the nurse, balancing work and life, seek support and humanitarian interests), (II) Self-controlling (tolerance, avoidance, the routine-based performance), and (III) Pursuing opportunities for advancement and promotion (community development, planning for higher education). Conclusion: Nurses make attempts to individually manage problems and stressors perceived from bedside that have led them to leave the bedside; these efforts have been effective in some cases but sometimes they are ineffective due to discontinuous training and relative competence in terms of how to manage and deal with problems. It is suggested that nurses should learn strategies scientifically to meet the challenges of bedside. Through enabling and supporting behaviors and creating opportunities for growth and professional development, nursery managers can help nurses to stay and achieve improvement of the quality of cares. PMID:26448959

  17. Shame and self-acceptance in continued flux: qualitative study of the embodied experience of significant weight loss and removal of resultant excess skin by plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fran; Farrants, Jacqui R

    2013-09-01

    This study explored the embodied experience of body change using a qualitative design. Eight previous plastic surgery patients of a London hospital took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews 1 year post a plastic surgery procedure to remove excess skin around their abdomen, resulting from weight loss. Participant interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two sub-themes titled 'Shame of the hidden body' and 'Lack of acceptance; the future focused body' are presented in this article. Findings are considered in relation to theories of 'Body Shame' and in the current cultural context. PMID:23104996

  18. When Are Qualitative Testing Results Sufficient To Predict a Reduction in Illnesses in a Microbiological Food Safety Risk Assessment?

    PubMed

    Ebel, Eric D; Williams, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    Process models that include the myriad pathways that pathogen-contaminated food may traverse before consumption and the dose-response function to relate exposure to likelihood of illness may represent a "gold standard" for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Nevertheless, simplifications that rely on measuring the change in contamination occurrence of a raw food at the end of production may provide reasonable approximations of the effects measured by a process model. In this study, we parameterized three process models representing different product-pathogen pairs (i.e., chicken-Salmonella, chicken-Campylobacter, and beef-E. coli O157:H7) to compare with predictions based on qualitative testing of the raw product before consideration of mixing, partitioning, growth, attenuation, or dose-response processes. The results reveal that reductions in prevalence generated from qualitative testing of raw finished product usually underestimate the reduction in likelihood of illness for a population of consumers. Qualitative microbial testing results depend on the test's limit of detection. The negative bias is greater for limits of detection that are closer to the center of the contamination distribution and becomes less as the limit of detection is moved further into the right tail of the distribution. Nevertheless, a positive bias can result when the limit of detection refers to very high contamination levels. Changes in these high levels translate to larger consumed doses for which the slope of the dose-response function is smaller compared with the larger slope associated with smaller doses. Consequently, in these cases, a proportional reduction in prevalence of contamination results in a less than proportional reduction in probability of illness. The magnitudes of the biases are generally less for nonscalar (versus scalar) adjustments to the distribution. PMID:26219357

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

  20. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  1. A qualitative analysis of New Zealand retailers’ responses to standardised packaging legislation and tobacco industry opposition

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John; Hoek, Janet; Darroch, Ella; Wood, Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many of the approximately 8000 New Zealand retailers selling tobacco are small stores that tobacco companies have represented as victims of policy measures designed to reduce smoking. Despite this depiction, many retailers experience considerable ambivalence in selling tobacco, a product they know harms their customers. We explored how retailers perceived the proposed introduction of standardised (or ‘plain’) packaging and their assessment of arguments made by tobacco companies in submissions on proposed standardised packaging legislation. Participants Using qualitative in-depth interviews, we recruited and interviewed 23 retailers of dairies (small convenience stores), small supermarkets, and service stations. Analyses Data were analysed using a protocol-driven approach; this stance enabled direct analysis of tobacco companies’ arguments, particularly those purporting to represent retailers’ concerns. Results Retailers were concerned about the financial implications of standardised packaging and the effects it may have on their ability to provide rapid and efficient customer service. However, few thought standardised packaging would foster illicit trade or spawn further regulation; most placed public health goals ahead of tobacco companies’ ‘rights’, and many supported government intervention to protect population health. Conclusions Retailers held ambivalent views on standardised packaging; while they were concerned about short-term effects on their business, they recognised the harm smoking causes. Policymakers and health researchers could collaborate more effectively with retailers by assisting them to create financially viable roles more compatible with public health objectives. PMID:26553840

  2. Problems and consequences in the use of professional interpreters: qualitative analysis of incidents from primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what problems are reported by healthcare professionals in primary healthcare concerning the use of interpreters and what the problems lead to. The study involved a single case in a real-life situation with qualitative content analysis of 60 incident reports written by different healthcare professionals. The main problems documented were related to language, such as lack of the interpreters with proficiency in a particular language, and to organisational routines, with difficulties in the availability of interpreters and access to the interpreter agency. The problems reported led to incorrect use of time and resources, which increased the workload and thus delayed treatment. Other consequences were limited possibilities to communicate and thus consultation was carried out without a professional interpreter, using family members instead. The results highlight the importance of developing good co-operation between the interpreter agency and the primary healthcare centre in order to fulfil the existing policy of using professional interpreters to provide the right interpreter at the right time and guarantee high-quality care. PMID:21790876

  3. Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested. PMID:22833855

  4. Nurses’experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sodeify, Roghieh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following professional standards is the main concern of all managers in organizations. The functions of nurses are essential for both productivity and improving health organizations. In human resources management, supporting nursing profession is of ultimate importance. However, nurses’ experiences of perceived support, which are affected by various factors in workplace, have not been clearly explained yet. Thus, this study aimed to explain nurses’ experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors. Materials and Methods: This study is a qualitative research in which 12 nurses were selected through purposive sampling among nurses in university hospitals affiliated to University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran, during 2011-2012. Data collection was conducted through deep interviews with semi-structural questions. All interviews were first recorded and then transcribed. Finally, data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results: The four main themes indicated that nurses experienced their workplace as non-supportive. Themes such as poor organizational climate, low social dignity, poor work conditions, and managers’ ignorance to individual and professional values were considered as inhibitory factors to support. Conclusion: Nursing managers can promote nurses’ positive support perceptions through recognizing inhibitory factors and applying fair solutions and take benefits of their positive consequences including high efficacy, self-esteem, and organizational commitment to promote the quality of care. PMID:23983753

  5. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    PubMed

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. PMID:25841749

  6. Florida Department of Health Workers’ Response to 2004 Hurricanes: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Reissman, Dori B.; Scharf, Ted; Shultz, James M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examinations of the demands on public health workers after disaster exposure have been limited. Workers provide emergency care while simultaneously risking injury, damage to personal property, and threats to their own and their family’s safety. We examined the disaster management experiences of 4323 Florida Department of Health workers 9 months after their response to 4 hurricanes and 1 tropical storm during a 7-week period in August and September of 2004. Methods Participants completed a self-report questionnaire focused on work performance, mental and physical health, daily functioning, sleep disturbance, physiological arousal, and injury and work demand at the time of the hurricanes, and answered open-ended questions that described their experiences in more detail. Results A qualitative analysis conducted from the write-in data yielded 4 domains: (1) work/life balance; (2) training for disaster response role; (3) workplace support; and (4) recovery. Conclusions Study findings highlighted a number of concerns that are important to public health workers who provide emergency care after a disaster and, in particular, multiple disasters such as during the 2004 hurricane season. The findings also yielded important recommendations for emergency public health preparedness. PMID:24618166

  7. Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua M; Fauci, Jenny E; Goodman, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    Three out of 10 women and 1 out of 10 men in the United States experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner-often with devastating costs. In response, hundreds of residential and community-based organizations have sprung up to support survivors. Over the last decade, many of these organizations have joined other human service systems in adopting trauma-informed care (TIC), an approach to working with survivors that responds directly to the effects of trauma. Although there have been various efforts to describe TIC in domestic violence (DV) programs, there is a need to further synthesize this discourse on trauma-informed approaches to better understand specific applications and practices for DV programs. This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with some publications focusing narrowly on individual healing and others emphasizing the broader community and social contexts of violence and oppression. Implications for future research and evaluation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594925

  8. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  9. Advances in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative and qualitative environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Jaume; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC-HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS-MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC-HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows. PMID:26138893

  10. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

  11. A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

  12. Expediting the Analysis of Qualitative Data in Evaluation: A Procedure for the Rapid Identification of Themes from Audio Recordings (RITA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P.; VanDyke, Erika; Kornbluh, Mariah

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative data offer advantages to evaluators, including rich information about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences. However, qualitative data analysis is labor-intensive and slow, conflicting with evaluators' needs to provide punctual feedback to their clients. In this method note, we contribute to the literature on rapid…

  13. Dissecting life with a Jewish scalpel: a qualitative analysis of Jewish-centered family life.

    PubMed

    Semans, M P; Fish, L S

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights findings from a qualitative analysis of the ways in which Jewish families identify how Judaism influences their lives. A theoretical sample of two religious and two cultural families were chosen from a larger sample of 48 Jewish families in Central New York. The qualitative part of this study, which was part of a larger multimethod investigation, was done in order to gather inductively any data that would allow the researchers to build a theory about a particular type of ethnic identity--Jewish identity--and how it affects family dynamics. Eleven categories emerged from this study, which suggest that this particular type of ethnic identity influences many family dynamics, for example, styles of communicating, parenting, values, and family rituals. The participants seem to dissect the world with a "Jewish scalpel." This "scalpel" informs their daily interactions, their parenting styles, and their childrens' self-perceptions. PMID:10742935

  14. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

  15. Patient and Partner Experiences With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and CPAP Treatment: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Aloia, Mark S; Martire, Lynn M; Buysse, Daniel J; Strollo, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated factors associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for sleep apnea from the patients' and their partners' perspective. This qualitative research study explored patients' and partners' experiences of CPAP and facilitators and barriers to CPAP use, and elicited suggestions for a first-time CPAP user program. Data from 27 participants were collected via four sleep apnea patient and four partner focus groups. Qualitative content analysis identified five themes: knowledge of sleep apnea, effects of sleep apnea, effects of CPAP, barriers and facilitators of CPAP, and ideas for a new user support program. Patients and partners emphasized the importance of partner involvement in the early CPAP treatment period. These data suggest consideration of a couple-oriented approach to improving CPAP adherence. PMID:25203283

  16. Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for Advancing Criminological Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2016-02-01

    The qualitative analysis of individual cases has a prominent place in the development of criminological theory, yet progression in the scientific study of crime has largely been viewed as a distinctly quantitative endeavor. In the process, much of the theoretical depth and precision supplied by earlier methods of criminological knowledge production have been sacrificed. The current work argues for a return to our criminological roots by supplementing quantitative analyses with the qualitative inspection of individual cases. We provide a specific example of a literature (i.e., criminal specialization/versatility) that has become increasingly quantitative and could benefit from the use of the proposed approach. We conclude by offering additional areas of research that might be advanced by our framework presented here. PMID:25185679

  17. A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

  18. Qualitative analysis of seized cocaine samples using desorption electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Natasha; Tahtouh, Mark; Kelly, Tamsin; Beavis, Alison; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of compounds found in seized drug material. In this study, DESI-MS was utilized in the screening analysis of illicit cocaine samples. The technique was also applied to the geographical origin determination of these samples. The limit of detection was determined to be 24.3 µg (or 3.47 µg/mm(2) ) and the analysis time was less than 1 minute per sample. The intra-day and inter-day precision for the detection of cocaine was 11 % and 42 %, respectively; therefore the quantitative data provided by DESI-MS was limited in its use for accurate determination of cocaine concentration in a sample. Using the quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer, the presence of cocaine and impurities detected were confirmed by accurate tandem MS data. The qualitative chemical profiles obtained using DESI-MS were compared to two popular analysis techniques, GC-MS and LC-MS. The effects of a range of adulterants including caffeine, procaine, levamisole, lignocaine, paracetamol, and atropine on the detectability of cocaine were also investigated. It was found that the addition of these adulterants in a cocaine sample did not prevent the detection of the analyte itself (there was slight enhancement in some samples), which was useful in drug detection. The detection of truxillines in the seized samples by DESI-MS aided in the preliminary determination of geographical origin, i.e., Bolivian, Peruvian or Colombian leaf origin. The application of DESI-MS to the qualitative analysis and screening of seized cocaine samples demonstrates the potential and applicability of the technique to the fast chemical profiling of illicit samples. PMID:24943809

  19. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P. H.; Burren, Christine P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate young people’s attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods Four focus groups with 11–14 and 15–16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and “You can do anything”. Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Conclusions Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life. PMID:26465770

  20. Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. Objectives: This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Results: Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. Conclusions: The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status. PMID:25031848

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of AgNOR proteins in chemically induced rat liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trerè, D; Derenzini, M; Sirri, V; Montanaro, L; Grigioni, W; Faa, G; Columbano, G M; Columbano, A

    1996-11-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of silver-stained nuclear organizer regions (AgNOR) proteins was performed during hepatocarcinogenesis induced in rats initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) using the resistant-hepatocyte model. Nuclear proteins from control hepatocytes, hyperplastic nodules, and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and specifically silver-stained for AgNOR proteins. No difference was observed in the distribution pattern of the silver-stained bands among control, hyperplastic, or cancer cells. The same was true if human cirrhosis and HCC were compared. The evaluation of individual AgNOR protein amounts by computerized densitometric analysis showed that 1) the integrated optical density value of the total AgNOR proteins was greatest in cancer cells, lesser in hyperplastic hepatocytes, and lowest in control hepatocytes, and 2) the amount of the two major silver-stained proteins, nucleolin (105 kd) and protein B23 (39 kd), was always a constant percentage of total AgNOR proteins. An experiment using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed that, during hepatocarcinogenesis, AgNOR protein quantity progressively increased and was significantly related to the increased hepatocyte labeling index. These results show that AgNOR protein distribution changes during hepatocarcinogenesis are caused neither by the synthesis of new AgNOR proteins nor by an unbalanced synthesis of individual AgNOR proteins, but to an increased synthesis of nucleolin and protein B23, which is associated with a progressive increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. PMID:8903409

  2. A qualitative analysis of perceptions and barriers to therapeutic lifestyle changes among homeless hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Moczygemba, Leticia R.; Kennedy, Amy K.; Marks, Samantha A.; Goode, Jean-Venable R.; Matzke, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Homeless individuals have higher rates of hypertension when compared to the general population. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) have the potential to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension, yet TLCs can be difficult for homeless persons to implement due to competing priorities. Objectives To identify: 1) Patients' knowledge and perceptions of hypertension and TLCs; and 2) Barriers to implementation of TLCs. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with patients from an urban healthcare clinic within a homeless center. Patients ≥ 18 years old with a diagnosis of hypertension were eligible. Three focus groups were conducted at which time saturation was deemed to have been reached. Focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed for data analysis. A systematic, inductive analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. Results A total of 14 individuals participated in one of three focus groups. The majority were female (n = 8) and African-American (n = 13). Most participants were housed in a shelter (n=8). Others were staying with family or friends (n=3), living on the street (n=2), or had transitioned to housing (n=1). Participants had a mixed understanding of hypertension and how TLCs impacted hypertension. They were most familiar with dietary and smoking recommendations and less familiar with exercise, alcohol, and caffeine TLCs. Participants viewed TLCs as being restrictive, particularly with regards to diet. Family and friends were viewed as helpful in encouraging some lifestyle changes such as healthy eating, but less helpful in having a positive influence on quitting smoking. Participants indicated that they often have difficulty implementing lifestyle changes because of limited meal choices, poor access to exercise equipment, and being uninformed about recommendations. Conclusions Despite the benefits of TLCs, homeless individuals experience unique challenges to implementing TLCs. Future research should focus on developing and testing interventions that facilitate TLCs among homeless persons. The findings from this study should assist healthcare practitioners, including pharmacists, with providing appropriate and effective education. PMID:22835705

  3. A qualitative analysis of a consensus process to develop quality indicators of injury care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus methodologies are often used to create evidence-based measures of healthcare quality because they incorporate both available evidence and expert opinion to fill gaps in the knowledge base. However, there are limited studies of the key domains that are considered during panel discussion when developing quality indicators. Methods We performed a qualitative content analysis of the discussions from a two-day international workshop of injury control and quality-of-care experts (19 panel members) convened to create a standardized set of quality indicators for injury care. The workshop utilized a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness method. Workshop proceedings were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used constant comparative analysis to analyze the transcripts of the workshop to identify key themes. Results We identified four themes in the selection, development, and implementation of standardized quality indicators: specifying a clear purpose and goal(s) for the indicators to ensure relevant data elements were included, and that indicators could be used for system-wide benchmarking and improving patient outcomes; incorporating evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives to identify important clinical problems and potential measurement challenges; considering context and variations between centers in the health system that could influence either the relevance or application of an indicator; and contemplating data collection and management issues, including availability of existing data sources, quality of data, timeliness of data abstraction, and the potential role for primary data collection. Conclusion Our study provides a description of the key themes of discussion among a panel of clinical, managerial, and data experts developing quality indicators. Consideration of these themes could help shape deliberation of future panels convened to develop quality indicators. PMID:23594974

  4. Qualitative analysis of aphid and primary parasitoid trophic relations of genus Alloxysta (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Charipinae).

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Suay, Mar; Janković, Marina; Selfa, Jesús; Van Veen, F J Frank; Tomanović, Željko; Kos, Katarina; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2014-12-01

    Charipinae hyperparasitoids affect effectiveness of the primary parasitoids of aphids by decreasing their abundance and modifying their behavior. As a result, increase of aphid populations can cause severe yield losses in some crops. Therefore, ecological studies on the subfamily Charipinae have a great economical and biological importance. Host specificity of these hyperparasitoids is still under debate and for many Charipinae species very little is known about their trophic relations. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of the trophic relationships between the Charipinae species of the genus Alloxysta Förster and their aphid and primary parasitoids hosts, worldwide. Within this subfamily, Alloxysta arcuata (Kieffer), Alloxysta brevis (Thomson), Alloxysta fuscicornis (Hartig), and Alloxysta victrix (Westwood) are the most generalist species sharing many aphid hosts, while for primary parasitoid hosts these are A. arcuata, A. brevis, Alloxysta pleuralis (Cameron), and A. victrix. Alloxysta citripes (Thomson), Alloxysta halterata (Thomson), Alloxysta leunisii (Hartig), and Alloxysta ramulifera (Thomson) appear, up to now, as the most specialized in relation to the primary parasitoid hosts. Primary parasitoids of the genera Aphidius Nees, Lysiphlebus Förster, Praon Haliday, and Trioxys Haliday are the most common hosts for Alloxysta species, and the common host aphid species belong to the genera Aphis L., Uroleucon Mordvilko, Myzus Passerini, and Sitobion Mordvilko. Host range is analyzed for each Alloxysta species, as well as the extent of overlap between them. We used Jaccard's distance and a hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the host range dissimilarity. A permutation test has been applied to analyze if the host range dissimilarity is significantly different from what is expected by chance. We have calculated additional qualitative measures that complement well the Alloxysta niche overlap analysis and evaluated their host specificity using different indices and bipartite networks. PMID:25291146

  5. Managing menopause: a qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Griffin, Christine

    2003-04-01

    This article reports on a qualitative social constructionist analysis that aims to examine the ways in which menopause and women's bodies are represented in self-help texts. In particular, we aim to compare texts with a more traditional 'medical' approach and others taking a more 'woman-centred' perspective. Four diverse self-help books on menopause and HRT available in England were analysed to examine the ways in which women, menopause and midlife were portrayed, and to investigate the construction of notions of knowledge, expertise and responsibility. The selected texts were published between 1992 and 1996 and covered a range of perspectives, including medical, alternative and feminist. Results showed that menopause was constructed as a 'deficiency disease' in all four texts, although in three of the texts this 'disease' discourse was counterposed by the simultaneous use of a 'menopause as natural' discourse. Menopause was also constructed as inherently complex and confusing, as were women's bodies. A discourse of 'change' was drawn upon in which menopause was portrayed as only one of the stressful events women must cope with at midlife. Finally, most of the texts drew on a discourse of 'management' rather than one of 'treatment' or 'cure' when discussing how menopause, and women's relationship to menopause should be handled. The medical profession was constructed as the primary source of expertise on menopause and women's bodies, although responsibility for the 'management' of menopause as a chronic condition lay solely with individual women. Although there were a number of differences in representations of menopause in medically oriented self-help texts and those adopting a more woman-centred perspective, our analysis also revealed several areas of similarity and overlap with regard to the construction of menopause and its 'management'. The implications of these findings for the construction of menopause in self-help texts for women are discussed. PMID:12639580

  6. Parents' decision-making about the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters: II. Qualitative results.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Perez, Samara; King, Leonora; Vivion, Maryline; Dubé, Eve; Rosberger, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the reasons given by parents who accepted or refused the HPV vaccine for their daughters in the context of a free provincial school-based vaccination program. A random sample of parents of 9-10 y old girls completed a mail-in questionnaire. Parents' responses to 2 open-ended questions were assessed using content analysis. Coding themes were derived from the Health Belief Model. 806 parents returned and answered the relevant items. 88% of these parents decided to vaccinate their daughter. The primary reasons for parents' acceptance was the perceived benefits (e.g., health protection, cancer/HPV prevention) and cues to action (e.g., physician recommendation, trusting the school vaccine program). Reasons for parental refusal included barriers (e.g., fear of side effects) and low susceptibility (e.g., their daughter is not at risk). Both groups of parents had unanswered questions, doubts and often inaccurate information. This study provides unique insight into parents' perspectives concerning the decision making process for their daughter. There appears to be a need for accurate and complete information to assure informed HPV vaccine decision-making by parents and to increase HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25692507

  7. The performance of health workers in Ethiopia: results from qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Lindelow, Magnus; Serneels, Pieter

    2006-05-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to understanding what determines the performance of health workers. This paper reports on findings from focus group discussions with both health workers and users of health services in Ethiopia, a country with some of the poorest health outcomes in the world. We describe performance problems identified by both health users and health workers participating in the focus group discussions, including absenteeism and shirking, pilfering drugs and materials, informal health care provision and illicit charging, and corruption. In the second part of the paper we present four structural reasons why these problems arise: (i) the ongoing transition from health sector dominated by the public sector, towards a more mixed model; (ii) the failure of government policies to keep pace with the transition towards a mixed model of service delivery; (iii) weak accountability mechanisms and the erosion of professional norms in the health sector; and (iv) the impact of HIV/AIDS. The discussions underline the need to base policies on a micro-analysis of how health workers make constrained choices, both in their career and in their day to day professional activities. PMID:16309805

  8. Parents’ decision-making about the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters: II. Qualitative results

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Perez, Samara; King, Leonora; Vivion, Maryline; Dubé, Eve; Rosberger, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the reasons given by parents who accepted or refused the HPV vaccine for their daughters in the context of a free provincial school-based vaccination program. A random sample of parents of 9–10 y old girls completed a mail-in questionnaire. Parents’ responses to 2 open-ended questions were assessed using content analysis. Coding themes were derived from the Health Belief Model. 806 parents returned and answered the relevant items. 88% of these parents decided to vaccinate their daughter. The primary reasons for parents’ acceptance was the perceived benefits (e.g., health protection, cancer/HPV prevention) and cues to action (e.g., physician recommendation, trusting the school vaccine program). Reasons for parental refusal included barriers (e.g., fear of side effects) and low susceptibility (e.g., their daughter is not at risk). Both groups of parents had unanswered questions, doubts and often inaccurate information. This study provides unique insight into parents’ perspectives concerning the decision making process for their daughter. There appears to be a need for accurate and complete information to assure informed HPV vaccine decision-making by parents and to increase HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25692507

  9. Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  10. Qualitative task analysis to enhance sports characterization: a surfing case study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports' structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals' behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities' characterization through the observation, surfer's opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave's components and constraints and the surfboards' qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  11. A chemical energy approach of avascular tumor growth: multiscale modeling and qualitative results.

    PubMed

    Ampatzoglou, Pantelis; Dassios, George; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Kourea, Helen P; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    In the present manuscript we propose a lattice free multiscale model for avascular tumor growth that takes into account the biochemical environment, mitosis, necrosis, cellular signaling and cellular mechanics. This model extends analogous approaches by assuming a function that incorporates the biochemical energy level of the tumor cells and a mechanism that simulates the behavior of cancer stem cells. Numerical simulations of the model are used to investigate the morphology of the tumor at the avascular phase. The obtained results show similar characteristics with those observed in clinical data in the case of the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the breast. PMID:26558163

  12. Patients’ Experiences of Cancer Diagnosis as a Result of an Emergency Presentation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Black, Georgia; Sheringham, Jessica; Spencer-Hughes, Vicki; Ridge, Melanie; Lyons, Mairead; Williams, Charlotte; Fulop, Naomi; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancers diagnosed following visits to emergency departments (ED) or emergency admissions (emergency presentations) are associated with poor survival and may result from preventable diagnostic delay. To improve outcomes for these patients, a better understanding is needed about how emergency presentations arise. This study sought to capture patients' experiences of this diagnostic pathway in the English NHS. Methods Eligible patients were identified in a service evaluation of emergency presentations and invited to participate. Interviews, using an open-ended biographical structure, captured participants' experiences of healthcare services before diagnosis and were analysed thematically, informed by the Walter model of Pathways to Treatment and NICE guidance in an iterative process. Results Twenty-seven interviews were conducted. Three typologies were identified: A: Rapid investigation and diagnosis, and B: Repeated cycles of healthcare seeking and appraisal without resolution, with two variants where B1 appears consistent with guidance and B2 has evidence that management was not consistent with guidance. Most patients’ (23/27) experiences fitted types B1 and B2. Potentially avoidable breakdowns in diagnostic pathways caused delays when patients were conflicted by escalating symptoms and a benign diagnosis given earlier by doctors. ED was sometimes used as a conduit to rapid testing by primary care clinicians, although this pathway was not always successful. Conclusions This study draws on patients' experiences of their diagnosis to provide novel insights into how emergency presentations arise. Through these typologies, we show that the typical experience of patients diagnosed through an emergency presentation diverges significantly from normative pathways even when there is no evidence of serious service failures. Consultations were not a conduit to diagnosis when they inhibited patients’ capacity to appraise their own symptoms appropriately and when they resulted in a reluctance to seek further healthcare. Recommendations The findings also point to potentially avoidable breakdowns in the diagnostic process. In particular, to encourage patients to return to the GP if symptoms escalate, a stronger emphasis is needed on diagnostic uncertainty in discussions between patients and doctors in both primary and secondary care. To improve appropriate access to rapid investigations, systems are needed for primary care to communicate directly with secondary care at the time of referral. PMID:26252203

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

  14. Stories behind the symptoms: a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 9/11 rescue and recovery workers.

    PubMed

    Bills, Corey B; Dodson, Nancy; Stellman, Jeanne M; Southwick, Steven; Sharma, Vansh; Herbert, Robin; Moline, Jacqueline M; Katz, Craig L

    2009-09-01

    A qualitative study of the experiences of rescue and recovery workers/volunteers at Ground Zero following the terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 is reported. Information was extracted from a semi-structured clinical evaluation of 416 responders who were the initial participants in a large scale medical and mental health screening and treatment program for 9/11 responders. Qualitative analysis revealed themes that spanned four categories- occupational roles, exposures, attitudes/experiences, and outcomes related to the experience of Ground Zero. Themes included details regarding Ground Zero roles, grotesque experiences such as smells, the sense of the surreal nature of responding, and a turning to rituals to cope after leaving Ground Zero. These findings personalize the symptom reports and diagnoses that have resulted from the 9/11 responders' exposure to Ground Zero, yielding richer information than would otherwise be available for addressing the psychological dimensions of disasters. This work shows that large scale qualitative surveillance of trauma-exposed populations is both relevant and feasible. PMID:19585238

  15. Application of loop analysis for the qualitative assessment of surveillance and control in veterinary epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systems for animal disease mitigation involve both surveillance activities and interventions to control the disease. They are complex organizations that are described by partial or imprecise data, making it difficult to evaluate them or make decisions to improve them. A mathematical method, called loop analysis, can be used to model qualitatively the structure and the behavior of dynamic systems; it relies on the study of the sign of the interactions between the components of the system. This method, currently widely used by ecologists, has to our knowledge never been applied in the context of animal disease mitigation systems. The objective of the study was to assess whether loop analysis could be applied to this new context. We first developed a generic model that restricted the applicability of the method to event-based surveillance systems of endemic diseases, excluding the emergence and eradication phases. Then we chose the mitigation system of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Cambodia as an example of such system to study the application of loop analysis to a real disease mitigation system. Results Breaking down the generic model, we constructed a 6-variables model to represent the HPAI H5N1 mitigation system in Cambodia. This construction work improved our understanding of this system, highlighting the link between surveillance and control which is unclear in traditional representations of this system. Then we analyzed the effect of the perturbations to this HPAI H5N1 mitigation system that we interpreted in terms of investment in a given compartment. This study suggested that increasing intervention at a local level can optimize the system’s efficiency. Indeed, this perturbation both decreases surveillance and intervention costs and reduces the disease’s occurrence. Conclusion Loop analysis can be applied to disease mitigation systems. Its main strength is that it is easy to design, focusing on the signs of the interactions. It is a simple and flexible tool that could be used as a precursor to large-scale quantitative studies, to support reflection about disease mitigation systems structure and functioning. PMID:23941327

  16. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. Results We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. Conclusions This study illustrates how behavior analysis can be used to understand discrepancies between planned and observed behaviors. By examining the contextual conditions that may influence behaviors, improvements in implementation strategies can be suggested. Thereby, the adherence to a planned intervention can be improved, and/or revisions of the intervention be suggested. PMID:22085585

  17. Importance of Relationship Context in HIV Transmission: Results From a Qualitative Case-Control Study in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health. PMID:24524490

  18. Situated knowledge of pathogenic landscapes in Ghana: Understanding the emergence of Buruli ulcer through qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Petra; Ricciardi, Vincent; Smithwick, Erica; Machado, Mario; Ferring, David; Hausermann, Heidi; Bug, Leah

    2016-02-01

    Successfully addressing neglected tropical diseases requires nuanced understandings of pathogenic landscapes that incorporate situated, contexualized community knowledge. In the case of Buruli ulcer (BU), the role of social science is vital to investigate complex human-environment interactions and navigate different ways of knowing. We analyze a set of qualitative data from our interdisciplinary project on BU in Ghana, drawing from participatory mapping, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, and open-ended survey questions to explore how people in endemic and non-endemic areas see themselves embedded in changing environmental and social landscapes. We pay particular attention to landscape disturbance through logging and small-scale alluvial gold mining. The results from our participatory research underscore the holistic nature of BU emergence in landscapes, encapsulated in partial and incomplete local descriptions, the relevance of collective learning to distill complexity, and the potential of rich qualitative data to inform quantitative landscape-disease models. PMID:26761375

  19. Internet suicide in Japan: a qualitative content analysis of a suicide bulletin board.

    PubMed

    Ikunaga, Ai; Nath, Sanjay R; Skinner, Kenneth A

    2013-04-01

    Netto shinju, or Internet group suicide, is a contemporary form of Japanese suicide where strangers connect on the Internet and make plans to commit suicide together. In the past decade, numerous incidents have occurred whereby young Japanese make contact on the Internet, exchange tips on suicide methods, and make plans to meet offline for group/individual suicide. A systematic qualitative content/thematic analysis of online communications posted on a popular Japanese suicide bulletin board yielded a textured, thematic understanding of this phenomenon. Themes identified reflected Shneidman's theory of suicide but with an emphasis on interpersonal concerns that are embedded in Japanese culture. PMID:23666942

  20. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

  1. What Leads Indians to Participate in Clinical Trials? A Meta-Analysis of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jatin Y.; Phadtare, Amruta; Rajgor, Dimple; Vaghasia, Meenakshi; Pradhan, Shreyasee; Zelko, Hilary; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, large developing nations have substantially increased their participation in multi-site studies. This participation has raised ethical concerns, among them the fear that local customs, habits and culture are not respected while asking potential participants to take part in study. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable among Indian subjects, since despite the large number of participants, little is known regarding what factors affect their willingness to participate in clinical trials. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies evaluating the factors and barriers, from the perspective of potential Indian participants, contributing to their participation in clinical trials. We searched both international as well as Indian-specific bibliographic databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane, Openjgate, MedInd, Scirus and Medknow, also performing hand searches and communicating with authors to obtain additional references. We enrolled studies dealing exclusively with the participation of Indians in clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted by three researchers, with disagreement being resolved by consensus. Results Six qualitative studies and one survey were found evaluating the main themes affecting the participation of Indian subjects. Themes included Personal health benefits, Altruism, Trust in physicians, Source of extra income, Detailed knowledge, Methods for motivating participants as factors favoring, while Mistrust on trial organizations, Concerns about efficacy and safety of trials, Psychological reasons, Trial burden, Loss of confidentiality, Dependency issues, Language as the barriers. Conclusion We identified factors that facilitated and barriers that have negative implications on trial participation decisions in Indian subjects. Due consideration and weightage should be assigned to these factors while planning future trials in India. PMID:20505754

  2. A Qualitative Analysis Evaluating The Purposes And Practices Of Clinical Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Y.-X.; Gadd, C. S.; Kohorst, K.L.; Rosenbloom, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives An important challenge for biomedical informatics researchers is determining the best approach for healthcare providers to use when generating clinical notes in settings where electronic health record (EHR) systems are used. The goal of this qualitative study was to explore healthcare providers’ and administrators’ perceptions about the purpose of clinical documentation and their own documentation practices. Methods We conducted seven focus groups with a total of 46 subjects composed of healthcare providers and administrators to collect knowledge, perceptions and beliefs about documentation from those who generate and review notes, respectively. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis to probe and classify impressions collected from focus group subjects. Results We observed that both healthcare providers and administrators believe that documentation serves five primary domains: clinical, administrative, legal, research, education. These purposes are tied closely to the nature of the clinical note as a document shared by multiple stakeholders, which can be a source of tension for all parties who must use the note. Most providers reported using a combination of methods to complete their notes in a timely fashion without compromising patient care. While all administrators reported relying on computer-based documentation tools to review notes, they expressed a desire for a more efficient method of extracting relevant data. Conclusions Although clinical documentation has utility, and is valued highly by its users, the development and successful adoption of a clinical documentation tool largely depends on its ability to be smoothly integrated into the provider’s busy workflow, while allowing the provider to generate a note that communicates effectively and efficiently with multiple stakeholders. PMID:24734130

  3. Exploring patient priorities among long-term conditions in multimorbidity: A qualitative secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morden, Andrew; Bower, Peter; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Richardson, Jane; Sanders, Tom; Stevenson, Fiona; Ong, Bie N

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A lack of agreement between health-care providers and patient priorities can impact the health-care provider–patient relationship, treatment concordance and potentially health outcomes. Evidence suggests that people living with multiple morbidities do prioritise among their long-term conditions. However, the evidence revealing the underlying reasons behind this prioritisation remains limited. Given the potential implications for day-to-day self-management activity and ultimately patient outcomes, this study aims to explore how and why people with multimorbidity prioritise some long-term conditions over others and what the potential implications may be for self-management activity, and in turn, suggest how such information may help clinicians negotiate the management of multimorbidity patients. Methods: A secondary analysis of qualitative data was conducted utilising four existing data sets collated from the three research centres involved. Purposive sampling provided a sample of 41 participants who had multimorbidity. The research team collectively coded and analysed the data thematically. Results: All participants, except two, identified one ‘main’ priority long-term condition. Current priorities were arrived at by participants making comparisons between their long-term conditions, specifically by trading off the various attributes, impacts and perceived consequences of their individual long-term conditions. Two main themes emerged as to why participants identified a particular main long-term condition: (a) proximate issues surrounding barriers to functional health and (b) prioritisation of long-term conditions perceived to have a particular future risk. Conclusions: The recent focus on multimorbidity within the medical literature reflects its prevalence. It is therefore important to understand the complexities of the multimorbidity illness experience. We have added to the limited literature on condition prioritisation by revealing some novel understandings of the process of condition prioritisation which can feed into patient–provider consultations in order to allow better communication and treatment planning as well as, ultimately, optimise patient outcomes. PMID:26770680

  4. A qualitative analysis of health professionals’ job descriptions for surgical service delivery in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ever increasing demand for surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa is creating a need to increase the number of health workers able to provide surgical care. This calls for the optimisation of all available human resources to provide universal access to essential and emergency surgical services. One way of optimising already scarce human resources for health is by clarifying job descriptions to guide the scope of practice, measuring rewards/benefits for the health workers providing surgical care, and informing education and training for health professionals. This study set out to determine the scope of the mandate to perform surgical procedures in current job descriptions of surgical care health professionals in Uganda. Methods A document review was conducted of job descriptions for the health professionals responsible for surgical service delivery in the Ugandan Health care system. The job descriptions were extracted and subjected to a qualitative content data analysis approach using a text based RQDA package of the open source R statistical computing software. Results It was observed that there was no explicit mention of assignment of delivery of surgical services to a particular cadre. Instead the bulk of direct patient related care, including surgical attention, was assigned to the lower cadres, in particular the medical officer. Senior cadres were assigned to perform predominantly advisory and managerial roles in the health care system. In addition, a no cost opportunity to task shift surgical service delivery to the senior clinical officers was identified. Conclusions There is a need to specifically assign the mandate to provide surgical care tasks, according to degree of complexity, to adequately trained cadres of health workers. Health professionals’ current job descriptions are not explicit, and therefore do not adequately support proper training, deployment, defined scope of practice, and remuneration for equitable surgical service delivery in Uganda. Such deliberate assignment of mandates will provide a means of increasing surgical service delivery through further optimisation of the available human resources for health. PMID:25859744

  5. Towards successful coordination of electronic health record based-referrals: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals remain prone to coordination breakdowns. Clear referral policies, well-defined roles and responsibilities for key personnel, standardized procedures and communication protocols, and adequate human resources must be in place before implementing an EHR to facilitate referrals. PMID:21794109

  6. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the media – a qualitative content analysis of Norwegian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Huiberts, Åshild; Hjørnevik, Mari; Mykletun, Arnstein; Skogen, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a condition characterized by experiencing symptoms after perceived exposure to weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs). There is substantial debate concerning the aetiology of EHS, but experimental data indicate no association between EHS and actual presence of EMFs. Newspapers play a key role in shaping peoples’ understanding of health-related issues. The aim of this study was to describe the content of newspaper articles concerning aetiology and treatment of EHS. Design Qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles. Setting Norwegian newspaper articles were identified using a comprehensive electronic media archive. Participants Norwegian newspaper articles published between 1 February 2006 and 11 August 2010. Main outcome measures Statements coded according to source of information, whether it was pro or con scientific evidence on EHS aetiology, and type of intervention presented as treatment option for EHS. Results Of the statements concerning EHS aetiology (n = 196), 35% (n = 69) were categorized as pro evidence, 65% (n = 127) as con evidence. Of the statements about EHS interventions assessed, 78% (n = 99) were categorized as ‘radiance reduction’, 4% (n = 5) as ‘complementary medicine’, and 18% (n = 23) as ‘other’. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychotropic drugs were never presented as possible treatment options for EHS. Conclusions The newspaper media discourse of EHS aetiology and recommended treatment interventions is much in conflict with the current evidence in the field. The majority of statements concerning aetiology convey that EHS is related to the presence of weak EMFs, and radiance reduction as the most frequently conveyed measure to reduce EHS-related symptoms. PMID:24319582

  7. Community nurse assessment of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors--a qualitative analysis within the CroHort study.

    PubMed

    Andrić, Adriana; Vuletić, Silvije

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify major determinants of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors among subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The data for the qualitative analysis were obtained from the Croatian Adult Health Cohort Study (CroHort). The data analysis was based on the principles of Grounded Theory. We have generated the concept of an individual in a vicious circle of risky health behaviour, defined by the low level of motivation and unfavourable personal characteristics which in interaction with unsupportive social environment adversely influence one's health behaviour, leading to negative health outcomes that produce negative effects on one's motivation and social environment. Community nurses assessed that the respondents often weren't adequately recognising their CVD risk and were very reluctant about the change in their risky habits. Our results are supported by the quantitative analysis and are complementing other analyses of the cardiovascular risks within the CroHort study. PMID:22338744

  8. Qualitative analysis of patients feedback from a PROMs survey of cancer patients in England

    PubMed Central

    Corner, Jessica; Wagland, Richard; Glaser, Adam; Richards, Sir Mike

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined how free-text comments from cancer survivors could complement formal patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), as part of the England PROMs survey programme for cancer. Design A qualitative content analysis was conducted of responses to a single open-ended free-text question placed at the end of the cross-sectional population-based postal questionnaire. Setting Individuals were identified through three UK Cancer Registries and questionnaires were posted to their home addresses. Participants A random sample of individuals (n=4992) diagnosed with breast, colorectal, non-Hodgkins lymphoma or prostate cancer at 1, 2, 3 and 5?years earlier. Results 3300 participants completed the survey (68% response rate). Of these 1056 (32%) completed the free-text comments box, indicating a high level of commitment to provide written feedback on patient experience. Almost a fifth (19%) related experiences of excellent care during the treatment phase, with only 8% reporting negative experiences. This contrasted with experiences of care after primary cancer treatment where the majority were negative. Factors impacting negatively upon patient-reported outcomes included the emotional impact of cancer; poor experiences of treatment and care; comorbidities, treatment side effects, social difficulties and inadequate preparation for a wide range of sometimes long-lasting on-going physical and psychological problems. Mediating factors assisting recovery incorporated both professional-led factors, such as quality of preparation for anticipated problems and aftercare services, and participant-led factors, such as learning from other cancer survivors and self-learning through trial and error. The support of friends and family was also a factor in participants' outcomes. Conclusions This analysis of free-text comments complements quantitative analysis of PROMs measure's by illuminating relationships between factors that impact on quality of life (QoL) and indicate why cancer patients may experience significantly worse QoL than the general population. The data suggest more systematic preparation and aftercare for individuals to self-manage post-treatment problems might improve QoL outcomes among cancer survivors. PMID:23578681

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of environmental samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorov, N. B.; Popov, A. M.; Zaytsev, S. M.; Labutin, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    The key achievements in the determination of trace amounts of components in environmental samples (soils, ores, natural waters, etc.) by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry are considered. Unique capabilities of this method make it suitable for rapid analysis of metals and alloys, glasses, polymers, objects of cultural heritage, archaeological and various environmental samples. The key advantages of the method that account for its high efficiency are demonstrated, in particular, a small amount of analyzed material, the absence of sample preparation, the possibility of local and remote analysis of either one or several elements. The use of chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for qualitative sample classification is described in detail. Various approaches to improving the figures of merit of quantitative analysis of environmental samples are discussed. The achieved limits of detection for most elements in geochemical samples are critically evaluated. The bibliography includes 302 references.

  10. Qualitative time trend analysis of ground water monitoring networks : An example from The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Frapporti, G; Vriend, S P; van Gaans, P F

    1994-03-01

    The detection of significant (short-term) time trends is one of the major goals of ground water monitoring networks. These trends can be used to recognize active geochemical processes and potential environmental threats. This paper presents a case history of time trend analysis on macrochemical parameters of ground water quality. It shows the difficulties and traps that are generally encountered in such studies. The data used originated from the Dutch National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network. This network is operative since 1979, and keeps track of the ground water composition at 350 locations at two depths (ca. 10 and 25 m below surface; general density, one location per 100 km(2)). Prior to the trend analysis the data set was divided into geochemically homogeneous groups using fuzzy c-means clustering. Each group represents a specific ground water type, characterized by a distinct source (seawater, surface water or precipitation) and a unique combination of dominant geochemical processes (e.g. mineralization of organic matter, carbonate dissolution and cation exchange).To study trends qualitatively, the concentrations of the various macro-constituents in ground water are correlated with time of sampling. The nonparametric and outlier insensitive Spearman rank correlation coefficient is computed per well screen. A frequency distribution of correlation coefficients is formed by combining the Spearman correlation coefficients of all individual wells within a homogeneous group. This distribution is tested for trends against the appropriate theoretical distribution of zero correlation by use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. The type of trend is derived from the shape of the distribution.Most ground water types show statistically significant qualitative trends, of which many, however, are caused by changes in the sampling and analytical procedures over the monitoring period. After elimination of differences in limits of detection for NO3, total-P, and NH4, most trends in these compounds disappeared. In some water types trends for alkalinity, apparent trends for pH, Ec, and total-P are caused by variations in the laboratory practice, e.g. varying storage procedures, leading to erroneous analyses. Other parameters showed statistically significant trends, related to geochemical processes.The most interesting and most substantial trends are observed in the water type characterized by infiltrating rainwater with agricultural pollutants. In this water type the lowering ground water table induces lower rates of evapotranspiration, giving lower concentrations in time of conservative parameters (Cl, Na, Ca). The aerated zone is enlarged, resulting in increased oxidation of organic material, less efficient nutrient (NO3, K) uptake by plant roots, leading to increased ground water concentrations of nutrients. In other water types trends are quantitatively small. However, trends are not necessarily linear, and all should be closely monitored in future. PMID:24213709

  11. Qualitative aspects in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of qualitative results in analytical methods is needed to estimate selectivity and devise criteria for chemical identification, particularly for mass spectrometric analysis. Low-pressure gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS) has been demonstrated to increase the speed of anal...

  12. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined as such. Also, a test alone has only limited power to overcome those difficulties. Test developers, policy-makers, healthcare providers and funders need to use these insights in overcoming barriers to point-of-care testing programs. PMID:26275231

  13. A Qualitative Secondary Evaluation of Statewide Follow-Up Interviews for Abnormal Newborn Screening Results for Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Hemoglobinopathy

    PubMed Central

    La Pean, Alison; Collins, Jenelle L.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Eskra, Kerry L.; Roedl, Sara; Tluczek, Audrey; Farrell, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to assess parental acceptability of large-scale, telephone follow-up regarding their infants' newborn screening (NBS) results indicating carrier status for sickle cell hemoglobinopathy (SCH) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Analysis of 195 interview transcripts focused on parents' responses to two open-ended questions “What was your reaction to being called by me?” and “What do you think of the state newborn screening program having follow-up people calling parents like you?” Responses were coded using conventional content analysis procedures and non-parametric tests were performed to analyze quantitative data. Results Most parents reported favorable opinions about the follow-up. Favorable opinions were associated with several emotional reactions to receiving follow-up (p<0.001), and three reasons why parents found the interview beneficial (p<0.05): it provided information, clarified NBS results, and answered questions. Seventeen parents of SCH carriers reportedly had not been told their infant's NBS results and received them for the first time during the follow-up interview. Conclusion Parents of CF and SCH carrier infants had favorable opinions and identified specific benefits to receiving follow-up contact. This analysis demonstrates an information deficit among carrier parents and illustrates the importance of NBS follow-up and need for comprehensive communication and counseling. PMID:22261754

  14. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  16. Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

  17. ‘Well London’ and the benefits of participation: results of a qualitative study nested in a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Derges, Jane; Clow, Angela; Lynch, Rebecca; Jain, Sumeet; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Renton, Adrian; Draper, Alizon

    2014-01-01

    Background Well London is a multicomponent community engagement and coproduction programme designed to improve the health of Londoners living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. To evaluate outcomes of the Well London interventions, a cluster randomised trial (CRT) was conducted that included a longitudinal qualitative component, which is reported here. The aim is to explore in depth the nature of the benefits to residents and the processes by which these were achieved. Methods The 1-year longitudinal qualitative study was nested within the CRT. Purposive sampling was used to select three intervention neighbourhoods in London and 61 individuals within these neighbourhoods. The interventions comprised activities focused on: healthy eating, physical exercise and mental health and well-being. Interviews were conducted at the inception and following completion of the Well London interventions to establish both if and how they had participated. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analysed using Nvivo. Results Positive benefits relating to the formal outcomes of the CRT were reported, but only among those who participated in project activities. The extent of benefits experienced was influenced by factors relating to the physical and social characteristics of each neighbourhood. The highest levels of change occurred in the presence of: (1) social cohesion, not only pre-existing but also as facilitated by Well London activities; (2) personal and collective agency; (3) involvement and support of external organisations. Where the physical and social environment remained unchanged, there was less participation and fewer benefits. Conclusions These findings show interaction between participation, well-being and agency, social interactions and cohesion and that this modulated any benefits described. Pathways to change were thus complex and variable, but personal well-being and local social cohesion emerged as important mediators of change. PMID:24694622

  18. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Gautier, D C; Kline, J L; Flippo, K A; Gaillard, S A; Letzring, S A; Hegelich, B M

    2008-10-01

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola. PMID:19044517

  19. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Letzring, S. A.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2008-10-15

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola.

  20. Global Handwashing Day 2012: a qualitative content analysis of Chinese social media reaction to a health promotion event

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jingxian; Hao, Yi; Ying, Yuchen; Chan, Benedict Shing Bun; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Background Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users’ reactions to a health promotion campaign using Global Handwashing Day (GHD) 2012 as an example. Methods We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 552 Weibo posts generated on GHD 2012 by Weibo users with 1000 or more followers with the Chinese keyword for “handwashing.” We categorized the Weibo posts into groups by keywords that frequently appeared in the data set. These groups were either exact reposts of an original post, or they conveyed similar information. Results We observed the interconnections between traditional media and social media in handwashing promotion. Social media were found to serve as amplifiers of contents provided by traditional media. We observed the contextualization of global hygiene messages in a unique national social media market in China. Discussion Our study showed that social media and traditional media are two interconnected arms of the GHD campaign in China. Our analysis demonstrated that public health campaigns in China can be evaluated using social media data. The themes and topics identified in this study will help public health practitioners evaluate future social media handwashing promotion campaigns. PMID:26668765

  1. Temporal Patterns of Subjective Experiences and Self-Regulation during Ramadan Fasting among Elite Archers: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jolly; Hamidan, Shazarina; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Some major competitions (e.g. London Olympics, 2012) are scheduled during the Ramadan fasting month. Little attention has been given to explore the archers performance related subjective experiences with a qualitative method. Therefore, this study addressed individual archers subjective experiences within the framework of self-regulation during Ramadan. Methods Eleven elite Malaysian Muslim fasting archers volunteered to participate in the study. Grounded theory was the qualitative approach used to examine the subjective experiences of athletes during Ramadan. Interviews were conducted and inductive content analysis was adopted to identify the temporal patterns of self-regulation of subjective experiences across the fasting period. Results Inductive content analysis identified (a) physical, (b) mental,(c) emotional, (d) behavioral, and (e) spiritual experiences. Overall patterns revealed that experiences associated with physical, emotional, behavioral, and spiritual dimensions dominated in the first phase of fasting, while the mental dimension surfaced increasingly in the latter phase of fasting. Conclusions The trend showed changes in the patterns of experiences among the major domains across the temporal dimension. Athletes reported increased subjective experiences in mental factors toward the latter half of the fasting period. Practitioners should emphasize on mental aspects of training, as these appear to be salient in archery performance. PMID:22375239

  2. Qualitative analysis of the right - left scattering asymmetry in ? low-energy collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashevskaya, E. I.; Nikitin, E. E.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.

    1997-02-01

    The experimental results on the right - left scattering asymmetry of helicopter-polarized 0953-4075/30/3/023/img8 atoms, either in state 0953-4075/30/3/023/img9 or 0953-4075/30/3/023/img10 colliding with Ar, are presented and qualitatively interpreted in the framework of the sudden-locking model. It is shown that this model provides a simple description of key features of the cross section difference and the relation between it and the total cross section for scattering of unpolarized atoms.

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xu; Chen, Yun-Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses’ lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. The statistic difference was significant (P = 0.000). However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P = 0.417; renal insufficiency: P = 0.194; thrombocytopenia: P = 0.079; and cerebral or visual symptoms: P = 0.296). The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0.557 (P < 0.005). Impaired liver function (P = 0.180), renal insufficiency (P = 0.077) and cerebral or visual symptoms (P = 0.118) were not related to adverse outcomes. The 24-h proteinuria value (HDP: r = 0.685; PE: r = 0.521), liver enzyme value (HDP: r = 0.519; PE: r = 0.501), and creatinine value (HDP: r = 0.511; PE: r = 0.398) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes both in PE and HDP, and the corresponding logistic regression equation can be produced. Conclusions: The 24-h proteinuria value is still an important diagnostic criterion for PE, and deletion of 24-h proteinuria value from diagnostic criteria for severe PE was not recommended. The diagnostic criteria in ACOG guideline need to be verified in Chinese women. PMID:26608977

  4. A qualitative analysis of the effects of a comorbid disordered gambling diagnosis with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Igor; Clark, Cameron M; Hodgins, David C; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-03-01

    Little research has examined the association between disordered gambling and psychosis. In addition, clinicians treating schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders rarely screen for or treat comorbid gambling problems due to diagnostic overshadowing. Thus, the effects of disordered gambling on symptoms of schizophrenia and vice versa remain largely unexplored and unidentified in research and clinical practice. The goal of the present study was to explore qualitatively the reciprocal associations between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and disordered gambling through content and functional analyses from the perspective of the affected individual. Eight participants who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and disordered gambling participated in a qualitative interview examining key antecedents associated with their gambling, as well as perceived functional consequences of gambling. Content analysis revealed unique patterns of responses specific to individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that are not typically observed in individuals with disordered gambling alone. Specifically, gambling as filling a need for activity, and gambling as a means of connecting with society/world were the notable reasons for engaging in problematic gambling. Furthermore, some, but not all participants described a direct exacerbation of their psychosis by gambling and a greater involvement in gambling due to their symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26777882

  5. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  6. Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Qualitative Analysis of Barriers to Routine Use.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX. PMID:26654934

  7. Diabetes Portrayals in North American Print Media: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated how media coverage has portrayed diabetes as newsworthy. Methods. The quantitative component involved tabulating diabetes coverage in 2 major Canadian newspapers, 1988–2001 and 1991–2001. The qualitative component focused on high-profile coverage in 2 major US magazines and 2 major Canadian newspapers, 1998–2000. Results. Although coverage did not consistently increase, the quantitative results suggest an emphasis on linking diabetes with heart disease and mortality to convey its seriousness. The qualitative component identified 3 main ways of portraying type 2 diabetes: as an insidious problem, as a problem associated with particular populations, and as a medical problem. Conclusions. Overall, the results suggest that when communicating with journalists, researchers and advocates have stressed that diabetes maims and kills. Yet even when media coverage acknowledged societal forces and circumstances as causes, the proposed remedies did not always include or stress modifications to social contexts. Neither the societal causes of public health problems nor possible societal remedies automatically received attention from researchers or from journalists. Skilled advocacy is needed to put societal causes and solutions on public agendas. PMID:16131643

  8. Enhancing genomic laboratory reports from the patients' view: A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Heather; Fan, Audrey L.; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Green, Jamie; Feldman, Lynn; Bonhag, Michele; Zallen, Doris T.; Segal, Michael M.; Williams, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a family genomic laboratory report designed to communicate genome sequencing results to parents of children who were participating in a whole genome sequencing clinical research study. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with parents of children who participated in a whole genome sequencing clinical research study to address the elements, language and format of a sample family‐directed genome laboratory report. The qualitative interviews were followed by two focus groups aimed at evaluating example presentations of information about prognosis and next steps related to the whole genome sequencing result. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: (i) Parents described a continual search for valid information and resources regarding their child's condition, a need that prior reports did not meet for parents; (ii) Parents believed that the Family Report would help facilitate communication with physicians and family members; and (iii) Parents identified specific items they appreciated in a genomics Family Report: simplicity of language, logical flow, visual appeal, information on what to expect in the future and recommended next steps. Parents affirmed their desire for a family genomic results report designed for their use and reference. They articulated the need for clear, easy to understand language that provided information with temporal detail and specific recommendations regarding relevant findings consistent with that available to clinicians. PMID:26086630

  9. Qualitative nontarget analysis of landfill leachate using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jernberg, Joonas; Pellinen, Jukka; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

    2013-01-15

    Nontarget analysis means that a sample is analysed without preselection of the studied analytes. While target analysis attempts to determine whether certain selected compounds are present in the sample, nontarget analysis is performed to explore what unknown compounds can be found. We developed a nontarget method using a landfill leachate sample as a complex test sample. The method was based on the use of a gas chromatograph-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC-TOF-MS) for final analysis and a deconvolution computer application for data processing. This nontarget analysis method was tested and validated by applying it to a landfill leachate sample spiked with 11 organic pollutants that were treated as unknowns. Sensitivity was found to be the most critical parameter affecting the success of nontarget analysis. The limit of identification (LOI) was 2500 ng L(-1) for four of the 11 compounds, 500 ng L(-1) for three compounds and 100 ng L(-1) for one compound. Three compounds were not detected in any of the spiked samples. A six-stage identification process was developed based on the spiking experiments. The process was based on the forward fit value of the library hit, the number of deconvoluted ions and the accurate mass scoring of the measured ions. The process was applied to an unspiked leachate water sample. Altogether, 44 compounds were tentatively identified in the sample. Elemental compositions of 36 components were additionally determined for which an unequivocal compound identification could not be given. Nontarget analysis with GC-TOF-MS is a promising method for the qualitative analysis of complex water samples. However, we conclude that the computer application for nontarget analysis needs improvement to decrease the amount of manual work needed in the identification process. PMID:23200403

  10. Post-traumatic growth: a qualitative analysis of experiences regarding positive psychological changes among Iranian women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer diagnosis is an extremely stressful experience that has a profound impact on a patient’s life. Cancer related perceived stress and complications may lead to the experience of positive psychological changes and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Since there is lack of qualitative research assessing the experience of PTG in Iranian women with breast cancer, this study aims to investigate experiences relating to PTG of Iranian women. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was selected to explore the experiences of Iranian women with PTG. Data were gathered using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 eligible patients, which were then transcribed and analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Data gathering and analyses were conducted simultaneously. In addition, MAXQDA software was used for data management. Results: In this study, the participants were 18 Iranian women between the ages of 31 and 65 years. Four prominent themes were extracted from the participant’s statements that demonstrated the Iranian women’s experiences with breast cancer-induced psychological growth and maturity: 1) appreciate of life, 2) stability, 3) spiritual prosperity, and 4) effective interaction. Conclusion: Health care professionals are strongly recommended to design robust and timely intervention programs to improving PTG among breast cancer survivors and reduce their perceived distress resulting from cancer diagnosis. PMID:26435823

  11. Challenges of the Health Research System in a Medical Research Institute in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Momeni, Khalil; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Medical research institute is the main basis for knowledge production through conducting research, and paying attention to the research is one of the most important things in the scientific communities. At present, there is a large gap between knowledge production in Iran compared to that in other countries. This study aimed to identify the challenge of research system in a research institute of medical sciences in Iran. Matherials and Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in the first 6 months of 2013. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 16 heads of research centers in a research institute of medical sciences. The required data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 10.0 software. Results: Six themes identified as challenges of research system. The themes included barriers related to the design and development, and approval of research projects, the implementation of research projects, the administrative and managerial issues in the field of research, the personal problems, publishing articles, and guidelines and recommendations. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the following suggestions can be offered: pushing the research towards solving the problems of society, employing the strong executive and scientific reseach directors in the field of research, providing training courses for researchers on how to write proposals, implementing administrative reforms in the Deputy of Research and Technology, accelerating the approval of the projects through automating the administrative and peer-reviewing processes. PMID:25560335

  12. Dual Recovery among People with Serious Mental Illnesses and Substance Problems: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Yarborough, Micah T.; Polen, Michael R.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Individuals with serious mental illnesses are more likely to have substance-related problems than those without mental health problems. They also face more difficult recovery trajectories as they cope with dual disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about individuals’ perspectives regarding their dual recovery experiences. Methods This qualitative analysis was conducted as part of an exploratory mixed-methods study of mental health recovery. Members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest (a group-model, not-for-profit, integrated health plan) who had serious mental illness diagnoses were interviewed four times over two years about factors affecting their mental health recovery. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded with inductively-derived codes. Themes were identified by reviewing text coded “alcohol or other drugs.” Results Participants (N = 177) were diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 75, 42%), bipolar I/II disorder (n = 84, 48%), or affective psychosis (n = 18, 10%). At baseline, 63% (n = 112) spontaneously described addressing substance use as part of their mental health recovery. When asked at follow-up, 97% (n = 171) provided codeable answers about substances and mental health. We identified differing pathways to recovery, including through formal treatment, self-help groups or peer support, “natural” recovery (without the help of others), and continued but controlled use of alcohol. We found three overarching themes in participants’ experiences of recovering from serious mental illnesses and substance-related problems: Learning about the effects of alcohol and drugs provided motivation and a foundation for sobriety; achieving sobriety helped people to initiate their mental health recovery processes; and achieving and maintaining sobriety built self-efficacy, self-confidence, improved functioning and a sense of personal growth. Non-judgmental support from clinicians adopting chronic disease approaches also facilitated recovery. Conclusions Irrespective of how people achieved sobriety, quitting or severely limiting use of substances was important to initiating and continuing mental health recovery processes. Substance abuse treatment approaches that are flexible, reduce barriers to engagement, support learning about effects of substances on mental health and quality of life, and adopt a chronic disease model of addiction may increase engagement and success. Peer-based support like Alcoholics or Narcotics Anonymous can be helpful for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly when programs accept use of mental health medications. PMID:25491440

  13. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack of practical tools to encourage behavioural change was a key barrier for obese parents. Conclusions Well-funded, targeted social marketing campaigns will play an important role in the prevention and management of obesity. It is important that these campaigns are comprehensively evaluated and are backed up with structural supports to enable and encourage population subgroups to act upon messages. PMID:24517101

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of secondary metabolites and thus tested positive for the above tests. Various flavanoids and Phenolics were identified by paper chromatography based on their Rf values and significant colors. From the above study we conclude that Moringa and Ocimum are rich in natural antioxidants hence are potent source in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26941531

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Teeth and Evaluation of Amalgam Elements Penetration into Dental Matrix Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gazmeh, Meisam; Bahreini, Maryam; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Asnaashari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for qualitative analysis of healthy and carious teeth. The technique of laser ablation is receiving increasing attention for applications in dentistry, specifically for the treatment of teeth such as drilling of micro-holes and plaque removal. Methods: A quality-switched (Q-switched) Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser operating at wavelength of 1064 nm, pulse energy of 90 mJ/pulse, repetition rate of 2Hz and pulse duration of 6 ns was used in this analysis. In the process of ablation a luminous micro-plasma is normally generated which may be exploited for on-line elemental analysis via laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We propose laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a rapid, in situ and easy method for monitoring drilling process. Results: The results of elemental analysis show the presence of some trace elements in teeth including P, Ca, Mg, Zn, K, Sr, C, Na, H, O and the permeability of some amalgam (teeth filling materials) elements including Hg, Ag, Cu and Sn into dental matrix. Conclusion: This study addresses the ability of LIBS in elemental analysis of teeth and its feasibility in acute identification of healthy and carious teeth during drilling process for future clinical applications. PMID:25987971

  16. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of various elements in chromite ore by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Shi-li; Wang, Xiao-hui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Kind of the elements in chromite ore was firstly determined by ICP-AES. Twenty nine elements, such as Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Zn, Ca and Ni, were contained in the chromite sample based on the qualitative analysis. Then the contents of main elements Cr, Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, T, Si, Mn and V were measured. The chromite samples processing procedures have two steps, the first is decomposition by nitrate carbonate and sodium tetraborate at 950 degrees C for 30 min, then leaching by dilute hydrochloric acid at 80 degrees C for 10 min. The method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy with the RSDs between 0.48% and 2.05% and the recovery rates between 90.5% and 111.3%. PMID:20302125

  17. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

  18. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff.

    PubMed

    Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G

    2015-01-01

    Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

  19. Rotation parameters and shapes of 19 asteroids. Qualitative analysis and interpretation of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungalag, N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Lupishko, D. F.

    2003-10-01

    Using the combined method (amplitude-magnitude method plus the epoch method), we determined pole coordinates, sidereal rotation periods, senses of rotation and axial ratios of threeaxial ellipsoid figures for asteroids 158 Koronis, 167 Urda, 208 Lacrimosa, 211 Isolda, 263 Dresda, 268 Adorea, 277 Elvira, 311 Claudia, 321 Florentina, 344 Desiderata, 347 Pariana, 369 Aeria, 462 Eriphyla, 480 Hansa, 534 Nassovia, 631 Philippina, 720 Bohlina, 1223 Neckar, and 4954 Eric. For nine of them the determination was obtained for the first time. Using all available data on pole coordinates, sense of rotation and parameters of asteroid shapes, the qualitative analysis and interpretation of data on axis orientation, retrograde rotation and semi-axial ratios of asteroids were carried out.

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Life Course Adjustment to Multiple Morbidity and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Taylor, Jessica; Fredland, Nina; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Choban, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of limitations over the life course requires that women re-adapt to environmental barriers that they encounter over time. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to detail the life experiences associated with living with mobility, cognitive, and sensory loss experienced by a woman and her sister who participated in an on-going ethnographic study of mobility impairment in women. In-depth interviews were subjected to thematic, life course analysis. A family case study was interpreted as an exemplar for aging with early onset disability into multiple morbidity, which was described as a series of loss, recovery and re-engagement. Within the case study, the participant suggested that because her functional limitations were not accommodated earlier in life due to societal and family level disadvantage, functional limitations were more difficult to adjust to in later years. PMID:23437442

  1. A qualitative content analysis of global health engagements in Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute's stability operations lessons learned and information management system.

    PubMed

    Nang, Roberto N; Monahan, Felicia; Diehl, Glendon B; French, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Many institutions collect reports in databases to make important lessons-learned available to their members. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences collaborated with the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute to conduct a descriptive and qualitative analysis of global health engagements (GHEs) contained in the Stability Operations Lessons Learned and Information Management System (SOLLIMS). This study used a summative qualitative content analysis approach involving six steps: (1) a comprehensive search; (2) two-stage reading and screening process to identify first-hand, health-related records; (3) qualitative and quantitative data analysis using MAXQDA, a software program; (4) a word cloud to illustrate word frequencies and interrelationships; (5) coding of individual themes and validation of the coding scheme; and (6) identification of relationships in the data and overarching lessons-learned. The individual codes with the most number of text segments coded included: planning, personnel, interorganizational coordination, communication/information sharing, and resources/supplies. When compared to the Department of Defense's (DoD's) evolving GHE principles and capabilities, the SOLLIMS coding scheme appeared to align well with the list of GHE capabilities developed by the Department of Defense Global Health Working Group. The results of this study will inform practitioners of global health and encourage additional qualitative analysis of other lessons-learned databases. PMID:25826346

  2. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  3. Talking to Children about Maternal BRCA1/2 Genetic Test Results: A Qualitative Study of Parental Perceptions and Advice

    PubMed Central

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Garber, Judy E.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Hewitt, Larissa; Hamilton, Jennifer; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Family communication is the primary, initial means of educating the next, at-risk generation about hereditary cancer risk. In this study, in-depth parent narratives provided self-report of motivations, planning, satisfactions and regrets associated with sharing or not sharing maternal BRCA1/2 test results with young children and advice for parents considering disclosure and for genetic counselors. Interviews were conducted with 32 mothers tested for BRCA1/2 with children ages 8–21 years and 24 of their co-parents; interview narratives were analyzed qualitatively. Parents were concerned with both protecting and educating children about hereditary cancer risk. They expressed confidence that parents can constructively convey genetic information to minor children. Telling relieved most parents and satisfied a sense of parental duty. Parents strongly advised child-specific, age-appropriate tailoring of genetic information and emphasized conveying the positive, preventive utility of genetic information to children. Immunizing effects of disclosure were viewed as providing forewarning about and preparation for possible later family cancer diagnoses. Parents choosing not to tell children were advised to consider future disclosure. Narratives about parental sharing of BRCA1/2 test results with minor children support the feasibility of parental discussion of maternal genetic test results to the next at-risk generation. Results suggest development of intervention tools for parents would support decision-making and family communication and potentially reduce parental worry and regret. Recommendations are made for more active involvement by genetic counselors with tested parents around the topic of delivery of genetic information to children. PMID:23093334

  4. “Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rofail, Diana; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H.; Berardo, Carmen Galani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

  5. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-05-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

  6. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  7. What sex abusers say about their treatment: results from a qualitative study on pedophiles in treatment at a Canadian penitentiary clinic.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis was used to analyze the resulting material. The following themes are discussed based on the results of this analysis: (a) the participants' past experience of therapy; (b) motivations for choosing the La Macaza clinic for treatment; (c) the structure of the program; (d) the group dynamics; (e) the therapists; and (f) the hardships and difficulties of treatment. Results suggest that the therapists and the program may have a function of containment or holding. Although part of the therapeutic process involves a focus on identifying and reducing cognitive distortions, results also warn therapists against misusing this concept by applying it to legitimately different opinions. Findings are discussed in terms of possible program improvements. The authors conclude that greater attention must be given to process research. PMID:15914407

  8. Systems-Level Lipid Analysis Methodologies for Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Lipid Signaling Events During Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Chalfant, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence implicates a prominent role for lipid signaling molecules in the regulation of wound healing. These lipids regulate hemostasis, onset and resolution of inflammation, migration and proliferation cells, angiogenesis, epithelialization, and remodeling of collagen. The objective of this overview is to demonstrate the applicability of systems level lipid analyses to identify and quantify lipid involved in events leading to wound healing. Approach Current advances in liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have provided the means for carrying out quantitative and qualitative analysis of lipids at a systems level. This emerging field is collectively referred to as lipidomics and its potential in wound healing research is largely ignored. Results While comprehensive applications of lipidomics in wound healing are limited, studies carried out by the authors as well as others demonstrate distinct changes in the lipidome during the wound healing process. Innovation Until recently, investigations into lipids were limited to the study of a few lipids at a time. Lipidomics approaches provide the capability to quantitatively and qualitatively assay almost the full complement of lipid signaling circuits at the same time. This allows obtaining a system level understanding of changes to the entire lipidome during the wound healing process. Conclusion The technology provides promising approach to understanding new signaling pathways based on lipids involved in wound healing. The understanding gained from such studies has the potential for the development of novel lipid based treatment strategies to promote wound healing. PMID:24527363

  9. Quantitative & qualitative analysis of endothelial cells of donor cornea before & after penetrating keratoplasty in different pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aruna K.R.; Gupta, Roopam K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endothelial cells of the donor cornea are known to be affected quantitatively and qualitatively in different pathological conditions after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and this has direct effect on the clarity of vision obtained after PK. This study was undertaken to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in donor endothelial cells before and after PK in different pathological conditions. Methods: A prospective investigational analysis of 100 consecutive donor corneas used for penetrating keratoplasty between June 2006 and June 2008, was conducted. The patients were evaluated on the first day, at the end of first week, first month, third and six months and one year. Results: A decrease was observed in endothelial cell count in all pathological conditions. After one year of follow up the loss was 33.1 per cent in corneal opacity, 45.9 per cent in acute infective keratitis (AIK), 58.5 per cent in regrafts, 28.5 per cent in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK), 37 per cent in descemetocele, 27 per cent in keratoconus and 35.5 per cent in aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK) cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The endothelial cell loss was highest in regraft cases which was significant (P<0.05), while the least endothelial cell loss was seen in keratoconus cases. The cell loss was associated with increase in coefficient of variation (CV), i.e. polymegathism and pleomorphism. Inspite of this polymegathism and pleomorphism, the clarity of the graft was maintained. PMID:27121519

  10. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  11. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,

  12. Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (Inventor); Harris, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

  13. Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices–a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be aware that patients may not contact them about results, and they need to publicise their results handling processes to patients and take steps to reassure patients about confidentiality with regards to administrators. PMID:24885953

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning Malaria in Pregnancy: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Infection during pregnancy with falciparum or vivax malaria, as occurs in PNG, has health implications for mother and child, causing complications such as maternal anemia, low birth weight and miscarriage. This article explores knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria during pregnancy and it’s prevention in Madang, PNG, a high prevalence area. Methods As part of a qualitative study in Madang, exploring MiP, participatory techniques (free-listing and sorting) were conducted along with focus group discussions, in-depth interviews (with pregnant women, health staff and other community members) and observations in the local community and health facilities. Results The main themes explored were attitudes towards and knowledge of MiP, its risks, and prevention. Although there was a general awareness of the term “malaria”, it was often conflated with general sickness or with pregnancy-related symptoms. Moreover, many preventive methods for MiP were related to practices of general healthy living. Indeed, varied messages from health staff about the risks of MiP were observed. In addition to ideas about the seriousness and risk of MiP, other factors influenced the uptake of interventions: availability and perceived comfort of sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets were important determinants of usage, and women’s heavy workload influenced Chloroquine adherence. Conclusion The non-specific symptoms of MiP and its resultant conflation with symptoms of pregnancy that are perceived as normal have implications for MiP prevention and control. However, in Madang, PNG, this was compounded by the inadequacy of health staff’s message about MiP. PMID:25893405

  15. Engaging the Public to Identify Opportunities to Improve Critical Care: A Qualitative Analysis of an Open Community Forum

    PubMed Central

    Potestio, Melissa L.; Boyd, Jamie M.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Heyland, Daren; Oxland, Peter; Doig, Christopher J.; Zygun, Dave; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To engage the public to understand how to improve the care of critically ill patients. Design A qualitative content analysis of an open community forum (Café Scientifique). Setting Public venue in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants Members of the general public including patients, families of patients, health care providers, and members of the community at large. Methods A panel of researchers, decision-makers, and a family member led a Café Scientifique, an informal dialogue between the populace and experts, over three-hours to engage the public to understand how to improve the care of critically ill patients. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. The inductive analysis occurred in three phases: coding, categorizing, and developing themes. Results Thirty-eight members of the public (former ICU patients, family members of patients, providers, community members) attended. Participants focused the discussion and provided concrete suggestions for improvement around communication (family as surrogate voice, timing of conversations, decision tools) and provider well-being and engagement, as opposed to medical interventions in critical care. Conclusions Café participants believe patient and family centered care is important to ensure high-quality care in the ICU. A Café Scientifique is a valuable forum to engage the public to contribute to priority setting areas for research in critical care, as well as a platform to share lived experience. Research stakeholders including health care organizations, governments, and funding organizations should provide more opportunities for the public to engage in meaningful conversations about how to best improve healthcare. PMID:26580406

  16. Oxygen distribution in tumors: A qualitative analysis and modeling study providing a novel Monte Carlo approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To construct a Monte Carlo (MC)-based simulation model for analyzing the dependence of tumor oxygen distribution on different variables related to tumor vasculature [blood velocity, vessel-to-vessel proximity (vessel proximity), and inflowing oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2})]. Methods: A voxel-based tissue model containing parallel capillaries with square cross-sections (sides of 10 μm) was constructed. Green's function was used for diffusion calculations and Michaelis-Menten's kinetics to manage oxygen consumption. The model was tuned to approximately reproduce the oxygenational status of a renal carcinoma; the depth oxygenation curves (DOC) were fitted with an analytical expression to facilitate rapid MC simulations of tumor oxygen distribution. DOCs were simulated with three variables at three settings each (blood velocity, vessel proximity, and inflowing pO{sub 2}), which resulted in 27 combinations of conditions. To create a model that simulated variable oxygen distributions, the oxygen tension at a specific point was randomly sampled with trilinear interpolation in the dataset from the first simulation. Six correlations between blood velocity, vessel proximity, and inflowing pO{sub 2} were hypothesized. Variable models with correlated parameters were compared to each other and to a nonvariable, DOC-based model to evaluate the differences in simulated oxygen distributions and tumor radiosensitivities for different tumor sizes. Results: For tumors with radii ranging from 5 to 30 mm, the nonvariable DOC model tended to generate normal or log-normal oxygen distributions, with a cut-off at zero. The pO{sub 2} distributions simulated with the six-variable DOC models were quite different from the distributions generated with the nonvariable DOC model; in the former case the variable models simulated oxygen distributions that were more similar to in vivo results found in the literature. For larger tumors, the oxygen distributions became truncated in the lower end, due to anoxia, but smaller tumors showed undisturbed oxygen distributions. The six different models with correlated parameters generated three classes of oxygen distributions. The first was a hypothetical, negative covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO-C scenario); the second was a hypothetical positive covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO+C scenario); and the third was the hypothesis of no correlation between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (UP scenario). The VPO-C scenario produced a distinctly different oxygen distribution than the two other scenarios. The shape of the VPO-C scenario was similar to that of the nonvariable DOC model, and the larger the tumor, the greater the similarity between the two models. For all simulations, the mean oxygen tension decreased and the hypoxic fraction increased with tumor size. The absorbed dose required for definitive tumor control was highest for the VPO+C scenario, followed by the UP and VPO-C scenarios. Conclusions: A novel MC algorithm was presented which simulated oxygen distributions and radiation response for various biological parameter values. The analysis showed that the VPO-C scenario generated a clearly different oxygen distribution from the VPO+C scenario; the former exhibited a lower hypoxic fraction and higher radiosensitivity. In future studies, this modeling approach might be valuable for qualitative analyses of factors that affect oxygen distribution as well as analyses of specific experimental and clinical situations.

  17. Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. PMID:24117678

  18. Interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain in Québec’s private sector: results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Collaboration and interprofessional practices are highly valued in health systems, because they are thought to improve outcomes of care for persons with complex health problems, such as low back pain. Physiotherapists, like all health providers, are encouraged to take part in interprofessional practices. However, little is known about these practices, especially for private sector physiotherapists. This study aimed to: 1) explore how physiotherapists working in the private sector with adults with low back pain describe their interprofessional practices, 2) identify factors that influence their interprofessional practices, and 3) identify their perceived effects. Methods Participants were 13 physiotherapists, 10 women/3 men, having between 3 and 21 years of professional experience. For this descriptive qualitative study, we used face-to-face semi-structured interviews and conducted content analysis encompassing data coding and thematic regrouping. Results Physiotherapists described interprofessional practices heterogeneously, including numerous processes such as sharing information and referring. Factors that influenced physiotherapists’ interprofessional practices were related to patients, providers, organizations, and wider systems (e.g. professional system). Physiotherapists mostly viewed positive effects of interprofessional practices, including elements such as gaining new knowledge as a provider and being valued in one’s own role, as well as improvements in overall treatment and outcome. Conclusions This qualitative study offers new insights into the interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain, as perceived by the physiotherapists’ themselves. Based on the results, the development of strategies aiming to increase interprofessionalism in the management of low back pain would most likely require taking into consideration factors associated with patients, providers, the organizations within which they work, and the wider systems. PMID:24884757

  19. Nutritional Deficiencies, the Absence of Information and Caregiver Shortcomings: A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ai; Marsh, Lauren; Medina, Alexis; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Kenny, Kaleigh; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Development during the first two years of life is critical and has a lasting impact on a child’s health. Poor infant and child nutrition can lead to deficiencies in essential micronutrients, which may cause a weakened immune system and lasting effects on children's growth and development. Recent studies in rural Shaanxi Province found an anemia prevalence of 54.3% among rural children aged six to twelve months. While new large-scale, quantitative research has begun to catalogue the extent of child malnutrition and anemia, no effort has yet been made to look more closely at the potential reasons for rural children’s nutritional deficiencies through qualitative analysis. This study aims to elucidate some of the fundamental causes of poor complementary feeding practices that may lead to anemia among children in rural Shaanxi Province, China. Methodology We interviewed sixty caregivers participating in a large survey on child health and nutrition. We conducted three waves of interviews with children’s primary caregivers in seventeen rural villages within four nationally-designated poverty counties in the southern part of Shaanxi Province. Results The qualitative analysis reveals that poor complementary feeding practices are common across our sample. Information gathered from our interviews suggests that complementary feeding practices are impeded by two constraints: absence of understanding topics related to infant health and nutrition under caregivers, as well as inadequate sources of information on these topics. Poverty does not appear to constrain child feeding practices. Conclusion Our results uncover lack of proper knowledge on infant and child nutrition among rural caregivers in China. This situation causes them to fail incorporating micronutrient rich foods in their children's diet. Age-appropriate complementary feeding can stimulate children’s physical and cognitive development, but in its absence it leads to iron-deficiency anemia. We suggest that steps be taken to educate caregivers to improve complementary feeding of their infants and children. PMID:27073864

  20. Perceived Benefits of Yoga among Urban School Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donna; Hagins, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a yoga intervention program for urban middle and high school youth in New York City public and charter schools. Six focus groups were conducted with students who participated in a year-long yoga program to determine their perceptions of mental and physical benefits as well as barriers and challenges. Results show that students perceived the benefits of yoga as increased self-regulation, mindfulness, self-esteem, physical conditioning, academic performance, and stress reduction. Barriers and challenges for a yoga practice include lack of time and space. The extent to which the benefits experienced are interrelated to one another is discussed. Suggestions for future research and school-based programming are also offered. PMID:26884797

  1. Perceived Benefits of Yoga among Urban School Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Donna; Hagins, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a yoga intervention program for urban middle and high school youth in New York City public and charter schools. Six focus groups were conducted with students who participated in a year-long yoga program to determine their perceptions of mental and physical benefits as well as barriers and challenges. Results show that students perceived the benefits of yoga as increased self-regulation, mindfulness, self-esteem, physical conditioning, academic performance, and stress reduction. Barriers and challenges for a yoga practice include lack of time and space. The extent to which the benefits experienced are interrelated to one another is discussed. Suggestions for future research and school-based programming are also offered. PMID:26884797

  2. What do physicians gain (and lose) with experience? Qualitative results from a cross-national study of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; Campbell, Stephen M; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; McKinlay, John B

    2010-01-01

    An empirical puzzle has emerged over the last several decades of research on variation in clinical decision making involving mixed effects of physician experience. There is some evidence that physicians with greater experience may provide poorer quality care than their less experienced counterparts, as captured by various quality assurance measures. Physician experience is traditionally narrowly defined as years in practice or age, and there is a need for investigation into precisely what happens to physicians as they gain experience, including the reasoning and clinical skills acquired over time and the ways in which physicians consciously implement those skills into their work. In this study, we are concerned with 1) how physicians conceptualize and describe the meaning of their clinical experience, and 2) how they use their experience in clinical practice. To address these questions, we analyzed qualitative data drawn from in-depth interviews with physicians from the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany as a part of a larger factorial experiment of medical decision making for diabetes. Our results show that common measures of physician experience do not fully capture the skills physicians acquire over time or how they implement those skills in their clinical work. We found that what physicians actually gain over time is complex social, behavioral and intuitive wisdom as well as the ability to compare the present day patient against similar past patients. These active cognitive reasoning processes are essential components of a forward-looking research agenda in the area of physician experience and decision making. Guideline-based outcome measures, accompanied by underdeveloped age- and years-based definitions of experience, may prematurely conclude that more experienced physicians are providing deficient care while overlooking the ways in which they are providing more and better care than their less experienced counterparts. PMID:20356662

  3. Iranian nurses’ perception of spirituality and spiritual care: a qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodishan, Gholamreza; Alhani, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ perception about spirituality and spiritual care. A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted on 20 registered nurses interviewed using unstructured strategy in 2009. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: 1) “meaning and purpose of work and life” including ‘spiritualistic view to profession’, ‘commitment and professional responsibility’, and ‘positive attitude’; 2) “religious attitude” including ‘God approval’, ‘spiritual reward’, ‘taking advice’, ‘inner belief in the Supreme Being’, ‘faith-based interactions and altruism’; 3) “transcendence-seeking” including ‘need for respect’ and ‘personal–professional transcendence’. Therefore, the spirituality produces maintenance, harmony and balance in nurses in relation to God. Spiritual care focuses on respecting patients, friendly and sympathetic interactions, sharing in rituals and strengthening patients and nurses’ inner energy. This type of spirituality gives a positive perspective to life and profession, peaceful interactions, a harmonious state of mind, and acts as a motivator among nurses to promote nursing care and spirituality. PMID:23908741

  4. Accumulation patterns of Cr in Callitriche organs--qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Augustynowicz, Joanna; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna; Wróbel, Paweł; Kołton, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromium accumulation in the shoots of Callitriche cophocarpa. This globally distributed, submersed macrophyte exhibits outstanding Cr phytoremediation capacity in an aquatic environment. Cr was applied separately for 7 days at two stable forms as Cr(VI) and Cr(III), known from their diverse physicochemical properties and toxicities. The maps of Cr depositions in young leaves, mature leaves, and stems were obtained by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF). The detailed analysis of XRF maps was done based on Image-Pro PLUS (Media Cybernetics) software. Cr was accumulated either in trichomes or vascular bundles in respect to the element speciation and the plant organ. The concentration of Cr significantly increased in the following order: Cr(VI) mature leaves < Cr(VI) young leaves = Cr(VI) stems < Cr(III) young leaves ≤ Cr(III) mature leaves ≤ Cr(III) stems. The observed differences in distribution and accumulation of Cr were correlated with the different reduction potential of Cr(VI) by particular plant organs. The reduction of Cr(VI) is considered the main detoxification mechanism of the highly toxic Cr(VI) form. The unique L-band electron resonance spectrometer (L-band EPR) was applied to follow the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the studied material. PMID:26438365

  5. Qualitative Analysis of Fourteen White Solids and Two Mixtures Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, Deedee; Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Ciraolo, Justine; Daly, Shawn; Jackson, Leia

    2001-11-01

    This is a revised and expanded version of a previously published qualitative analysis scheme for the identification of 11 white solids using materials readily available in drugstores, supermarkets, or variety stores. Phenolphthalein has been eliminated because the FDA banned its use in over-the-counter laxatives; instead, tests for pH are conducted using red cabbage indicator. Once commonly used by diabetics to test urine, copper reduction tablets are no longer widely available and are replaced by a mixture of ingredients. Three white solids and two types of mixtures, commercial antacid tablets and baking powder, have been added to the scheme. All procedures can be done with the simplest of equipment. Amounts of solids are measured volumetrically and heat is supplied by contact with hot tap water. The use of household chemicals reduces waste disposal problems while making the experiment suitable for a laboratory exercise in a distance-learning course. This experiment can be adapted for many levels of instruction. In middle school only the safer tests should be included; honors general chemistry students can be asked to design an analysis scheme for the 14 household chemicals.

  6. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  7. Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudoin, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity…

  8. Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudoin, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity

  9. Depression and Substance Abuse in Two Divergent High School Cultures: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods explored the relationships among depression and substance use across suburban (164 students) and inner-city (242 students) high schools. Qualitative analyses suggest that quantitative differences in these relationships may be related to the meanings of depression and substance use in the cultural context. (SLD)

  10. Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation in Counseling Psychology: Strategies for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various strategies and methods of engaging in qualitative data interpretations and analyses in counseling psychology. The authors explore the themes of self, culture, collaboration, circularity, trustworthiness, and evidence deconstruction from multiple qualitative methodologies. Commonalities and differences…

  11. From Print to Pixels: Practitioners' Reflections on the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Linda S.

    This paper studied how individual qualitative researchers perceive that their research procedures and perspectives have been influenced by the adoption of computer assisted qualitative data software. The study focused on Nud*Ist software (non-numerical Unstructured Data; Indexing, Searching, and Theorizing). The seven participants ranged from new…

  12. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  13. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  14. A qualitative study of why general practitioners may participate in significant event analysis and educational peer assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, P; McKay, J; Dalgetty, E; Lough, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the influences and perceived benefits behind general practitioners' willingness to participate in significant event analysis (SEA) and educational peer assessment. Design: Qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts. Setting: Greater Glasgow Primary Care Trust. Participants: Two focus group sessions involving 21 principals in general practice (GPs). Main outcome measures: GPs' perceptions of the reasons for and benefits of participating in SEA and associated educational peer assessment. Results: Pressure from accreditation bodies and regulatory authorities makes SEA compulsory for most participants who believe more in-depth event analyses are undertaken as a result. Some believed SEA was not an onerous activity while others argued that this depended on the complexity of the event. SEA that is linked to a complaint investigation may provide credible evidence to patients that their complaint is taken seriously. Writing up an event analysis is viewed as an educational process and may act as a form of personal catharsis for some. Event analyses are submitted for peer assessment for educational reward but are highly selective because of concerns about confidentiality, litigation, or professional embarrassment. Most participants disregard the opportunities to learn from "positive" significant events in favour of problem ones. Peer assessment is valued because there is a perception that it enhances knowledge of the SEA technique and the validity of event analyses, which participants find reassuring. Conclusions: This small study reports mainly positive feedback from a select group of GPs on the merits of SEA and peer assessment. PMID:15933315

  15. UROLOGIC CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME FLARES AND THEIR IMPACT: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS IN THE MAPP NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Clemens, J. Quentin; James, Aimee S.; Konkle, Katy S.; Kreder, Karl J.; Lai, H. Henry; Mackey, Sean C.; Ashe-McNalley, Cody P.; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Barrell, Edward; Hou, Xiaoling; Robinson, Nancy A.; Mullins, Chris; Berry, Sandra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although in-depth qualitative information is critical for understanding patients’ symptom experiences and for developing patient-centered outcome measures, only one previous qualitative study has assessed urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) symptom exacerbations (“flares”). Methods We conducted eight focus groups of female UCPPS (interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome) patients at four sites of the MAPP Research Network (n=57, mean=7/group) to explore the full spectrum of flares and their impact on patients’ lives. Results Flare experiences were common and varied widely in terms of UCPPS symptoms involved, concurrent non-pelvic symptoms (e.g., diarrhea), symptom intensity (mild to severe), duration (minutes to years), and frequency (daily to

  16. Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty’s eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Results Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the “Attitudes and Traits” or “Beliefs and Values” dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). Conclusion We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan. PMID:24726054

  17. GRACE Gravity Field Analysis Results from JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, M.; Yuan, D.; Bertiger, W. C.; Kruizinga, G.; Romans, L. C.; Wu, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory serves as the GRACE gravity field analysis verification center, generating independent gravity solutions for assessing the error characteristics of the fields through comparison with the other centers (UTCSR and GFZ), and performing studies to develop optimal parameterizations which may improve the field quality. In addition, we provide a quick gravity solution turnaround capability to assess the utility of alternate Level-1 algorithm implementations. In this presentation, we will present the most recent gravity field results from GRACE, with special attention to summarizing our best understanding of the Level-1 data quality and influence on the field characteristics, and the effects on the fields of varying parameterizations (orbital arc lengths, nuisance parameterization and sub-arc lengths, etc) in the Level-2 analysis.

  18. Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

  19. Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H[subscript 2]S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures is an essential experiment carried out in high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels all over the world especially in India and South Asia. The classical technique uses H[subscript 2]S, which is highly toxic and has adverse effects on humans and the environment. Increasing awareness…

  20. "Cause That's the Only Skills in School You Need": A Qualitative Analysis of Revenge Goals in Poor Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jggi, Lena; Kliewer, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment, and retaliation is a factor driving youth violence. However, revenge might be an important social tool adolescents use to achieve (self-)justice in environments where institutionalized interventions from authorities such as teachers or police are limited. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50

  1. Exploring the Nonformal Adult Educator in Twenty-First Century Contexts Using Qualitative Video Data Analysis Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Geleana Drew; Ellis-Hervey, Nina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how "YouTube" creates a unique, nonformal cyberspace for Black females to vlog about natural hair. Specifically, we utilized qualitative video data analysis techniques to understand how using "YouTube" as a facilitation tool has the ability to collectively capture and maintain an audience of more than a

  2. Engineering and Technology: The Public's Perspective--Part 2: A Qualitative Analysis for the National Academy of Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doble, John; Komarnicki, Mary

    This report for the National Academy of Engineering's Office of Public Awareness represents the second phase of an examination of public opinion about engineering and technology. This document presents an analysis of six qualitative, focused group discussions or focus groups. Five of these groups were college educated Americans and one was…

  3. A Comparative-Qualitative Research Analysis of Character Education in the Christian School and Home Education Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Gretchen Marie

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study provides a phenomenological perspective and comparative analysis of character education within the Christian school and home education milieu. The study is based on semi-structured interviews of fifty-two individuals (N = 52) representative of a sampling of Christian educators from four private, evangelical Christian Schools…

  4. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2014-01-01

    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  5. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,…

  6. Exploring the Nonformal Adult Educator in Twenty-First Century Contexts Using Qualitative Video Data Analysis Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Geleana Drew; Ellis-Hervey, Nina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how "YouTube" creates a unique, nonformal cyberspace for Black females to vlog about natural hair. Specifically, we utilized qualitative video data analysis techniques to understand how using "YouTube" as a facilitation tool has the ability to collectively capture and maintain an audience of more than a…

  7. Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H[subscript 2]S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures is an essential experiment carried out in high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels all over the world especially in India and South Asia. The classical technique uses H[subscript 2]S, which is highly toxic and has adverse effects on humans and the environment. Increasing awareness

  8. "Cause That's the Only Skills in School You Need": A Qualitative Analysis of Revenge Goals in Poor Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäggi, Lena; Kliewer, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment, and retaliation is a factor driving youth violence. However, revenge might be an important social tool adolescents use to achieve (self-)justice in environments where institutionalized interventions from authorities such as teachers or police are limited. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50…

  9. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,

  10. Conceptual bases of Christian, faith-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs: qualitative analysis of staff interviews.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Lisa K; Hermos, John A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Frayne, Susan M

    2004-09-01

    Faith-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs provide residential treatment for many substance abusers. To determine key governing concepts of such programs, we conducted semi-structured interviews with sample of eleven clinical and administrative staff referred to us by program directors at six, Evangelical Christian, faith-based, residential rehabilitation programs representing two large, nationwide networks. Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods examined how spirituality is incorporated into treatment and elicited key theories of addiction and recovery. Although containing comprehensive secular components, the core activities are strongly rooted in a Christian belief system that informs their understanding of addiction and recovery and drives the treatment format. These governing conceptions, that addiction stems from attempts to fill a spiritual void through substance use and recovery through salvation and a long-term relationship with God, provide an explicit, theory-driven model upon which they base their core treatment activities. Knowledge of these core concepts and practices should be helpful to clinicians in considering referrals to faith-based recovery programs. PMID:16150675

  11. Life experiences of individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and disclosing outside the family: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Higa, Leigh Ann; McDonald, Jamie; Himes, Deborah O; Rothwell, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT; OMIM 187300) is a disorder that affects 1:5000-1:10,000 people worldwide, with an estimated 60,000 affected individuals in the USA. Approximately 50% of patients with HHT experience potentially life-threatening health complications such as stroke, brain abscess, or heart failure. However, the most common symptom is spontaneous and frequent nosebleeding. HHT is a hereditary condition with significant health consequences, but little is known about how individuals cope with HHT on a daily basis and how individuals share information about the disorder with social groups outside of the family. The objectives of this study were to improve understanding of the daily experiences of patients with diagnosed HHT and to investigate how they disclose their diagnosis to various social groups (friends, dating partners, employers, and coworkers) outside of their biological family. Adult patients seen at a university HHT clinic and who had been diagnosed with HHT for at least 6months were recruited by mail. Participants completed semi-structured telephone interviews (n?=?19). A qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts identified four major categories: (1) the emotional impact of HHT, (2) the social impact of HHT, (3) concerns for current and future health related to HHT, and (4) social context drives disclosure of HHT. Participants reported that although HHT was a manageable hereditary disorder, the symptoms negatively affected their daily life. It is important for health care providers to understand how individuals with rare genetic disorders are managing. PMID:26340858

  12. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B.; Manurung, M.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2013-09-03

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

  13. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods. PMID:26304356

  14. Participatory health research within a prison setting: a qualitative analysis of 'Paragraphs of passion'.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Vivian; Martin, Ruth; McMillan, Jennifer; Granger-Brown, Alison; Tole, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to engage, empower and enhance the health and well-being of incarcerated women. The integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion, and transformative action research guided the design of this study. A partnership between incarcerated women who became peer-researchers, correctional staff, and academic researchers facilitated the equitable contribution of expertise and decision-making by all partners. The study was conducted in a short sentence (two years or less), minimum/medium security Canadian women's correctional centre. Of the approximately 200 women that joined the research team, 115 participated in writing a 'paragraph of passion' while incarcerated between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Participatory, inductive qualitative, narrative and content analysis were used to illuminate four themes: expertise, transformation, building self-esteem, as well as access and support. The women organized monthly health forums in the prison to share their new knowledge and life experience with other incarcerated women, correctional staff, academics, and community members, and in doing so have built bridges and relationships, some of which have lasted to the present day. PMID:25312768

  15. The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

  16. The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as 'risky', and in association with other 'discredited' social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of spectral data obtained from an integrated fiber optic fluorometer and cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.; Lieberman, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    The use of an artificial neural network based method for providing rapid on-line analysis of fluorescence emission spectra is described. The method serves to generate a real time interpretation of spectral data acquired in situ by the Navy`s Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS), an integrated optical fiber fluorometer/cone penetrometer site investigation tool currently being used to delineate subsurface petroleum contamination at hazardous waste sites. Neural network pattern recognition allows for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of raw spectral data. Quantitative estimation and speciation of different fresh and weathered petroleum products is achieved even in the presence of strong spectral interferences, non-linear response curves, and uncertain matrices. The method also provides for the rejection of spectral interferences arising from natural fluorophores, thereby minimizing the possibility of reporting false positive results. Use of neural processing enables maximal utilization of available spectral and matrix information. By simultaneously taking into account the contribution of multiple input variables, the neural algorithm is able to achieve an optimal solution, defined by the accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and selectivity of the fluorescence sensor itself.

  18. FIFE: Analysis and results - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.; Markham, B.; Wang, J.; Strebel, D. E.; Macpherson, I.; Kelly, R. D.; Verma, S.; Blad, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the first results of the data analysis carried out for the First International Satellite Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) conducted over a 15 x 15 km grasslands study area in the central United States. Preliminary results show that the energy and mass flux data collected at several diurnal cycles during different parts of the growing season are of high quality. It was found that the canopy radiometric brightness temperature measured in the 10.4-12.3 microns is linearly related to seasonal variations in canopy aerodynamic temperature, and, thus, may provide a useful measure of sensible heat flux from the surface. Airborne monitoring of the mass and heat flux in the atmospheric boundary layer were found to be adequate for studies of the energy and mass budgets above the test site.

  19. Results from lunar laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Williams, J. G.; Yoder, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The lunar laser range data taken at McDonald Observatory between Aug. 1969 and May 1980 has been analyzed. The simple rms residual for the 2954 ranges is 31 cm. Results of the analysis include GM(earth) = 398600.45 cu km/sec sq within 0.02 cu km/sec sq and a secular acceleration of the lunar orbital mean longitude of -23.8 arcsec/sq century within 1.5 arcsec, which yields a Q of 12.3 at semidiurnal frequencies. The lunar harmonic C30 is -8.7/1,000,000 within 0.000001 and the lunar rotational dissipation of 0.0047 within 0.0005 day. Also resulting from the solution are geocentric coordinates of McDonald accurate to 30 cm, including the first value for the longitude with the new IAU constants and a dynamical equinox.

  20. CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Colombo, O. L.; Ray, Richard D.; Thompson, B.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, Teresa A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) to be launched in the later part of '01) that combine a new generation of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a high precision three axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and SLR tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the surface forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies. Gravity field modeling status and plans will be discussed.

  1. A qualitative model structure sensitivity analysis method to support model selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoey, S.; Seuntjens, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Nopens, I.

    2014-11-01

    The selection and identification of a suitable hydrological model structure is a more challenging task than fitting parameters of a fixed model structure to reproduce a measured hydrograph. The suitable model structure is highly dependent on various criteria, i.e. the modeling objective, the characteristics and the scale of the system under investigation and the available data. Flexible environments for model building are available, but need to be assisted by proper diagnostic tools for model structure selection. This paper introduces a qualitative method for model component sensitivity analysis. Traditionally, model sensitivity is evaluated for model parameters. In this paper, the concept is translated into an evaluation of model structure sensitivity. Similarly to the one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) methods for parameter sensitivity, this method varies the model structure components one at a time and evaluates the change in sensitivity towards the output variables. As such, the effect of model component variations can be evaluated towards different objective functions or output variables. The methodology is presented for a simple lumped hydrological model environment, introducing different possible model building variations. By comparing the effect of changes in model structure for different model objectives, model selection can be better evaluated. Based on the presented component sensitivity analysis of a case study, some suggestions with regard to model selection are formulated for the system under study: (1) a non-linear storage component is recommended, since it ensures more sensitive (identifiable) parameters for this component and less parameter interaction; (2) interflow is mainly important for the low flow criteria; (3) excess infiltration process is most influencing when focussing on the lower flows; (4) a more simple routing component is advisable; and (5) baseflow parameters have in general low sensitivity values, except for the low flow criteria.

  2. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID:20056568

  3. Patients Covertly Recording Clinical Encounters: Threat or Opportunity? A Qualitative Analysis of Online Texts

    PubMed Central

    Tsulukidze, Maka; Grande, Stuart W.; Thompson, Rachel; Rudd, Kenneth; Elwyn, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Background The phenomenon of patients covertly recording clinical encounters has generated controversial media reports. This study aims to examine the phenomenon and analyze the underlying issues. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative analysis of online posts, articles, blogs, and forums (texts) discussing patients covertly recording clinical encounters. Using Google and Google Blog search engines, we identified and analyzed 62 eligible texts published in multiple countries between 2006 and 2013. Thematic analysis revealed four key themes: 1) a new behavior that elicits strong reactions, both positive and negative, 2) an erosion of trust, 3) shifting patient-clinician roles and relationships, and 4) the existence of confused and conflicting responses. When patients covertly record clinical encounters – a behavior made possible by various digital recording technologies – strong reactions are evoked among a range of stakeholders. The behavior represents one consequence of an erosion of trust between patients and clinicians, and when discovered, leads to further deterioration of trust. Confused and conflicting responses to the phenomenon by patients and clinicians highlight the need for policy guidance. Conclusions This study describes strong reactions, both positive and negative, to the phenomenon of patients covertly recording clinical encounters. The availability of smartphones capable of digital recording, and shifting attitudes to patient-clinician relationships, seems to have led to this behavior, mostly viewed as a threat by clinicians but as a welcome and helpful innovation by some patients, possibly indicating a perception of subordination and a lack of empowerment. Further examination of this tension and its implications is needed. PMID:25933002

  4. Psychological consultation in a paediatric setting: A qualitative analysis of staff experiences of a psychosocial forum.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jessica L; Benson, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The use of psychosocial forums in paediatric settings has been recommended as a means of providing psychological consultancy. However, no research has explored staff perceptions of these meetings or whether they have a positive impact on patient care. In this study, six members of a paediatric gastroenterology multidisciplinary team were interviewed about their experience of a weekly psychosocial forum using a qualitative approach. The data revealed that staff regarded the forum as an essential and useful part of the service. Staff reported a number of benefits to their clinical work as a result of attending the forum, in addition to the general benefits of having a clinical psychologist available to see patients. However, staff also made recommendations for improving the forum. The results suggest that psychosocial forums may provide an efficient means of delivering specialist psychological consultation for patients with psychological difficulties, in line with Department of Health recommendations for paediatric services. Future research should aim to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial forums in different settings and to establish the cost-effectiveness of these meetings. PMID:24711586

  5. Qualitative Amino Acid Analysis of Small Peptides by GC/MS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbott, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments designed to help undergraduate students gain experience operating instruments and interpreting gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data are presented. Experimental reagents, procedures, analysis, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  6. Comparative Study of Clinical Staging of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers Under Polarized Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Neha; Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a condition where excessive deposition of dense collagen fibers occurred in the connective tissue of oral mucosa. An alteration of collagen necessitates an in depth understanding of collagen in oral tissues as no breakthrough studies have been reported. T herefore the aim was to correlate the clinical, functional and histopathological staging and to analyze the polarization colors and thickness of the collagen fibers in different stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain under polarizing microscopy so as to assess the severity of disease. Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology at Padm. Dr. D. Y Patil Dental and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India (2012-13). A sample size was of a total 40 subjects, of which 30 patients had OSMF, and 10 were in control group. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging were done depending upon definite criteria. Collagen fibers were analyzed for polarizing colors and thickness. Further clinical, functional and histopathological stages as well as qualitative parameters of collagen fibers were compared. Results: The correlation between clinical and functional staging was not significant ( P >0.05) whereas the comparison of the functional staging with histopathological staging was more reliable (P <0.01) as an indication to the severity of the disease rather than clinical staging. One-way ANOVA analysis showed highly significant correlation between functional staging and polarization colors and thickness of collagen fibers (P <0.001). Conclusion: The qualitative change in the collagen fibers of OSMF patients using polarized microscopy would help to assess its role in diagnostic evaluation, to determine the prognosis of the disease as well as to provide useful predictive treatment modalities to them. PMID:26351471

  7. Recent ADI iteration analysis and results

    SciTech Connect

    Wachspress, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    Some recent ADI iteration analysis and results are discussed. Discovery that the Lyapunov and Sylvester matrix equations are model ADI problems stimulated much research on ADI iteration with complex spectra. The ADI rational Chebyshev analysis parallels the classical linear Chebyshev theory. Two distinct approaches have been applied to these problems. First, parameters which were optimal for real spectra were shown to be nearly optimal for certain families of complex spectra. In the linear case these were spectra bounded by ellipses in the complex plane. In the ADI rational case these were spectra bounded by {open_quotes}elliptic-function regions{close_quotes}. The logarithms of the latter appear like ellipses, and the logarithms of the optimal ADI parameters for these regions are similar to the optimal parameters for linear Chebyshev approximation over superimposed ellipses. W.B. Jordan`s bilinear transformation of real variables to reduce the two-variable problem to one variable was generalized into the complex plane. This was needed for ADI iterative solution of the Sylvester equation.

  8. Gap analysis: Concepts, methods, and recent results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units - from general categories such as 'Forests' or 'Cold-Deciduous Shrubland Formation' to more categories such as 'Picea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliance' - in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The GAP experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  9. Geothermal industry employment: Survey results & analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is ofteh asked about the socioeconomic and employment impact of the industry. Since available literature dealing with employment involved in the geothermal sector appeared relatively outdated, unduly focused on certain activities of the industry (e.g. operation and maintenance of geothermal power plants) or poorly reliable, GEA, in consultation with the DOE, decided to conduct a new employment survey to provide better answers to these questions. The main objective of this survey is to assess and characterize the current workforce involved in geothermal activities in the US. Several initiatives have therefore been undertaken to reach as many organizations involved in geothermal activities as possible and assess their current workforce. The first section of this document describes the methodology used to contact the companies involved in the geothermal sector. The second section presents the survey results and analyzes them. This analysis includes two major parts. The first part analyzes the survey responses, presents employment numbers that were captured and describes the major characteristics of the industry that have been identified. The second part of the analysis estimates the number of workers involved in companies that are active in the geothermal business but did not respond to the survey or could not be reached. Preliminary conclusions and the study limits and restrictions are then presented. The third section addresses the potential employment impact related to manufacturing and construction of new geothermal power facilities. Indirect and induced economic impacts related with such investment are also investigated.

  10. Oceanographic results from analysis of ERS-1 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Chambers, D. P.; Peterson, G. E.; Ries, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale dynamic ocean topography and its variations were observed using ERS-1 radar altimeter measurements. The altimeter measurements analyzed are primarily from the ESA ocean product (OPR02) and from the Interim Geophysical Data Records (IGDR) generated by NOAA from the fast delivery (FD) data during the ERS-1 35 day repeat orbit phase. The precise orbits used for the dynamic topography solution are computed using dual satellite crossover measurements from ERS-1 and TOPEX (Topology Ocean Experiment)/Poseidon (T/P) as additional tracking data, and using improved models and constants which are consistent with T/P. Analysis of the ERS-1 dynamic topography solution indicates agreement with the T/P solution at the 5 cm root mean square level, with regional differences as large as 15 cm tide gauges at the 8 to 9 cm level. There are differences between the ERS-1 OPR02 and IGDR determined dynamic topography solutions on the order of 5 cm root mean square. Mesoscale oceanic variability time series obtained using collinear analysis of the ERS-1 altimeter data show good qualitative agreement when compared with the T/P results.

  11. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  12. Analysis of the changes and difficulties arising from kidney transplantation: a qualitative study1

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Daniela Cristina Sampaio; de Paula, Alessandra Moregola; Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi dos Santos; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Sanders-Pinheiro, Hélady

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the main gains and stressors perceived by the patient, one year subsequent to kidney transplantation. METHOD: a qualitative study, in which the data were obtained and analyzed through the Discourse of the Collective Subject and frequency counting, with the participation of 50 patients who had received kidney transplantation. RESULTS: the sample presented a mean age of 44±12.8 years old, and a predominance of males (62%). The principal positive changes provided by the transplant were: return to activities; freedom/independence; well-being and health; strengthening of the I; and closening of interpersonal relationships. The most-cited stressors were: fear; medication; excess of care/control; specific characteristics of the treatment; and failure to return to the social roles. CONCLUSION: kidney transplantation caused various positive changes in the patient's routine, with the return to activities of daily living being the most important gain, in the participants' opinion. In relation to the stressors, fear related to loss of the graft, and questions relating to the immunosuppressive medication were the main challenges to be faced following transplantation. PMID:26312633

  13. Thermochromic Phantom and Measurement Protocol for Qualitative Analysis of Ultrasound Physiotherapy Systems.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rejane M; Alvarenga, André V; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B; Omena, Thaís P; von Krüger, Marco A; Pereira, Wagner C A

    2016-01-01

    Thermochromic test bodies are promising tools for qualitatively evaluating the acoustic output of ultrasound physiotherapy systems. Here, a novel phantom, made of silicone mixed with thermochromic powder material, was developed. Additionally, a procedure was developed to evaluate the stability and homogeneity of the phantom in a metrologic and statistical base. Twelve phantoms were divided into three groups. Each group was insonated by a different transducer. An effective intensity of 1.0 W/cm(2) was applied to each phantom; two operators performed the procedure three times in all phantoms. The heated area was measured after image processing. No statistical difference was observed in the heated areas for different samples or in the results for different operators. The heated areas obtained using each transducer were statistically different, indicating that the thermochromic phantom samples had sufficient sensitivity to represent the heated areas of different ultrasonic transducers. Combined with the evaluation procedure, the phantom provides an approach not previously described in the literature. The proposed approach can be used to quickly assess changes in ultrasonic beam cross-sectional shape during the lifetime of ultrasound physiotherapy systems. PMID:26456890

  14. Complex mixture analysis using protein expression as a qualitative and quantitative tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Bond, J.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences); Tepper, B.E. . Paper Products Division)

    1994-07-01

    Some proteins in organisms exposed to chemicals in stressful amounts or toxic concentrations show increased expression; others show decreased expression. These inducible and repressible proteins together potentially provide qualitative and quantitative diagnoses of components in complex mixtures of chemicals. The authors examined sets of proteins synthesized by Daphnia magna after exposure to mixtures of a cationic polyamide epichlorhydrin adduct (Kymene) and a combined assortment of water-extractable substances from chemi-thermal-mechanical pulp (CTMP) in lab water. Proteins were identified, after extracting from Daphnia magna, by gel filtration and silver staining, or by radiolabeling and then gel separation. Patterns of proteins induced by Kymene[reg sign] and by CTMP extracts were distinguishable in lab water, but there was interaction between them. The method of identifying and quantifying Kymene, however, was successful using lab simulations of mixtures. The method was tested using wastewater samples from a paper manufacturing plant. Kymene could be detected against variable levels and types of additional substances. But, again, there was interference, perhaps due to Kymene binding to other anionic polymers sometimes present in the samples. Interpretation from analyses of protein expression were consistent with results from sublethal Ceriodaphnia dubia assays.

  15. Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Sara; Cleverley, Kristin; Perivolaris, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine debriefing data to understand experiences before, during, and after a restraint (seclusion, chemical, and physical) event from the perspective of inpatients at a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Method: Audits were conducted on a purposeful sample of inpatient charts containing post-restraint event inpatient debrief forms (n = 55). Qualitative data from the forms were analyzed thematically. Results: Loss of autonomy and related anger, conflict with staff and other inpatients, and unmet needs were the most common factors precipitating restraint events. Inpatients often reported that increased communication with staff could have prevented restraint. Inpatients described having had various negative emotional states and responses during restraint events, including fear and rejection. Post-restraint, inpatients often desired to leave the unit for fresh air or to engage in leisure activities. Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is the first to use debriefing form data to explore mental health inpatients’ experiences of restraint. Inpatients view restraint negatively and do not experience it as a therapeutic intervention. Debriefing, guided by a form, is useful for understanding the inpatient’s experience of restraint, and should be used to re-establish the therapeutic relationship and to inform plans of care. In addition, individual and collective inpatient perspectives should inform alternatives to restraint. PMID:26454726

  16. Qualitative analysis of the elliptical centric technique and the TRICKS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and elliptical centric MRA according to the type of cerebral disease. From February 2010 to January 2012, elliptical centric MRA and TRICKS MRA images were acquired from 50 normal individuals and 50 patients with cerebral diseases by using 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The images were analyzed qualitatively by examining areas such as the presence or absence of artifacts on the images, the distinctness of boundaries of blood vessels, accurate representation of the lesions, and the subtraction level. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction rate, negative prediction rate and accuracy were assessed by comparing the diagnostic efficacy of the two techniques. The results revealed TRICKS MRA to have superior image quality to elliptical centric MRA. Regarding each disease, TRICKS MRA showed higher diagnostic efficacy for artery venous malformation (AVM) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass patients whereas elliptical centric MRA was more suitable for patients with brain tumors, cerebral infarction, cerebral stenosis or sinus mass.

  17. The DEPICT model for participatory qualitative health promotion research analysis piloted in Canada, Zambia and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sarah; Nixon, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Health promotion researchers are increasingly conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in an effort to reduce health disparities. Despite efforts towards greater inclusion, research teams continue to regularly exclude diverse representation from data analysis efforts. The DEPICT model for collaborative qualitative analysis is a democratic approach to enhancing rigour through inclusion of diverse stakeholders. It is broken down into six sequential steps. Strong leadership, coordination and facilitation skills are needed; however, the process is flexible enough to adapt to most environments and varying levels of expertise. Including diverse stakeholders on an analysis team can enrich data analysis and provide more nuanced understandings of complicated health problems. PMID:24418997

  18. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of factors associated with trends in narrowing health inequalities in England.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Tim; Wistow, Jonathan; Byrne, David

    2011-06-01

    This study explores why progress with tackling health inequalities has varied among a group of local authority areas in England that were set targets to narrow important health outcomes compared to national averages. It focuses on premature deaths from cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the local authority gap for these outcomes narrowed. Survey and secondary data were used to create dichotomised conditions describing each area. For cancers, ten conditions were found to be associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: presence/absence of a working culture of individual commitment and champions; spending on cancer programmes; aspirational or comfortable/complacent organisational cultures; deprivation; crime; assessments of strategic partnership working, commissioning and the public health workforce; frequency of progress reviews; and performance rating of the local Primary Care Trust (PCT). For CVD, six conditions were associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: a PCT budget closer or further away from target; assessments of primary care services, smoking cessation services and local leadership; presence/absence of a few major programmes; and population turnover. The method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis was used to find configurations of these conditions with either the narrowing or not narrowing outcomes. Narrowing cancer gaps were associated with three configurations in which individual commitment and champions was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with a group of conditions that had in common a high level of bureaucratic-type work. Narrowing CVD gaps were associated with three configurations in which a high assessment of either primary care or smoking cessation services was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with two configurations that both included an absence of major programmes. The article considers substantive and theoretical arguments for these configurations being causal and as pointing to ways of improving progress with tackling health inequalities. PMID:21640455

  19. Examining experiences of transition, instability and coping for young offenders in the community: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Heath, Rebecca A; Priest, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This article explores experiences of transition, instability and coping using a qualitative approach with young offenders within a specialist forensic child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). Participants were four young people (aged 14-17 years) on community orders under the supervision of local youth offending teams (YOTs). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Three main themes were identified: (i) people and places; (ii) growth; and (iii) managing difficult experiences. Findings suggest that young offenders are exposed to a wide range of challenging contextual factors including unpredictable or inadequate home environments, numerous transitions (between family members/foster placements and schools), limited engagement with educational settings and a lack of social support, supporting the findings of Paton et al. Findings also portrayed a sense of participants' 'psychological growth' with development along a trajectory from a young child 'acting out' in response to the environments in which they were living; through a more reflective stage, in which they were able to begin to consider the situations they found themselves in; before reaching a position in which they were able to look beyond their day-to-day circumstances with some hope that their lives could be different in the future. Furthermore, accounts revealed that these young people had a limited range of functional coping strategies and had largely negative experiences of services. Clinical implications and the need for further research developing professionals' understanding of the influence of early experiences on young offenders' behaviour are discussed. PMID:25940541

  20. Evaluating the use of uncertainty visualization for exploratory analysis of land cover change: A qualitative expert user study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkeldey, Christoph; Schiewe, Jochen; Gerstmann, Henning; Götze, Christian; Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias; Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research on geodata uncertainty has been conducted in the past decades, mostly related to modeling, quantifying, and communicating uncertainty. But findings on if and how users can incorporate this information into spatial analyses are still rare. In this paper we address these questions with a focus on land cover change analysis. We conducted semi-structured interviews with three expert groups dealing with change analysis in the fields of climate research, urban development, and vegetation monitoring. During the interviews we used a software prototype to show change scenarios that the experts had analyzed before, extended by visual depiction of uncertainty related to land cover change. This paper describes the study, summarizes results, and discusses findings as well as the study method. Participants came up with several ideas for applications that could be supported by uncertainty, for example, identification of erroneous change, description of change detection algorithm characteristics, or optimization of change detection parameters. Regarding the aspect of reasoning with uncertainty in land cover change data the interviewees saw potential in better-informed hypotheses and insights about change. Communication of uncertainty information to users was seen as critical, depending on the users' role and expertize. We judge semi-structured interviews to be suitable for the purpose of this study and emphasize the potential of qualitative methods (workshops, focus groups etc.) for future uncertainty visualization studies.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. PMID:25746504

  2. Realising their potential? Exploring interprofessional perceptions and potential of the advanced practitioner role: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Tom; Watkins, Dianne; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore perceptions of the current practice and future potential of advanced practitioners (APs) from the perspectives of different professional groups in Wales UK. Design A qualitative study consisting of nine focus group interviews. Methods Initially verbatim transcriptions of each focus group interviews were analysed thematically before themes were merged to represent perceptions for the whole data set. Participants Data were gathered from a total of 67 stakeholders—including APs from a variety of professional groups (eg, nursing, physiotherapy, paramedics) as well as managers, workforce developers, educators and medical staff who have a role developing and supporting APs in practice. Results The results are presented in four themes: (1) demand, policy context and future priorities, (2) role clarity and standardisation, (3) agreement and understanding of the role and (4) interprofessional working. The context within which current and future AP roles were considered was influenced by inexorable demands for healthcare and the requirements to meet health policy priorities. Developing AP roles were hampered currently by a lack of shared understanding and ‘joined-up’ working between different groups such as medical practitioners, managers, commissioners and educators. Conclusions For the AP role to flourish more ‘joined-up’ thinking, support and development opportunities are required between APs, managers, senior clinicians, commissioners and educators. Working together to plan and deliver education, innovation and service delivery is of prime importance to meeting ever increasing complex health needs. This will ensure that future APs are adequately prepared and supported to reach their full potential and help deliver necessary innovations in current models of care delivery. PMID:26656024

  3. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using the Mouse Phrenic Nerve Hemidiaphragm Assay (MPN)

    PubMed Central

    Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The historical method for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is represented by the mouse bioassay (MBA) measuring the animal survival rate. Since the endpoint of the MBA is the death of the mice due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, an ex vivo animal replacement method, called mouse phrenic nerve (MPN) assay, employs the isolated N. phrenicus-hemidiaphragm tissue. Here, BoNT causes a dose-dependent characteristic decrease of the contraction amplitude of the indirectly stimulated muscle. Within the EQuATox BoNT proficiency 13 test samples were analysed using the MPN assay by serial dilution to a bath concentration resulting in a paralysis time within the range of calibration curves generated with BoNT/A, B and E standards, respectively. For serotype identification the diluted samples were pre-incubated with polyclonal anti-BoNT/A, B or E antitoxin or a combination of each. All 13 samples were qualitatively correctly identified thereby delivering superior results compared to single in vitro methods like LFA, ELISA and LC-MS/MS. Having characterized the BoNT serotype, the final bath concentrations were calculated using the calibration curves and then multiplied by the respective dilution factor to obtain the sample concentration. Depending on the source of the BoNT standards used, the quantitation of ten BoNT/A containing samples delivered a mean z-score of 7 and of three BoNT/B or BoNT/E containing samples z-scores <2, respectively. PMID:26610569

  4. Life impact of ankle fractures: Qualitative analysis of patient and clinician experiences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ankle fractures are one of the more commonly occurring forms of trauma managed by orthopaedic teams worldwide. The impacts of these injuries are not restricted to pain and disability caused at the time of the incident, but may also result in long term physical, psychological, and social consequences. There are currently no ankle fracture specific patient-reported outcome measures with a robust content foundation. This investigation aimed to develop a thematic conceptual framework of life impacts following ankle fracture from the experiences of people who have suffered ankle fractures as well as the health professionals who treat them. Methods A qualitative investigation was undertaken using in-depth semi-structured interviews with people (n=12) who had previously sustained an ankle fracture (patients) and health professionals (n=6) that treat people with ankle fractures. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Each phrase was individually coded and grouped in categories and aligned under emerging themes by two independent researchers. Results Saturation occurred after 10 in-depth patient interviews. Time since injury for patients ranged from 6 weeks to more than 2 years. Experience of health professionals ranged from 1 year to 16 years working with people with ankle fractures. Health professionals included an Orthopaedic surgeon (1), physiotherapists (3), a podiatrist (1) and an occupational therapist (1). The emerging framework derived from patient data included eight themes (Physical, Psychological, Daily Living, Social, Occupational and Domestic, Financial, Aesthetic and Medication Taking). Health professional responses did not reveal any additional themes, but tended to focus on physical and occupational themes. Conclusions The nature of life impact following ankle fractures can extend beyond short term pain and discomfort into many areas of life. The findings from this research have provided an empirically derived framework from which a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure can be developed. PMID:23171034

  5. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using the Mouse Phrenic Nerve Hemidiaphragm Assay (MPN).

    PubMed

    Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The historical method for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is represented by the mouse bioassay (MBA) measuring the animal survival rate. Since the endpoint of the MBA is the death of the mice due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, an ex vivo animal replacement method, called mouse phrenic nerve (MPN) assay, employs the isolated N. phrenicus-hemidiaphragm tissue. Here, BoNT causes a dose-dependent characteristic decrease of the contraction amplitude of the indirectly stimulated muscle. Within the EQuATox BoNT proficiency 13 test samples were analysed using the MPN assay by serial dilution to a bath concentration resulting in a paralysis time within the range of calibration curves generated with BoNT/A, B and E standards, respectively. For serotype identification the diluted samples were pre-incubated with polyclonal anti-BoNT/A, B or E antitoxin or a combination of each. All 13 samples were qualitatively correctly identified thereby delivering superior results compared to single in vitro methods like LFA, ELISA and LC-MS/MS. Having characterized the BoNT serotype, the final bath concentrations were calculated using the calibration curves and then multiplied by the respective dilution factor to obtain the sample concentration. Depending on the source of the BoNT standards used, the quantitation of ten BoNT/A containing samples delivered a mean z-score of 7 and of three BoNT/B or BoNT/E containing samples z-scores <2, respectively. PMID:26610569

  6. Results and analysis of the GLONASS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriya, Tatevyan

    2012-07-01

    With the purpose of improving the national geodetic reference frame an establishment of the new Fundamental Astro-Geodetic network (FAGN), based mainly on the combined use of GPS and GLONASS measurements, is now carried out in Russia. From the geodetic point of view, the advantages of combining both systems are numerous, especially in the urban, mountain and near polar areas. More than 30 permanent core sites of this network are provided with the dual GPS/GLONASS receivers. Several core sites of the FAGN network are collocated with the existing IERS stations, equipped with the SLR, VLBI and DORIS instruments. Now the constellation of the GLONASS consists of 24 satellites at three orbital planes, 8 satellites in each. Inclination of the orbit is 64.80, height 19100 km and revolution time 11h 15min. Analysis of the GLONASS data, obtained at the IGS sites, including most of the Russian sites, have been made with the use of GIPSY-OASIS 2 software. Results of estimation of GLONASS orbital parameters and station coordinates were compared with the GPS estimations at the collocated sites. Both solutions are related to the ITRF2005 coordinate system. Differences between solutions are in the limit of a few cm. The means of improvement of the GLONASS solution and adjustment of the GLONASS coordinate system with the ITRF are considered.

  7. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. PMID:22902052

  8. “What kind of general practitioner do I need for smoking cessation?” Results from a qualitative study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death and disease. Thus, all activities aiming to reduce smoking play an important role in improving population health. The positive role of the general practitioner (GP) in smoking cessation could increase the success rate for quitting smoking, if compared with unassisted cessation. The aim of this study was to determine what kind of general practitioner smokers need in order to stop smoking. Methods Four focus groups with 12 current and 12 former smokers (aged 20-59, 11 women and 13 men), were arranged in the city of Toruń, Poland, with a view to describe their opinions on the GP’s role in smoking cessation. The data were subjected to descriptive qualitative content analysis. Results Two major themes emerged in the analysis: the smokers’ positive and negative experiences of the GP in smoking cessation and their expectations regarding the role of the GP in smoking cessation. The first theme embraced the following subthemes: (1) GP’s passivity, (2) routine questions about the patient’s smoking during the visit, (3) lack of time during the visit, and (4) the role model of the GP in smoking cessation. Within the second theme, the respondents identified the following subthemes: (1) bringing up the topic of smoking cessation, even in situations when the patient is unprepared for this; (2) the necessity of a tailored approach to the patient; (3) access to information and evidence confirming the harms of smoking tobacco; (4) prescription of pharmacological and other treatment; and (5) referral to specialists in smoking cessation. Conclusions Patients expect their GP to actively participate in smoking cessation through a more tailored approach to the patient’s needs. The patients’ experiences did not match their expectations: the smokers rarely got advice on smoking cessation from their GPs. Finally, they emphasized the importance of the GP as a role model in smoking cessation. PMID:24138475

  9. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works. Engineers need more quantitative information. In order to apply geophysical methods to engineering design works, quantitative interpretation is very important. The presentation introduces several case studies from different countries around the world (Fig. 2) from the integrated and quantitative points of view.

  10. [SVM-based qualitative analysis of Muscat Hamburg wine produced in Tianjin region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Fang; Wei, Ji-Ping; Li, Chang-Wen; Yang, Hua; Shao, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Fu-Qing; Yin, Ji-Tai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to achieve the identification of Muscat Hamburg wines produced in Tianjin region through scanning and analyzing dry white wine samples of different grape varieties and regions by infrared spectroscopy technology. A support vector machine (SVM) based method was introduced to analyze infrared spectra of dry white wines. The pretreatment processes of the IR spectra were also elaborated, including baseline adjustment, noise Elimination, standard normalization and eliminating the main component of abnormal sample points. The authors selected great quantity of dry white wine samples of different grape regions including 511 Muscat Hamburg wine samples, 438 Italian Riesling wine samples, 307 Chardonnay wine samples, 29 Ugni Blanc wine samples, 44 Rkatsiteli wine samples, 31 longan wine samples and 79 ZeHong wine samples. According to different classification problems, 80% of IR spectra of the wine samples were used to establish discrimination models with SVM-based method, and the remaining 20% of IR spectra were used for the validation of the discrimination models. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is effective, since high classification accuracy, identification rate and rejecting rate were achieved: over 97% for the white wine samples of different grape varieties, meanwhile over 98% for the Muscat Hamburg wine samples produced in different regions. So the method developed in this paper played a good role in the qualitative classification and discrimination of Muscat Hamburg wines produced in Tianjin region. This novel method has a considerable potential and a rosy application future due to the expeditiousness, stability and easy-operation of FTIR method, as well as the veracity and credibility of SVM method. PMID:21428068

  11. Perspectives about Family Meals from Single-Headed and Dual-Headed Households: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- versus dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. Additionally, parents’ perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more wide-spread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents’ perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in sub-study of two linked multi-level studies—EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (e.g., provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (e.g., single-headed=cost vs. dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (e.g., single-headed=give fewer options vs. dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings may help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID:24238144

  12. Portrayal of the Human Resource Crisis and Accountability in Healthcare: A Qualitative Analysis of Ugandan Newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Willcox, Merlin; Mubangizi, Vincent; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Natukunda, Silvia; Maling, Samuel; Maier, Manfred; Mant, David; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Uganda is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of health workers. The aim of this study was to determine how the human resources and health service crisis was covered in Ugandan newspapers and, in particular, how the newspapers attributed accountability for problems in the health services. Methods We collected all articles related to health workers and health services for the calendar year 2012 in the two largest national newspapers in Uganda (collection on daily basis) and in one local newspaper (collection on weekly basis). These articles were analysed qualitatively regarding the main themes covered and attribution of accountability. Results The two more urban national newspapers published 229 articles on human resources and health services in Uganda (on average over two articles per week), whereas the local more rural newspaper published only a single article on this issue in the 12 month period. The majority of articles described problems in the health service without discussing accountability. The question of accountability is raised in only 46% of articles (106 articles). The responsibility of the government was discussed in 50 articles (21%), and negligence, corruption and misbehaviour by individual health workers was reported in 56 articles (25%). In the articles about corruption (n=35), 60% (21 articles) mention corruption by health workers and 40% (14 articles) mention corruption by government officials. Six articles defended the situation of health workers in Uganda. Conclusions The coverage of accountability in the Ugandan newspapers surveyed is insufficient to generate informed debate on what political actions need to be taken to improve the crisis in health care and services. There exists not only an “inverse care law” but also an “inverse information law”: those sections of society with the greatest health needs and problems in accessing quality health care receive the least information about health services. PMID:25837490

  13. USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

  14. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  15. System monitoring and diagnosis with qualitative models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    A substantial foundation of tools for model-based reasoning with incomplete knowledge was developed: QSIM (a qualitative simulation program) and its extensions for qualitative simulation; Q2, Q3 and their successors for quantitative reasoning on a qualitative framework; and the CC (component-connection) and QPC (Qualitative Process Theory) model compilers for building QSIM QDE (qualitative differential equation) models starting from different ontological assumptions. Other model-compilers for QDE's, e.g., using bond graphs or compartmental models, have been developed elsewhere. These model-building tools will support automatic construction of qualitative models from physical specifications, and further research into selection of appropriate modeling viewpoints. For monitoring and diagnosis, plausible hypotheses are unified against observations to strengthen or refute the predicted behaviors. In MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), multiple hypothesized models of the system are tracked in parallel in order to reduce the 'missing model' problem. Each model begins as a qualitative model, and is unified with a priori quantitative knowledge and with the stream of incoming observational data. When the model/data unification yields a contradiction, the model is refuted. When there is no contradiction, the predictions of the model are progressively strengthened, for use in procedure planning and differential diagnosis. Only under a qualitative level of description can a finite set of models guarantee the complete coverage necessary for this performance. The results of this research are presented in several publications. Abstracts of these published papers are presented along with abtracts of papers representing work that was synergistic with the NASA grant but funded otherwise. These 28 papers include but are not limited to: 'Combined qualitative and numerical simulation with Q3'; 'Comparative analysis and qualitative integral representations'; 'Model-based monitoring of dynamic systems'; 'Numerical behavior envelopes for qualitative models'; 'Higher-order derivative constraints in qualitative simulation'; and 'Non-intersection of trajectories in qualitative phase space: a global constraint for qualitative simulation.'

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Animation versus Reading for Pre-Class Preparation in a "Flipped" Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    The "flipped" classroom model, including such approaches as team-based learning (TBL), stresses pre-class preparation. For three years in a pharmacokinetics course within a pharmacy curriculum, students had the choice of using reading material or a fully animated module to prepare for class. Qualitative methods were used to analyze…

  17. Qualitative Analysis of the Performance of Introverts and Extraverts on Standard Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Vidhu; Kumar, Dalip

    1976-01-01

    Does measurement of intelligence through a concolidated score imply that two or more subjects obtaining the same score are also undergoing the same mental process? Introverts are supposed to opt for accuracy and extraverts for speed. Attempts to investigate the qualitative differences between extraverts and introverts on an intelligence test.…

  18. School Uniforms: A Qualitative Analysis of Aims and Accomplishments at Two Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Smith, Suzanne; Perry, Lynsey

    2006-01-01

    Employing rigorous qualitative research methodology, we studied the implementation of two schools' uniform policies. Their primary intents were to eliminate competition, teach young people to dress appropriately, decrease nonacademic distractions, and lower the parental clothing costs. The young people differed with adults regarding whether or not…

  19. Rx for a Party: A Qualitative Analysis of Recreational Pharmaceutical Use in a Collegiate Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using a qualitative methodology, the author examined the sociorecreational use of pharmaceuticals in a collegiate setting. Participants: In all, 91 college students from a public, 4-year institution for higher learning in the Southwest participated in this study. Methods: The author conducted semistructured interviews between May 2004…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  1. Qualitative Analysis of the Barriers College Students with Disabilities Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Students with disabilities are increasingly enrolling in colleges and universities. However, many institutions are still unprepared to support them beyond the basic federal mandate of equal access and reasonable accommodations. This qualitative study utilized a nontraditional media of reflective journaling to capture the anecdotal experiences of…

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of Imitation Performances of Preschoolers with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that imitation is a characteristic strength in children with Down Syndrome (DS). The present study aims to discover whether imitation performances are qualitatively phenotypical in DS. Eight preschoolers with DS were matched on chronological, mental, language and imitation age with 8 preschoolers with intellectual…

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Animation versus Reading for Pre-Class Preparation in a "Flipped" Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    The "flipped" classroom model, including such approaches as team-based learning (TBL), stresses pre-class preparation. For three years in a pharmacokinetics course within a pharmacy curriculum, students had the choice of using reading material or a fully animated module to prepare for class. Qualitative methods were used to analyze

  4. The Processes Distinguishing Stable from Unstable Stepfamily Couples: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Robitaille, Caroline; Godbout, ELisabeth; Parent, Claudine; Drapeau, Sylvie; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Second marriages are known to be more fragile than first marriages. To better understand the factors that contribute to this fragility, this qualitative study compared stepfamilies that stayed together with those that separated by collecting interview data from one adult in each of the former (n = 31) and latter (n = 26) stepfamilies. Data were

  5. Examining the Cultural Adjustment Experiences of African International College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Caldwell, Leon D.; Utsey, Shawn O.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the cultural adjustment experiences of 12 Kenyan, Nigerian, and Ghanaian international college students through semistructured interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), 7 primary domains or themes related to these students' cultural adjustment…

  6. HyperCard as a Text Analysis Tool for the Qualitative Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Marianne G.; Turner, Sandra V.

    HyperCard is a general-purpose program for the Macintosh computer that allows multiple ways of viewing and accessing a large body of information. Two ways in which HyperCard can be used as a research tool are illustrated. One way is to organize and analyze qualitative data from observations, interviews, surveys, and other documents. The other way…

  7. Transcription and Analysis of Qualitative Data in a Study of Women Who Sexually Offended against Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Research on sexual violence is often conducted within the qualitative paradigm. However, many writers have described the lack of specific detail provided with regard to decisions and processes involved in transcribing and analyzing this type of data. In this article, I will provide a description and discussion of the organization, categorization,…

  8. Community College Transfer Students' Adjustment to a Four-Year Institution: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Karen R.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents findings from a qualitative study investigating the perceptions of students engaged in the transfer process. Fifty-seven community college transfer students were interviewed through e-journaling during fall 2006 and spring 2007 in an effort to learn what students perceive as a successful transfer process, supports needed to…

  9. Self-Authoring a Civic Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Change-Oriented Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Susan V.; James, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored how undergraduate students' involvement with change-oriented service-learning contributed to their civic-political development. Using Baxter Magolda's notion of self-authorship as an analytic lens, findings suggested that students' involvement with change-oriented service-learning led to (a)…

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  11. Physicians' Perceptions of Clinical Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis in the Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Lynn V.; Bligh, John

    2006-01-01

    Background: Change is ubiquitous. Current trends in both educational and clinical settings bring new challenges to clinicians and have the potential to threaten the quality of clinical teaching. Objective: To investigate hospital specialists' perceptions of clinical teaching in the context of change. Design: Qualitative study using in-depth…

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Latino Parents' Religious Interpretations of Their Child's Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Debra; Rodriguez, Patricia; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates three ways of analyzing qualitative interview data: content, cultural models, and narrative analyses. Interview data from 250 Latino parents of young children with mental retardation illustrates these types of analyses. Suggestions for ways in which early intervention studies could be extended by considering different…

  13. The Good Teacher: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Asian American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    This research study examined the general question "What do Asian American parents believe to be important characteristics of an effective elementary teacher?" In order to investigate this question, the researcher used a qualitative research design employing a semi-structured interview which probed into the personal perceptions voiced by

  14. School Uniforms: A Qualitative Analysis of Aims and Accomplishments at Two Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Smith, Suzanne; Perry, Lynsey

    2006-01-01

    Employing rigorous qualitative research methodology, we studied the implementation of two schools' uniform policies. Their primary intents were to eliminate competition, teach young people to dress appropriately, decrease nonacademic distractions, and lower the parental clothing costs. The young people differed with adults regarding whether or not

  15. A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident: A Pilot Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Maynes, Sonya M.; Kellner, Maria; Clark, Marilyn S.; Bourgeois, James A.; Servis, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The topic "A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident" is an opportunity to explore residents' experiences to inform the delivery of education. Methods: An open-ended, qualitative approach was used in a pilot project to explore contemporary residents' experiences with education, similar to a patient-centered model of health care.

  16. The Function of Qualitative Analysis: Perspective from a Escuela Normal in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorrilla A., Juan Fidel

    The function of qualitative research in education is examined, taking into account the curriculum development of one institution, the Escuela Normal Veracruzana, Jalapa (Mexico), which is one of the oldest teacher training colleges (dating from 1886) still functioning in Mexico. Although this academic institution never traditionally promoted the…

  17. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20

  18. Let Our Voices Be Heard: Qualitative Analysis of an Internet Discussion Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Sabina Remmers; Valadez, Albert A.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an online discussion board referencing a domestic violence related murder trial. Findings from qualitative analyses based on narrative and grounded theory suggest that online discussion boards can help survivors of domestic violence to tell their stories and support each other. The perceived anonymity of Internet discussion…

  19. The Good Teacher: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Asian American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    This research study examined the general question "What do Asian American parents believe to be important characteristics of an effective elementary teacher?" In order to investigate this question, the researcher used a qualitative research design employing a semi-structured interview which probed into the personal perceptions voiced by…

  20. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  1. Transitions through Pastoral Peer Mentoring: A Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenedy, Robert; Monty, Vivienne; Lambert-Drache, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Pastoral peer mentoring often benefits both mentors and mentees through promoting a successful academic postsecondary transition. Based on interviews and focus groups with 36 York University mentors and mentees, this qualitative study highlights the successes and challenges of university pastoral peer mentoring and leadership. Major findings

  2. The Analysis of Qualitative Data in LIS Research Projects: A Possible Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2004-01-01

    Despite often brief and superficial coverage in research reports, discussion of the processes through which qualitative data has been analysed in a particular project is an essential part of the recording of the work. A recent PhD thesis examining the information-seeking behaviour of young people described in some detail the procedures in this…

  3. Sense of Presence Experiences and Meaning-Making in Bereavement: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Edith; Coyle, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the potential role that might be played by the reported experience of "sensing the presence of the deceased" in meaning-making processes in bereavement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 participants who reported having had such an experience and the transcripts were subjected to thematic

  4. Recounting the K-12 School Experiences of Adults Who Stutter: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.; Hughes, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored the primary and secondary (K-12) school experiences of adults who stutter. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 participants, a first focus group interview with 6 participants, and a second focus group interview with 4 participants. Participants discussed the various ways in which…

  5. Let Our Voices Be Heard: Qualitative Analysis of an Internet Discussion Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Sabina Remmers; Valadez, Albert A.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an online discussion board referencing a domestic violence related murder trial. Findings from qualitative analyses based on narrative and grounded theory suggest that online discussion boards can help survivors of domestic violence to tell their stories and support each other. The perceived anonymity of Internet discussion

  6. Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experience of First-Time Nurse Responders in Disaster.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Sallie J; Stanton, Marietta P; Tomlinson, Stephen; Olivet, Linda; Graves, Ann; McKnight, Douglas; Speck, Patricia M

    2016-02-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experience of First-Time Nurse Responders in Disaster," found on pages 61-71, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until January 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe the experiences of first-time nurse responders to actual disasters in community shelters or temporary medical clinics. Identify themes the first-time nurse responders suggest for a practical disaster curriculum for the generalist nurse. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The study purpose was to examine the reflections of the lived experiences of nurses in shelters or temporary community medical clinics responding for the first time to a civilian disaster. The disaster-nursing literature echoes the need for development of disaster content in the nursing curriculum. However, little thematic analysis-supporting curriculum from the lived experience of first-time responders exists in the literature. This study's purpose is to identify the essential thematic knowledge and skills necessary to provide care to disaster survivors in communities and for determining the themes necessary to formulate education in emergency preparedness curricula. A narrative inquiry, with a phenomenological analysis, to explore the lived experiences of nurses who responded once to a community disaster was the methodology used to identify themes. Thematic findings demonstrated a lack of prior knowledge about volunteering during a disaster response, that previous mass casualty exercises did not help with their actual responses, and that the participant RNs identified specific and assessment skills necessary for disasters. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(2):61-71. PMID:26840238

  7. Sexual identity stigma and social support among men who have sex with men in Lesotho: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Bechtold, Kali; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) face sexual identity stigma in many settings, which can increase risk for HIV by limiting access to care. This paper examines the roles of social support, sexual identity stigma, and sexual identity disclosure among MSM in Lesotho, a lower-middle income country within South Africa. Qualitative data were collected from 23 in-depth interview and six focus group participants and content analysis was performed to extract themes. Four primary themes emerged: 1) Verbal abuse from the broader community is a major challenge faced by MSM in Lesotho, 2) participants who were open about their sexual identity experienced greater stigma but were more self-sufficient and had higher self-confidence, 3) relationships between MSM tend to be conducted in secrecy, which can be associated with unhealthy relationships between male couples and higher risk sexual practices, and 4) MSM community organisations provide significant social and emotional support. Friends and family members from outside the MSM community also offer social support, but this support cannot be utilised by MSM until the risk of disclosing their sexual identity is reduced. Greater acceptance of same-sex practices would likely result in more open, healthy relationships and greater access to social support for MSM. PMID:26719004

  8. Linking Data to Decision-Making: Applying Qualitative Data Analysis Methods and Software to Identify Mechanisms for Using Outcomes Data

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Riley, Anne W.

    2007-01-01

    A multiple case study was conducted to examine how staff in child out-of-home care programs used data from an Outcomes Management System (OMS) and other sources to inform decision-making. Data collection consisted of thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with clinicians, managers, and directors from two treatment foster care programs and two residential treatment centers, and individuals involved with developing the OMS; and observations of clinical and quality management meetings. Case study and grounded theory methodology guided analyses. The application of qualitative data analysis software is described. Results show that although staff rarely used data from the OMS, they did rely on other sources of systematically collected information to inform clinical, quality management, and program decisions. Analyses of how staff used these data suggest that improving the utility of OMS will involve encouraging staff to participate in data-based decision-making, and designing and implementing OMS in a manner that reflects how decision-making processes operate. PMID:17647110

  9. Qualitative holographic-interferometric analysis of T-incisions of different length in vitro-A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Werner; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Manstein, Dieter; von Bally, Gert; Busse, H.

    1993-06-01

    Concepts including the length of T-incisions are mainly based on empirical evaluation of the surgeons. We report on a holographic interferometric study of the effects of straight T- incisions of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm length using double-exposure holographic interferometry. A new classification of the central holographic interferometric fringe pattern including cross-like, parallel and convex fringes allows an objective qualitative analysis of 48 holographic interferograms of the corneas of six bovine eyes. The intraocular pressure is 1340 Pa with 10 Pa and 20 Pa pressure increase. T-incisions of 5 mm length of incision (incision depth 95%) change the holographic interferometric fringe pattern completely. An increase to 10 mm length of incision results in a change of holographic fringe pattern in 50% of the cases. With 15 mm length of incision only two types of holographic interferometric fringe pattern of the cornea can be seen: parallel fringes and irregular fringes indicating an instability of the cornea. This might be a reason for paradox flattening of the cornea in the unincised meridian.

  10. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling. PMID:26102246

  11. Gordie Howe's Stem Cell 'Miracle': A Qualitative Analysis of News Coverage and Readers' Comments in Newspapers and Sports Websites.

    PubMed

    Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Stem cells continue to garner attention by the news media and play a role in public and policy discussions of emerging technologies. As new media platforms develop, it is important to understand how different news media represents emerging stem cell technologies and the role these play in public discussions. We conducted a comparative analysis of newspaper and sports websites coverage of one recent high profile case: Gordie Howe's stem cell treatment in Mexico. Using qualitative coding methods, we analyzed news articles and readers' comments from Canadian and US newspapers and sports websites. Results indicate that the efficacy of stem cell treatments is often assumed in news coverage and readers' comments indicate a public with a wide array of beliefs and perspectives on stem cells and their clinical efficacy. Media coverage that presents uncritical perspectives on unproven stem cell therapies may create patient expectations, may have an affect on policy discussions, and help to feed the marketing of unproven therapies. However, news coverage that provides more balanced or critical coverage of unproven stem cell treatments may also inspire more critical discussion, as reflected in readers' comments. PMID:26163831

  12. Qualitative modeling.

    PubMed

    Forbus, Kenneth D

    2011-07-01

    Qualitative modeling concerns the representations and reasoning that people use to understand continuous aspects of the world. Qualitative models formalize everyday notions of causality and provide accounts of how to ground symbolic, relational representations in perceptual processes. This article surveys the basic ideas of qualitative modeling and their applications from a cognitive science perspective. It describes the basic principles of qualitative modeling, and a variety of qualitative representations that have been developed for quantities and for relationships between them, providing a kind of qualitative mathematics. Three ontological frameworks for organizing modeling knowledge (processes, components, and field) are summarized, along with research on automatically assembling models for particular tasks from such knowledge. Qualitative simulation and how it carves up time into meaningful units is discussed. We discuss several accounts of causal reasoning about dynamical systems, based on different choices of qualitative mathematics and ontology. Qualitative spatial reasoning is explored, both in terms of relational systems and visual reasoning. Applications of qualitative models of particular interest to cognitive scientists are described, including how they have been used to capture the expertise of scientists and engineers and how they have been used in education. Open questions and frontiers are also discussed, focusing on relationships between ideas developed in the qualitative modeling community and other areas of cognitive science. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 374-391 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.115 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302198

  13. Leadership is the essential non-technical skill in the trauma team - results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortdahl, Magnus; Ringen, Amund H; Naess, Anne-Cathrine; Wisborg, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma is the leading cause of death for young people in Norway. Studies indicate that several of these deaths are avoidable if the patient receives correct initial treatment. The trauma team is responsible for initial hospital treatment of traumatized patients, and team members have previously reported that non-technical skills as communication, leadership and cooperation are the major challenges. Better team function could improve patient outcome. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of which non-technical skills are important to members of the trauma team during initial examination and treatment of trauma patients. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted at four different hospitals of various sizes and with different trauma load. At each hospital a nurse, an anaesthesiologist and a team leader (surgeon) were interviewed. The conversations were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis as modified by Malterud. Results and conclusion Leadership was perceived as an essential component in trauma management. The ideal leader should be an experienced surgeon, have extensive knowledge of trauma care, communicate clearly and radiate confidence. Team leaders were reported to have little trauma experience, and the team leaders interviewed requested more guidance and supervision. The need for better training of trauma teams and especially team leaders requires further investigation and action. PMID:19781093

  14. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  15. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  16. A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. Methods A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Results Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Conclusions Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to information can act as a solution. PMID:24981205

  17. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources. PMID:26874107

  18. Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of peer support as a component of mental health care, including the employment of Peer Workers (consumer-providers) by mental health service organisations, is increasingly common internationally. Peer support is strongly advocated as a strategy in a number of UK health and social care policies. Approaches to employing Peer Workers are proliferating. There is evidence to suggest that Peer Worker-based interventions reduce psychiatric inpatient admission and increase service user (consumer) empowerment. In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams. Methods We report the secondary analysis of qualitative interview data from service users, Peer Workers, non-peer staff and managers of three innovative interventions in a study about mental health self-care. Relevant data was extracted from interviews with 41 participants and subjected to analysis using Grounded Theory techniques. Organisational research literature on role adoption framed the analysis. Results Peer Workers were highly valued by mental health teams and service users. Non-peer team members and managers worked hard to introduce Peer Workers into teams. Our cases were projects in development and there was learning from the evolutionary process: in the absence of formal recruitment processes for Peer Workers, differences in expectations of the Peer Worker role can emerge at the selection stage; flexible working arrangements for Peer Workers can have the unintended effect of perpetuating hierarchies within teams; the maintenance of protective practice boundaries through supervision and training can militate against the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice; lack of consensus around what constitutes peer practice can result in feelings for Peer Workers of inequality, disempowerment, uncertainty about identity and of being under-supported. Conclusions This research is indicative of potential benefits for mental health service teams of introducing Peer Worker roles. Analysis also suggests that if the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice is not adequately considered and supported, as integral to the development of new Peer Worker roles, there is a risk that the potential impact of any emerging role will be constrained and diluted. PMID:23705767

  19. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  20. The effect of BRCA gene testing on family relationships: A thematic analysis of qualitative interviews.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather A; Hamilton, Rebekah J; Grubs, Robin E

    2009-10-01

    Discovery of mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 can have emotional consequences for both the tested individual and his or her relatives. This secondary analysis study investigated how BRCA testing impacts family dynamics and relationships. For the original study, a grounded theory inquiry, participants were recruited from a hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome support website and open-ended interviews were performed asking about individual and family experiences after BRCA testing. All 12 participants whose interviews were included in the secondary analysis had a BRCA mutation. For the secondary analysis, thematic analysis was conducted and revealed three main themes characterizing the effect of BRCA testing on family relationships: 1. That the first in the family to have testing or seek genetic counseling takes on a special family role that can be difficult for them; 2. That discussions in the family often change; and 3. That individuals may feel more or less connected to certain family members. These changes seemed to relate to family cancer history, relationships, coping strategies, communication patterns, and mutation status. Genetic counselors might find it useful to explore these issues in order to prepare clients before BRCA testing and to support them through shifts in family dynamics after disclosure of results. PMID:19479365

  1. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

  2. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  3. Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations. PMID:21943401

  4. Barriers to discharge in an acute care medical teaching unit: a qualitative analysis of health providers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewska, Barbara; Santana, Maria Jose; Groshaus, Horacio; Stajkovic, Svetlana; Cowles, Jennifer; Chakrovorty, David; Ghali, William A

    2015-01-01

    Background The complex process of discharging patients from acute care to community care requires a multifaceted interaction between all health care providers and patients. Poor communication in a patient’s discharge can result in post hospital adverse events, readmission, and mortality. Because of the gravity of these problems, discharge planning has been emphasized as a potential solution. The purpose of this paper is to identify communication barriers to effective discharge planning in an acute care unit of a tertiary care center and to suggest solutions to these barriers. Methods Health care providers provided comments to a single open-ended question: “What are the communication barriers between the different health care providers that limit an effective discharge of patients from Unit 36?” We conducted qualitative thematic analysis by identifying themes related to communication barriers affecting a successful discharge process. Results Three broad themes related to barriers to the discharge process were identified: communication, lack of role clarity and lack of resources. We also identified two themes for opportunities for improvement, ie, structure and function of the medical team and need for leadership. Conclusion While it was evident that poor communication was an overarching barrier identified by health care providers, other themes emerged. In an effort to increase inter-team communication, “bullet rounds”, a condensed form of discharge rounds, were introduced to the medical teaching unit and occurred on a daily basis between the multidisciplinary team. To help facilitate provider-patient communication, electronic transfer of care summaries were suggested as a potential solution. To help role clarity, a discharge coordinator and/or liaison was suggested. Communication can be enhanced through use of electronic discharge summaries, bullet rounds, and implementation of a discharge coordinator(s). The findings from this study can be used to aid future researchers in devising appropriate discharging strategies that are focused around the patient and inter-health care provider communication. PMID:25709468

  5. Shared Decision-Making in Oncology – A Qualitative Analysis of Healthcare Providers’ Views on Current Practice

    PubMed Central

    Frerichs, Wiebke; Hahlweg, Pola; Müller, Evamaria; Adis, Christine; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite an increased awareness of shared decision-making (SDM) and its prominent position on the health policy agenda, its implementation in routine care remains a challenge in Germany. In order to overcome this challenge, it is important to understand healthcare providers’ views regarding SDM and to take their perspectives and opinions into account in the development of an implementation program. The present study aimed at exploring a) the attitudes of different healthcare providers regarding SDM in oncology and b) their experiences with treatment decisions in daily practice. Material and Methods A qualitative study was conducted using focus groups and individual interviews with different healthcare providers at the University Cancer Center Hamburg, Germany. Focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results N = 4 focus groups with a total of N = 25 participants and N = 17 individual interviews were conducted. Attitudes regarding SDM varied greatly between the different participants, especially concerning the definition of SDM, the attitude towards the degree of patient involvement in decision-making and assumptions about when SDM should take place. Experiences on how treatment decisions are currently made varied. Negative experiences included time and structural constraints, and a lack of (multidisciplinary) communication. Positive experiences comprised informed patients, involvement of relatives and a good physician-patient relationship. Conclusion The results show that German healthcare providers in oncology have a range of attitudes that currently function as barriers towards the implementation of SDM. Also, their experiences on how decision-making is currently done reveal difficulties in actively involving patients in decision-making processes. It will be crucial to take these attitudes and experiences seriously and to subsequently disentangle existing misconceptions in future implementation programs. PMID:26967325

  6. Qualitative analysis of gain spectra of InGaAlAs/InP lasing nano-heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Pyare; Yadav, Rashmi; Sharma, Meha; Rahman, F.; Dalela, S.; Alvi, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies of lasing characteristics along with the gain spectra of compressively strained and step SCH based In0.71Ga0.21Al0.08As/InP lasing nano-heterostructure within TE polarization mode, taking into account the variation in well width of the single quantum well of the nano-heterostructure. In addition, the compressive conduction and valence bands dispersion profiles for quantum well of the material composition In0.71Ga0.21Al0.08As at temperature 300 K and strain 1.12% have been studied using 4 × 4 Luttinger Hamiltonian. For the proposed nano-heterostructure, the quantum well width dependence of differential gain, refractive index change and relaxation oscillation frequency with current density have been studied. Moreover, the G-J characteristics of the nano-heterostructure at different well widths have also been investigated, that provided significant information about threshold current density, threshold gain and transparency current density. The results obtained in the study of nano-heterostructure suggest that the gain and relaxation oscillation frequency both are decreased with increasing quantum well width but the required lasing wavelength is found to shift towards higher values. On behalf of qualitative analysis of the structure, the well width of 6 nm is found more suitable for lasing action at the wavelength of 1.55 μm due to minimum optical attenuation and minimum dispersion within the waveguide. The results achieved are, therefore, very important in the emerging area of nano-optoelectronics.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michailof, Chrysoula; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Stefanidis, Stylianos; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos; Theodoridis, Georgios; Lappas, Angelos

    2014-11-21

    Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis are efficient processes for the transformation of biomass to bio-oil, a liquid energy carrier and a general source of chemicals. The elucidation of the bio-oil's composition is essential for a rational design of both its production and utilization process. However, the complex composition of bio-oils hinders their complete qualitative and quantitative analysis, and conventional chromatographic techniques lack the necessary separation power. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) is considered a suitable technique for bio-oil analysis due to its increased separation and resolution capacity. This work presents the tentative qualitative and quantitative analysis of bio-oils resulting from the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of standard xylan, cellulose, lignin and their mixture by GC×GC-ToFMS. Emphasis is placed on the development of the quantitative method using phenol-d6 as internal standard. During the method development, a standard solution of 39 compounds was used for the determination of the respective Relative Response Factors (RRF) employing statistical methods, ANOVA and WLSLR, for verification of the data. The developed method was applied to the above mentioned bio-oils and their detailed analysis is presented. The different compounds produced and their diverse concentration allows for an elucidation of the pyrolysis mechanism and highlight the effect of the catalyst. PMID:25441082

  8. Understanding women's labeling of unwanted sexual experiences with dating partners: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Harned, Melanie S

    2005-03-01

    Qualitative data are used to examine the process by which women come to label their unwanted sexual experiences with dating partners as sexual abuse or assault, as well as the factors that impede such labeling. Issues of consent, causal attributions, and minimization were found to be central to understanding why women did or did not label. Labeling was generally a gradual process and was most often triggered by social support seeking. Women who did not label typically defined the incident as something less serious than sexual abuse or assault, although some provided definitions indicating that they had felt victimized. PMID:16043555

  9. Experiences of Infertility in British and Pakistani Women: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; de Visser, Richard Oliver

    2016-02-01

    The psychosocial impact of infertility is affected by cultural factors. In this cross-cultural qualitative study we explored the experience of infertility among six women living in Pakistan and eight living in the UK. Although infertile women in the UK and Pakistan had many shared experiences related to their own desires for motherhood and the hopes of others, they also faced unique psychosocial challenges shaped by cultural context. Based on our findings, we suggest a need for further resources and networks to support women, particularly women living in cultures that allow women few fulfilling social roles other than motherhood. PMID:25535774

  10. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore, the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

  11. Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: final qualitative results from prospective national evaluation in early adopter hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the implementation and adoption of the NHS detailed care records service in early adopter hospitals in England. Design Theoretically informed, longitudinal qualitative evaluation based on case studies. Setting 12 early adopter NHS acute hospitals and specialist care settings studied over two and a half years. Data sources Data were collected through in depth interviews, observations, and relevant documents relating directly to case study sites and to wider national developments that were perceived to impact on the implementation strategy. Data were thematically analysed, initially within and then across cases. The dataset consisted of 431 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders, including hospital staff, developers, and governmental stakeholders; 590 hours of observations of strategic meetings and use of the software in context; 334 sets of notes from observations, researchers field notes, and notes from national conferences; 809 NHS documents; and 58 regional and national documents. Results Implementation has proceeded more slowly, with a narrower scope and substantially less clinical functionality than was originally planned. The national strategy had considerable local consequences (summarised under five key themes), and wider national developments impacted heavily on implementation and adoption. More specifically, delays related to unrealistic expectations about the capabilities of systems; the time needed to build, configure, and customise the software; the work needed to ensure that systems were supporting provision of care; and the needs of end users for training and support. Other factors hampering progress included the changing milieu of NHS policy and priorities; repeatedly renegotiated national contracts; different stages of development of diverse NHS care records service systems; and a complex communication process between different stakeholders, along with contractual arrangements that largely excluded NHS providers. There was early evidence that deploying systems resulted in important learning within and between organisations and the development of relevant competencies within NHS hospitals. Conclusions Implementation of the NHS Care Records Service in early adopter sites proved time consuming and challenging, with as yet limited discernible benefits for clinicians and no clear advantages for patients. Although our results might not be directly transferable to later adopting sites because the functionalities we evaluated were new and untried in the English context, they shed light on the processes involved in implementing major new systems. The move to increased local decision making that we advocated based on our interim analysis has been pursued and welcomed by the NHS, but it is important that policymakers do not lose sight of the overall goal of an integrated interoperable solution. PMID:22006942

  12. A Qualitative Content Analysis of Knowledge Storage in Nursing Education System

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The need for effective management of intellectual and academic assets is constantly growing. The nursing educational system should be considered as a storage of knowledge since it is deposited in the nursing educational system in the form of intellectual investment. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to explore nursing knowledge storage in the nursing educational system. Materials and Methods: The participants of this study consisted of eight nursing educators and five students. The inductive content analysis method was used in this research. Participants were interviewed through the semi-structured method. Data analysis was done by five stage framework approaches. The trustworthiness of the study was ensured through validity and acceptability criteria. Results: Data analysis showed that nursing educators and students were involve in teaching and learning activities by storing knowledge in subjective and objective forms. Knowledge was gained through the different educational activities of the nursing educators and through contact with their peers. Moreover, the nursing students gained knowledge for better learning and a more knowledgeable and advanced performance with the help of the educators. Conclusions: This study revealed the main components of knowledge storage. An enhanced preservation of explicit knowledge is recommended in the nursing educational system so that in the future, students and educators can easily access the same knowledge from storage sources and not from individuals who might be carrying only a single experience of the subject. PMID:25558388

  13. The challenges of including sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a qualitative survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic review methodology includes the rigorous collection, selection, and evaluation of data in order to synthesize the best available evidence for health practice, health technology assessments, and health policy. Despite evidence that sex and gender matter to health outcomes, data and analysis related to sex and gender are frequently absent in systematic reviews, raising concerns about the quality and applicability of reviews. Few studies have focused on challenges to implementing sex/gender analysis within systematic reviews. Methods A multidisciplinary group of systematic reviewers, methodologists, biomedical and social science researchers, health practitioners, and other health sector professionals completed an open-ended survey prior to a two-day workshop focused on sex/gender, equity, and bias in systematic reviews. Respondents were asked to identify challenging or ‘thorny’ issues associated with integrating sex and gender in systematic reviews and indicate how they address these in their work. Data were analysed using interpretive description. A summary of the findings was presented and discussed with workshop participants. Results Respondents identified conceptual challenges, such as defining sex and gender, methodological challenges in measuring and analysing sex and gender, challenges related to availability of data and data quality, and practical and policy challenges. No respondents discussed how they addressed these challenges, but all proposed ways to address sex/gender analysis in the future. Conclusions Respondents identified a wide range of interrelated challenges to implementing sex/gender considerations within systematic reviews. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to identify these challenges from the perspectives of those conducting and using systematic reviews. A framework and methods to integrate sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews are in the early stages of development. A number of priority items and collaborative initiatives to guide systematic reviewers in sex/gender analysis are provided, based on the survey results and subsequent workshop discussions. An emerging ‘community of practice’ is committed to enhancing the quality and applicability of systematic reviews by integrating considerations of sex/gender into the review process, with the goals of improving health outcomes and ensuring health equity for all persons. PMID:24720875

  14. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of illicit drug mixtures on paper currency using Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kathryn Y; Beshire, Melissa; Darnell, Jason; Frederick, Kimberley A

    2005-12-01

    Measurement of illicit drugs on paper currency is of interest for evidentiary purposes in legal cases involving the drug trade. Current methods, primarily based on mass spectrometry, are destructive and prevent re-analysis of the evidence. This article details a method based on Raman microspectroscopy that is able to collect spectra from individual crystals on the surface of paper currency. Mixtures of isoxsuprine and norephedrine, which are non-pharmacologically active drug surrogates, as well as lidocaine and benzocaine, common excipients in street drugs, were doped in small quantities onto US currency. Significant fluorescence interference resulted from the underlying dollar bill. This work presents two methods for reducing the fluorescence background, photobleaching and background subtraction, which both worked well. Finally, a method for determining the percent composition of individual components in heterogeneous mixtures was developed by systematically sampling the surface of the dollar bill. Results were accurate within a few percent, although the method was quite time consuming. PMID:16390588

  16. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment. PMID:15851510

  17. Women's Behavioral Responses to the Threat of a Hypothetical Date Rape Stimulus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R; Cahill, Shawn P

    2016-05-01

    One in four college women experience sexual assault on campus; yet, campuses rarely provide the in-depth self-defense programs needed to reduce sexual assault risk. Further, little is known about the range of possible behaviors elicited by sexual assault threat stimuli besides assertion. To fill this gap, the aim of the current study was to explore qualitative themes in women's intended behavioral responses to a hypothetical sexual assault threat, date rape, by using a laboratory-controlled threat. College women (N = 139) were randomly assigned to one of four different levels of sexual assault threat presented via an audio-recorded vignette. Participants articulated how they would hypothetically respond to the experimentally assigned threat. Responses were blinded and analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Six major themes emerged: assertion, compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, avoidance, expressions of discomfort, and allusion to future contact. Although almost all participants described assertion, a number of non-assertive responses were described that are not currently recognized in the literature. These non-assertive responses, including compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, and avoidance, may represent unique behavioral response styles and likely reflect the complex psychological process of behavioral response to threat. The variety of themes found illustrates the great range of behavioral responses to threat. This broad range is not currently well represented or measured in the literature and better understanding of these responses can inform future interventions, advocacy efforts, and policies focused on sexual assault. PMID:26872475

  18. Social influences on mental health help-seeking after interpersonal traumatization: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite frequent and serious mental health problems after interpersonal traumatization, only a fraction of those affected by interpersonal violence seek formal help after the event. Reasons for this mismatch can be found in the individual help-seeking process but also in the individual's social environment. These social factors are explored based on a model describing the survivor's help-seeking process. Method Survivors of interpersonal traumatization and professionals providing help for this population were asked about factors influencing the ease of seeking and receiving professional help after interpersonal traumatization. A deductive and inductive content analysis of the experiences of 43 survivors of interpersonal traumatization and 16 professionals providing help for this population was carried out. Results The analysis suggested a clear distinction of an individual and a social system level of influencing variables. At the system level three main factors were identified: factors of the help-system, dominant attitudes in society and public knowledge about traumatization and available help. Conclusions The results confirmed a complex interaction of variables on the individual and system level in the help-seeking process. The system level affects the individual's help-seeking through multiple pathways, especially through the individual's representation of the traumatization, through the reactions of the individual's social network and through barriers the individual perceives or experiences in the formal help-system. PMID:20964871

  19. A qualitative analysis of prescription activity and alert usage in a computerized physician order entry system.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, Rolf; Betrancourt, Mireille; Guardia, Alberto; Lovis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Medical alerts in CPOE are overridden in most cases. The need for alerting systems that are better adapted to physicians' needs and work processes is recognized. Our study aims to shed some light on how medical alerts are used and how they are integrated in the work process. Work analysis and interviews resulted in a hierarchical task analysis of prescription during ward rounds at the University Hospitals of Geneva. The results indicate that non-modal medical alerts are appreciated as an "insurance" for drugs that are out of the routine set. In the case of drugs that are often prescribed, alerts are ignored as physicians feel comfortable prescribing them. Non-interrupting alerts do not cognitively overcharge physicians, but the question is how to display the numerous alerts so that they are easily accessible when needed. Further, inexperienced physicians lack a mental representation of what evaluations the system is doing with the prescriptions and when alerts are triggered. This may lead to lack of trust or overconfidence, both of them potentially harmful. PMID:21893884

  20. QUALITATIVE GENETICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative genetics, also known as Mendelian genetics or transmission genetics refers to those genetic traits that have a distinct phenotype, and are controlled by one or several genes. More than 300 qualitative genetic traits are known and are maintained in the USDA soybean Genetic Type Collectio...