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1

Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

2010-01-01

2

Ayahuasca in Adolescence: Qualitative Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research was conducted in Brazil among 28 ayahuasca-consuming adolescents members of the Uni?o do Vegetal Church, and 28 adolescents who never used ayahuasca. They were compared on a number of qualitative variables, including vignettes measuring moral and ethical concerns. Psychocultural studies utilizing co-occurences of variables in the realm of qualitative studies are useful in understanding and complementing quantitative studies

Marlene Dobkin de Rios; Charles S. Grob; Enrique Lopez; Dartiu Xavier da Silviera; Luisa K. Alonso; Evelyn Doering-Silveira

2005-01-01

3

Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. Purpose To provide insights into students’ experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. Methods A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. Results The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students’ anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. Conclusion On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students’ support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians. PMID:25278789

Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

2014-01-01

4

Estimation of precipitable water vapour from GPS measurements in Argentina: Validation and qualitative analysis of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents PWV estimates from GPS data computed at four continuously operated GPS stations in Argentina established at Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Salta over a 1 year period (2006-2007). The objective is to analyze the behaviour of the GPS PWV estimation using mean tropospheric temperature ( Tm) values from the Bevis model, Sapucci model and obtained by a numerical integration of variables provided by the operational analysis of the National Centre of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The results are validated using PWV values from nearest radio soundings. Moreover, a comparison between PWV values determined from microwave sensors deployed on the NOAA-18 satellite and PWV from GPS observations is also presented. From the analysis we can see that the computation of GPS PWV using the Tm from the Bevis model, originally deduced for the northern hemisphere, shows similar behaviour to the respective computation using a Sapucci model inside 0.5 mm. The differences between the Tm values computed from the Sapucci model and the numerical integration of NCEP variables are of the order of 15 K, although it does not represent a significant error in PWV. Nevertheless, differences in bias are imperceptible during the dry period and they are as big as 3 mm during the moist or high precipitation period. This behaviour could not represent an improvement when comparing radio soundings with respect to the GPS PWV values using different estimations of Tm. Thus, we conclude that the usage of Tm estimated from the Bevis model is the best choice for regional studies, considering the simplicity and dissemination of the method, unless some more studies taking into account the geographical and climatological characteristic of the region are performed. As expected, GPS PWV values show very good agreement with radio sounding determinations, small differences can be observed especially during extreme precipitation periods. In general the NOAA PWV values denote an over estimation of the available water vapour. It is important to note that the determination of PWV is not the mean product of the NOAA-18 satellite mission. These results show the potential of such a product although a preliminary calibration using GPS PWV is still necessary.

Fernández, L. I.; Salio, P.; Natali, M. P.; Meza, A. M.

2010-10-01

5

Qualitative Analysis: The Current Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist in designing/implementing qualitative analysis courses, examines reliability/accuracy of several published separation schemes, notes methods where particular difficulties arise (focusing on Groups II/III), and presents alternative schemes for the separation of these groups. Only cation analyses are reviewed. Figures are presented in…

Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.; Waggoner, William H.

1983-01-01

6

Secondary Students' Perceptions about Learning Qualitative Analysis in Inorganic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grade 10 students in Singapore find qualitative analysis one of the more difficult topics in their external examinations. Fifty-one grade 10 students from three schools were interviewed to investigate their perceptions about learning qualitative analysis. The results showed that students found qualitative analysis tedious and difficult to…

Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

2001-01-01

7

Secondary Students' Perceptions about Learning Qualitative Analysis in Inorganic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grade 10 students in Singapore find qualitative analysis one of the more difficult topics in their external examinations. Fifty-one grade 10 students (15-17 years old) from three schools were interviewed to investigate their perceptions about learning qualitative analysis and the aspects of qualitative analysis they found difficult. The results showed that students found qualitative analysis tedious, difficult to understand and found the practical sessions unrelated to what they learned in class. They also believed that learning qualitative analysis required a great amount of memory work. It is proposed that their difficulties may arise from not knowing explicitly what is required in qualitative analysis, the content of qualitative analysis, the lack of motivation to understand qualitative analysis, cognitive overloading, and the lack of mastery of the required process skills.

Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

2001-02-01

8

Perceptions of knowledge management: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study of middle managers’ perceptions of knowledge management (KM) implementation in NZ organizations. Data were collected in a survey of 71 attendees of a KM presentation. The data were analyzed using qualitative coding principles. Two core issues were examined – barriers and drivers of KM. Subcategories under barriers were primarily concerned

David Mason; David J. Pauleen

2003-01-01

9

Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

10

Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reanalysis of data to answer the original research question with better statistical techniques or to answer new questions with old data is not uncommon in quantitative studies. Meta analysis and research syntheses have increased with the increase in research using similar statistical analyses, refinements of analytical techniques, and the…

Turner, Paul D.

11

Comprehensive Qualitative Analysis for High School Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a qualitative analysis laboratory procedure for high school chemistry students. The paper received the Science Teaching Achievement Recognition (STAR) award. The procedure acquaints students with certain ions and uses the knowledge of ions to devise a flow-chart for separating and identifying these ions in an unknown solution. (SL)

Short, Byrl

12

A Qualitative Risk Analysis for the GPRS Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative risk analysis of the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology. GPRS presents several essential security weaknesses which may lead to security attacks that can compromise the network operation and the data transfer. We perform a detailed threat analysis by identifying the possible attacks that may result from the GPRS security weaknesses. The analyzed threats are

Christos Xenakis; Danae Apostolopoulou; Angeliki Panou; Ioannis Stavrakakis

2008-01-01

13

Qualitative Analysis of Selected Medicinal Plants, Tamilnadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The Qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. We have colleted four medicinally important medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica, Cassia auriculata, Eclipta alba and Phyllanthus niruri for quantitative analysis. The experiment carried out in the selected medicinal plants leaves and roots. The results are discussed with the available literature.

C. Chitravadivu; S. Manian; K. Kalaichelvi

14

Blogging Medical Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Blogging is an increasingly popular method of sharing and reflecting on experiences of medical students in the World Wide Web with a potentially global learning community. The authors are not aware of studies that specifically examined blogs by medical students and thus for the first time investigated the type of experiences and impressions that emerged from these blogs with relevance for medical students and medical educators. Method: This was a qualitative study. Initially 75 blogs were identified. 33 blogs with a total of 1228 English and 337 German blog entries met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. We started with line-by-line coding and switched to focused coding using constant comparative analysis to create a categorical framework for blogs. Results: Medical students use blogs to write and reflect about a large variety of issues related to medical school. Major emerging themes included the preparation for written and oral high-stakes exams, experiences during clinical rotations, dealing with distressing situations during medical school, and social life of students beyond medical school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blogs are a potentially useful tool for medical students to reflect on their experiences during medical school as well as for medical educators to better understand how students perceive their time in medical school. The educational benefit of blogging might even be increased if trained medical educators would help to facilitate meaningful and targeted discussions emerging from blog entries and comment on students’ learning challenges with the chance to reach a large community of learners. PMID:23467720

Pinilla, Severin; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Alig, Stefan K.; Bauer, Helen; Noerenberg, Daniel; Singer, Katharina; Tiedt, Steffen

2013-01-01

15

Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: qualitative analysis of interim results from a prospective national evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe and evaluate the implementation and adoption of detailed electronic health records in secondary care in England and thereby provide early feedback for the ongoing local and national rollout of the NHS Care Records Service. Design A mixed methods, longitudinal, multisite, socio-technical case study. Setting Five NHS acute hospital and mental health trusts that have been the focus of early implementation efforts and at which interim data collection and analysis are complete. Data sources and analysis Dataset for the evaluation consists of semi-structured interviews, documents and field notes, observations, and quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed thematically with a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. Main results Hospital electronic health record applications are being developed and implemented far more slowly than was originally envisioned; the top-down, standardised approach has needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice, which hospital trusts want in order to support local activity. Despite considerable delays and frustrations, support for electronic health records remains strong, including from NHS clinicians. Political and financial factors are now perceived to threaten nationwide implementation of electronic health records. Interviewees identified a range of consequences of long term, centrally negotiated contracts to deliver the NHS Care Records Service in secondary care, particularly as NHS trusts themselves are not party to these contracts. These include convoluted communication channels between different stakeholders, unrealistic deployment timelines, delays, and applications that could not quickly respond to changing national and local NHS priorities. Our data suggest support for a “middle-out” approach to implementing hospital electronic health records, combining government direction with increased local autonomy, and for restricting detailed electronic health record sharing to local health communities. Conclusions Experiences from the early implementation sites, which have received considerable attention, financial investment and support, indicate that delivering improved healthcare through nationwide electronic health records will be a long, complex, and iterative process requiring flexibility and local adaptability both with respect to the systems and the implementation strategy. The more tailored, responsive approach that is emerging is becoming better aligned with NHS organisations’ perceived needs and is, if pursued, likely to deliver clinically useful electronic health record systems. PMID:20813822

2010-01-01

16

An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

1983-01-01

17

Filtrates and Residues: Qualitative Analysis of Some Transition Metals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a qualitative analysis laboratory in which students examine specific precipitates that can be used to identify copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron cations. The objective of the laboratory is to determine which test or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each cation and to use the results to identify several unknowns. (JN)

Kilner, Cary

1985-01-01

18

Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

2002-01-01

19

Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Gerontological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that qualitative research has great potential for use in gerontological research. Describes QUALOG, a computer-assisted, qualitative data analysis scheme using logic programming developed at Syracuse University. Reviews development of QUALOG and discusses how QUALOG was used to analyze data from a qualitative study of older adult learners.…

Hiemstra, Roger; And Others

1987-01-01

20

Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

21

Analysis of Qualitative Data with Microcomputers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The microcomputer offers social science field researchers a valuable tool for managing qualitative research data. In addition to the flexibility and efficiency of the microcomputer, the logic governing its programming and operation imposes a framework on the research process which necessitates that research decisions and strategies be explicit and…

Marshall, Catherine; Lynch, Kathleen Kelley

22

Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

2008-01-01

23

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MARSILEA MINUTA LINN.  

E-print Network

The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of phytochemicals in the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Marsilea minuta Linn (Marsileaceae), a common aquatic medicinal fern by both qualitative and quantitative screening methods. In qualitative analysis, the phytochemical compounds such as steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened in five solvent extracts. The methanol extract of the fern showed positive results for 10 phytochemical tests. The benzene extract exhibited positive results for 9 tests. In chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the plant showed positive results for 7 tests and in aqueous extract of the fern 5 phytochemical tests were positive. In quantitative analysis the important secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were tested in all the extracts of the fern. The methanol extract showed highest amount of phytochemicals when compared with other solvent extracts. KEY WARDS: Marsilea minuta, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins

A. John; De Britto; D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin; P. Benjamin; Jeya Rathna Kumar; A. John; De Britto

24

Harmonic Analysis and Qualitative Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the mathematical nature of qualitative uncertainty principle (QUP), which plays an important role in mathematics, physics and engineering fields. Consider a 3-tuple (K, H1, H2) that K: H1 -> H2 is an integral operator. Suppose a signal f in H1, {\\Omega}1 and {\\Omega}2 are domains on which f, Kf define respectively. Does this signal f vanish if |{\\Sigma}(f)|uncertainty principle, nonlinear method and sparse representation, are thus suggested. The notion of operator family is developed and is applied to understand remarkable performances of recent sparse representation.

Ji King

2010-08-09

25

Professional socialization in nursing: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Being a nurse is more than just a series of business activities and skills. In fact, it is a part of the process of socialization, which is internalization and development of professional identity. Professional socialization is necessary for involving the students in professional practices. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative research was to increase the understanding of professional socialization in nursing and explore the related factors from the perspective of registered nurses and nursing students. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative design, data were collected on 43 nurses with a variety of experiences using semi-structured interviews and focus groups in the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results: The data analysis revealed two main categories: (1) sense of belonging with three sub-categories of theory-practice incongruence, educational experiences and tacit knowledge and (2) forming professional identity consisting of three sub-categories of relatedness, internal motivation and role model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that in nursing, sense of belonging and professional identity contributes to professional socialization; it is suggested that these factors, which improve socialization in nurses, be taken into account by authorities. PMID:25183987

Zarshenas, Ladan; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Khayyer, Mohammad; Zare, Najaf; Ebadi, Abbas

2014-01-01

26

Fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber in near infrared spectroscopy based on support vector machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber is a crucial step in textile manufacture, export and inspection. This paper presents a near infrared spectroscopy classification method based on SVM for fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber. SVM is a new automatic classification tool and it has successfully been applied to standard classification tasks, such as text classification, pattern identification, bioinformatics and medical diagnosis. In this paper, SVM is extended into near infrared fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber for the first time. In this paper, eight kinds classification algorithms which are composed of two classifiers(C-SVC and ?-SVC) and four kernel functions (linear, polynomial, RBF and sigmoid) are used to do classification experiments and comparison analysis for ten kinds familiar textiles fiber. Experiment results show that it is feasible to apply SVM in fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber, and the optimal classifier algorithm and the corresponding experimental results are reported.

Wang, Donghui; Jin, Shangzhong; Gan, Bin; Feng, Hongnian

2006-02-01

27

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

28

[Retransfusion of thoracic drainage blood: qualitative analysis].  

PubMed

In a prospective randomized study 10 patients received their shed mediastinal blood after elective coronary artery bypass surgery and were compared to 10 control patients without retransfusion. The quality assessment can be summarized as follows (mean +/- 1 SD): 1. Hemoglobin concentration of the shed blood was 9.6 +/- 1.45 g/dl. 2. The energy rich phosphate compounds of the shed blood erythrocytes were 2.6 +/- 0.8 mumol/gHb ATP (70% of the patients preoperative value) and 14.8 +/- 4.2 mumol/gHb 2.3-DPG (normal). 3. Proteins, immunoglobulins and especially albumin in the shed blood were not significantly different from the patients own values. 4. No electrolyte changes, safe for a slight increase in potassium (5.7 +/- 0.7 mmol/l). 5. The activated clotting time of the patient did not change during retransfusion. 7. Plasma free hemoglobin was elevated to 211.1 +/- 44.3 mg/dl in the shed blood; however, no significant increase could be noted in the retransfused patients and no hemoglobinuria occurred. Postoperative retransfusion of shed mediastinal blood is a simple and safe method of autologous transfusion early after cardiac surgery and should be combined with other methods of blood salvage. The qualitative advantages of blood retransfusion consist in the absence of storage damage and in the preservation of autologous proteins and immunoglobulins. PMID:2074205

Walpoth, B H; Volken, U; Nydegger, U; Jutzi, H; Gersbach, P; Leupi, F; Schüpbach, P; Althaus, U

1990-10-01

29

Using qualitative evidence on patients’ views to help understand variation in effectiveness of complex interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Complex healthcare interventions consist of multiple components which may vary in trials conducted in different populations and contexts. Pooling evidence from trials in a systematic review is challenging because it is unclear which components are needed for effectiveness. The potential is recognised for using recipients’ views to explore why some complex interventions are effective and others are not. Methods to maximise this potential are poorly developed. Methods We used a novel approach to explore how patients’ views may explain the disparity in effectiveness of complex interventions. We used qualitative comparative analysis to explore agreement between qualitative syntheses of data on patients’ views and evidence from trialed interventions to increase adherence to treatments. We first populated data matrices to reflect whether the content of each trialed intervention could be matched with suggestions arising from patients’ views. We then used qualitative comparative analysis software to identify, by a process of elimination, the smallest number of configurations (patterns) of components that corresponded with patients’ suggestions and accounted for whether each intervention was effective or ineffective. Results We found suggestions by patients were poorly represented in interventions. Qualitative comparative analysis identified particular combinations of components corresponding with patients’ suggestions and with whether an intervention was effective or ineffective. Six patterns were identified for an effective and four for an ineffective intervention. Two types of patterns arose for the effective interventions, one being didactic (providing clear information or instruction) and the other interactive (focusing on personal risk factors). Conclusions Our analysis highlights how data on patients’ views has the potential to identify key components across trials of complex interventions or inform the content of new interventions to be trialed. PMID:23777465

2013-01-01

30

Reflexive Accounts and Accounts of Reflexivity in Qualitative Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the importance of being reflexive is acknowledged within social science research, the difficulties, practicalities and methods of doing it are rarely addressed. Thus, the implications of current theoretical and philosophical discussions about reflexivity, epistemology and the construction of knowledge for empirical socio- logical research practice, specifically the analysis of qualitative data, remain under- developed. Drawing on our doctoral experiences,

Natasha S. Mauthner; Andrea Doucet

2003-01-01

31

EXPERIMENT 9 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS USING PACKED  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENT 9 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS USING PACKED COLUMN The purpose become familiar with the use of a temperature programmable gas chromatograph. See also the gas on the gas chromatograph so that the tr values may be obtained. Instrument Start Up. Turn on the gas

Nazarenko, Alexander

32

A Qualitative Analysis of Suicide Ideation among Manitoban Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canadian studies examining suicide among rural and farm populations remain scarce. To better understand this phenomenon, a qualitative research paradigm was used to analyze encounter forms of 29 individuals (24 men, 5 women) who called the Manitoban Farm and Rural Stress Line. Content analysis revealed 7 major themes: (a) coping mechanisms, (b)…

Sturgeon, Ryan; Morrissette, Patrick J.

2010-01-01

33

Using natural language processing technology for qualitative data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social researchers often apply qualitative research methods to study groups and their communications artifacts. The use of computer-mediated communications has dramatically increased the volume of text available, but coding such text requires considerable manual effort. We discuss how systems that process text in human languages (i.e. natural language processing [NLP]) might partially automate content analysis by extracting theoretical evidence. We

Kevin Crowston; Eileen E. Allen; Robert Heckman

2011-01-01

34

TQCA: A Technique for Adding Temporality to Qualitative Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As originally developed by Charles Ragin in The Comparative Method (1987), qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) has been used extensively by comparative and historical sociologists as an effective tool for analyzing data sets of medium-N popula- tions. Like many other methods, however, QCA is atemporal and obscures the sequen- tial nature of paths of causation. QCA ignores the order of events

NEAL CAREN; AARON PANOFSKY

2005-01-01

35

Utilizing Problem-Based Learning in Qualitative Analysis Lab Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of qualitative analysis (QA) laboratory experiments utilizing a problem-based learning (PBL) module has been designed and implemented. The module guided students through the experiments under the guise of cleaning up a potentially contaminated water site as employees of an environmental chemistry laboratory. The main goal was the…

Hicks, Randall W.; Bevsek, Holly M.

2012-01-01

36

Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

37

A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets  

PubMed Central

In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

Evans, Michael S.

2014-01-01

38

Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data  

PubMed Central

Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

2014-01-01

39

Dealing with Complex Causality in Realist Synthesis: The Promise of Qualitative Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors state two arguments: first, that the four categories of context, politics, polity, and policy make an adequate framework for systematic review being both exhaustive and parsimonious; second, that the method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is an appropriate methodical approach for gaining realistic results

Sager, Fritz; Andereggen, Celine

2012-01-01

40

[The qualitative analysis method of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) for ABS wastewater].  

PubMed

The dissolved organic matter (DOM) of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin wastewater was qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry(GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The detected results shows that the GC-MS qualitatively analysed 21 dissolved organic pollutants, such as acetophenone, styrene, alpha, alpha-dimethyl-benzenemethanol, 3,3'oxybis-propanenitrile, 3, 3'-iminobis-propanenitrile, 3,3'-thiobis-propanenitrile, 3-(dimethylamino)-propanenitrile and 2-propenenitrile. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy could examine and certify the accuracy and integrity for the qualitative analysis of GC-MS. The results of this study provides an important guiding role for the development of wastewater treatment process. PMID:21595240

Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yue-xi; Song, Yu-dong; Xi, Hong-bo; Sun, Li-dong; Chen, Jia-yun

2011-03-01

41

System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1993-11-23

42

System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

Reifman, Jaques (Lisle, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01

43

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within a 2-week period in all units (n = 53) in nursing homes located in New York City. Narrative reconstructions were created for each event based on information from residents and staff who were involved as well as other sources. The event reconstructions were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common features of RRA events. Results: Analysis of the 122 event reconstructions identified 13 major forms of RRA, grouped under five themes. The resulting framework demonstrated the heterogeneity of types of RRA, the importance of considering personal, environmental, and triggering factors, and the potential emotional and physical harm to residents. Implications: These results suggest the need for person-centered and environmental interventions to reduce RRA, as well as for further research on the topic. PMID:22048811

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

44

Quality assurance of qualitative analysis in the framework of the European project ’MEQUALAN’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000–01012 project on ”Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis” (MEQUALAN),\\u000a which was developed during 2000–2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different\\u000a areas of chemical analysis, metrology and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects\\u000a involved in analytical quality assurance of

A. Ríos; D. Barceló; L. Buydens; S. Cárdenas; K. Heydorn; B. Karlberg; K. Klemm; B. Lendl; B. Milman; B. Neidhart; R. W. Stephany; A. Townshend; A. Zschunke; M. Valcárcel

2003-01-01

45

Qualitative human reliability analysis for spent fuel handling  

SciTech Connect

Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been developed primarily to provide information for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) that analyze nuclear power plant (NPP) operations. Given the original emphasis of these methods, it is understandable that many HRAs have not ventured far from NPP control room applications. Despite this historical focus on the control room, there has been growing interest and discussion regarding the application of HRA methods to other NPP activities such as spent fuel handling (SFH) or operations in different types of facilities. One recently developed HRA method, 'A Technique for Human Event Analysis' (ATHEANA) has been proposed as a promising candidate for diverse applications due to its particular approach for systematically uncovering the dynamic, contextual conditions influencing human performance. This paper describes one successful test of this proposition by presenting portions of a recently completed project in which a scoping study was performed to accomplish the following goals: (1) investigate what should be included in a qualitative HRA for spent fuel and cask handling operations; and (2) demonstrate that the ATHEANA HRA technique can be usefully applied to these operations. The preliminary, scoping qualitative HRA examined, in a generic manner, how human performance of SFH and dry cask storage operations (DCSOs) can plausibly lead to radiological consequences that impact the public and the environment. The study involved the performance of typical, qualitative HRA tasks such as collecting relevant information and the preliminary identification of human failure events or unsafe actions, relevant influences (e.g., performance shaping factors, other contextual factors), event scenario development and categorization of human failure event (HFE) scenario groupings. Information from relevant literature sources was augmented with subject matter expert interviews and analysis of an edited video of selected operations. Elements of NUREG-1792, Good Practices for Implementing Human Reliability Analyses (HRA) and NUREG-1624, Rev. 1, Technical Basis and Implementation Guidelines for A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA) formed critical parts of the technical basis for the preliminary analysis. Mis-loading of spent fuel into a cask and dropping of a loaded cask were the two human failure event groupings of primary interest, although all human performance aspects of DCSOs were considered to some extent. Of important note is that HRA is typically performed in the context of a plant-specific PRA study. This analysis was performed without the benefit of the context provided by a larger PRA study, nor was it plant specific, and so it investigated only generic HRA issues relevant to SFH. However, the improved understanding of human performance issues provided by the study will likely enhance the ability to carry out a detailed qualitative HRA for a specific NPP at some point in the future. Furthermore, support was obtained regarding the potential for applying ATHEANA beyond NPP settings. This paper provides a description of the process followed during the analysis, a description of the HFE scenario groupings, discussion regarding general human performance vulnerabilities, and a detailed examination of one HFE scenario developed in the study. (authors)

Brewer, J. D. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0748 (United States); Amico, P. [Science Applications International Corporation (United States); Cooper, S. E. [United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

2006-07-01

46

Twenty-first Century Tools for Qualitative Data Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A way to support the educational ethnographer in developing a perspective on the art of qualitative research during an introductory course on qualitative research methods is explored through a study of how novice researchers begin to learn the elements and processes of qualitative research. A second purpose of the study is to investigate the use…

Wiley, Susan D.; And Others

47

How physicians face ethical difficulties: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Physicians face ethical difficulties daily, yet they seek ethics consultation infrequently. To date, no systematic data have been collected on the strategies they use to resolve such difficulties when they do so without the help of ethics consultation. Thus, our understanding of ethical decision making in day to day medical practice is poor. We report findings from the qualitative analysis of 310 ethically difficult situations described to us by physicians who encountered them in their practice. When facing such situations, the physicians sought to avoid conflict, obtain assistance, and protect the integrity of their conscience and reputation, as well as the integrity of the group of people who participated in the decisions. These goals could conflict with each other, or with ethical goals, in problematic ways. Being aware of these potentially conflicting goals may help physicians to resolve ethical difficulties more effectively. This awareness should also contribute to informing the practice of ethics consultation. Objective: To identify strategies used by physicians in dealing with ethical difficulties in their practice. Design, setting, and participants: National survey of internists, oncologists, and intensive care specialists by computer assisted telephone interviews (n = 344, response rate = 64%). As part of this survey, we asked physicians to tell us about a recent ethical dilemma they had encountered in their medical practice. Transcripts of their open-ended responses were analysed using coding and analytical elements of the grounded theory approach. Main measurements: Strategies and approaches reported by respondents as part of their account of a recent ethical difficulty they had encountered in their practice. Results: When faced with ethical difficulties, the physicians avoided conflict and looked for assistance, which contributed to protecting, or attempting to protect, the integrity of their conscience and reputation, as well as the integrity of the group of people who participated in the decisions. These efforts sometimes reinforced ethical goals, such as following patients' wishes or their best interests, but they sometimes competed with them. The goals of avoiding conflict, obtaining assistance, and protecting the respondent's integrity and that of the group of decision makers could also compete with each other. Conclusion: In resolving ethical difficulties in medical practice, internists entertained competing goals that they did not always successfully achieve. Additionally, the means employed were not always the most likely to achieve those aims. Understanding these aspects of ethical decision making in medical practice is important both for physicians themselves as they struggle with ethical difficulties and for the ethics consultants who wish to help them in this process. PMID:15634746

Hurst, S; Hull, S; DuVal, G; Danis, M

2005-01-01

48

Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

49

A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative

Tierney, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

50

A qualitative approach to the transient stability analysis  

SciTech Connect

With the growing stress on today`s power systems, there is a urgent need for implementing on-line Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA). Among the functions of DSA, the most time-consuming function is the dynamic contingency analysis. In this paper, it has been assumed that during this analysis, one is not interested in obtaining trajectories with a very high accuracy but is primarily interested in a qualitative answer to the question: Is the system stable or not? Subsequently, only unstable or marginally stable cases have to be considered for more detailed analyses and preventive control. This idea is applied to parallel-in-time algorithms for transient stability analysis in order to stop the simulation as soon as the stability is detected by the condition of Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) crossing. The effectiveness of the approach has been validated on the New England test system and a realistic-sized network with 662 buses. An implementation on the nCUBE multiprocessor of a particular parallel-in-time algorithm allows the speed up derived from the proposed approach to be assessed.

La Scala, M. [Univ. degli Studi di Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica] [Univ. degli Studi di Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica; Lorusso, G.; Sbrizzai, R.; Trovato, M. [Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica] [Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica

1996-11-01

51

Ethnicity and body image: quantitative and qualitative analysis  

E-print Network

Abstract: Objective: Cultural diversity in body image has been studied elsewhere. In this study, we extend previous research by inclusion of (1) multiple ethnic groups for comparison and (2) measures for the assessment of multiple dimensions of body image. Method: Participants were college students who self-identified as African, Asian, Caucasian, or Hispanic-American. Quantitative measures of weight-related body image and general appearance body image were included. General body image was also assessed qualitatively. Results: Caucasian and Hispanic-Americans showed more weight-related body image disturbance than African-Americans and Asian-Americans. African-Americans had the most positive general appearance body image. Ethnic groups were generally similar in their ideal body image traits but some differences occurred for the valuing of skin color and breast size. Discussion: This study highlights the importance of studying multiple ethnic groups with multiple measures, rather than simply comparing non-Caucasians to Caucasians on weight-related body

Madeline Altabe

1998-01-01

52

A Qualitative Risk Analysis for the GPRS Technology Christos Xenakis1  

E-print Network

A Qualitative Risk Analysis for the GPRS Technology Christos Xenakis1 , Danae Apostolopoulou2 a qualitative risk analysis of the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology. GPRS presents several. The understanding gained from the analysis is used to classify the threats in low and high risk threats and define

Stavrakakis, Ioannis

53

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

2004-01-01

54

Caring for an Individual with Autism Disorder: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Caregivers in this qualitative study reported the multidimensional implications of having a child with autism on their family's lives and overall functioning. Method: The Effects of the Situation Questionnaire (Yatchmenoff, Koren, Friesen, Gordon, & Kinney, 1998) was used to gather qualitative data from 80 caregivers. Colaizzi's (1978)…

Phelps, Kenneth W.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.; McCammon, Susan L.; Lamson, Angela L.

2009-01-01

55

Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor

1988-01-01

56

Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context, word count, classical content analysis, domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, conversation analysis,

Nancy L. Leech; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

2008-01-01

57

Qualitative analysis of two-fluid FRW cosmological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses attention on a qualitative analysis of the evolution of two-fluid flat FRW cosmological models.In the first model one of the fluid represents matter content of the universe comoving with respect to the another fluid that is the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), these two fluids are interacting.The first model is most relevant to describe the scenario before the recombination epoch when matter and radiation were in an interactive phase and the photons was bound to electron through Thomson scattering. The second model describe two noninteracting fluids where the matter is comoving to the space-time coordinates and the CMBR is moving axially, relative to the matter thus modeling the relative velocity between galaxies and the CMBR (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:898-901, 1977). This model portray the cosmic evolution in the postrecombination epoch when the two-fluid are noninteracting.In this epoch the photons got themselves free to form the CMBR being observed presently.

Verma, A. K.

2009-05-01

58

Advanced predoctoral implant program at UIC: description and qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Dental implant education has increasingly become an integral part of predoctoral dental curricula. However, the majority of implant education emphasizes the restorative aspect as opposed to the surgical. The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry has developed an Advanced Predoctoral Implant Program (APIP) that provides a select group of students the opportunity to place implants for single-tooth restorations and mandibular overdentures. This article describes the rationale, logistics, experiences, and perspectives of an innovative approach to provide additional learning experiences in the care of patients with partial and complete edentulism using implant-supported therapies. Student and faculty perspectives on the APIP were ascertained via focus group discussions and a student survey. The qualitative analysis of this study suggests that the select predoctoral dental students highly benefited from this experience and intend to increase their knowledge and skills in implant dentistry through formal education following graduation. Furthermore, the survey indicates that the APIP has had a positive influence on the students' interest in surgically placing implants in their future dental practice and their confidence level in restoring and surgically placing implants. PMID:24789837

Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Quimby, Anastasiya; Harlow, Rand; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

2014-05-01

59

Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

2014-01-01

60

Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

1987-01-01

61

An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

62

Qualitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinary Interaction between Data Analysis Specialists and Novice Clinical Researchers  

PubMed Central

Background The inherent complexity of statistical methods and clinical phenomena compel researchers with diverse domains of expertise to work in interdisciplinary teams, where none of them have a complete knowledge in their counterpart's field. As a result, knowledge exchange may often be characterized by miscommunication leading to misinterpretation, ultimately resulting in errors in research and even clinical practice. Though communication has a central role in interdisciplinary collaboration and since miscommunication can have a negative impact on research processes, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet explored how data analysis specialists and clinical researchers communicate over time. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted qualitative analysis of encounters between clinical researchers and data analysis specialists (epidemiologist, clinical epidemiologist, and data mining specialist). These encounters were recorded and systematically analyzed using a grounded theory methodology for extraction of emerging themes, followed by data triangulation and analysis of negative cases for validation. A policy analysis was then performed using a system dynamics methodology looking for potential interventions to improve this process. Four major emerging themes were found. Definitions using lay language were frequently employed as a way to bridge the language gap between the specialties. Thought experiments presented a series of “what if” situations that helped clarify how the method or information from the other field would behave, if exposed to alternative situations, ultimately aiding in explaining their main objective. Metaphors and analogies were used to translate concepts across fields, from the unfamiliar to the familiar. Prolepsis was used to anticipate study outcomes, thus helping specialists understand the current context based on an understanding of their final goal. Conclusion/Significance The communication between clinical researchers and data analysis specialists presents multiple challenges that can lead to errors. PMID:20195374

Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Shah, Jatin; Bonilauri Ferreira, Ana Paula; Cofiel, Luciana; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

63

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

64

Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

65

Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

66

Doctoral Dissertation Defense "Proof trajectories-Results of a longitudinal qualitative  

E-print Network

, the question researched was: What, if any, identifiable paths do students go through while learning to proveDoctoral Dissertation Defense "Proof trajectories- Results of a longitudinal qualitative study mathematics education research has documented student difficulties with proof (Dreyfus, 1999; Harel & Sowder

Bardsley, John

67

Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

2010-01-01

68

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS  

PubMed Central

Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

2015-01-01

69

A Qualitative-Quantitative H-NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment combining qualitative and quantitative information from hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Reviews theory, discusses the experimental approach, and provides sample results. (JM)

Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.

1986-01-01

70

A University Management Analysis System for Qualitative Strategy Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the qualitative simulation-based university analyses. In university management, the staff of decision making section generally analyze their school status about the costs, cash flow from operations, investment cash flow, cash flow from financial activities and so on by using numerical analyses. However, such universities are like large business. Most of universities are small and medium-sized enterprise and

Tokuro Matsuo; Takayuki Fujimoto

2008-01-01

71

A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

2013-01-01

72

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR BIFURCATION ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS*  

E-print Network

of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 Jerrold E. Marsden Department and must therefore refer the reader to texts such as Chillingworth,' and Marsden and Mc-8923/78/0316-0608$1.75/10 1979,NYAS #12;Holmes & Marsden: Qualitative Techniques 609 a curve of known solutions; then we say

Marsden, Jerrold

73

External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,…

Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

2012-01-01

74

Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive

A M Gotham; R G Brown; C D Marsden

1986-01-01

75

Towards a Methodological Improvement of Narrative Inquiry: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article suggests that though narrative inquiry as a research methodology entails free conversations and personal stories, yet it should not be totally free and fictional as it has to conform to some recognized standards used for conducting educational research. Hence, a qualitative study conducted by Russ (1999) was explored as an exemplar…

Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

2009-01-01

76

Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs can directly inhibit\\/stimulate microbial and plant processes. Over 70 biochars encompassing a variety of parent feedstocks and manufacturing processes were evaluated and

Kurt A. Spokas; Jeffrey M. Novak; Catherine E. Stewart; Keri B. Cantrell; Minori Uchimiya; Martin G. DuSaire; Kyoung S. Ro

2011-01-01

77

Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

78

A Simple Card Trick: Teaching Qualitative Data Analysis Using a Deck of Playing Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yet today, despite recent welcome additions, relatively little is written about teaching qualitative research. Why is that? This article reports out a relatively simple, yet appealing, pedagogical move, a lesson the author uses to teach qualitative data analysis. Data sorting and categorization, the use of tacit and explicit theory in data…

Waite, Duncan

2011-01-01

79

Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

2012-01-01

80

I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.  

PubMed

Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

2015-03-01

81

Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

2015-02-01

82

Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

2015-02-25

83

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

Flores, T.; Ponce, L. [CICATA- IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico); Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Cno. Parque Centenario e/505 y 508 Gonnet C.C. 124 (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-04-15

84

Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

2011-01-01

85

A qualitative analysis of non-Darcy flow effects in hydraulically fractured gas wells  

E-print Network

A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NON-DARCY FLOW EFFECTS IN HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED GAS WELLS A Thesis by JOANNE CAROL HRESKO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 5 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NON-DARCY FLOW EFFECTS IN HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED GAS WELLS A Thesis by JOANNE CAROL HRESKO Approved as to style and content by: W. J. Lee (Chairman...

Hresko, Joanne Carol

1985-01-01

86

A Qualitative Analysis of College Women's Leaving Processes in Abusive Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study assessed the process of leaving an abusive dating relationship utilizing a qualitative design. Methods: Participants included 123 college women in abusive dating relationships who participated at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. Results: Qualitative content analyses were used to analyze the transcribed…

Edwards, Katie M.; Murphy, Megan J.; Tansill, Erin C.; Myrick, Christina; Probst, Danielle R.; Corsa, Rebecca; Gidycz, Christine A.

2012-01-01

87

Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

2011-01-01

88

Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

89

Initiation and Continuation of Smoking in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is the cause for many preventable deaths worldwide. The rate of smoking has not increased in Iran in the past two decades, but its increase among adolescents and young adults is a concern. This study investigates the risk factors of initiation and continuation of smoking in Iran using a qualitative approach. Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers and 6 non-smokers in 4 selected cities in Iran. Data were collected with deep and semi-structured interviews, verbatim transcription and simultaneously coding. Then, they were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three themes and 16 subcategories emerged. The themes were personal inefficacy with 6 subgroups included inadequate information, low age, curiosity, consideration of smoking not as a major problem, wrong beliefs, and making reasons. Family inefficacy with 4 subgroups included poor authority, lack of reaction, existence of stressors, and history of smoking. Vulnerable social environment with 6 subgroups included poverty, social stressors, magnification of smoking, network of cigarette smoking, smoking as a norm and convenience of access. Conclusion: Recognition of smoking among children, modification of wrong beliefs about smoking, empowerment of the individuals against smoking from the very childhood, consideration of familial stress and crisis, and ultimately, paying attention to the role of social variables will play a major role in prevention of smoking and encouraging individuals to quit smoking. PMID:25349865

Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jafar

2014-01-01

90

Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

2005-01-01

91

Self-Rated Assessment of Needs for Mental Health Care: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored perceived mental health-related needs and barriers to meeting them in primary and mental health care settings.\\u000a Fifty-one participants completed the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire and an interview to qualitatively explore the meanings\\u000a behind self-identified needs for medication, information, counselling, practical help, and skills development. Qualitative\\u000a content analysis indicated perceived needs for care are multifaceted. Dissatisfaction with

Ellie Fossey; Carol Harvey; Mohammadreza R. Mokhtari; Graham N. Meadows

92

Qualitative Environmental Analysis for Industrial Districts Implantation Using Geoprocessing Techniques  

PubMed Central

Industrial districts became important instruments which are used by the Public Power to induce economic decentralization and create new development poles. For this reason the legislative process is an indispensable means to define the priorities in the uses of soil, also to conduct and follow the process of industrial registration. However, the industrial district establishment shall not be analyzed by taking into account just the economic factor, but also the environmental issue of the enterprise. Thus, this research has the objective of determining adequate places for industrial districts implantation, having as a pilot area the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Geographic Information System for execution of spatial analysis and criteria creation on a large volume of environmental information will be used as a tool, which will be guided by the Municipal, State and Federal legislation and a Quickbird satellite image that covers the interest area. The main information used on this research are: altimeter, hydrography, soil use, pedology, geology and infrastructure. The results are visualized in scenarios modeled in accordance with the restrictions imposed upon the information, allowing at the end, to combine all scenarios and create through the multiple criteria method a map that indicates adequate places for implantation of industrial districts. PMID:19151443

Baretta, Luciane; Veronez, Maurício Roberto; Reinhardt, Alessandro Ott

2008-01-01

93

The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20?years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible. PMID:22925369

2012-01-01

94

A Qualitative Analysis of Common Concerns about Challenges Facing Pharmacy Experiential Education Programs  

PubMed Central

Objective. To qualitatively analyze free-text responses gathered as part of a previously published survey in order to systematically identify common concerns facing pharmacy experiential education (EE) programs. Methods. In 2011, EE directors at all 118 accredited pharmacy schools in the US were asked in a survey to describe the most pressing issues facing their programs. Investigators performed qualitative, thematic analysis of responses and compared results against demographic data (institution type, class size, number of practice sites, number and type of EE faculty member/staff). Expert and novice investigators identified common themes via an iterative process. To check validity, additional expert and novice reviewers independently coded responses. The Cohen kappa coefficient was calculated and showed good agreement between investigators and reviewers. Results. Seventy-eight responses were received (66% response rate) representing 75% of publicly funded institutions and 71% of schools with class sizes 51-150. Themes identified as common concerns were site capacity, workload/financial support, quality assurance, preceptor development, preceptor stipends, assessment, onboarding, and support/recognition from administration. Good agreement (mean percent agreement 93%, ? range=0.59-0.92) was found between investigators and reviewers. Conclusion. Site capacity for student placements continues to be the foremost concern for many experiential education programs. New concerns about preceptor development and procedures for placing and orienting students at individual practice sites (ie, “onboarding”) have emerged and must be addressed as new accreditation standards are implemented. PMID:25741022

Craddick, Karen; Eccles, Dayl; Kwasnik, Abigail; O’Sullivan, Teresa A.

2015-01-01

95

FOOTWORK TECHNIQUES USED IN TABLE TENNIS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 2 matches of 4 male players from 2006 World Team Table Tennis Championships (videos recorded from television). During that competition the players were the n° 1 (Wang Liqin), 2 (Timo Boll), 4 (Ma Lin) and 56 (Christian Suss) in the world ranking. Analysis of the matches: L. Ma vs T. Boll, and L.Q. Wang vs C. Suss. 2.

Malagoli Lanzoni Ivan; Lobietti Roberto; Merni Franco

96

The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

2014-01-01

97

Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

2007-01-01

98

A Qualitative Analysis of User Experiences With a Self-Tracker for Activity, Sleep, and Diet  

PubMed Central

Background The recent increase in chronic diseases and an aging population warrant the necessity of health self-management. As small electronic devices that track one’s activity, sleep, and diet, called self-trackers, are being widely distributed, it is prudent to investigate the user experience and the effectiveness of these devices, and use the information toward engineering better devices that would result in increased efficiency and usability. Objective The aim of this study was to abstract the constructs that constitute the user experiences of the self-tracker for activity, sleep, and diet. Additionally, we aimed to develop and verify the Health Information Technology Acceptance Model-II (HITAM-II) through a qualitative data analysis approach. Methods The study group consisted of 18 female college students who participated in an in-depth interview after completing a 3-month study of utilizing a self-tracker designed to monitor activity, sleep, and diet. The steps followed in the analysis were: (1) extraction of constructs from theoretical frameworks, (2) extraction of constructs from interview data using a qualitative methodology, and (3) abstraction of constructs and modeling of the HITAM-II. Results The constructs that constitute the HITAM-II are information technology factors, personal factors, social factors, attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior. These constructs are further divided into subconstructs to additionally support the HITAM-II. Conclusions The HITAM-II was found to successfully describe the health consumer’s attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior from another perspective. The result serves as the basis for a unique understanding of the user experiences of HIT. PMID:24594898

2014-01-01

99

Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

2013-05-01

100

Visual Education Textbooks in the 1920s: A Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploration of the origins of educational communications and technology as a field focuses on the 1920s when the visual education movement first appeared. An explanation of the study precedes separate reviews of 13 primary sources--i.e., visual education textbooks--and draws on them to provide evidence for an analysis of the ideas and forces…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

101

A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

Vorell, Matthew S.

2011-01-01

102

Qualitative time trend analysis of ground water monitoring networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of significant (short-term) time trends is one of the major goals of ground water monitoring networks. These trends can be used to recognize active geochemical processes and potential environmental threats. This paper presents a case history of time trend analysis on macrochemical parameters of ground water quality. It shows the difficulties and traps that are generally encountered in

G. Frapporti; S. P. Vriend; P. F. M. Gaans

1994-01-01

103

Information technology repositories and knowledge management processes : A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of information technology repositories (ITR) in the implementation of KM processes, i.e. knowledge storage and retrieval. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study design is used. Data are collected through the use of individual semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Findings – This study found that three factors were likely

Massimo Franco; Stefania Mariano

2007-01-01

104

Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research. PMID:22260422

Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

2012-01-01

105

An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a revised laboratory set-up for performing flame tests that enables students to pay more attention to the results of the tests and less attention to the manipulation of equipment. Employs a watch glass to add the analytical solutions to the flame. (DDR)

Bare, William D.; Bradley, Tom; Pulliam, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

106

Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene  

E-print Network

We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

2015-01-07

107

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

1969-01-01

108

A Supply Chain Network Economy: Modeling and Qualitative Analysis Ding Zhang and June Dong  

E-print Network

A Supply Chain Network Economy: Modeling and Qualitative Analysis Ding Zhang and June Dong School-based to formalize both intra- supply chain cooperation and inter-supply chain competition. In particular, we propose a general network model for a supply chain economy since it is now recognized that when it comes

Nagurney, Anna

109

Teaching an Introductory Course in Qualitative Analysis in Order to Enhance Learning General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study which was designed to determine the effect of a 25-hour introductory qualitative analysis course on high school students' understanding of formal concepts related to electrolytes. Suggests that introductory concrete experiences better prepare students to deal with more formal abstract concepts. (TW)

Shamai, Ruth; Stavy, Ruth

1986-01-01

110

Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

2003-01-01

111

BioSystems xxx (2006) xxxxxx Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray  

E-print Network

BioSystems xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Qualitative analysis of the relation between DNA microarray data:10.1016/j.biosystems.2005.10.006 BIO-2511; No. of Pages 22 #12;2 A. Siegel et al. / BioSystems xxx (2006) xxx­xxx tinuous and discrete models is made by piecewise linear differential models (de Jong et

Radulescu, Ovidiu

112

On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

2010-01-01

113

A qualitative analysis of child sex offenders involved in the manufacture of indecent images of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of four males convicted of manufacturing indecent images of children to determine whether there were similarities or differences in their experiences, perspectives and behaviours which might lead to a better understanding of this offence type. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is used to examine the participants' responses to a semi-structured interview. The

Valerie Sheehan; Joe Sullivan

2010-01-01

114

Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition  

E-print Network

Qualitative Analysis of a Mean Field Model of Tumor-Immune System Competition Elena De Angelis(1. Moreover, competition with the immune system starts if tumor cells are recognized by immune cells to the immune response to the evolution of the progression of endothe- lial cells which have lost

Jabin, Pierre-Emmanuel

115

When activators repress and repressors activate: a qualitative analysis of the  

E-print Network

When activators repress and repressors activate: a qualitative analysis of the Shea-Ackers model of activation in transcriptional regulation is based on the assumption that product mRNA increases monotonically as a func- tion of regulator concentration. We analyze the Shea-Ackers model of transcription and find

Mischaikow, Konstantin

116

Competence and Critique in Technical Communication: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Journal Articles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses qualitative content analysis to discuss current perspectives in technical communication pedagogy. Examines the 1990-94 issues of 5 major scholarly journals--totaling 563 articles--to identify 98 articles mentioning teaching in undergraduate technical communication courses. Classifies the articles into four pedagogical perspectives: (1)…

Thompson, Isabelle

1996-01-01

117

Exploring the Social Context of Instrumental and Expressive Homicides: An Application of Qualitative Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the UCR's Supplementary Homicide Reports, the methodof qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is used to examine whetherinstrumental and expressive homicides are similar or unique in their socialcontext (i.e., combinations of offender, victim, and situationalcharacteristics). Instrumental and expressive homicides are found to haveboth common and unique social contexts, but the vast majority of homicideincidents involve combinations of individual and

Terance D. Miethe; Kriss A. Drass

1999-01-01

118

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

2012-01-01

119

A Qualitative Organic Analysis that Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then…

Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

2007-01-01

120

A Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis, and Algorithms  

E-print Network

A Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis engaged in Internet advertising among multiple websites. The model allows for the determination of both with numerical examples. This paper adds to the growing litera- ture of the application of network

Nagurney, Anna

121

A qualitative analysis of the dynamics of a sheared and pressurized layer of saturated soil  

E-print Network

A qualitative analysis of the dynamics of a sheared and pressurized layer of saturated soil; accepted 13 January 1998 A layer of a saturated binary mixture of soil and water, both of which are true processes along the top and bottom interfaces, as well as deformational creep of the sediment and water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Pediatric nurses’ perception of factors associated with caring self-efficacy: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Nurses, who are considered to form the largest group of professional healthcare providers, face the challenge of maintaining, promoting, and providing quality nursing care and to prepare themselves to function confidently and to care effectively. Among the factors affecting nursing performance, self-efficacy has been expected to have the greatest influence. However, the concept of caring self-efficacy was not considered and no research has been done in this field in Iran. This study was conducted to explore and identify the factors described by pediatric nurses as related to caring self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted through content analysis in 2013 in Iran. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling method from pediatric nurses and educators. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis of the interviews in this study led to the development of four main themes: (1) Professional knowledge of children caring, (2) experience, (3) caring motivation, and (4) efficient educational system as the factors influencing caring self-efficacy perception of pediatric nurses. Conclusions: This article presents the factors associated with the perception of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses’ perspective. This finding can be used by nursing administrators and instructors, especially in the area of pediatric caring, to enhance nursing professional practice and the quality of pediatric caring.

Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

2015-01-01

123

Behavioral determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: A qualitative directed content analysis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. METHODS This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. RESULTS Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. CONCLUSION Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors. PMID:25161674

Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

124

Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehran’s hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes) emerged from the data analysis: 1) God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God), 2) Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes) and 3) Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources). Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources. PMID:23043231

2012-01-01

125

Mass Spectrometer Analysis Results  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. After undergoing initial separation ...

126

Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.  

PubMed

Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection. PMID:16730627

Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

2006-09-01

127

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and related techniques: recent advances and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a seminal volume by (1987), a set of systematic comparative case analysis techniques has been developing at a steady pace. During the last few years\\u000a especially, the main initial technique, Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), has been complemented by other related techniques.\\u000a The purpose of this contribution is to critically assess some main recent developments in this field.

Benoît Rihoux

128

Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in systematic reviews of complex interventions: a worked example  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews that address policy and practice questions in relation to complex interventions frequently need not only to assess the efficacy of a given intervention but to identify which intervention - and which intervention components - might be most effective in particular situations. Here, intervention replication is rare, and commonly used synthesis methods are less useful when the focus of analysis is the identification of those components of an intervention that are critical to its success. Methods Having identified initial theories of change in a previous analysis, we explore the potential of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to assist with complex syntheses through a worked example. Developed originally in the area of political science and historical sociology, a QCA aims to identify those configurations of participant, intervention and contextual characteristics that may be associated with a given outcome. Analysing studies in these terms facilitates the identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for the outcome to be obtained. Since QCA is predicated on the assumption that multiple pathways might lead to the same outcome and does not assume a linear additive model in terms of changes to a particular condition (that is, it can cope with ‘tipping points’ in complex interventions), it appears not to suffer from some of the limitations of the statistical methods often used in meta-analysis. Results The worked example shows how the QCA reveals that our initial theories of change were unable to distinguish between ‘effective’ and ‘highly effective’ interventions. Through the iterative QCA process, other intervention characteristics are identified that better explain the observed results. Conclusions QCA is a promising alternative (or adjunct), particularly to the standard fall-back of a ‘narrative synthesis’ when a quantitative synthesis is impossible, and should be considered when reviews are broad and heterogeneity is significant. There are very few examples of its use with systematic review data at present, and further methodological work is needed to establish optimal conditions for its use and to document process, practice, and reporting standards. PMID:24950727

2014-01-01

129

Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of a LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e. sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e. insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistence with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

Li, J. D.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A. Z.; Dai, Y. J.; Miao, C. Y.; Di, Z. H.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y. W.

2013-02-01

130

Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of an LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e., sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e., insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistency with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

Li, J.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A.; Dai, Y.; Miao, C.; Di, Z.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y.

2013-08-01

131

Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner. PMID:25512837

Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

132

Experiences of Academic Members About their Professional Challenges: a Content Analysis Qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: University faculty members of different disciplines in any country, by giving better quality services, will further accelerate the development of their respective countries. This study aims to explore the experiences of faculty members about their professional challenges. Aim: In this qualitative study, which was conducted in 2013, fifteen faculty members in the departments of clinical and basic sciences of Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences in northern Iran were chosen for semi-structured in-depth interviews by purposive sampling method. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and content analysis was performed. Results: After immersion and data analysis, three main themes were emerged including: “Imbalances in academic members’ tasks in different areas”, “Weakness of evaluation and promotion system” and “Failure to provide the infrastructure educational facilities”. The main themes and sub-themes are explained by the help of participants’ direct quotations. Conclusions: This study suggested that it is better to take effective measures to improve the faculty members’ situation and therefore increase their efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. PMID:24825939

Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Danesh, Mahmonier

2014-01-01

133

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Phytochemical Studies on Selected Seaweeds Acanthopora Spicifera and  

E-print Network

Abstract:- The sample for the study constitutes acanthopora spicifera from red seaweed and sargassum wightii from brown seaweed. They were freshly obtained from mandapam and elatharavai coast of erwadi and were rinsed in seawater and the packed in aseptic bags and brought to the laboratory for further processing. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis to secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively p. By preliminary phytochemical screening of eight different chemical compounds (alkaloids Teripioids, steroids, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, Polyphenols, glycosides) were tested in four different extracts. The present investigation revealed that Saponins did not show any positive result for their presence in any of the five extracts tested. Among the five different extracts, petroleum ether and methanol extract showed the presence of maximum number (8) of compounds. Next to that, Acetone extracts showed seven compounds. Water extracts showed five compounds and ethanol extracts showed only two compounds. The quantative phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest total phenol (216.65±17.38) and flavanoid (358.25+18.21) was in the brown seaweeds. wightii. The highest tannin compound was recorded in acanthopora spicifera seaweed. (28.54+ 0.89). Key words:- Seaweed, Phytochemicals, Phenol, Extraction, Pigmentation. I.

Sargassum Wightii

134

Nurses’ perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians’ duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner. PMID:25512837

Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

135

A qualitative analysis of cancer-related fatigue in ambulatory oncology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe patients' perceptions of the causes, relief, related symptoms, meaning, and suffering secondary to cancer-related fatigue (CRF). In total, 252 patients with breast, lung, colon, and prostate cancers were enrolled in a quasiexperimental study to test the effects of a clinical intervention on reducing barriers to symptom management in ambulatory care. Analysis of data reported in this article was derived from the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised. Using qualitative research methods and content analysis, written statements related to the impact of CRF were coded using the following themes: patients' perceptions of CRF, causes, relief, related symptoms, meaning, and suffering. Comments were categorized and reviewed for content. Overall, CRF had a significant impact on physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. CRF limited the ability of participants to function, socialize, and participate in enjoyable activities. Emotional issues as a result of CRF were common. The negative impact of CRF on patients' overall well-being alters the meaning and suffering related to the cancer experience. The assessment of personal meaning and suffering related to CRF is an important component of the multidimensional assessment of CRF and will enable nurses to better understand the suffering related to CRF. PMID:22297018

Borneman, Tami; Piper, Barbara Fliegel; Koczywas, Marianna; Munevar, Carla M; Sun, Virginia; Uman, Gwen C; Ferrell, Betty R

2012-02-01

136

Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits  

SciTech Connect

Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-08-01

137

Race and Older Mothers’ Differentiation: A Sequential Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a process by which qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined to reveal patterns in the data that are unlikely to be detected and confirmed by either method alone. Specifically, we take a sequential approach to combining qualitative and quantitative data to explore race differences in how mothers differentiate among their adult children. We began with a standard multivariate analysis examining race differences in mothers’ differentiation among their adult children regarding emotional closeness and confiding. Finding no race differences in this analysis, we conducted an in-depth comparison of the Black and White mothers’ narratives to determine whether there were underlying patterns that we had been unable to detect in our first analysis. Using this method, we found that Black mothers were substantially more likely than White mothers to emphasize interpersonal relationships within the family when describing differences among their children. In our final step, we developed a measure of familism based on the qualitative data and conducted a multivariate analysis to confirm the patterns revealed by the in-depth comparison of the mother’s narratives. We conclude that using such a sequential mixed methods approach to data analysis has the potential to shed new light on complex family relations. PMID:21967639

Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Riffin, Catherine; Taylor-Watson, Kadari; Pillemer, Karl

2011-01-01

138

Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

Lüdecke, Daniel

2014-01-01

139

What Happens Along the Diagnostic Pathway to CHD Treatment? Qualitative Results Concerning Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Extensive research on health disparities documents persistent differential diagnosis and treatment of many conditions according to patient characteristics, physician attributes, and healthcare systems. Less is known about how physicians arrive at their decisions. We use qualitative data from a vignette-based factorial experiment to examine how physicians reason through and account for their clinical decisions, and how variations arise despite the presentation of identical symptoms of CHD. We find that physicians show evidence of cognitive biases but also actively interpret social characteristics they deem relevant to medical treatment. In an uncertain clinical context, these diagnostic pathways expose key junctures wherein physicians are detoured to alternative diagnoses, their certainty of CHD lowered, and scientific logic makes it difficult to return to a CHD diagnosis—thereby providing a fuller picture of why some cases are counted as CHD while others are not. These results have important implications insofar as diagnostic decisions like these contribute to the compilation of epidemiologic base rates, and are therefore used as part of Bayesian decision making to determine the probability of CHD in subsequent patients. This work resonates with social constructivist concerns regarding the ways disease categories are established and maintained, and potential sources of bias in official rates. PMID:19619155

Lutfey, Karen E.; McKinlay, John. B.

2014-01-01

140

Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay as an Alternative to Western Blot Analysis for Confirmation of HIV Infection?  

PubMed Central

The Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 RNA qualitative assay was evaluated as an alternative to Western blot analysis for the confirmation of HIV infection using serum samples that were repeatedly reactive for HIV antibodies. The Aptima HIV assay readily discriminated between HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals and effectively reduced the number of indeterminate results relative to Western blot analysis. PMID:21346052

Pierce, Virginia M.; Neide, Brandy; Hodinka, Richard L.

2011-01-01

141

Content Analysis and Qualitative Study of Hemodialysis Patients, Family Experience and Perceived Social Support  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatments such as hemodialysis prolong the life of chronic renal failure disease patients who must tolerate many physical, emotional, social and economic difficulties. Therefore, social support is considered as a vital area of investigation for such patients. Objectives: In this qualitative research, a grounded theory approach was used and written as a content analysis form to study hemodialysis patients and family experience of perceived social support. Patients and Methods: Three nurses, 4 general practitioners, a specialist and two family members who participated were interviewed from April to September 2012 in Urmia, Iran. Interviews were guided to divulge the perception of changes in their lives, needs for social support for disease complications, and the type of treatment process. Purposive sampling continued up to data saturation. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin Method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: The research results are shown in 3 steps. In the first step, 113 categories and four main themes from 993 first codes were explored. Social support was explored based on the implications of five general themes including “Perceived Threats Caused by Disease Complications”, “Searching for Social Support”, “Accessible Social Support”, “Beliefs and Values”, and “Perceived Social Support”. Conclusions: The core variable of our research is acceptance of the reality of the conditions caused by the disease. The research finalized our knowledge about patient problems regarding social support and revealed many problems of supporting patients by Health Team Members, family members and organizations. The findings suggest that individual aspects of patient experiences must be considered if social support is to be given and Healthcare Providers have to facilitate positive health services. PMID:24829767

Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Habibzadeh, Hosein

2014-01-01

142

What Sex Abusers Say About Their Treatment: Results From a Qualitative Study on Pedophiles in Treatment at a Canadian Penitentiary Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis was used to analyze the resulting material. The following themes are discussed based on the

Martin Drapeau; Annett C. Korner; Luc Granger; Louis Brunet

2005-01-01

143

Negative effects of internet interventions: a qualitative content analysis of patients' experiences with treatments delivered online.  

PubMed

Internet interventions are defined as the delivery of health care-related treatments via an online or a smartphone interface, and have been shown to be a viable alternative to face-to-face treatments. However, not all patients benefit from such treatments, and it is possible that some may experience negative effects. Investigations of face-to-face treatments indicate that deterioration occurs in 5-10% of all patients. The nature and scope of other negative effects of Internet interventions is, however, largely unknown. Hence, the current study explored patients' reported negative experiences while undergoing treatments delivered via the Internet. Data from four large clinical trials (total N = 558) revealed that 9.3% of patients reported some type of negative effects. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the patients' responses to open-ended questions regarding their negative experiences. Results yielded two broad categories and four subcategories of negative effects: patient-related negative effects (insight and symptom) and treatment-related negative effects (implementation and format). Results emphasize the importance of always considering negative effects in Internet-based interventions, and point to several ways of preventing such experiences, including regular assessment of negative events, increasing the flexibility of treatment schedules and therapist contact, as well as prolonging the treatment duration. PMID:25705924

Rozental, Alexander; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Schmidt, Brad; Carlbring, Per

2015-04-01

144

A Qualitative Analysis of Loneliness Dynamics Involved with College Long-Distance Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews of all 16 female, sophomore students involved in respective distance relationships at a private, selective, comprehensive, Midwest university. Among other results found in the study, the present article specifically addressed the loneliness dynamics involved with…

Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lorenzen, Kailee

2014-01-01

145

Barriers to Employment as Experienced by Disabled People: A Qualitative Analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one-to-one…

Shier, Michael; Graham, John R.; Jones, Marion E.

2009-01-01

146

Description and Analysis of the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Qualitative Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative report of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Girls' Education Activity (GEA) focuses on the results of project activities in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Section 1 outlines the overall purpose and goals of the GEA; contrasts the major tactics of the program in each country; and describes the…

Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephan; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

147

From qualitative data to quantitative models: analysis of the phage shock protein stress response in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria have evolved a rich set of mechanisms for sensing and adapting to adverse conditions in their environment. These are crucial for their survival, which requires them to react to extracellular stresses such as heat shock, ethanol treatment or phage infection. Here we focus on studying the phage shock protein (Psp) stress response in Escherichia coli induced by a phage infection or other damage to the bacterial membrane. This system has not yet been theoretically modelled or analysed in silico. Results We develop a model of the Psp response system, and illustrate how such models can be constructed and analyzed in light of available sparse and qualitative information in order to generate novel biological hypotheses about their dynamical behaviour. We analyze this model using tools from Petri-net theory and study its dynamical range that is consistent with currently available knowledge by conditioning model parameters on the available data in an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework. Within this ABC approach we analyze stochastic and deterministic dynamics. This analysis allows us to identify different types of behaviour and these mechanistic insights can in turn be used to design new, more detailed and time-resolved experiments. Conclusions We have developed the first mechanistic model of the Psp response in E. coli. This model allows us to predict the possible qualitative stochastic and deterministic dynamic behaviours of key molecular players in the stress response. Our inferential approach can be applied to stress response and signalling systems more generally: in the ABC framework we can condition mathematical models on qualitative data in order to delimit e.g. parameter ranges or the qualitative system dynamics in light of available end-point or qualitative information. PMID:21569396

2011-01-01

148

HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

Cimpoiu, Claudia

149

Evidence-based health information from the users’ perspective – a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based information is a precondition for informed decision-making and participation in health. There are several recommendations and definitions available on the generation and assessment of so called evidence-based health information for patients and consumers (EBHI). They stress the importance of objectively informing people about benefits and harms and any uncertainties in health-related procedures. There are also studies on the comprehensibility, relevance and user-friendliness of these informational materials. But to date there has been little research on the perceptions and cognitive reactions of users or lay people towards EBHI. The aim of our study is to define the spectrum of consumers’ reaction patterns to written EBHI in order to gain a deeper understanding of their comprehension and assumptions, as well as their informational needs and expectations. Methods This study is based on an external user evaluation of EBHI produced by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), commissioned by the IQWiG. The EBHI were examined within guided group discussions, carried out with lay people. The test readers’ first impressions and their appraisal of the informational content, presentation, structure, comprehensibility and effect were gathered. Then a qualitative text analysis of 25 discussion transcripts involving 94 test readers was performed. Results Based on the qualitative text analysis a framework for reaction patterns was developed, comprising eight main categories: (i) interest, (ii) satisfaction, (iii) reassurance and trust, (iv) activation, (v) disinterest, (vi) dissatisfaction and disappointment, (vii) anxiety and worry, (viii) doubt. Conclusions Many lay people are unfamiliar with core characteristics of this special information type. Two particularly critical issues are the description of insufficient evidence and the attendant absence of clear-cut recommendations. Further research is needed to examine strategies to explain the specific character of EBHI so as to minimize unintended or adverse reaction patterns. The presented framework describes the spectrum of users’ reaction patterns to EBHI. It may support existing best practice models for editing EBHI. PMID:24112403

2013-01-01

150

A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32 months) had no significant effect on sanitation conditions. Conclusions Findings corroborate those from a similar study in Belize, and comparison suggests the need for financial community support and the possibly tenuous reliance on local champions in the absence of adequate government support for operations and maintenance. Sub-determinants to the necessary conditions are also discussed which have implications for school sanitation in Bangladesh and may have broader relevance for other low-income countries though further research is needed. PMID:24397540

2014-01-01

151

Competence and Critique in Technical CommunicationA Qualitative Content Analysis of Journal Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses qualitative content analysis to discuss current perspectives in technical communication pedagogy. It examines the 1990-94 issues of five major scholarly journals—a collection of 563 articles—to identify 98 articles mentioning teaching in undergraduate technical communication courses. Influenced by differing theoretical and practical approaches, the 98 articles were classified according to four pedagogical perspectives: (1) the functional perspective, based

ISABELLE THOMPSON

1996-01-01

152

Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.  

PubMed

Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint. PMID:20103144

Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

2010-02-15

153

The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

2004-11-01

154

Qualitative Data Analysis with Hypertext: A Case of New York City Crack Dealers  

PubMed Central

Ethnography has become a useful method in procuring sensitive information from the ‘hidden population’ who may not be accessed with quantitative survey techniques. Researchers are generating huge amounts of qualitative/textual data. Qualitative data require careful planning in storage, coding, retrieval, and analysis. Personal computers have solved data management problems, but data analysis remains problematic. The paper describes some qualitative data management and analytic problems faced by a team of ethnographers engaged in a longitudinal epidemiological study of cocaine and crack distribution/abuse in New York City. Ethnographic data was collected through multi-session open-ended interviews with more than one hundred cocaine/crack dealers and extensive field-notes were kept. Compared to other programs, a hypertext software — Folio Views — was more useful in solving (a) data management and (b) analytical problems. Authors used this software to handle more than twenty-five thousand pages of texts; search and sort the database by any words or codes; and retrieve relevant textual materials needed to complete comparative and thematic analysis. Authors analyzed the data from outsiders' point of view (etic) as well as from the viewpoint of the subject populations (emic). PMID:19809524

Manwar, Ali; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

2009-01-01

155

TLC--densitometric method for qualitative analysis of betamethasone and its related compounds in pharmacautical preparations.  

PubMed

A new simple and rapid TLC-densitometric procedure for the separation and identification of betamethasone and its related substances, betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate, betamethasone-17-valerate, betamethasone-21-valerate and also betamethasone disodium phosphate was developed. One of the chromatographic systems proposed in this study, which has been satisfactory applied in separation of four pairs of examined compounds was silica gel 60F254 (E. Merck, Art. 1.05554) and a mixture containing chloroform-methanol-acetic acid (99.5%) in volume composition 28:5:0.5. Densitometric measurements were done using densitometer TLC Scanner 3 at 246 nm. The proposed method was checked in terms of its specificity for the determination of betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate and betamethasone disodium phosphate in commercially available products containing both compounds, separately, as active ingredients. The results showed that the method is suitable for qualitative analysis of betamethasone derivatives in simple and combined pharmaceuticals in various dosage forms e.g., lotion and injection solution. It also can be applied in quality control of pharmaceutical formulations of betamethasone and its related compounds in form of salts and esters. PMID:25745764

Dolowy, Ma?gorzata; Pyka, Alina

2014-01-01

156

A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

2014-01-01

157

Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

2014-01-01

158

A qualitative analysis of case managers' use of harm reduction in practice.  

PubMed

The harm reduction approach has become a viable framework within the field of addictions, yet there is limited understanding about how this approach is implemented in practice. For people who are homeless and have co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Housing First model has shown promising results in employing such an approach. This qualitative study utilizes ethnographic methods to explore case managers' use of harm reduction within Housing First with a specific focus on the consumer-provider relationship. Analysis of observational data and in-depth interviews with providers and consumers revealed how communication between the two regarding the consumer's substance use interacted with the consumer-provider relationship. From these findings emerged a heuristic model of harm reduction practice that highlighted the profound influence of relationship quality on the paths of communication regarding substance use. This study provides valuable insight into how harm reduction is implemented in clinical practice that ultimately has public health implications in terms of more effectively addressing high rates of addiction that contribute to homelessness and health disparities. PMID:22520277

Tiderington, Emmy; Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

2013-01-01

159

Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'  

PubMed

Objectives To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. Methods An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Conclusions Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'. PMID:25472698

Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

2014-12-01

160

Nurses’experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Following professional standards is the main concern of all managers in organizations. The functions of nurses are essential for both productivity and improving health organizations. In human resources management, supporting nursing profession is of ultimate importance. However, nurses’ experiences of perceived support, which are affected by various factors in workplace, have not been clearly explained yet. Thus, this study aimed to explain nurses’ experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors. Materials and Methods: This study is a qualitative research in which 12 nurses were selected through purposive sampling among nurses in university hospitals affiliated to University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran, during 2011-2012. Data collection was conducted through deep interviews with semi-structural questions. All interviews were first recorded and then transcribed. Finally, data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results: The four main themes indicated that nurses experienced their workplace as non-supportive. Themes such as poor organizational climate, low social dignity, poor work conditions, and managers’ ignorance to individual and professional values were considered as inhibitory factors to support. Conclusion: Nursing managers can promote nurses’ positive support perceptions through recognizing inhibitory factors and applying fair solutions and take benefits of their positive consequences including high efficacy, self-esteem, and organizational commitment to promote the quality of care. PMID:23983753

Sodeify, Roghieh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

2013-01-01

161

Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested. PMID:22833855

Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

2012-01-01

162

Evidence-based Practice Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the strategies used to implement the evidence-based practices of supported employment and integrated\\u000a dual diagnosis treatment. Using qualitative research methods, the study uncovered eight strategies that contributed to successful\\u000a implementation in six sites.

Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Rob Whitley

2008-01-01

163

Employing Online S-P Diagnostic Table for Qualitative Comments on Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major concerns of adaptive testing studies have concentrated on effectiveness and efficiency of the system built for the research experiments. It has been criticised that such general information has fallen short of providing qualitative descriptions regarding learning performance. Takahiro Sato of Japan proposed an analytical diagram called…

Wang, Chien-hwa; Chen, Cheng-ping

2013-01-01

164

A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

2014-01-01

165

Expediting the Analysis of Qualitative Data in Evaluation: A Procedure for the Rapid Identification of Themes from Audio Recordings (RITA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative data offer advantages to evaluators, including rich information about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences. However, qualitative data analysis is labor-intensive and slow, conflicting with evaluators' needs to provide punctual feedback to their clients. In this method note, we contribute to the literature on rapid…

Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P.; VanDyke, Erika; Kornbluh, Mariah

2015-01-01

166

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of systems and synthetic biology constructs using P systems.  

PubMed

Computational models are perceived as an attractive alternative to mathematical models (e.g., ordinary differential equations). These models incorporate a set of methods for specifying, modeling, testing, and simulating biological systems. In addition, they can be analyzed using algorithmic techniques (e.g., formal verification). This paper shows how formal verification is utilized in systems and synthetic biology through qualitative vs quantitative analysis. Here, we choose two well-known case studies: quorum sensing in P. aeruginosas and pulse generator. The paper reports verification analysis of two systems carried out using some model checking tools, integrated to the Infobiotics Workbench platform, where system models are based on stochastic P systems. PMID:25090609

Konur, Savas; Gheorghe, Marian; Dragomir, Ciprian; Mierla, Laurentiu; Ipate, Florentin; Krasnogor, Natalio

2015-01-16

167

Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

2014-05-01

168

Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. Objectives: This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Results: Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. Conclusions: The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status. PMID:25031848

Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

169

Managing menopause: a qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife.  

PubMed

This article reports on a qualitative social constructionist analysis that aims to examine the ways in which menopause and women's bodies are represented in self-help texts. In particular, we aim to compare texts with a more traditional 'medical' approach and others taking a more 'woman-centred' perspective. Four diverse self-help books on menopause and HRT available in England were analysed to examine the ways in which women, menopause and midlife were portrayed, and to investigate the construction of notions of knowledge, expertise and responsibility. The selected texts were published between 1992 and 1996 and covered a range of perspectives, including medical, alternative and feminist. Results showed that menopause was constructed as a 'deficiency disease' in all four texts, although in three of the texts this 'disease' discourse was counterposed by the simultaneous use of a 'menopause as natural' discourse. Menopause was also constructed as inherently complex and confusing, as were women's bodies. A discourse of 'change' was drawn upon in which menopause was portrayed as only one of the stressful events women must cope with at midlife. Finally, most of the texts drew on a discourse of 'management' rather than one of 'treatment' or 'cure' when discussing how menopause, and women's relationship to menopause should be handled. The medical profession was constructed as the primary source of expertise on menopause and women's bodies, although responsibility for the 'management' of menopause as a chronic condition lay solely with individual women. Although there were a number of differences in representations of menopause in medically oriented self-help texts and those adopting a more woman-centred perspective, our analysis also revealed several areas of similarity and overlap with regard to the construction of menopause and its 'management'. The implications of these findings for the construction of menopause in self-help texts for women are discussed. PMID:12639580

Lyons, Antonia C; Griffin, Christine

2003-04-01

170

Qualitative analysis of aphid and primary parasitoid trophic relations of genus Alloxysta (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Charipinae).  

PubMed

Charipinae hyperparasitoids affect effectiveness of the primary parasitoids of aphids by decreasing their abundance and modifying their behavior. As a result, increase of aphid populations can cause severe yield losses in some crops. Therefore, ecological studies on the subfamily Charipinae have a great economical and biological importance. Host specificity of these hyperparasitoids is still under debate and for many Charipinae species very little is known about their trophic relations. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of the trophic relationships between the Charipinae species of the genus Alloxysta Förster and their aphid and primary parasitoids hosts, worldwide. Within this subfamily, Alloxysta arcuata (Kieffer), Alloxysta brevis (Thomson), Alloxysta fuscicornis (Hartig), and Alloxysta victrix (Westwood) are the most generalist species sharing many aphid hosts, while for primary parasitoid hosts these are A. arcuata, A. brevis, Alloxysta pleuralis (Cameron), and A. victrix. Alloxysta citripes (Thomson), Alloxysta halterata (Thomson), Alloxysta leunisii (Hartig), and Alloxysta ramulifera (Thomson) appear, up to now, as the most specialized in relation to the primary parasitoid hosts. Primary parasitoids of the genera Aphidius Nees, Lysiphlebus Förster, Praon Haliday, and Trioxys Haliday are the most common hosts for Alloxysta species, and the common host aphid species belong to the genera Aphis L., Uroleucon Mordvilko, Myzus Passerini, and Sitobion Mordvilko. Host range is analyzed for each Alloxysta species, as well as the extent of overlap between them. We used Jaccard's distance and a hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the host range dissimilarity. A permutation test has been applied to analyze if the host range dissimilarity is significantly different from what is expected by chance. We have calculated additional qualitative measures that complement well the Alloxysta niche overlap analysis and evaluated their host specificity using different indices and bipartite networks. PMID:25291146

Ferrer-Suay, Mar; Jankovi?, Marina; Selfa, Jesús; Van Veen, F J Frank; Tomanovi?, Željko; Kos, Katarina; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2014-12-01

171

Qualitative analysis of seized cocaine samples using desorption electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).  

PubMed

Desorption electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of compounds found in seized drug material. In this study, DESI-MS was utilized in the screening analysis of illicit cocaine samples. The technique was also applied to the geographical origin determination of these samples. The limit of detection was determined to be 24.3?µg (or 3.47?µg/mm(2) ) and the analysis time was less than 1?minute per sample. The intra-day and inter-day precision for the detection of cocaine was 11 % and 42 %, respectively; therefore the quantitative data provided by DESI-MS was limited in its use for accurate determination of cocaine concentration in a sample. Using the quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer, the presence of cocaine and impurities detected were confirmed by accurate tandem MS data. The qualitative chemical profiles obtained using DESI-MS were compared to two popular analysis techniques, GC-MS and LC-MS. The effects of a range of adulterants including caffeine, procaine, levamisole, lignocaine, paracetamol, and atropine on the detectability of cocaine were also investigated. It was found that the addition of these adulterants in a cocaine sample did not prevent the detection of the analyte itself (there was slight enhancement in some samples), which was useful in drug detection. The detection of truxillines in the seized samples by DESI-MS aided in the preliminary determination of geographical origin, i.e.,?Bolivian, Peruvian or Colombian leaf origin. The application of DESI-MS to the qualitative analysis and screening of seized cocaine samples demonstrates the potential and applicability of the technique to the fast chemical profiling of illicit samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24943809

Stojanovska, Natasha; Tahtouh, Mark; Kelly, Tamsin; Beavis, Alison; Fu, Shanlin

2014-06-17

172

High-resolution mass spectrometry for integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals in biological matrices.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative high-resolution (HR) dependent and independent acquisition schemes on a QqTOF MS (with resolving power 20,000-40,000) were investigated for the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in biological fluids. High-resolution selected reaction monitoring (HR-SRM) was found to be linear over three orders of magnitude for quantitative analysis of paracetamol in human plasma, offering a real alternative to triple quadrupole LC-SRM/MS. Metabolic stability of talinolol in microsomes was characterized by use of three different acquisition schemes: (i) information-dependent acquisition (IDA) with a TOF MS experiment as survey scan and product-ion scan as dependent scan; (ii) MS(ALL) by collecting TOF mass spectra with and without fragmentation by alternating the collision energy of the collision cell between a low (i.e., 10 eV) and high setting (i.e., 40 eV); and (iii) a novel independent acquisition mode referred to as "sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra" (SWATH) or "global precursor ions scan mode" (GPS) in which sequential precursor ions windows (typically 20 u) are used to collect the same spectrum precursor and fragment ions using a collision energy range. SWATH or GPS was found to be superior to IDA or MS(ALL) in combination with UHPLC for qualitative analysis but requires a rapidly acquiring mass spectrometer. Finally, the GPS concept was used for QUAL/QUAN analysis (i.e. integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis) of bosentan and its metabolites in urine over a concentration range from 5 to 2,500 ng mL(-1). PMID:22203371

Hopfgartner, Gérard; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel

2012-03-01

173

Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

2014-01-01

174

The role of the “champion” in infection prevention: results from a multisite qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Although 20% or more of healthcare-associated infections can be prevented, many hospitals have not implemented practices known to reduce infections. We explored the types and numbers of champions who lead efforts to implement best practices to prevent hospital-acquired infection in US hospitals.Methods:Qualitative analyses were conducted within a multisite, sequential mixed methods study of infection prevention practices in Veteran Affairs and

L J Damschroder; J Banaszak-Holl; C P Kowalski; J Forman; S Saint; S L Krein

2009-01-01

175

Qualitative aspects in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assessment of qualitative results in analytical methods is needed to estimate selectivity and devise criteria for chemical identification, particularly for mass spectrometric analysis. Low-pressure gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS) has been demonstrated to increase the speed of anal...

176

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MDMA, MDEA, MA and amphetamine in urine by head-space\\/solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and GC\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of some amphetamines and their analogs isolated from urine samples by solid phase micro-extraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers are reported. The analytical method employed was gas-chromatography\\/mass spectrometry of head space samples.

F. Centini; A. Masti; I. Barni Comparini

1996-01-01

177

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MDMA, MDEA, MA and amphetamine in urine by headspace/solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and GC/MS.  

PubMed

The results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of some amphetamines and their analogs isolated from urine samples by solid phase micro-extraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers are reported. The analytical method employed was gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry of head space samples. PMID:9032950

Centini, F; Masti, A; Barni Comparini, I

1996-12-27

178

A qualitative analysis of health professionals’ job descriptions for surgical service delivery in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The ever increasing demand for surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa is creating a need to increase the number of health workers able to provide surgical care. This calls for the optimisation of all available human resources to provide universal access to essential and emergency surgical services. One way of optimising already scarce human resources for health is by clarifying job descriptions to guide the scope of practice, measuring rewards/benefits for the health workers providing surgical care, and informing education and training for health professionals. This study set out to determine the scope of the mandate to perform surgical procedures in current job descriptions of surgical care health professionals in Uganda. Methods A document review was conducted of job descriptions for the health professionals responsible for surgical service delivery in the Ugandan Health care system. The job descriptions were extracted and subjected to a qualitative content data analysis approach using a text based RQDA package of the open source R statistical computing software. Results It was observed that there was no explicit mention of assignment of delivery of surgical services to a particular cadre. Instead the bulk of direct patient related care, including surgical attention, was assigned to the lower cadres, in particular the medical officer. Senior cadres were assigned to perform predominantly advisory and managerial roles in the health care system. In addition, a no cost opportunity to task shift surgical service delivery to the senior clinical officers was identified. Conclusions There is a need to specifically assign the mandate to provide surgical care tasks, according to degree of complexity, to adequately trained cadres of health workers. Health professionals’ current job descriptions are not explicit, and therefore do not adequately support proper training, deployment, defined scope of practice, and remuneration for equitable surgical service delivery in Uganda. Such deliberate assignment of mandates will provide a means of increasing surgical service delivery through further optimisation of the available human resources for health.

2014-01-01

179

A Qualitative Analysis Evaluating The Purposes And Practices Of Clinical Documentation  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives An important challenge for biomedical informatics researchers is determining the best approach for healthcare providers to use when generating clinical notes in settings where electronic health record (EHR) systems are used. The goal of this qualitative study was to explore healthcare providers’ and administrators’ perceptions about the purpose of clinical documentation and their own documentation practices. Methods We conducted seven focus groups with a total of 46 subjects composed of healthcare providers and administrators to collect knowledge, perceptions and beliefs about documentation from those who generate and review notes, respectively. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis to probe and classify impressions collected from focus group subjects. Results We observed that both healthcare providers and administrators believe that documentation serves five primary domains: clinical, administrative, legal, research, education. These purposes are tied closely to the nature of the clinical note as a document shared by multiple stakeholders, which can be a source of tension for all parties who must use the note. Most providers reported using a combination of methods to complete their notes in a timely fashion without compromising patient care. While all administrators reported relying on computer-based documentation tools to review notes, they expressed a desire for a more efficient method of extracting relevant data. Conclusions Although clinical documentation has utility, and is valued highly by its users, the development and successful adoption of a clinical documentation tool largely depends on its ability to be smoothly integrated into the provider’s busy workflow, while allowing the provider to generate a note that communicates effectively and efficiently with multiple stakeholders. PMID:24734130

Ho, Y.-X.; Gadd, C. S.; Kohorst, K.L.; Rosenbloom, S.T.

2014-01-01

180

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-09-04

181

Qualitative analysis of patients’ feedback from a PROMs survey of cancer patients in England  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined how free-text comments from cancer survivors could complement formal patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), as part of the England PROMs survey programme for cancer. Design A qualitative content analysis was conducted of responses to a single open-ended free-text question placed at the end of the cross-sectional population-based postal questionnaire. Setting Individuals were identified through three UK Cancer Registries and questionnaires were posted to their home addresses. Participants A random sample of individuals (n=4992) diagnosed with breast, colorectal, non-Hodgkins lymphoma or prostate cancer at 1, 2, 3 and 5?years earlier. Results 3300 participants completed the survey (68% response rate). Of these 1056 (32%) completed the free-text comments box, indicating a high level of commitment to provide written feedback on patient experience. Almost a fifth (19%) related experiences of excellent care during the treatment phase, with only 8% reporting negative experiences. This contrasted with experiences of care after primary cancer treatment where the majority were negative. Factors impacting negatively upon patient-reported outcomes included the emotional impact of cancer; poor experiences of treatment and care; comorbidities, treatment side effects, social difficulties and inadequate preparation for a wide range of sometimes long-lasting on-going physical and psychological problems. Mediating factors assisting recovery incorporated both professional-led factors, such as quality of preparation for anticipated problems and aftercare services, and participant-led factors, such as learning from other cancer survivors and self-learning through trial and error. The support of friends and family was also a factor in participants' outcomes. Conclusions This analysis of free-text comments complements quantitative analysis of PROMs measure's by illuminating relationships between factors that impact on quality of life (QoL) and indicate why cancer patients may experience significantly worse QoL than the general population. The data suggest more systematic preparation and aftercare for individuals to self-manage post-treatment problems might improve QoL outcomes among cancer survivors. PMID:23578681

Corner, Jessica; Wagland, Richard; Glaser, Adam; Richards, Sir Mike

2013-01-01

182

Cigars, whiskey, and winning: a qualitative analysis of Kaltman’s analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant’s leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of successful leadership was developed using a qualitative research method in a reanalysis of Kaltman’s analysis of General Ulysses S. Grant’s leadership. The model rests on a person by situation interactional perspective but has a person-oriented focus. It suggests that leader actions are affected by task-related competence, management competence, and social competence. These competencies, in turn, are affected

Gerry Larsson

2002-01-01

183

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

2010-01-01

184

Simple optical method of qualitative assessment of sperm motility: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of quality of the sperm ejaculate is one of the most important steps in artificial fertilization procedure. The main aim of semen storage centres is to characterise the best semen quality for fertilization. Reliable information about sperm motility is also one the most important parameters for in vitro laboratory procedures. There exist very expensive automated methods for semen analysis but they are unachievable for most of laboratories and semen storage centres. Motivation for this study is to elaborate a simple, cheap, objective and repeatable method for semen motility assessment. The method enables to detect even small changes in motility introduced by medical, physical or chemical factors. To test the reliability of the method we used cryopreserved bull semen from Lowicz Semen Storage Centre. The examined sperm specimen was warmed in water bath and then centrifuged. The best semen was collected by the swim-up technique and diluted to a proper concentration. Several semen concentrations and dilutions were tested in order to find the best probe parameters giving repeatable results. For semen visualization we used the phase-contrast microscope with a CCD camera. A PC computer was used to acquire and to analyse the data. The microscope table equipped with a microscope glass pool 0.7mm deep instead of some conventional plane microscope slides was stabilised at the temperature of 37°C. The main idea of our method is based on a numerical processing of the optical contrast of the sperm images which illustrates the dynamics of the sperm cells movement and on appropriate analysis of a grey scale level of the superimposed images. An elaborated numerical algorithm allows us to find the relative amount of motile sperm cells. The proposed method of sperm motility assessment seems to be objective and repeatable.

Sozanska, Agnieszka; Kolwas, Krystyna; Galas, Jacek; Blocki, Narcyz; Czyzewski, Adam

2005-09-01

185

Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values.

Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

1995-09-01

186

Temporal Patterns of Subjective Experiences and Self-Regulation during Ramadan Fasting among Elite Archers: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Some major competitions (e.g. London Olympics, 2012) are scheduled during the Ramadan fasting month. Little attention has been given to explore the archers’ performance related subjective experiences with a qualitative method. Therefore, this study addressed individual archers’ subjective experiences within the framework of self-regulation during Ramadan. Methods Eleven elite Malaysian Muslim fasting archers volunteered to participate in the study. Grounded theory was the qualitative approach used to examine the subjective experiences of athletes during Ramadan. Interviews were conducted and inductive content analysis was adopted to identify the temporal patterns of self-regulation of subjective experiences across the fasting period. Results Inductive content analysis identified (a) physical, (b) mental,(c) emotional, (d) behavioral, and (e) spiritual experiences. Overall patterns revealed that experiences associated with physical, emotional, behavioral, and spiritual dimensions dominated in the first phase of fasting, while the mental dimension surfaced increasingly in the latter phase of fasting. Conclusions The trend showed changes in the patterns of experiences among the major domains across the temporal dimension. Athletes reported increased subjective experiences in mental factors toward the latter half of the fasting period. Practitioners should emphasize on mental aspects of training, as these appear to be salient in archery performance. PMID:22375239

Roy, Jolly; Hamidan, Shazarina; Singh, Rabindarjeet

2011-01-01

187

Group medical visits can deliver on patient-centred care objectives: results from a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-centred care emerged in the late 1960s as a framework to guide providers and decision-makers towards the provision of more effective health care and better outcomes. An important body of literature has since emerged, reporting mixed results in terms of outcomes. To date, assessments of the effectiveness of patient-centred approaches have focused one-on-one consultations. The purpose of this article is to explore dimensions identified as key in the patient-centred literature in the context of primary health care services delivered in a group setting. Group Medical Visits (GMVs) offer a novel format for the delivery of patient-centred primary health care services, especially for patients living with complex morbidities. Methods Drawing on a large study of GMVs, we report on key format and process-oriented elements identified in GMVs, and on their link to improved outcomes. For the purpose of this study, we interviewed 34 providers and 29 patients who have been engaged in GMVs, delivered in rural, northern and First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Results Our analysis shows that the delivery of PHC in a group format results in a shift in the role of the provider, from that of an adjudicator involved in imparting norms of self-care, to that of a facilitator who assists the group in defining norms of self-care that are based on medical knowledge but also on the broader context of patients’ lived experience and on their pragmatic experience. In a group process, peer-patients take on the role of promoting these norms to other patients. This results in a significant shift in the role of the provider, increased trust, increased knowledge for the providers and the patients and better patient self-management. Our results also show increase satisfaction for patients and providers. Conclusions GMVs offer an alternative format for the provision of PHC that brings together the benefit of a group process and of a clinical encounter. This format can successfully deliver on the promises of patient-centred care. PMID:23627609

2013-01-01

188

Iranian nurses’ perception of spirituality and spiritual care: a qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ perception about spirituality and spiritual care. A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted on 20 registered nurses interviewed using unstructured strategy in 2009. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: 1) “meaning and purpose of work and life” including ‘spiritualistic view to profession’, ‘commitment and professional responsibility’, and ‘positive attitude’; 2) “religious attitude” including ‘God approval’, ‘spiritual reward’, ‘taking advice’, ‘inner belief in the Supreme Being’, ‘faith-based interactions and altruism’; 3) “transcendence-seeking” including ‘need for respect’ and ‘personal–professional transcendence’. Therefore, the spirituality produces maintenance, harmony and balance in nurses in relation to God. Spiritual care focuses on respecting patients, friendly and sympathetic interactions, sharing in rituals and strengthening patients and nurses’ inner energy. This type of spirituality gives a positive perspective to life and profession, peaceful interactions, a harmonious state of mind, and acts as a motivator among nurses to promote nursing care and spirituality. PMID:23908741

Mahmoodishan, Gholamreza; Alhani, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

2010-01-01

189

The experience of implementing evidence-based practice change: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) and ONS Foundation worked together to develop the Institute for Evidence-Based Practice Change (IEBPC) program to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) change in nursing. This analysis describes the experience of 19 teams of nurses from various healthcare settings who participated in the IEBPC program. Qualitative analysis of verbatim narratives of activities and observations during the process of implementing an EBP project was used to identify key themes in the experience. EBP implementation enabled participants to learn about their own practice and to experience empowerment through the evidence, and it ignited the spirit of inquiry, team work, and multidisciplinary collaboration. Experiences and lessons learned from nurses implementing EBP can be useful to others in planning EBP implementation. PMID:24080054

Irwin, Margaret M; Bergman, Rosalie M; Richards, Rebecca

2013-10-01

190

The experiences of unpartnered men with prostate cancer: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how men without partners make decisions about prostate cancer treatment, manage treatment side effects, and obtain information and support. Background In 2009, it was projected that over 230,000 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. While treatment options vary, these options result in changes within the man that can affect his quality of life. Research has shown that often spouses play a central role in men’s choice of treatment and in maintaining men’s quality of life. In addition, spouses are the major providers of emotional support and physical care. However, little is known about how men without partners cope with prostate cancer. Prior research seldom addresses how diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer affects the quality of life of men without partners. Methods Because very little is known about the needs of men without partners managing prostate cancer, qualitative analysis of data obtained during semi-structure interviews provided respondents with an opportunity to share the lived experience of prostate cancer. A semi-structured interview was conducted with selected, consenting men. The sample was drawn from the ongoing R01 study of men with prostate cancer (PROSTQA). Results The sample for this study included 17 unpartnered prostate cancer survivors. The ages of participants ranged from 47 to 72 with a mean age of 63. The participants had between zero and two co-morbidities with an average of one co-morbidity per participant. The sample was 82% Caucasian and 17% Black. A total of 35% of the participants reported “some college” (n = 6), 30% graduated from college (n = 5), and 23% went to graduate school (n = 4). One participant reported that he was a high school graduate and one had less than a high school education. Five themes emerged from the data: going it alone, diagnosis and prostate cancer treatment decision-making, sources of information and support, the aftermath of prostate cancer, and coping strategies. Conclusions This study provides information about unpartnered men’s prostate cancer experience. This information will help health care professionals to meet the needs of unpartnered more effectively and help them to assist men as they adapt to living with this chronic illness. PMID:21113818

Harden, Janet; Burke, Matthew; Sanda, Martin G.; Hardy, Jill; Bailey, Donald E.

2014-01-01

191

Why women engage in anal intercourse: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study used qualitative methods to assess why women engage in heterosexual anal (receptive) intercourse (AI) with a male partner. Four focus groups which comprised women from diverse ethnicities were conducted. All groups were digitally recorded for transcription; transcripts were analyzed using the methods of grounded theory to determine themes. Women's reasons for engaging in anal intercourse with a male partner can be described in broad categories including that the women wanted to have anal intercourse, either because of their own desire, to please a male partner, or they were responding to a quid pro quo situation. The riskiness of AI was assessed within relationship contexts. Past experience with AI including emotional and physical reactions was identified. Among the negative physical experiences of AI were pain and disliking the sensation, and uncomfortable side effects, such as bleeding of the rectum. Negative emotional experiences of AI included feelings of shame, disgust, and being offended by something her male partner did, such as spitting on his penis for lubrication. Positive physical experiences included liking the sensation. Many of the women also endorsed positive emotional experiences of AI, including that it was more intimate than vaginal sex, and that it was something they reserved only for special partners. The majority of AI episodes were unplanned and not discussed prior to initiation. Pain during AI was mitigated by the use of lubricants or illicit drugs. Even those women who found pleasure in AI expressed a preference for vaginal intercourse. PMID:25378264

Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Rogala, Bridget

2015-05-01

192

[Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].  

PubMed

Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e.?g., communication training) and psychological coping (e.?g., resilience enhancement). PMID:24452430

Richter, D

2014-09-01

193

Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.  

PubMed

This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed. PMID:24830187

Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

2014-01-01

194

Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study – Near Death Experiences, or NDE – we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

Lange, Rense

2015-02-01

195

A Qualitative Content Analysis of Global Health Engagements in Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute's Stability Operations Lessons Learned and Information Management System.  

PubMed

Many institutions collect reports in databases to make important lessons-learned available to their members. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences collaborated with the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute to conduct a descriptive and qualitative analysis of global health engagements (GHEs) contained in the Stability Operations Lessons Learned and Information Management System (SOLLIMS). This study used a summative qualitative content analysis approach involving six steps: (1) a comprehensive search; (2) two-stage reading and screening process to identify first-hand, health-related records; (3) qualitative and quantitative data analysis using MAXQDA, a software program; (4) a word cloud to illustrate word frequencies and interrelationships; (5) coding of individual themes and validation of the coding scheme; and (6) identification of relationships in the data and overarching lessons-learned. The individual codes with the most number of text segments coded included: planning, personnel, interorganizational coordination, communication/information sharing, and resources/supplies. When compared to the Department of Defense's (DoD's) evolving GHE principles and capabilities, the SOLLIMS coding scheme appeared to align well with the list of GHE capabilities developed by the Department of Defense Global Health Working Group. The results of this study will inform practitioners of global health and encourage additional qualitative analysis of other lessons-learned databases. PMID:25826346

Nang, Roberto N; Monahan, Felicia; Diehl, Glendon B; French, Daniel

2015-04-01

196

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Bacteria in Er(III) Solution by Thin-Film Magnetopheresis  

PubMed Central

Magnetic deposition, quantitation, and identification of bacteria reacting with the paramagnetic trivalent lanthanide ion, Er3+, was evaluated. The magnetic deposition method was dubbed thin-film magnetopheresis. The optimization of the magnetic deposition protocol was accomplished with Escherichia coli as a model organism in 150 mM NaCl and 5 mM ErCl3 solution. Three gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus faecalis, and four gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, were subsequently investigated. Quantitative analysis consisted of the microscopic cell count and a scattered-light scanning of the magnetically deposited material aided by the computer data acquisition system. Qualitative analysis consisted of Gram stain differentiation and fluorescein isothiocyanate staining in combination with selected antisera against specific types of bacteria on the solid substrate. The magnetic deposition protocol allowed quantitative detection of E. coli down to the concentration of 105 CFU ml-1, significant in clinical diagnosis applications such as urinary tract infections. Er3+ did not interfere with the typical appearance of the Gram-stained bacteria nor with the antigen recognition by the antibody in the immunohistological evaluations. Indirect antiserum-fluorescein isothiocyanate labelling correctly revealed the presence of E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa in the magnetically deposited material obtained from the mixture of these two bacterial species. On average, the reaction of gram-positive organisms was significantly stronger to the magnetic field in the presence of Er3+ than the reaction of gram-negative organisms. The thin-film magnetophoresis offers promise as a rapid method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in solutions such as urine or environmental water. Images PMID:16348916

Zborowski, Maciej; Tada, Yoko; Malchesky, Paul S.; Hall, Geraldine S.

1993-01-01

197

Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack of practical tools to encourage behavioural change was a key barrier for obese parents. Conclusions Well-funded, targeted social marketing campaigns will play an important role in the prevention and management of obesity. It is important that these campaigns are comprehensively evaluated and are backed up with structural supports to enable and encourage population subgroups to act upon messages. PMID:24517101

2014-01-01

198

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Systematic Comparative MethodsRecent Advances and Remaining Challenges for Social Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades, a set of systematic comparative case analysis techniques has been developing at a steady pace. During the last few years especially, the main initial technique, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), has been complemented by other related methods and techniques. The purpose of this article is to critically assess some main recent developments in this field. QCA

Benoît Rihoux

2006-01-01

199

A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.  

PubMed

Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research. PMID:22592885

Rudnick, Abraham

2014-09-01

200

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-03-01

201

Rotation parameters and shapes of 19 asteroids. Qualitative analysis and interpretation of data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the combined method (amplitude-magnitude method plus the epoch method), we determined pole coordinates, sidereal rotation periods, senses of rotation and axial ratios of threeaxial ellipsoid figures for asteroids 158 Koronis, 167 Urda, 208 Lacrimosa, 211 Isolda, 263 Dresda, 268 Adorea, 277 Elvira, 311 Claudia, 321 Florentina, 344 Desiderata, 347 Pariana, 369 Aeria, 462 Eriphyla, 480 Hansa, 534 Nassovia, 631 Philippina, 720 Bohlina, 1223 Neckar, and 4954 Eric. For nine of them the determination was obtained for the first time. Using all available data on pole coordinates, sense of rotation and parameters of asteroid shapes, the qualitative analysis and interpretation of data on axis orientation, retrograde rotation and semi-axial ratios of asteroids were carried out.

Tungalag, N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Lupishko, D. F.

2003-10-01

202

A Qualitative Analysis of Life Course Adjustment to Multiple Morbidity and Disability  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of limitations over the life course requires that women re-adapt to environmental barriers that they encounter over time. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to detail the life experiences associated with living with mobility, cognitive, and sensory loss experienced by a woman and her sister who participated in an on-going ethnographic study of mobility impairment in women. In-depth interviews were subjected to thematic, life course analysis. A family case study was interpreted as an exemplar for aging with early onset disability into multiple morbidity, which was described as a series of loss, recovery and re-engagement. Within the case study, the participant suggested that because her functional limitations were not accommodated earlier in life due to societal and family level disadvantage, functional limitations were more difficult to adjust to in later years. PMID:23437442

Harrison, Tracie; Taylor, Jessica; Fredland, Nina; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Choban, Robin

2012-01-01

203

Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff.  

PubMed

Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G

2015-01-01

204

Trauma systems in kenya: a qualitative analysis at the district level.  

PubMed

Injury is a leading cause of death and disability in low- and middle-income countries. Kenya has a particularly high burden of injuries, accounting for 88.4 deaths per 100,000 population. Despite recent attempts to prioritize injury prevention in Kenya, trauma care systems have not been assessed. We assessed perceptions of formal and informal district-level trauma systems through 25 qualitative semi-structured interviews and 16 focus group discussions with Ministry of Health officials, district hospital administrators, health care providers, police, and community members. We used the principles of theoretical analysis to identify common themes of prehospital and hospital trauma care. We found prehospital care relied primarily on "good Samaritans" and police. We described hospital care in terms of human resources, infrastructure, and definitive care. The interviewers repeatedly emphasized the lack of hospital infrastructure. We showed the need to develop prehospital care systems and strengthen hospital trauma care services. PMID:25563630

Wesson, Hadley K H; Stevens, Kent A; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Mogere, Stephen; Akungah, Daniel; Nyamari, Jackim; Masasabi Wekesa, John; Hyder, Adnan A

2015-05-01

205

Understanding gendered expectations and exemptions experienced by male double-duty caregivers: a qualitative secondary analysis.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that family caregivers who are also employed face challenges in balancing the multiple demands associated with family caregiving. Health professionals who are family caregivers, defined in this study as double-duty caregivers (DDCs), are expected to use their professional knowledge in the provision of family care. The purpose of this qualitative secondary analysis was to explore how gendered expectations and exemptions affect the caregiving experiences and personal health of male nurses caring for family members. Being a male DDC created intersecting gendered expectations and exemptions. These coexisting and at times conflicting expectations and exemptions, constituted by the overarching theme of the determinants of care, directly influenced the health of male DDCs as they experienced tension when negotiating their dual role. The findings have direct implications for health-care policy and practice, research, and theory development. PMID:23156194

Anjos, Ana Paula; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Leipert, Beverly

2012-09-01

206

MAXIPOL: Data Analysis and Results  

E-print Network

We present results from and the analysis of data from MAXIPOL, a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). MAXIPOL is the first CMB experiment to obtain results using a rotating half-wave plate as a rapid polarization modulator. We report results from observations of a sky area of 8 deg^2 with 10-arcmin resolution, providing information up to l~700. We use a maximum-likelihood method to estimate maps of the Q and U Stokes parameters from the demodulated time streams, and then both Bayesian and frequentist approaches to compute the EE, EB, and BB power spectra. Detailed formalisms of the analyses are given. A variety of tests show no evidence for systematic errors. The Bayesian analysis gives weak evidence for an EE signal. The EE power is 55^{+51}_{-45} \\mu K^2 at the 68% confidence level for l=151-693. Its likelihood function is asymmetric and skewed positive such that with a uniform prior the probability of a positive EE power is 96%. The powers of EB and BB signals at the 68% confidence level are 18^{+27}_{-34} \\mu K^2 and -31^{+31}_{-19} \\mu K^2 respectively and thus consistent with zero. The upper limit of the BB-mode at the 95% confidence level is 9.5 \\mu K. Results from the frequentist approach are in agreement within statistical errors. These results are consistent with the current concordance LCDM model.

J. H. P. Wu; J. Zuntz; M. E. Abroe; P. A. R. Ade; J. Bock; J. Borrill; J. Collins; S. Hanany; A. H. Jaffe; B. R. Johnson; T. Jones; A. T. Lee; T. Matsumura; B. Rabii; T. Renbarger; P. L. Richards; G. F. Smoot; R. Stompor; H. T. Tran; C. D. Winant

2009-01-26

207

Work related musculoskeletal disorders amongst therapists in physically demanding roles: qualitative analysis of risk factors and strategies for prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). Methods A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Results Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Conclusions Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted. PMID:21266039

2011-01-01

208

Systems-Level Lipid Analysis Methodologies for Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Lipid Signaling Events During Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating evidence implicates a prominent role for lipid signaling molecules in the regulation of wound healing. These lipids regulate hemostasis, onset and resolution of inflammation, migration and proliferation cells, angiogenesis, epithelialization, and remodeling of collagen. The objective of this overview is to demonstrate the applicability of systems level lipid analyses to identify and quantify lipid involved in events leading to wound healing. Approach Current advances in liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have provided the means for carrying out quantitative and qualitative analysis of lipids at a systems level. This emerging field is collectively referred to as lipidomics and its potential in wound healing research is largely ignored. Results While comprehensive applications of lipidomics in wound healing are limited, studies carried out by the authors as well as others demonstrate distinct changes in the lipidome during the wound healing process. Innovation Until recently, investigations into lipids were limited to the study of a few lipids at a time. Lipidomics approaches provide the capability to quantitatively and qualitatively assay almost the full complement of lipid signaling circuits at the same time. This allows obtaining a system level understanding of changes to the entire lipidome during the wound healing process. Conclusion The technology provides promising approach to understanding new signaling pathways based on lipids involved in wound healing. The understanding gained from such studies has the potential for the development of novel lipid based treatment strategies to promote wound healing. PMID:24527363

Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Chalfant, Charles E.

2013-01-01

209

New results from FRECOPA analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New results from the ongoing analysis of the FRECOPA's (FREnch COoperative PAssive payload) system hardware are discussed. FRECOPA (AO138) was one of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF satellite. The experiment was located on the trailing edge (Tray B3) and was exposed to UV radiation (11,100 equivalent sun hours), approximately equal to 34,000 thermal cycles, higher vacuum levels than the leading edge, a low atomic oxygen flux, and minor doses of protons and electrons. Due to LDEF's extended mission (5.8 years), CNES decided to set up a team to analyze the FRECOPA system. Initial results were presented at the First Post-Retrieval Conference, June, 1991. The results obtained since then are summarized.

Durin, Christian

1993-01-01

210

Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

Malin, Jane T. (inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (inventor); Harris, Richard A. (inventor)

1990-01-01

211

Developing an observing attitude: A qualitative analysis of meditation diaries in a MBSR clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an 8-week training that is designed to teach participants mindful awareness of the present moment. In randomized clinical trials (RCTs), MBSR has demonstrated efficacy in various conditions including reducing chronic pain related distress and improving quality of life in healthy individuals. There have, however, been no qualitative studies investigating participants’ descriptions of changes experienced over multiple time-points during the course of the program. This qualitative study of a MBSR cohort (N=8 healthy individuals) in a larger RCT examined participants’ daily diary descriptions of their home-practice experiences. The study used a two-part method, combining grounded theory with a close-ended coding approach. The grounded theory analysis revealed that during the trial, all participants, to varying degrees, described moments of distress related to practice; at the end of the course, all participants who completed the training demonstrated greater detail and clarity in their descriptions, improved affect, and the emergence of an observing self. The closed-ended coding schema carried out to shed light on the development of an observing self, revealed that the emergence of an observing self was not related to the valence of participants’ experiential descriptions: even participants whose diaries contained predominantly negative characterizations of their experience throughout the trial were able, by the end of the trial, to demonstrate an observing, witnessing attitude towards their own distress. Conclusion Progress in MBSR may rely less on the valence of participants’ experiences and more on the way participants describe and relate to their own inner experience. PMID:21226129

Kerr, Catherine E.; Josyula, Krishnapriya; Littenberg, Ronnie

2011-01-01

212

Rx for a Party: A Qualitative Analysis of Recreational Pharmaceutical Use in a Collegiate Setting  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the socio-recreational use of pharmaceuticals in a collegiate setting using a qualitative methodology. Participants Ninety-one college students from a public, four-year institution for higher learning in the Southwest participated in this study. Methods Semi-structured interviews conducted between May 2004 and December 2005 were audio recorded, transcribed, and examined for themes related to the socio-recreational use of prescription drugs. Results A variety of prescription drugs are used for a number of purposes, including to experience pleasure, to manage the duration or intensity of another drug’s effects, to “party” or socialize with friends and peers in leisure settings, to facilitate socio-recreational activities, and to help structure free time. Conclusions Pharmaceuticals appear to be well integrated into the recreational drug use practices of college students and prescription drug misuse presents a significant prevention challenge. PMID:19592355

Quintero, Gilbert

2011-01-01

213

[Qualitative analysis of palliative care and support in medical practices in DRC].  

PubMed

This work aims at documenting the representations that health professionals in Kinshasa have of palliative care and end-of-life support. This qualitative study was conducted among 30 doctors and 90 nurses with at least one year of experience in six hospitals in Kinshasa that receive patients at the end of life. The results show that health professionals believe that this care is time-consuming and that the inability to say some things to patients and families generates misunderstandings and concerns likely to prevent the application of palliative care. For them, it is often a futile therapeutic obstinacy, added hygienic care, and neglect of the patient. The obstacles to implementing this care might be linked to the lack of training about this approach and a health system based essentially on curative approaches. The representation of health professionals about palliative care and support are many and varied. They are, however, more structured among physicians than nurses. PMID:24686531

Lofandjola Masumbuku, J; Coppieters, Y

2014-01-01

214

New ways in qualitative and quantitative protein analysis: nano chromatography coupled to element mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which allows element-specific detection of heteroelements (e.g. Se and S) incorporated in protein structures, is highlighted for sensitive qualitative and quantitative protein analysis. ICP-MS coupled to separation techniques such as size exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis (via laser ablation) can be employed at different steps in the proteomic workflow. Special emphasis is made on the couplings of capillary and nanoHPLC to ICP-MS that required the development of dedicated interfaces. Element-specific peptide mapping by nanoHPLC-ICP-MS has turned out to be a key technique in combination with peptide sequencing via nanoHPLC-electrospray MS. This could impressively be demonstrated for the identification of selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast. Furthermore the potential of sulfur isotope dilution analysis in nanoHPLC-ICP-MS is presented as generic tool for highly accurate, absolute protein quantification. PMID:18039489

Schaumlöffel, Dirk

2007-01-01

215

What makes the everyday life of Swedish adolescent girls less stressful: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Stress is a widespread phenomenon in society today, not least among children and adolescents. Stress-related ill-health has increased in this population and affects girls to a greater extent than boys. Against this background, it is important to acquire knowledge about measures that prevent stress, especially in girls. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate adolescent girls' experiences and reflections about what makes everyday life less stressful. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen 17-year-old girls. The analysis comprised both manifest and latent content and revealed the girls' own experiences of and reflections about what makes everyday life less stressful. Three categories, 'Enjoyment and Recovery', 'Trust' and 'Insight and Influence', and nine subcategories emerged. The latent content of these categories is described by the theme 'access to sources of strength'. It is essential that persons in the girls' surroundings are aware of all sources that provide the strength to resist and prevent stress in everyday life. A climate has to be created in all arenas of the girls' everyday life in which they can access these sources of strength. Utilizing the girls' experiences and views about what needs to be done is the first step towards a preventive and promotive mode of working on their own circumstances and wishes. This approach is consistent with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which emphasizes the importance of involving the target group. PMID:20233834

Haraldsson, Katarina; Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Hildingh, Cathrine; Marklund, Bertil

2010-06-01

216

Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty’s eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Results Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the “Attitudes and Traits” or “Beliefs and Values” dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). Conclusion We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan. PMID:24726054

2014-01-01

217

Qualitative Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative simulation is a key inference process in qualitative causal reasoning. However, the precise meaning of the different proposals and their relation with differential equations is often unclear. In this paper, we present a precise definition of qualitative structure and behavior descriptions as abstractions of differential equations and continuously differentiable functions. We present a new algorithm for qualitative simulation that

Benjamin Kuipers

1986-01-01

218

Importance of relationship context in HIV transmission: results from a qualitative case-control study in Rakai, Uganda.  

PubMed

We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health. PMID:24524490

Higgins, Jenny A; Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelley, Laura; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

2014-04-01

219

Importance of Relationship Context in HIV Transmission: Results From a Qualitative Case-Control Study in Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health. PMID:24524490

Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S.

2014-01-01

220

A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. METHODS: All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish

Kathleen Ann McKibbon; Cynthia S Gadd

2004-01-01

221

Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

2011-01-01

222

Case Report and Qualitative Analysis of Fifteen Hours of Meetings Between a Junior and Senior Faculty Member  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a specific mentoring approach in an academic gen- eral internal medicine setting by audiotaping and transcribing all mentoring sessions in the year. In advance, the mentor recorded his model. During the year, the mentee kept a process journal. Qualitative analysis revealed development of an intimate relationship based on empathy, trust, and honesty. The mentor's model was explicitly intended

Joseph S. Rabatin; Mack Lipkin; Alan S. Rubin; Allison Schachter; Michael Nathan; Adina Kalet

223

Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological mark- ers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phe- notypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psy- chiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multi- variate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on

Jeff T. Williams; Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz; Howard J. Edenberg; Tatiana Foroud; Theodore Reich; Alison Goate; Paul Van Eerdewegh; Laura Almasy; John Blangero

1999-01-01

224

Relative charge density model on chitosan-fucoidan electrostatic interaction: qualitative approach with element analysis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a relative charge density model of prepared chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (CFNs) to provide insight into an analysis of the ionic interactions in terms of polyelectrolyte complexes. Using the relative charge density model, the extent of the ionic interactions is predicted in terms of the pH (2 through 6) and used fucoidan to chitosan mass ratio (FCMR) (1:0.05 through 1:1), through which the formation of CFNs can be controlled to be ranked qualitatively according to size and stability. It was confirmed by the measurements of their zeta potentials and sizes and by the analysis of their decay with time. Moreover, the relative charge density model was validated to predict the isoelectric condition of a polyelectrolyte complexed suspension of CFNs. Elemental analysis with a proper mass-conversion showed that the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficients of sulfate groups to amino groups in CFNs formed were almost consistent to that of the sulfate groups to amino groups in a chitosan solution mixed with a fucoidan solution prior to the occurrence of polyelectrolyte complexation. In a pH 2-environment, there were locally intensive electrostatic interactions with a low yield to form sulfate group-rich CFNs. In contrast, in a pH 6-environment, extensive electrostatic interactions occurred to form sulfate group-poor CFNs with a high yield. In addition to the chitosan-amide groups, the separate yield-distribution of loaded chitosan indicated the possible involvement of positively charged amino groups in the electrostatic interactions among chitosan molecules. PMID:25091454

Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Kwang-Hee

2015-02-01

225

The impact of severe osteogenesis imperfecta on the lives of young patients and their parents – a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder that causes increased bone fragility. Living with, caring for, and parenting a child with OI are all highly demanding and challenging. This study is a temporal analysis of the impact of severe OI on the lives of young patients and their parents. Methods This study was carried out at the Shriners Hospital for Children, a pediatric orthopedic hospital located in Montreal, Canada. Using qualitative interpretative description, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 subjects – 12 young patients diagnosed with severe OI and 12 of their parents. The interview data were subject to a predominantly inductive open thematic analysis and a temporal comparative analysis. We did a retrospective chart review to complement our data collection. Results We found that the impact of severe OI on the young patients and their parents was characterized by four themes: 1) Starting at the time of diagnosis, a series of stages shaped life and the return to every day “normal”, 2) Living with OI was full of “ups and downs” throughout life, 3) Every day “normal” life with OI consisted of significant changes for parents and challenges for the whole family, and 4) Living with OI generated some positive experiences. Conclusion This study contributes to a better theoretical understanding of the impact of severe OI on families. It also has some practical implications for the development of effective support systems for patients with severe OI and their families. PMID:24074180

2013-01-01

226

Immobilized sulfatase:beta-glucuronidase enzymes for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of drug conjugates.  

PubMed

The enzymes sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia were simultaneously immobilized on aminopropyl control pore glass. Once immobilized, these enzymes retained activity under varied conditions of pH, organic solvent, and temperature. To hydrolyze the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of xenobiotics, the immobilized enzymes were either added directly to incubation mixtures for qualitative in vitro studies or packed in a short stainless steel column and placed in an HPLC system for quantitative studies. By incorporating specific inhibitors (D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone to inhibit beta-glucuronidase or phosphate ions to inhibit sulfatase) into the incubation mixture or into the HPLC mobile phases, selective hydrolysis of either sulfate or glucuronide conjugates was achieved. Upon removal of the inhibitors from the incubation mixtures or from the mobile phases, original enzyme activity was restored. The utility of immobilized enzymes was demonstrated for quantitative analysis of sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of fenoldopam, where the liberation of the catechol aglycone moiety was necessary for electrochemical detection. PMID:2565976

Boppana, V K; Lynn, R K; Ziemniak, J A

1989-02-01

227

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of surface-acoustic-wave-based ultraviolet photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with multiple optical sensing areas is presented by depositing patterned ZnO films on a LiNbO3 substrate. Two different types of electrodes, uniform interdigital transducer (IDT) and slanted finger interdigital transducer (SFIT), are designed and fabricated to analyze the performances of SAW array UV photodetectors. By tuning ultraviolet wavelengths, qualitative characteristics of SAW UV photodetectors are observed through the measurements of SAW attenuation. Quantitative analyses of the photodetectors are presented by varying light intensities. Moreover, dynamic responses of SAW array UV photodetectors under the illumination of different optical wavelengths are also demonstrated. Ultraviolet light of 350 nm with power densities of 8.46 and 18.34 ?W/cm2 is detectable from a UV photodetector with uniform IDT and SFIT, respectively. This study not only indicates that a SAW-based UV sensor is a potential candidate of array UV photodetectors but also provides a comprehensive analysis of SAW UV photodetectors.

Wang, Wei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Ju; Ma, Chein-Ching

2013-08-01

228

Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B.; Manurung, M.; Kurniawan, K. H.

2013-09-01

229

The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010  

PubMed Central

The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

2014-01-01

230

Content of health status reports of people seeking assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Two right-to-die organisations offer assisted suicide in Switzerland. The specific legal situation allows assistance to Swiss and foreign citizens. Both organisations require a report of the person's health status before considering assistance. This qualitative study explored these reports filed to legal authorities after the deaths of individuals in the area of Zurich. Health status reports in the legal medical dossiers of the deceased were analysed using content analysis and Grounded Theory. From 421 cases of assisted suicide (2001-2004), 350 reports on health status were filed. Many cases contained diagnosis lists only. Other reports had more elaborate reports revealing that some physicians were aware about the patient's death wish and the intention to solicit assisted suicide. Physicians' attitudes ranged from neutral to rather depreciative. Few physicians openly referred the patient to the organisations and supported the patient's request by highlighting a history of suffering as well as reporting understanding and agreement with the patient's wish to hasten death. In the health status reports five categories could be identified. Some files revealed that physicians were aware of the death wish. The knowledge and recognition of the patient's death wish varied from no apparent awareness to strongly supportive. This variety might be due to difficulties to discuss the death wish with patients, but might also reflect the challenge to avoid legal prosecution in the country of origin. To require comparable health status reports as requirements for the right-to-die organisations might be difficult to pursue. PMID:21246400

Imhof, Lorenz; Bosshard, Georg; Fischer, Susanne; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

2011-08-01

231

A qualitative analysis of communication between members of a hospital-based multidisciplinary lung cancer team.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to explore how patient information is communicated between health professionals within a multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team and to identify mechanisms to improve these communications. A qualitative method was employed using semi-structured in-depth interviews with a representative sample (n = 22) of members of a multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team including medical, nursing and allied health professionals. Analysis was undertaken using a thematic grounded theory approach to derive key themes to describe communication patterns within the team and how communication could be improved. Two themes with sub-themes were identified: (1) characteristics of communication between team members including the impact of role on direction of communications, and doctors' dominance in communications; and (2) channels of communication including, preference for face-to-face and the suboptimal roles of the Multidisciplinary Team Meeting and the hospital medical record as mediums for communication. Traditional influences of role delineation and the dominance of doctors were found to impact on communication within the multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team. Existing guidelines on implementation of multidisciplinary cancer care fail to address barriers to effective team communication. The paper-based medical record does not support team communications and alternative electronic solutions need to be used. PMID:22966875

Rowlands, S; Callen, J

2013-01-01

232

Patient reported determinants of health: a qualitative analysis of veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Although COPD is a common disorder of veterans who receive care from the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA), the perceptions of veterans with COPD about their disease, its effects on their lives, and their interactions with the VHA have not been determined. Utilizing qualitative methodology, we conducted focus groups of veterans with COPD at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. Participants were selected by systematic sampling from the top quintile of veterans stratified by the cost of healthcare utilization related to a primary diagnosis of COPD and grouped by age and use of supplemental oxygen. All 42 participants were male and had a mean age of 65 years. Analysis of the focus group transcripts demonstrated five major themes: 1) Physical and Functional Limitations: work and employment constraints, recreation restrictions, limits on activities of daily living, reduced sexuality, concerns about housing and finances, and physical symptoms; 2) Restricted Social Interactions/Altered Social Networks: altered relationships with friends and family and reliance upon family and care givers; 3) Emotional Effects: reduced self-worth, vulnerability, depression, perseverance and adaptation, hopelessness, fear, pride, and lack of control; 4) Limitations in the Understanding of COPD: unawareness of diagnosis, triggers and reaction to disease manifestations, COPD management; and 5) Complex Healthcare Interactions. COPD pervasively and extensively affects all aspects of veterans' lives and causes significant consequences for their care and management. PMID:23537003

Panos, Ralph J; Krywkowski-Mohn, Sara M; Sherman, Susan N; Lach, Laura A

2013-06-01

233

Qualitative analysis of end user computing strategy and experiences in promoting nursing informatics in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyse end user computing strategy and experiences in promoting nursing informatics in Taiwan. In February 2004, an 8-day NI technology training campaign was held in Taipei for 60 clinical nurses. Excel VBA was used as the tool to teach the clinical nurses, who had never written any programs, but were very interested in informatics. Three projects were determined after detailed discussion and evaluation of clinical needs and technical feasibility between the nurses and the technical support team, which was composed of one experienced informatics professor and one clinical NI assistant. A qualitative analysis was used to interview the three pairs of programming clinical nurses and their direct supervisors with a structured but open questionnaire. Representative concepts were categorized from the data until all were categorized. The concepts were organized under three categories: the purposes, the benefits and the challenges of system development. According to this study, end user computing strategy with Excel VBA was successful so far. PMID:17102334

Hou, I-Ching; Chang, Polun; Wang, Tsen-Yung

2006-01-01

234

Qualitative Amino Acid Analysis of Small Peptides by GC/MS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments designed to help undergraduate students gain experience operating instruments and interpreting gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data are presented. Experimental reagents, procedures, analysis, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

Mabbott, Gary A.

1990-01-01

235

A qualitative model structure sensitivity analysis method to support model selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection and identification of a suitable hydrological model structure is a more challenging task than fitting parameters of a fixed model structure to reproduce a measured hydrograph. The suitable model structure is highly dependent on various criteria, i.e. the modeling objective, the characteristics and the scale of the system under investigation and the available data. Flexible environments for model building are available, but need to be assisted by proper diagnostic tools for model structure selection. This paper introduces a qualitative method for model component sensitivity analysis. Traditionally, model sensitivity is evaluated for model parameters. In this paper, the concept is translated into an evaluation of model structure sensitivity. Similarly to the one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) methods for parameter sensitivity, this method varies the model structure components one at a time and evaluates the change in sensitivity towards the output variables. As such, the effect of model component variations can be evaluated towards different objective functions or output variables. The methodology is presented for a simple lumped hydrological model environment, introducing different possible model building variations. By comparing the effect of changes in model structure for different model objectives, model selection can be better evaluated. Based on the presented component sensitivity analysis of a case study, some suggestions with regard to model selection are formulated for the system under study: (1) a non-linear storage component is recommended, since it ensures more sensitive (identifiable) parameters for this component and less parameter interaction; (2) interflow is mainly important for the low flow criteria; (3) excess infiltration process is most influencing when focussing on the lower flows; (4) a more simple routing component is advisable; and (5) baseflow parameters have in general low sensitivity values, except for the low flow criteria.

Van Hoey, S.; Seuntjens, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Nopens, I.

2014-11-01

236

‘Well London’ and the benefits of participation: results of a qualitative study nested in a cluster randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Well London is a multicomponent community engagement and coproduction programme designed to improve the health of Londoners living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. To evaluate outcomes of the Well London interventions, a cluster randomised trial (CRT) was conducted that included a longitudinal qualitative component, which is reported here. The aim is to explore in depth the nature of the benefits to residents and the processes by which these were achieved. Methods The 1-year longitudinal qualitative study was nested within the CRT. Purposive sampling was used to select three intervention neighbourhoods in London and 61 individuals within these neighbourhoods. The interventions comprised activities focused on: healthy eating, physical exercise and mental health and well-being. Interviews were conducted at the inception and following completion of the Well London interventions to establish both if and how they had participated. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analysed using Nvivo. Results Positive benefits relating to the formal outcomes of the CRT were reported, but only among those who participated in project activities. The extent of benefits experienced was influenced by factors relating to the physical and social characteristics of each neighbourhood. The highest levels of change occurred in the presence of: (1) social cohesion, not only pre-existing but also as facilitated by Well London activities; (2) personal and collective agency; (3) involvement and support of external organisations. Where the physical and social environment remained unchanged, there was less participation and fewer benefits. Conclusions These findings show interaction between participation, well-being and agency, social interactions and cohesion and that this modulated any benefits described. Pathways to change were thus complex and variable, but personal well-being and local social cohesion emerged as important mediators of change. PMID:24694622

Derges, Jane; Clow, Angela; Lynch, Rebecca; Jain, Sumeet; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Renton, Adrian; Draper, Alizon

2014-01-01

237

Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

2014-01-01

238

Hybrid data acquisition and processing strategies with increased throughput and selectivity: pSMART analysis for global qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition strategies (DIA) have both resulted in improved understanding of proteomics samples. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages that are well-published, where DDA is typically applied for deep discovery and DIA may be used to create sample records. In this paper, we present a hybrid data acquisition and processing strategy (pSMART) that combines the strengths of both techniques and provides significant benefits for qualitative and quantitative peptide analysis. The performance of pSMART is compared to published DIA strategies in an experiment that allows the objective assessment of DIA performance with respect to interrogation of previously acquired MS data. The results of this experiment demonstrate that pSMART creates fewer decoy hits than a standard DIA strategy. Moreover, we show that pSMART is more selective, sensitive, and reproducible than either standard DIA or DDA strategies alone. PMID:25244318

Prakash, Amol; Peterman, Scott; Ahmad, Shadab; Sarracino, David; Frewen, Barbara; Vogelsang, Maryann; Byram, Gregory; Krastins, Bryan; Vadali, Gouri; Lopez, Mary

2014-12-01

239

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

240

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. PMID:25746504

Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

2015-05-10

241

Qualitative analysis of the elliptical centric technique and the TRICKS technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the usefulness of time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and elliptical centric MRA according to the type of cerebral disease. From February 2010 to January 2012, elliptical centric MRA and TRICKS MRA images were acquired from 50 normal individuals and 50 patients with cerebral diseases by using 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The images were analyzed qualitatively by examining areas such as the presence or absence of artifacts on the images, the distinctness of boundaries of blood vessels, accurate representation of the lesions, and the subtraction level. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction rate, negative prediction rate and accuracy were assessed by comparing the diagnostic efficacy of the two techniques. The results revealed TRICKS MRA to have superior image quality to elliptical centric MRA. Regarding each disease, TRICKS MRA showed higher diagnostic efficacy for artery venous malformation (AVM) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass patients whereas elliptical centric MRA was more suitable for patients with brain tumors, cerebral infarction, cerebral stenosis or sinus mass.

Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

2013-02-01

242

Qualitative research.  

PubMed

Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider. PMID:25804178

Gelling, Leslie

2015-03-25

243

Model-Based Analysis for Qualitative Data: An Application in Drosophila Germline Stem Cell Regulation  

PubMed Central

Discovery in developmental biology is often driven by intuition that relies on the integration of multiple types of data such as fluorescent images, phenotypes, and the outcomes of biochemical assays. Mathematical modeling helps elucidate the biological mechanisms at play as the networks become increasingly large and complex. However, the available data is frequently under-utilized due to incompatibility with quantitative model tuning techniques. This is the case for stem cell regulation mechanisms explored in the Drosophila germarium through fluorescent immunohistochemistry. To enable better integration of biological data with modeling in this and similar situations, we have developed a general parameter estimation process to quantitatively optimize models with qualitative data. The process employs a modified version of the Optimal Scaling method from social and behavioral sciences, and multi-objective optimization to evaluate the trade-off between fitting different datasets (e.g. wild type vs. mutant). Using only published imaging data in the germarium, we first evaluated support for a published intracellular regulatory network by considering alternative connections of the same regulatory players. Simply screening networks against wild type data identified hundreds of feasible alternatives. Of these, five parsimonious variants were found and compared by multi-objective analysis including mutant data and dynamic constraints. With these data, the current model is supported over the alternatives, but support for a biochemically observed feedback element is weak (i.e. these data do not measure the feedback effect well). When also comparing new hypothetical models, the available data do not discriminate. To begin addressing the limitations in data, we performed a model-based experiment design and provide recommendations for experiments to refine model parameters and discriminate increasingly complex hypotheses. PMID:24626201

Pargett, Michael; Rundell, Ann E.; Buzzard, Gregery T.; Umulis, David M.

2014-01-01

244

Who should decide? Qualitative analysis of panel data from public, patients, healthcare professionals, and insurers on priorities in health care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore the arguments underlying the choices of patients, the public, general practitioners, specialists, and health insurers regarding priorities in health care. DESIGN: A qualitative analysis of data gathered in a series of panels. Members were asked to economise on the publicly funded healthcare budget, exemplified by 10 services. RESULTS: From a medical point of view, both panels of healthcare professionals thought most services were necessary. The general practitioners tried to achieve the budget cuts by limiting access to services to those most in need of them or those who cannot afford to pay for them. The specialists emphasised the possibilities of reducing costs by increasing the efficiency within services and preventing inappropriate utilisation. The patients mainly economised by limiting universal access to preventive and acute services. The "public" panels excluded services that are relatively inexpensive for individual patients. Moreover, they emphasised the individual's own responsibility for health behaviour and the costs of health care, resulting in the choice for copayments. The health insurers emphasised the importance of including services that relate to a risk only, as well as feasibility aspects. CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial differences in the way the different groups approached the issue of what should be included in the basic package. Healthcare professionals seem to be most aware of the importance of maintaining equal access for everyone in need of health care. PMID:9240048

Stronks, K.; Strijbis, A. M.; Wendte, J. F.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.

1997-01-01

245

Life impact of ankle fractures: Qualitative analysis of patient and clinician experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle fractures are one of the more commonly occurring forms of trauma managed by orthopaedic teams worldwide. The impacts of these injuries are not restricted to pain and disability caused at the time of the incident, but may also result in long term physical, psychological, and social consequences. There are currently no ankle fracture specific patient-reported outcome measures with a robust content foundation. This investigation aimed to develop a thematic conceptual framework of life impacts following ankle fracture from the experiences of people who have suffered ankle fractures as well as the health professionals who treat them. Methods A qualitative investigation was undertaken using in-depth semi-structured interviews with people (n=12) who had previously sustained an ankle fracture (patients) and health professionals (n=6) that treat people with ankle fractures. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Each phrase was individually coded and grouped in categories and aligned under emerging themes by two independent researchers. Results Saturation occurred after 10 in-depth patient interviews. Time since injury for patients ranged from 6 weeks to more than 2 years. Experience of health professionals ranged from 1 year to 16 years working with people with ankle fractures. Health professionals included an Orthopaedic surgeon (1), physiotherapists (3), a podiatrist (1) and an occupational therapist (1). The emerging framework derived from patient data included eight themes (Physical, Psychological, Daily Living, Social, Occupational and Domestic, Financial, Aesthetic and Medication Taking). Health professional responses did not reveal any additional themes, but tended to focus on physical and occupational themes. Conclusions The nature of life impact following ankle fractures can extend beyond short term pain and discomfort into many areas of life. The findings from this research have provided an empirically derived framework from which a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure can be developed. PMID:23171034

2012-01-01

246

What Sex Abusers Say about Their Treatment: Results from a Qualitative Study on Pedophiles in Treatment at a Canadian Penitentiary Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis

Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C.; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

2005-01-01

247

Interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain in Québec’s private sector: results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Collaboration and interprofessional practices are highly valued in health systems, because they are thought to improve outcomes of care for persons with complex health problems, such as low back pain. Physiotherapists, like all health providers, are encouraged to take part in interprofessional practices. However, little is known about these practices, especially for private sector physiotherapists. This study aimed to: 1) explore how physiotherapists working in the private sector with adults with low back pain describe their interprofessional practices, 2) identify factors that influence their interprofessional practices, and 3) identify their perceived effects. Methods Participants were 13 physiotherapists, 10 women/3 men, having between 3 and 21 years of professional experience. For this descriptive qualitative study, we used face-to-face semi-structured interviews and conducted content analysis encompassing data coding and thematic regrouping. Results Physiotherapists described interprofessional practices heterogeneously, including numerous processes such as sharing information and referring. Factors that influenced physiotherapists’ interprofessional practices were related to patients, providers, organizations, and wider systems (e.g. professional system). Physiotherapists mostly viewed positive effects of interprofessional practices, including elements such as gaining new knowledge as a provider and being valued in one’s own role, as well as improvements in overall treatment and outcome. Conclusions This qualitative study offers new insights into the interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain, as perceived by the physiotherapists’ themselves. Based on the results, the development of strategies aiming to increase interprofessionalism in the management of low back pain would most likely require taking into consideration factors associated with patients, providers, the organizations within which they work, and the wider systems. PMID:24884757

2014-01-01

248

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHLORANTRANILIPROLE AND FLUBENDIAMIDE IN SOLUBLE CONCENTRATE FORMULATIONS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the qualitative analysis of active ingredients in soluble concentrate (SC) formulations of chlorantraniliprole (Coragen 18.5 SC) and flubendiamide (Fame 480 SC). Known concentrations of the reference grade standards and the soluble concentrate of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide dissolved in acetonitrile were applied on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using a Camag-Hamilton Linomat Syringe (100?L). These plates

Abhijit Kar; Kousik Mandal; Rajinder Kumar; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

2012-01-01

249

Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this information we will develop an implementation strategy to improve lifestyle behavior change in general practice. Method In a qualitative semi-structured study, twelve in-depth interviews took place with nurses in Dutch general practices involved in diabetes care. Specific barriers in counseling patients with type 2 diabetes about diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation were addressed. The nurses were invited to reflect on barriers at the patient and practice levels, but mainly on their own roles as counselors. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed with the aid of a predetermined framework. Results Nurses felt most barriers on the level of the patient; patients had limited knowledge of a healthy lifestyle and limited insight into their own behavior, and they lacked the motivation to modify their lifestyles or the discipline to maintain an improved lifestyle. Furthermore, nurses reported lack of counseling skills and insufficient time as barriers in effective lifestyle counseling. Conclusions The traditional health education approach is still predominant in primary care of patients with type 2 diabetes. An implementation strategy based on motivational interviewing can help to overcome 'jumping ahead of the patient' and promotes skills in lifestyle behavioral change. We will train our nurses in agenda setting to structure the consultation based on prioritizing the behavior change and will help them to develop social maps that contain information on local exercise programs. PMID:20500841

2010-01-01

250

Portrayal of the Human Resource Crisis and Accountability in Healthcare: A Qualitative Analysis of Ugandan Newspapers  

PubMed Central

Background Uganda is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of health workers. The aim of this study was to determine how the human resources and health service crisis was covered in Ugandan newspapers and, in particular, how the newspapers attributed accountability for problems in the health services. Methods We collected all articles related to health workers and health services for the calendar year 2012 in the two largest national newspapers in Uganda (collection on daily basis) and in one local newspaper (collection on weekly basis). These articles were analysed qualitatively regarding the main themes covered and attribution of accountability. Results The two more urban national newspapers published 229 articles on human resources and health services in Uganda (on average over two articles per week), whereas the local more rural newspaper published only a single article on this issue in the 12 month period. The majority of articles described problems in the health service without discussing accountability. The question of accountability is raised in only 46% of articles (106 articles). The responsibility of the government was discussed in 50 articles (21%), and negligence, corruption and misbehaviour by individual health workers was reported in 56 articles (25%). In the articles about corruption (n=35), 60% (21 articles) mention corruption by health workers and 40% (14 articles) mention corruption by government officials. Six articles defended the situation of health workers in Uganda. Conclusions The coverage of accountability in the Ugandan newspapers surveyed is insufficient to generate informed debate on what political actions need to be taken to improve the crisis in health care and services. There exists not only an “inverse care law” but also an “inverse information law”: those sections of society with the greatest health needs and problems in accessing quality health care receive the least information about health services. PMID:25837490

Wojczewski, Silvia; Willcox, Merlin; Mubangizi, Vincent; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Natukunda, Silvia; Maling, Samuel; Maier, Manfred; Mant, David; Kutalek, Ruth

2015-01-01

251

Perspectives about Family Meals from Single-Headed and Dual-Headed Households: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- versus dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. Additionally, parents’ perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more wide-spread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents’ perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in sub-study of two linked multi-level studies—EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (e.g., provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (e.g., single-headed=cost vs. dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (e.g., single-headed=give fewer options vs. dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings may help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID:24238144

Berge, Jerica M.; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

252

Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID:24238144

Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-12-01

253

Qualitative analysis of the risk of introducing Gyrodactylus salaris into the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylus salaris is a freshwater, monogenean ectoparasite of Baltic strains of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar on which it generally causes no clinical disease. Infection of other strains of Atlantic salmon in Norway has resulted in high levels of juvenile salmon mortality and highly significant reductions in the population. The parasite is a major exotic disease threat to wild Atlantic salmon in the UK. This paper qualitatively assesses the risk of introduction and establishment of G. salaris into the UK. The current UK fish health regime prevents the importation of live salmonids from freshwater in territories that have not substantiated freedom from G. salaris. The importation of other species, e.g. eels Anguilla anguilla and non-salmonid fish, represents a low risk because the likelihood of infection is very low and the parasite can only survive on these hosts for less than 50 d. Importation of salmon carcasses presents a negligible risk because harvested fish originate from seawater sites and the parasite cannot survive full strength salinity. The importation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss carcasses from G. salaris infected freshwater sites might introduce the parasite, but establishment is only likely if carcasses are processed on a salmonid farm in the UK. A number of mechanical transmission routes were considered (e.g. angling equipment, canoes, ballast water) and the most important was judged to be the movement of live fish transporters from farms on mainland Europe direct to UK fish farms. In the future, territories may have to substantiate freedom from G. salaris and economic drivers for live salmonid imports may strengthen. Under these circumstances, legal or illegal live salmonid imports would become the most significant risk of introduction. PMID:15648837

Peeler, E J; Thrush, M A

2004-11-23

254

Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study  

SciTech Connect

Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

2012-05-01

255

“Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

Rofail, Diana; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H.; Berardo, Carmen Galani

2014-01-01

256

"Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding "caregiver burden" in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

Gater, Adam; Rofail, Diana; Tolley, Chloe; Marshall, Chris; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H; Berardo, Carmen Galani

2014-01-01

257

Handling linkage disequilibrium in qualitative trait linkage analysis using dense SNPs: a two-step strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In affected sibling pair linkage analysis, the presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD) has been shown to lead to overestimation of the number of alleles shared identity-by-descent (IBD) among sibling pairs when parents are ungenotyped. This inflation results in spurious evidence for linkage even when the markers and the disease locus are not linked. In our study, we first theoretically

Kelly Cho; Josée Dupuis

2009-01-01

258

Critiquing qualitative research.  

PubMed

The ability to critique research is a valuable skill that is fundamental to a perioperative nurse's ability to base his or her clinical practice on evidence derived from research. Criteria differ for critiquing a quantitative versus a qualitative study (ie, statistics are evaluated in a quantitative study, but not in a qualitative study). This article provides on guidelines for assessing qualitative research. Excerpts from a published qualitative research report are summarized and then critiqued. Questions are provided that help evaluate different sections of a research study (eg, sample, data collection methods, data analysis). PMID:19801006

Beck, Cheryl Tatano

2009-10-01

259

Communication by Nurses in the Intensive Care Unit: Qualitative Analysis of Domains of Patient-Centered Care  

PubMed Central

Background High quality communication is a key determinant and facilitator of patient-centered care. Nurses engage in the vast majority of communication with patients and families in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective To perform a qualitative analysis of nurses' communication. Methods The study was conducted in a 26-bed cardiac/medical ICU in an academic hospital and a 26-bed general ICU in a Veterans Affairs hospital in Portland, OR. We reviewed 315 hours of ICU interactions and 53 interviews with 33 nurses to categorize communication interactions into five patient-centered care domains. Interviews were analyzed to identify major themes regarding nurses’ roles and preferences for communicating with patients and families within the domains. Results Most nursing communication occurred in the biopsychosocial information exchange, “patient-as-person”, and “clinician-as-person” domains. Nurses endorsed the importance of the shared power and responsibility and therapeutic alliance domains but had relatively few communication interactions in these areas. Communication behaviors were strongly influenced by the nurses’ roles as translators of information between physicians with patients and families and what they were and were not willing to communicate to patients and families. Conclusions Critical care, including communication, is a collaborative effort. Understanding how nurses engage in patient-centered communication in the ICU can guide future interventions to improve patient-centered care. PMID:23117904

Slatore, Christopher G.; Hansen, Lissi; Ganzini, Linda; Press, Nancy; Osborne, Molly L.; Chesnutt, Mark S.; Mularski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

260

Linking Data to Decision-Making: Applying Qualitative Data Analysis Methods and Software to Identify Mechanisms for Using Outcomes Data  

PubMed Central

A multiple case study was conducted to examine how staff in child out-of-home care programs used data from an Outcomes Management System (OMS) and other sources to inform decision-making. Data collection consisted of thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with clinicians, managers, and directors from two treatment foster care programs and two residential treatment centers, and individuals involved with developing the OMS; and observations of clinical and quality management meetings. Case study and grounded theory methodology guided analyses. The application of qualitative data analysis software is described. Results show that although staff rarely used data from the OMS, they did rely on other sources of systematically collected information to inform clinical, quality management, and program decisions. Analyses of how staff used these data suggest that improving the utility of OMS will involve encouraging staff to participate in data-based decision-making, and designing and implementing OMS in a manner that reflects how decision-making processes operate. PMID:17647110

Patel, Vaishali N.; Riley, Anne W.

2007-01-01

261

Physician organization care management capabilities associated with effective inpatient utilization management: a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundWe studied the relationship between physician organization (PO) care management capabilities and inpatient utilization in order to identify PO characteristics or capabilities associated with low inpatient bed-days per thousand.MethodsWe used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to conduct an exploratory comparative case series study. Data about PO capabilities were collected using structured interviews with medical directors at fourteen California POs that are delegated to provide inpatient utilization management (UM) for HMO members of a California health plan. Health plan acute hospital claims from 2011 were extracted from a reporting data warehouse and used to calculate inpatient utilization statistics. Supplementary analyses were conducted using Fisher¿s Exact Test and Student¿s T-test.ResultsPOs with low inpatient bed-days per thousand minimized length of stay and surgical admissions by actively engaging in concurrent review, discharge planning, and surgical prior authorization, and by contracting directly with hospitalists to provide UM-related services. Disease and case management were associated with lower medical admissions and readmissions, respectively, but not lower bed-days per thousand.ConclusionsCare management methods focused on managing length of stay and elective surgical admissions are associated with low bed-days per thousand in high-risk California POs delegated for inpatient UM. Reducing medical admissions alone is insufficient to achieve low bed-days per thousand. California POs with high bed-days per thousand are not applying care management best practices. PMID:25467603

Sheehy, Thomas J; Thygeson, N

2014-12-01

262

Qualitative Analysis of Cloud Computing Risks and Framework for the Rationalization and Mitigation of Cloud Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is a popular subject across the IT industry, but risks associated with this new technology and delivery model are not yet well understood. This research investigates, in a qualitative fashion, the vectors that contribute to cloud computing risks in the areas of security, business, and compliance. The focus of this research is on the identification of risk vectors

Maria Azua Himmel

2012-01-01

263

Qualitative Life History Interview Methodology with Computer Assisted Analysis: Lessons Learned from the Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of Head Start teachers sought to discover their perception of the impact of their life experience upon their professional pedagogy. The study focused on long-term Head Start teachers (16 to 28 years) who began their association with the program as parents and lived and worked in the classroom. Lessons learned about the…

Jagielo, Linda M.

264

Recounting the K-12 School Experiences of Adults Who Stutter: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study qualitatively explored the primary and secondary (K-12) school experiences of adults who stutter. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 participants, a first focus group interview with 6 participants, and a second focus group interview with 4 participants. Participants discussed the various ways in which…

Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.; Hughes, Stephanie

2012-01-01

265

The Processes Distinguishing Stable from Unstable Stepfamily Couples: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second marriages are known to be more fragile than first marriages. To better understand the factors that contribute to this fragility, this qualitative study compared stepfamilies that stayed together with those that separated by collecting interview data from one adult in each of the former (n = 31) and latter (n = 26) stepfamilies. Data were…

Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Robitaille, Caroline; Godbout, ELisabeth; Parent, Claudine; Drapeau, Sylvie; Gagne, Marie-Helene

2011-01-01

266

Qualitative company performance evaluation: Linear discriminant analysis and neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a classification model to evaluate the performance of companies on the basis of qualitative criteria, such as organizational and managerial variables. The classification model evaluates the eligibility of the company to receive state subsidies for the development of high tech products. We furthermore created a similar model using the backpropagation learning algorithm and compare its

Koen Bertels; J. M. Jacques; Luc Neuberg; L. Gatot

1999-01-01

267

Theory and Methodology Qualitative company performance evaluation: Linear discriminant analysis and neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a classification model to evaluate the performance of companies on the basis of qualitative criteria, such as organizational and managerial variables. The classification model evaluates the eligibility of the company to receive state subsidies for the development of high tech products. We furthermore created a similar model using the backpropagation learning algorithm and compare its

K. Bertels; J. M. Jacques; L. Neuberg; L. Gatot

268

Qualitative Analysis of Animation versus Reading for Pre-Class Preparation in a "Flipped" Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "flipped" classroom model, including such approaches as team-based learning (TBL), stresses pre-class preparation. For three years in a pharmacokinetics course within a pharmacy curriculum, students had the choice of using reading material or a fully animated module to prepare for class. Qualitative methods were used to analyze…

Persky, Adam M.

2015-01-01

269

A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

Snyder, Catherine

2012-01-01

270

Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

2014-01-01

271

Synergistic Analysis of Structured Essays: A Large Sample, Discovery-Oriented, Qualitative Research Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reacts to a new methodology: consensual qualitative research (CQR). Provides an outline of the historical debate on psychological research methods, explains the distinction between discovery-oriented and verification-oriented research, and labels the CQR approach as a discovery-oriented design. Questions the CQR's emphasis on consensus and…

Tinsley, Howard E. A.

1997-01-01

272

A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

2012-01-01

273

Depression and substance use in two divergent high school cultures: A quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has generally concluded that adolescent depression and substance use are strongly interrelated, but has rarely considered how this relationship may vary across diverse populations. In this study, we used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the relationships among depression and cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and harder drug use across two culturally disparate environments: a suburban and an inner-city high school.

Helena Y. Stauber; Michael J. Nakkula; Perry London

1994-01-01

274

Rx for a Party: A Qualitative Analysis of Recreational Pharmaceutical Use in a Collegiate Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Using a qualitative methodology, the author examined the sociorecreational use of pharmaceuticals in a collegiate setting. Participants: In all, 91 college students from a public, 4-year institution for higher learning in the Southwest participated in this study. Methods: The author conducted semistructured interviews between May 2004…

Quintero, Gilbert

2009-01-01

275

A Qualitative Analysis of the Experiences of Feminist Psychology Educators: The Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist pedagogy as a unique and legitimate form of teaching has been discussed widely in the literature, with an emphasis placed on teaching strategies and techniques. Limited attention has been given to the actual experience of educators when they use a feminist pedagogy. Thus, this study is a qualitative examination of the experience of 18 feminist psychology educators in the

Ada L. Sinacore; Patricia Healy; Monica Justin

2002-01-01

276

Adolescent Psychosocial Maturity and Alcohol Use: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Longitudinal Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N=1,198) in Reykjavik, Iceland were followed from ages 15 to 17 to explore their levels of psychosocial maturity in relation to alcohol consumption. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to examine interpersonal understanding, skills, and personal meaning in relation to alcohol use. Adolescents' psychosocial maturity,…

Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

2002-01-01

277

APREF Project: Results and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asia-Pacific Reference Frame (APREF) Project is a regional initiative that seeks to improve the geodetic infrastructure of the Asia-Pacific region. As a joint effort of the Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), APREF is developing a start-of-the-art regional geodetic reference frame. In the Asia-Pacific region there are a substantial number of state-of-the-art GNSS networks, which are commonly operated by national mapping agencies or private sector organisations. These networks represent an important and significant investment by the respective governments and industry in their own spatial infrastructure. In the APREF initiative these networks are combined to realize a high-standard regional reference frame. The GNSS data of the network is processed by different Analysis Centres (ACs). The contributions of the different ACs are combined into a weekly solution by the APREF Central Bureau. This weekly solution is the core product of the APREF; it contains weekly estimates of the coordinates of the participating Asia-Pacific GNSS tracking stations and their covariance information. The APREF product, which is available since the first quarter of 2010, gives a reliable time-series of a regional reference frame in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and a quality assessment of the performance of the GNSS CORS stations included in the network. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the APREF network and an analysis of the first APREF products

Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J.; Hu, G.

2010-12-01

278

Quantitative and qualitative cytochemical analysis of changes in polysaccharides-proteins in rat ovulable and atretic ovarian follicles during the estrous cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosaminoglycan (periodic acid — Schiff, PAS) and hyaluronic acid (alcian blue) content of the membrana granulosa, zona pellucida and antrum of rat ovarian follicles was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively during the estrous cycle in three types of follicles: ovulable, early atretic and late atretic. The qualitative analysis consisted of the conjunctive localization of PAS-reactive, fluorescent granules within the membrana

L. C. Zoller; P. Mulhern; D. Hulik

1981-01-01

279

Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

280

Potential Benefits and Harms of a Peer Support Social Network Service on the Internet for People With Depressive Tendencies: Qualitative Content Analysis and Social Network Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. Objective The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of “friends,” were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. Results There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was performed by determining the access frequency of the SNS and the number of friends. Qualitative content analysis indicated that user-selectable peer support could be passive, active, and/or interactive based on anonymity or ease of use, and there was the potential harm of a downward depressive spiral triggered by aggravated psychological burden. Social network analysis revealed that users communicated one-on-one with each other or in small groups (five people or less). A downward depressive spiral was related to friends who were moderately or severely depressed and friends with negative assessment of the SNS. Conclusions An SNS for people with depressive tendencies provides various opportunities to obtain support that meets users’ needs. To avoid a downward depressive spiral, we recommend that participants do not use SNSs when they feel that the SNS is not user-selectable, when they get egocentric comments, when friends have a negative assessment of the SNS, or when they have additional psychological burden. PMID:19632979

Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro

2009-01-01

281

Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.  

PubMed

The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis. PMID:22823104

Rennie, David L

2012-09-01

282

A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations  

PubMed Central

Background Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. Methods A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Results Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Conclusions Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to information can act as a solution. PMID:24981205

2014-01-01

283

A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

1987-01-01

284

Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges  

PubMed Central

Background The provision of peer support as a component of mental health care, including the employment of Peer Workers (consumer-providers) by mental health service organisations, is increasingly common internationally. Peer support is strongly advocated as a strategy in a number of UK health and social care policies. Approaches to employing Peer Workers are proliferating. There is evidence to suggest that Peer Worker-based interventions reduce psychiatric inpatient admission and increase service user (consumer) empowerment. In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams. Methods We report the secondary analysis of qualitative interview data from service users, Peer Workers, non-peer staff and managers of three innovative interventions in a study about mental health self-care. Relevant data was extracted from interviews with 41 participants and subjected to analysis using Grounded Theory techniques. Organisational research literature on role adoption framed the analysis. Results Peer Workers were highly valued by mental health teams and service users. Non-peer team members and managers worked hard to introduce Peer Workers into teams. Our cases were projects in development and there was learning from the evolutionary process: in the absence of formal recruitment processes for Peer Workers, differences in expectations of the Peer Worker role can emerge at the selection stage; flexible working arrangements for Peer Workers can have the unintended effect of perpetuating hierarchies within teams; the maintenance of protective practice boundaries through supervision and training can militate against the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice; lack of consensus around what constitutes peer practice can result in feelings for Peer Workers of inequality, disempowerment, uncertainty about identity and of being under-supported. Conclusions This research is indicative of potential benefits for mental health service teams of introducing Peer Worker roles. Analysis also suggests that if the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice is not adequately considered and supported, as integral to the development of new Peer Worker roles, there is a risk that the potential impact of any emerging role will be constrained and diluted. PMID:23705767

2013-01-01

285

What do physicians gain (and lose) with experience? Qualitative results from a cross-national study of diabetes  

PubMed Central

An empirical puzzle has emerged over the last several decades of research on variation in clinical decision making involving mixed effects of physician experience. There is some evidence that physicians with greater experience may provide poorer quality care than their less experienced counterparts, as captured by various quality assurance measures. Physician experience is traditionally narrowly defined as years in practice or age, and there is a need for investigation into precisely what happens to physicians as they gain experience, including the reasoning and clinical skills acquired over time and the ways in which physicians consciously implement those skills into their work. In this study, we are concerned with 1) how physicians conceptualize and describe the meaning of their clinical experience, and 2) how they use their experience in clinical practice. To address these questions, we analyzed qualitative data drawn from in-depth interviews with physicians from the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany as a part of a larger factorial experiment of medical decision making for diabetes. Our results show that common measures of physician experience do not fully capture the skills physicians acquire over time or how they implement those skills in their clinical work. We found that what physicians actually gain over time is complex social, behavioral and intuitive wisdom as well as the ability to compare the present day patient against similar past patients. These active cognitive reasoning processes are essential components of a forward-looking research agenda in the area of physician experience and decision making. Guideline-based outcome measures, accompanied by underdeveloped age- and years-based definitions of experience, may prematurely conclude that more experienced physicians are providing deficient care while overlooking the ways in which they are providing more and better care than their less experienced counterparts. PMID:20356662

Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; Campbell, Stephen M; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; McKinlay, John B

2010-01-01

286

Remotely sensed fracture patterns in Southwestern Saudi Arabia and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely sensed fracture patterns from southwestern Saudi Arabia are quantified so as to provide some basic data for engineering\\u000a and water resources structures in the area. For this purpose, fracture lengths, orientations, frequencies, regional fracture\\u000a intesities and connected fracture patterns for groundwater movement from two perpendicular directions are either mapped or\\u000a qualitatively explained. The area has significant permeability anisotropy. Various

M. Y. H. T. Qari; Z. Sen

1994-01-01

287

Stepping Out from Behind the Lens: A Qualitative Analysis of Erotic Photographers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pornography and erotica have a long history in society. According to anecdotal evidence, erotic photography has been gaining\\u000a popularity in recent years (Latimer, Mommy’s been very, very naughty, 2007). In order to gain a fuller understanding of erotic photography and the type of clients that participate in erotic photo\\u000a shoots, qualitative interviews were conducted with eleven photographers who specialize in

Jocelyn J. Wentland; Amy Muise

2010-01-01

288

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of non- Saccharomyces yeasts in spontaneous alcoholic fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we looked at the yeast population present in four spontaneous alcoholic fermentations in the Rioja appellation\\u000a (D.O.Ca. Rioja, Spain). The study was conducted through the identification of the yeasts via the PCR–RFLP technique of the\\u000a ITS region of rDNA. In a first harvest, the qualitative diversity of the species present in spontaneous alcoholic fermentation\\u000a was studied, and

E. Ocón; A. R. Gutiérrez; P. Garijo; C. Tenorio; I. López; R. López; P. Santamaría

2010-01-01

289

Understanding social class differences in health: A qualitative analysis of smokers' health beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-economic differentials in health are widely documented, but little research has examined the experience and understanding of health using a qualitative approach and contrasting social location. This study examined perceptions of health and smoking in fifteen higher SES and fifteen lower SES smokers. The study focused on smoking because it is widely recognised as a health-damaging behaviour. A semi-structured open-ended

Kerry Chamberlain; Damian Oneill

1998-01-01

290

Irreproducible positive results on the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test are different qualitatively from confirmed positive results.  

PubMed

Criteria that define low positive results on the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test as inconclusive have been adopted by all academic centres in South Africa that conduct infant HIV PCR, following previous investigations that showed poor specificity of these results. Retesting all inconclusive specimens has considerable cost implications. Therefore, it was attempted to characterise such inconclusive results, by comparing those that prove to be either negative or positive on follow-up testing. This retrospective, laboratory-based study found that 193 of 211 (91.5%) patients with previous inconclusive results (defined as reported positive by CAP/CTM but with cycle threshold [Ct ] values of?>32 and/or fluorescence intensity [FI] values of <5) tested negative and only 18 (8.5%) tested positive using independently obtained follow-up samples after a median of 28 days. The only significant independent predictor of a later positive result was a higher FI value (3.326 vs. 0.495, P?qualitatively from specimens that proved to be true positives. As the lower FI values in false-positive compared to true-positive results probably are indicative of a non-specific signal, the incorporation of stringent amplification slope criteria in the assay's test definition file may improve correct classification and thus reduce the need for repeat testing of a large number of inconclusive specimens. PMID:24136657

Maritz, Jean; van Zyl, Gert U; Preiser, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

291

Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity…

Baudoin, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

292

Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations. PMID:21943401

2011-01-01

293

Barriers to discharge in an acute care medical teaching unit: a qualitative analysis of health providers’ perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background The complex process of discharging patients from acute care to community care requires a multifaceted interaction between all health care providers and patients. Poor communication in a patient’s discharge can result in post hospital adverse events, readmission, and mortality. Because of the gravity of these problems, discharge planning has been emphasized as a potential solution. The purpose of this paper is to identify communication barriers to effective discharge planning in an acute care unit of a tertiary care center and to suggest solutions to these barriers. Methods Health care providers provided comments to a single open-ended question: “What are the communication barriers between the different health care providers that limit an effective discharge of patients from Unit 36?” We conducted qualitative thematic analysis by identifying themes related to communication barriers affecting a successful discharge process. Results Three broad themes related to barriers to the discharge process were identified: communication, lack of role clarity and lack of resources. We also identified two themes for opportunities for improvement, ie, structure and function of the medical team and need for leadership. Conclusion While it was evident that poor communication was an overarching barrier identified by health care providers, other themes emerged. In an effort to increase inter-team communication, “bullet rounds”, a condensed form of discharge rounds, were introduced to the medical teaching unit and occurred on a daily basis between the multidisciplinary team. To help facilitate provider-patient communication, electronic transfer of care summaries were suggested as a potential solution. To help role clarity, a discharge coordinator and/or liaison was suggested. Communication can be enhanced through use of electronic discharge summaries, bullet rounds, and implementation of a discharge coordinator(s). The findings from this study can be used to aid future researchers in devising appropriate discharging strategies that are focused around the patient and inter-health care provider communication. PMID:25709468

Okoniewska, Barbara; Santana, Maria Jose; Groshaus, Horacio; Stajkovic, Svetlana; Cowles, Jennifer; Chakrovorty, David; Ghali, William A

2015-01-01

294

Perceptions of heatwave risks to health: results of an qualitative interview study with older people and their carers in Freiburg, Germany  

PubMed Central

Aims and objectives: Heatwaves can pose a severe threat to health, especially to older people. However, warnings do not necessarily lead to preventive action. This study aims at exploring individual risk perception and adaptive measures of older people and their carers. Their views are explored, taking into account personal backgrounds. Methods: Questionnaire-based interviews were administered to 20 men and women (64–94 years, living in their own homes or nursing homes) and 13 carers. A qualitative analysis following a framework approach was performed. Results: The majority of respondents stated that older people might be compromised by heatwaves; however, a large proportion of respondents saw themselves as less affected than the average population. Most respondents adopted preventive measures during heatwaves and a majority received warnings or pieces of information. The role of general practitioners in direct warning situations was judged controversial. Survey respondents displayed resistance to the use of technical devices to monitor potentially dangerous situations. In addition, the results support many previous findings. In particular, the relative concepts of ageing, variety of information channels used, and control orientations could be confirmed. Conclusions: General practitioners hold a position of trust and play a central role in the promotion of preventive action, but there are also limitations to their outreach. Many respondents could be classified as socially active, which has implications for preventive information campaigns. Information campaigns using different channels and targeting a larger audience should be considered. The degree of information of carers can partly be improved. PMID:23082104

Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Stößel, Ulrich

2012-01-01

295

Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor digestive complaints. Conclusion This represents the first documented qualitative investigation of participants’ experience of chronic administration of a multivitamin. Results uncovered a range of subjective beneficial effects that are consistent with quantitative data from previously published randomised controlled trials examining the effects of multivitamins and B vitamin complexes on mood and well-being. Trial registration Prior to commencement this trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.anzctr.org.au) ACTRN12611000092998 PMID:23241329

2012-01-01

296

A Qualitative Content Analysis of Knowledge Storage in Nursing Education System  

PubMed Central

Background: The need for effective management of intellectual and academic assets is constantly growing. The nursing educational system should be considered as a storage of knowledge since it is deposited in the nursing educational system in the form of intellectual investment. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to explore nursing knowledge storage in the nursing educational system. Materials and Methods: The participants of this study consisted of eight nursing educators and five students. The inductive content analysis method was used in this research. Participants were interviewed through the semi-structured method. Data analysis was done by five stage framework approaches. The trustworthiness of the study was ensured through validity and acceptability criteria. Results: Data analysis showed that nursing educators and students were involve in teaching and learning activities by storing knowledge in subjective and objective forms. Knowledge was gained through the different educational activities of the nursing educators and through contact with their peers. Moreover, the nursing students gained knowledge for better learning and a more knowledgeable and advanced performance with the help of the educators. Conclusions: This study revealed the main components of knowledge storage. An enhanced preservation of explicit knowledge is recommended in the nursing educational system so that in the future, students and educators can easily access the same knowledge from storage sources and not from individuals who might be carrying only a single experience of the subject. PMID:25558388

Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh

2014-01-01

297

Barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units in Japan: a qualitative survey with content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We investigated the barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units (PCUs) through a qualitative study across various\\u000a sources of information, including terminal cancer patients, their families, physicians, and nurses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  There were 63 participants, including 13 advanced cancer patients, 10 family members, 20 physicians, and 20 nurses in palliative\\u000a care and acute care cancer settings from five regional

Mitsunori Miyashita; Kei Hirai; Tatsuya Morita; Makiko Sanjo; Yosuke Uchitomi

2008-01-01

298

The challenges of including sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a qualitative survey  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic review methodology includes the rigorous collection, selection, and evaluation of data in order to synthesize the best available evidence for health practice, health technology assessments, and health policy. Despite evidence that sex and gender matter to health outcomes, data and analysis related to sex and gender are frequently absent in systematic reviews, raising concerns about the quality and applicability of reviews. Few studies have focused on challenges to implementing sex/gender analysis within systematic reviews. Methods A multidisciplinary group of systematic reviewers, methodologists, biomedical and social science researchers, health practitioners, and other health sector professionals completed an open-ended survey prior to a two-day workshop focused on sex/gender, equity, and bias in systematic reviews. Respondents were asked to identify challenging or ‘thorny’ issues associated with integrating sex and gender in systematic reviews and indicate how they address these in their work. Data were analysed using interpretive description. A summary of the findings was presented and discussed with workshop participants. Results Respondents identified conceptual challenges, such as defining sex and gender, methodological challenges in measuring and analysing sex and gender, challenges related to availability of data and data quality, and practical and policy challenges. No respondents discussed how they addressed these challenges, but all proposed ways to address sex/gender analysis in the future. Conclusions Respondents identified a wide range of interrelated challenges to implementing sex/gender considerations within systematic reviews. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to identify these challenges from the perspectives of those conducting and using systematic reviews. A framework and methods to integrate sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews are in the early stages of development. A number of priority items and collaborative initiatives to guide systematic reviewers in sex/gender analysis are provided, based on the survey results and subsequent workshop discussions. An emerging ‘community of practice’ is committed to enhancing the quality and applicability of systematic reviews by integrating considerations of sex/gender into the review process, with the goals of improving health outcomes and ensuring health equity for all persons. PMID:24720875

2014-01-01

299

A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.  

PubMed

Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment. PMID:15851510

Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

2005-06-01

300

QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Students construct qualitative models of an ecosystem and use the models to evaluate the direct and indirect effects that may result from perturbations to the ecosystem. Qualitative modeling is described for use in two procedures, each with different educational goals and student backgrounds in min...

301

Multiple fluorophore-analysis (MFA) for qualitative tissue diagnosis in the oral cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early diagnosis of head and neck tumors is usually achieved via surgical tissue biopsy. By measuring the specific autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores with tumor-specific distributions, it might be possible to non-invasively judge tissue dignities ("optical biopsy"). A total of 22 patients with suspicious lesions of the oral cavity and 7 healthy volunteers were included into the study. Using a mercury vapour lamp as a light source, excitation and detection of endogenous fluorophores (tryptophan, NADH, FAD) was achieved using corresponding filter sets in an automated system. By including simultaneously recorded remission spectra into the analysis, it was possible to calculate "intrinsic" fluorescence spectra. Subsequently, the histopathological results of the lesions were compared to the spectroscopic findings. In a quantitative analysis, the intrinsic fluorescence spectra from (pre)malignant mucosal lesions regularly differed in fluorescence intensities when compared to healthy tissue. Whereas NADH and FAD yielded tumor specific intensity profiles with statistically significant differences in Student's t-test (p<=0.05), no definite spectral differences were found for tryptophan (p=0.22). The mucosa of the healthy volunteers showed a similar spectral pattern as the non-cancerous control areas in tumor patients. With regards to the results in this pilot study, MFA might serve as a helpful tool in early diagnosis of malignant lesions of head and neck.

Pauli, Romana; Betz, Christian; Havel, Miriam; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Leunig, Andreas; Assmann, Walter

2007-07-01

302

Social influences on mental health help-seeking after interpersonal traumatization: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite frequent and serious mental health problems after interpersonal traumatization, only a fraction of those affected by interpersonal violence seek formal help after the event. Reasons for this mismatch can be found in the individual help-seeking process but also in the individual's social environment. These social factors are explored based on a model describing the survivor's help-seeking process. Method Survivors of interpersonal traumatization and professionals providing help for this population were asked about factors influencing the ease of seeking and receiving professional help after interpersonal traumatization. A deductive and inductive content analysis of the experiences of 43 survivors of interpersonal traumatization and 16 professionals providing help for this population was carried out. Results The analysis suggested a clear distinction of an individual and a social system level of influencing variables. At the system level three main factors were identified: factors of the help-system, dominant attitudes in society and public knowledge about traumatization and available help. Conclusions The results confirmed a complex interaction of variables on the individual and system level in the help-seeking process. The system level affects the individual's help-seeking through multiple pathways, especially through the individual's representation of the traumatization, through the reactions of the individual's social network and through barriers the individual perceives or experiences in the formal help-system. PMID:20964871

2010-01-01

303

Mortality as an indicator of patient safety in orthopaedics: lessons from qualitative analysis of a database of medical errors  

PubMed Central

Background Orthopaedic surgery is a high-risk specialty in which errors will undoubtedly occur. Patient safety incidents can yield valuable information to generate solutions and prevent future cases of avoidable harm. The aim of this study was to understand the causative factors leading to all unnecessary deaths in orthopaedics and trauma surgery reported to the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) over a four-year period (2005–2009), using a qualitative approach. Methods Reports made to the NPSA are categorised and stored in the database as free-text data. A search was undertaken to identify the cases of all-cause mortality in orthopaedic and trauma surgery, and the free-text elements were used for thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated based on the incidents reported. This included presenting the number of times categories of incidents had the same or similar response. Superordinate and subordinate categories were created. Results A total of 257 incident reports were analysed. Four main thematic categories emerged. These were: (1) stages of the surgical journey – 118/191 (62%) of deaths occurred in the post-operative phase; (2) causes of patient deaths – 32% were related to severe infections; (3) reported quality of medical interventions – 65% of patients experienced minimal or delayed treatment; (4) skills of healthcare professionals – 44% of deaths had a failure in non-technical skills. Conclusions Most complications in orthopaedic surgery can be dealt with adequately, provided they are anticipated and that risk-reduction strategies are instituted. Surgeons take pride in the precision of operative techniques; perhaps it is time to enshrine the multimodal tools available to ensure safer patient care. PMID:22682470

2012-01-01

304

Moving the Barricades to Physical Activity: A Qualitative Analysis of Open Streets Initiatives Across the United States.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Ciclovía, or Open Streets initiatives, are events where streets are opened for physical activity and closed to motorized traffic. Although the initiatives are gaining popularity in the United States, little is known about planning and implementing them. The goals of this paper are to explore the development and implementation of Open Streets initiatives and make recommendations for increasing the capacity of organizers to enhance initiative success. Approach . Phenomenology with qualitative analysis of structured interviews was used. Setting . Study setting was urban and suburban communities in the United States. Participants . Study participants were organizers of Open Streets initiatives in U.S. cities. Method . Using a list of 47 events held in 2011, 27 lead organizers were interviewed by telephone about planning, implementation, and lessons learned. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. A phenomenologic approach was used, an initial coding tool was developed after reviewing a sample of transcripts, and constant comparative coding methodology was applied. Themes and subthemes were generated from codes. Results . The most common reasons for initiation were to highlight or improve health and transportation. Most initiatives aimed to reach the general population, but some targeted families, children, or specific neighborhoods. Getting people to understand the concept of Open Streets was an important challenge. Other challenges included lack of funding and personnel, and complex logistics. Conclusion . These initiatives democratize public space for citizens while promoting physical activity, social connectedness, and other broad agendas. There are opportunities for the research community to contribute to the expanse and sustainability of Open Streets, particularly in evaluation and dissemination. PMID:25162326

Eyler, Amy A; Hipp, J Aaron; Lokuta, Julie

2014-08-27

305

A Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing HPV Vaccine Uptake in Soweto, South Africa among Adolescents and Their Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa, the prevalence of oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) may be as high as 64%, and cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The development of efficacious prophylactic vaccines has provided an opportunity for primary prevention. Given the importance of psycho-social forces in vaccine uptake, we sought to elucidate factors influencing HPV vaccination among a sample of low-income South African adolescents receiving the vaccine for the first time in Soweto. Methods The HPV vaccine was introduced to adolescents in low-income townships throughout South Africa as part of a nationwide trial to understand adolescent involvement in future vaccine research targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews with purposively-sampled adolescents and their care providers to understand what forces shaped HPV vaccine uptake. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and examined using thematic analysis. Results Of 224 adolescents recruited, 201 initiated the vaccine; 192 (95.5%) received a second immunization; and 164 (81.6%) completed three doses. In our qualitative study of 39 adolescent-caregiver dyads, we found that factors driving vaccine uptake reflected a socio-cultural backdrop of high HIV endemnicity, sexual violence, poverty, and an abundance of female-headed households. Adolescents exercised a high level of autonomy and often initiated decision-making. Healthcare providers and peers provided support and guidance that was absent at home. The impact of the HIV epidemic on decision-making was substantial, leading participants to mistakenly conflate HPV and HIV. Conclusions In a setting of perceived rampant sexual violence and epidemic levels of HIV, adolescents and caregivers sought to decrease harm by seeking a vaccine targeting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Despite careful consenting, there was confusion regarding the vaccine’s target. Future interventions promoting STI vaccines will need to provide substantial information for participants, particularly adolescents who may exercise a significant level of autonomy in decision-making. PMID:24023613

Katz, Ingrid T.; Nkala, Busisiwe; Dietrich, Janan; Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pollenz, Kathryn; Bogart, Laura M.; Wright, Alexi A.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Gray, Glenda E.

2013-01-01

306

004 op: enacting ppi in qualitative mental health research: peer researcher involvement in data analysis in the 'core' study.  

PubMed

Patient and public involvement (PPI) is now an expected component of UK publicly-funded health research. Compatibilities with PPI aims and values mean that qualitative research is often a vehicle for enacting PPI. This presentation focuses on the involvement of "peer researchers" (service users and carers) in qualitative data analysis, and offers critical reflections of the practicalities of this process in the context of mental health research and an academic-led project. "CORE" (Crisis resolution team Optimisation and RElapse prevention) is a large NIHR-funded research project that aims to optimise the functioning of crisis resolution teams (CRTs). CRTs provide intensive home-based treatment for people experiencing an acute mental health crisis, as an alternative to hospital admission. They exist in all NHS Mental Health Trusts in England, but their performance and effectiveness is variable. The CORE project adopts a collaborative model of service user and carer involvement within an academic-led project. A large service user and carer working group contributes to a range of project activities including a qualitative study of stakeholders' views on current and best CRT practice, in which peer researchers have conducted interviews and been involved in data analysis. Faced with a large data set of more than 100 pieces of data, and little existing guidance on peer researcher involvement in qualitative data analysis, we attempted to develop an approach that enabled genuine involvement and maximised the methodological benefits of collaboration. Additional aims were to build research skills and capacity, and to obtain feedback from participants about their experiences of this. Peer researcher involvement began in the early stages of thematic analysis, in order to maximise contributions to the development of thematic codes at the point when these were most fluid and open. This was part of a staged process that meshed the work and perspectives of peer researchers with those of the academic researcher team. The presentation will describe this process and the rationale behind it, and discuss critical issues such as whether academic-led collaborations perpetuate or have the capacity to challenge existing power inequalities that are greater in mental health than other healthcare contexts. PMID:25869713

Morant, N; Lloyd-Evans, B

2015-01-01

307

D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.  

PubMed

Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 ?M, 29.40 ?M, and 26 ?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

2015-05-15

308

Qualitative and quantitative determination of micro-inclusions by automated SEM/EDX analysis.  

PubMed

With the help of an automated SEM/EDX analysis system non-metallic micro-inclusions in steel can be detected on a metallographically prepared surface area. The system makes it possible to determine position, size, shape and composition of each particle. Usually more than 1000 inclusions are found on one scan area. Therefore a new offline evaluation method has been developed to classify the large amount of inclusions and calculate specific size and shape data. A summary sheet is created to show the area contents and the mean values of all important properties for each class. Size and XY distributions as well as binary and ternary phase diagrams are drawn to depict the results. The strengths of this analytical technique are demonstrated by evaluation of an LC (low-carbon) steel. Alumina, common spinel, sulfide and oxisulfide inclusions could be identified as dominant inclusion types in LC steel. PMID:14985907

Nuspl, Markus; Wegscheider, Wolfhard; Angeli, Johann; Posch, Wilhelm; Mayr, Michael

2004-06-01

309

Early childhood educators’ perceptions of preschoolers' mental health problems: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood education services create potentially optimal opportunities to identify and respond effectively to preschoolers' mental health problems. However, little is known about the knowledge, skills and competencies of early childhood educators in the area of mental health. The present study aimed to contribute to this field through conducting focus group interviews with professionals from public early childhood education centres in Greece. Methods Thirty-four educators attended five focus group meetings, with each group consisting of five to nine participants and two discussion facilitators. A thematic analysis was conducted using line-by-line open coding. Constructed codes from the wording used by the participants in the interviews were created, and constant comparisons for developing themes as well as seeking data not conforming to each theme were used independently by two researchers. At the end of this process, no new information was being provided and there was repetition in each of the categories. Results The analysis identified three themes in the data: risk factors for preschoolers' mental health problems, signs of preschoolers' mental health problems and practices of helping preschoolers with mental health problems. Results suggested that early childhood educators had satisfactory awareness of many preschoolers' mental health issues, although they showed a rather limited understanding in some domains. Moreover, they seemed to deliver inadequate practices in responding effectively to children's and families' mental health problems. Conclusions Best practice training in working with preschoolers, families and mental health services seems essential for helping young children receive the best level of support through early identification and intervention services for possible mental health problems. PMID:24386965

2014-01-01

310

A qualitative analysis of email interactions of children who use augmentative and alternative communication.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to introduce email as a form of interaction for a group of six children who used augmentative and alternative communication. In a 12-week exploratory study, aspects of the email messages sent were analyzed. The content of the messages was analyzed by an inductive qualitative method, and seven descriptive categories emerged. The most frequently occurring categories were Social Etiquette, Personal/Family Statistics and Personal Common Ground. The children utilized different email strategies that included use of most of the above-mentioned categories. Through the email writing practice, the children developed new social skills and increased their social participation. Email practice may be a good strategy to increase children's social networks. PMID:21091302

Sundqvist, Anett; Rönnberg, Jerker

2010-12-01

311

[Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the bacterial flora in the trachea of healthy chickens].  

PubMed

The bacterial flora of the trachea of 17 to 38 day old chickens was quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two groups of animals from two different sources: an experimental disease-free flock and a commercial flock. In both groups of chickens, the aerobic flora consisted predominantly of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Streptococcaceae, Micrococcaceae and members of the genus Lactobacillus. Some differences between the two groups of animals were observed at the species level. Strictly anaerobic bacteria did not appear until the third week. No bacterial group seemed to predominate during the sampling period. The constant presence of Lactobacilli and E. coli in the trachea suggests that these organisms could play a prominent role in the bacterial ecosystem of the trachea. PMID:6660815

Dho, M; Mouline, C

1983-01-01

312

A qualitative analysis of how elders seek and disseminate health information.  

PubMed

This study documents older adults' sources of health information, describes the purposes for health information seeking, and delineates gender and ethnic variation in health information seeking. Sixty-two African American and White adults aged 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing their use of complementary therapies. Interviews identified how individuals obtained and shared health information. Friends, not family, were the dominant source of health information. Participants ranged from active seekers to passive consumers of health information. Information seeking was common for benign symptoms. More women than men discuss health information with others. Friends are the primary source of health information for rural older adults. There is substantial passivity in the pursuit of health information. Identifying health information sources of rural older adults can support the dissemination of information to those who share it with others. PMID:24188253

Paige Altizer, Kathryn; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny; Arcury, Thomas A

2014-01-01

313

Researcher Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest: A Qualitative Analysis of Views from Academia.  

PubMed

The increasing interconnectedness of academic research and external industry has left research vulnerable to conflicts of interest. These conflicts have the potential to undermine the integrity of scientific research as well as to threaten public trust in scientific findings. The present effort sought to identify themes in the perspectives of faculty researchers regarding conflicts of interest. Think-aloud interview responses were qualitatively analyzed in an effort to provide insights with regard to appropriate ways to address the threat of conflicts of interest in research. Themes in participant responses included disclosure of conflicts of interest, self-removal from situations where conflict exists, accommodation of conflict, denial of the existence of conflict, and recognition of complexity of situations involving conflicts of interest. Moral disengagement operations are suggested to explain the appearance of each identified theme. In addition, suggestions for best practices regarding addressing conflicts of interest given these themes in faculty perspectives are provided. PMID:25115563

Mecca, Jensen T; Gibson, Carter; Giorgini, Vincent; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

2014-08-13

314

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Andrographis paniculata by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R² > 0.9995) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02 ?g/mL to 0.06 ?g/mL and 0.06 ?g/mL to 0.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption. PMID:24084022

Song, Yong-Xi; Liu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Zhao; Qin, Jian-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan

2013-01-01

315

Introduction Query patterns for formal verification Analysis of the carbon starvation response in E.coli Conclusions and perspectives Temporal Logic Patterns for Querying Qualitative Models of  

E-print Network

Introduction Query patterns for formal verification Analysis of the carbon starvation response in E.coli in E.coli Conclusions and perspectives Outline 1 Introduction Motivation: qualitative simulation 3 Analysis of the carbon starvation response in E.coli Carbon starvation response model Analysis

Joseph Fourier Grenoble-I, Université

316

The silicon-glass microreactor with embedded sensors—technology and results of preliminary qualitative tests, toward intelligent microreaction plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology and preliminary qualitative tests of silicon-glass microreactors with embedded pressure and temperature sensors are presented. The concept of microreactors for leading highly exothermic reactions, e.g. nitration of hydrocarbons, and design process-included computer-aided simulations are described in detail. The silicon-glass microreactor chip consisting of two micromixers (multistream micromixer), reaction channels, cooling/heating chambers has been proposed. The microreactor chip was equipped with a set of pressure and temperature sensors and packaged. Tests of mixing quality, pressure drops in channels, heat exchange efficiency and dynamic behavior of pressure and temperature sensors were documented. Finally, two applications were described.

Knapkiewicz, P.

2013-03-01

317

Exploring the experiences of client involvement in medication decisions using a shared decision making model: results of a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored a newly introduced model of shared decision making (CommonGround) and how psychiatric medications were experienced by clients, prescribers, case managers and peer support staff. Of the twelve client subjects, six were highly engaged in shared decision-making and six were not. Five notable differences were found between the two groups including the presence of a goal, use of personal medicine, and the behavior of case managers and prescribers. Implications for a shared decision making model in psychiatry are discussed. PMID:25033796

Goscha, Richard; Rapp, Charles

2015-04-01

318

Qualitative risk analysis of introducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to the UK through the importation of live amphibians.  

PubMed

The international amphibian trade is implicated in the emergence and spread of the amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis, which has resulted in amphibian declines and extinctions globally. The establishment of the causal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), in the UK could negatively affect the survival of native amphibian populations. In recognition of the ongoing threat that it poses to amphibians, Bd was recently included in the World Organisation for Animal Health Aquatic Animal Health Code, and therefore is in the list of international notifiable diseases. Using standardised risk analysis guidelines, we investigated the likelihood that Bd would be introduced to and become established in wild amphibians in the UK through the importation of live amphibians. We obtained data on the volume and origin of the amphibian trade entering the UK and detected Bd infection in amphibians being imported for the pet and private collection trade and also in amphibians already held in captive pet, laboratory and zoological collections. We found that current systems for recording amphibian trade into the UK underestimate the volume of non-European Union trade by almost 10-fold. We identified high likelihoods of entry, establishment and spread of Bd in the UK and the resulting major overall impact. Despite uncertainties, we determined that the overall risk estimation for the introduction of Bd to the UK through the importation of live amphibians is high and that risk management measures are required, whilst ensuring that negative effects on legal trade are minimised. PMID:22436458

Peel, Alison J; Hartley, Matt; Cunningham, Andrew A

2012-03-20

319

Qualitative research in marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Purpose,– To discuss and,analyse,three themes,in qualitative research in marketing,which,are objects of both frustration and confusion: analysis and interpretation; theory generation; and a quest for scientific pluralism and individual researcher lifestyles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Underpinning the discussion is that complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, chaos, change, uncertainty and unpredictability are characteristics of a market economy; that qualitative and subjective interpretation is necessary,to add

E. Gummesson

2005-01-01

320

Harms to ‘others’ from alcohol consumption in the minimum unit pricing policy debate: a qualitative content analysis of UK newspapers (2005–12)  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Minimum unit pricing is a fiscal intervention intended to tackle the social and health harms from alcohol to individual drinkers and wider society. This paper presents the first large-scale qualitative examination of how newsprint media framed the debate around the harms of alcohol consumption to ‘others’ during the development and passing of minimum unit pricing legislation in Scotland. Methods Qualitative content analysis was conducted on seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases Nexis UK and Newsbank. A total of 403 articles focused on the harms of alcohol consumption to ‘others’ and were eligible for detailed coding and analysis. Results Alcohol harms to wider society and communities were identified as being a worsening issue increasingly affecting everyone through shared economic costs, social disorder, crime and violence. The availability of cheap alcohol was blamed, alongside a minority of ‘problem’ youth binge drinkers. The harm caused to families was less widely reported. Conclusions If news reporting encourages the public to perceive the harms caused by alcohol to wider society as having reached crisis point, a population-based intervention may be deemed necessary and acceptable. However, the current focus in news reports on youth binge drinkers may be masking the wider issue of overconsumption across the broader population. PMID:24279299

Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona

2014-01-01

321

Qualitative analysis of sequence specific binding of flavones to DNA using restriction endonuclease activity assays.  

PubMed

Flavones, found in nature as secondary plant metabolites, have shown efficacy as anti-cancer agents. We have examined the binding of two flavones, 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone; FlavA) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone; FlavB), to phiX174 RF DNA using restriction enzyme activity assays employing the restriction enzymes Alw44, AvaII, BssHII, DraI, MluI, NarI, NciI, NruI, PstI, and XhoI. These enzymes possess differing target and flanking sequences allowing for observation of sequence specificity analysis. Using restriction enzymes that cleave once with a mixture of supercoiled and relaxed DNA substrates provides for observation of topological effects on binding. FlavA and FlavB show differing sequence specificities in their respective binding to phiX. For example, with relaxed DNA, FlavA shows inhibition of cleavage with DraI (reaction site (5') TTTAAA) but not BssHII ((5') GCGCGC) while FlavB shows the opposite results. Evidence for tolological specificity is also observed, Molecular modeling and conformational analysis of the flavones suggests that the phenyl ring of FlavB is coplanar with the flavonoid ring while the phenyl ring of FlavA is at an angle relative to the flavonoid ring. This may account for aspects of the observed sequence and topological specificities in the effects on restriction enzyme activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 99: 530-537, 2013. PMID:23712489

Duran, Elizabeth; Ramsauer, Victoria P; Ballester, Maria; Torrenegra, Ruben D; Rodriguez, Oscar E; Winkle, Stephen A

2013-08-01

322

Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces  

PubMed Central

Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated into standards for local public health. As reflected in their policies, both provinces have embraced the importance of reducing health inequities. Both concepualized this process as rooted in structural injustices and the social determinants of health. Differences in the conceptualization of health equity likely reflect contextual influences on the public health renewal processes in each jurisdiction. PMID:22632097

2012-01-01

323

The Effect of Online Systems Analysis Training on Aerospace Industry Business Performance: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aerospace companies needed additional research on technology-based training to verify expectations when enhancing human capital through online systems analysis training. The research for online systems analysis training provided aerospace companies a means to verify expectations for systems analysis technology-based training on business…

Burk, Erlan

2012-01-01

324

Feeling labeled, judged, lectured, and rejected by family and friends over depression: Cautionary results for primary care clinicians from a multi-centered, qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Family and friends may help patients seek out and engage in depression care. However, patients’ social networks can also undermine depression treatment and recovery. In an effort to improve depression care in primary care settings, we sought to identify, categorize, and alert primary care clinicians to depression-related messages that patients hear from friends and family that patients perceive as unhelpful or detrimental. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups in 3 cities. Participants (n?=?116) with a personal history or knowledge of depression responded to open-ended questions about depression, including self-perceived barriers to care-seeking. Focus group conversations were audio-recorded and analyzed using iterative qualitative analysis. Results Four themes emerged related to negatively-received depression messages delivered by family and friends. Specifically, participants perceived these messages as making them feel labeled, judged, lectured to, and rejected by family and friends when discussing depression. Some participants also expressed their interpretation of their families’ motivations for delivering the messages and described how hearing these messages affected depression care. Conclusions The richness of our results reflects the complexity of communication within depression sufferers’ social networks around this stigmatized issue. To leverage patients’ social support networks effectively in depression care, primary care clinicians should be aware of both the potentially beneficial and detrimental aspects of social support. Specifically, clinicians should consider using open-ended queries into patients’ experiences with discussing depression with family and friends as an initial step in the process. An open-ended approach may avoid future emotional trauma or stigmatization and assist patients in overcoming self-imposed barriers to depression discussion, symptom disclosure, treatment adherence and follow-up care. PMID:22747989

2012-01-01

325

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phosphorylated compounds in milk by means of 31P-NMR.  

PubMed

31P-NMR has been tested as a technique for determining the phosphorus content of milk samples in both the inorganic form (Pi) and bonded to caseins as phosphoserine (SerP). 31P-NMR made possible the simultaneous determination of Pi and SerP in approximately 1.7 h. The determination is based on measuring the area under the resonance in question and interpolating in a calibration curve prepared using external standards of known phosphorus contents and prepared in the same manner. The concentration area plots obtained were linear in the ranges 162-1993 mg P/l for Pi and 38-40.2 mg P/l for casein SerP. The repeatability of the method was good. When the same milk samples were analysed by both 31P-NMR and the classic colorimetric method the correlation was good. Polyphosphates added to commercial milk were also detected, as diphosphates. The NMR response for diphosphate was linear between 58 and 576 mg P/l and preliminary results indicated that quantitative analysis could be achieved in commercial milk. PMID:11131066

Belloque, J; De La Fuente, M A; Ramos, A M

2000-11-01

326

Implementing successful interprofessional communication opportunities in health care education: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the experience of an interprofessional communication educational intervention among nursing and medical students. Methods Forty-five medical students and 50 nursing students participated in two-hour-long interprofessional communication skills education sessions with interprofessional groups of 6-8 students each. The sessions were based on the Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPSTM) curriculum. Problematic communication scenarios were presented and then reenacted by the students with role plays that depicted improvements in interprofessional communication. Afterward, narratives describing their experience were collected from a focus group interview. Using the conventional content analysis approach, key phrases and statements were coded into themes. Results The study found that students felt increased competence and confidence when responding to conflict after practicing communication in a safe environment. Based on the opportunity to come to know their colleagues, students recognized that patient safety was a shared goal. Six themes were extracted from the narratives describing their experiences: support for process, patient safety, coming to know colleague, support for tools, respectful collaboration, and barriers to communication. Conclusions TeamSTEPPSTM provided a framework for effective and respectful collaboration. A significant barrier identified by students was that these communication techniques were not consistently demonstrated during their clinical experiences. An emphasis on interprofessional communication skills and teamwork should begin in the academic setting and be reinforced in both the formal and hidden curricula.

Eggenberger, Terry L.; Belkowitz, Julia; Sarsekeyeva, Mira; Zito, Amalinnette R.

2013-01-01

327

Internet-based psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: a qualitative analysis of feasibility, acceptability and impact  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent exploratory randomised trial we found that a novel, internet-based psychoeducation programme for bipolar disorder (Beating Bipolar) was relatively easy to deliver and had a modest effect on psychological quality of life. We sought to explore the experiences of participants with respect to feasibility, acceptability and impact of Beating Bipolar. Methods Participants were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis techniques were employed; to explore and describe participants’ experiences, the data were analysed for emerging themes which were identified and coded. Results The programme was feasible to deliver and acceptable to participants where they felt comfortable using a computer. It was found to impact upon insight into illness, health behaviour, personal routines and positive attitudes towards medication. Many participants regarded the programme as likely to be most beneficial for those recently diagnosed. Conclusions An online psychoeducation package for bipolar disorder, such as Beating Bipolar, is feasible and acceptable to patients, has a positive impact on self-management behaviours and may be particularly suited to early intervention. Alternative (non-internet) formats should also be made available to patients. PMID:22971042

2012-01-01

328

Habitus of home and traditional drinking: a qualitative analysis of reported middle-class alcohol use.  

PubMed

There is evidence that alcohol consumption among those in middle-class occupations consistently exceeds safe levels, yet there has been little research into why this occurs. This article explores the meanings associated with alcohol use among professional, managerial and clerical workers. Qualitative data were collected from five focus groups of male and female employees aged 21-55 (N =49: 32 male, 17 female). Each focus group was conducted on the premises of a medium-scale or large-scale employer, four public sector and one private sector, in the north-east of England. Using Bourdieu's concepts of 'habitus', 'capitals' and 'fields' we found that, among these middle-class occupational groups, alcohol use was associated with two habitus: a 'home drinking' habitus and a 'traditional drinking' habitus. Those of the home drinking habitus particularly used wine as a source of cultural capital and a means of distinction, whereas those in the traditional habitus consumed lager, beer and spirits to have fun in social settings. A small minority appeared to belong to a third, omnivorous, habitus where a wide range of alcoholic drinks were consumed in a variety of contexts. Existing public health initiatives to reduce alcohol consumption may require modification to accommodate a range of drinking cultures. PMID:25060523

Brierley-Jones, Lyn; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen E; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A

2014-09-01

329

Team-based volunteerism with the seriously ill: a qualitative analysis from 10 volunteers' perspectives.  

PubMed

Volunteers offer means through which social workers may extend their ability to support individuals with serious illnesses near the end of life. This study explored the experience of volunteers on teams organized initially as a grassroots movement in response to stigmatized and often socially isolated people with HIV/AIDS dying in the community. Volunteer care teams later expanded to individuals with other serious illnesses. This model spread as a means of meeting the growing need for practical support for seriously ill homebound individuals. Yet, little has been reported in the scientific literature about the interworkings of these teams and their optimal level of functioning. Qualitative inquiry, in the form of semi-structured interviews, explored perspectives of 10 volunteers with experience in volunteer team caring and identified the social processes that shaped their work. The volunteers discussed balance between positive life meaning gained from volunteer work, lessons learned, and negative aspects of a volunteer team approach to caring for the seriously ill in the community. Further investigation is warranted to validate the volunteer care team approach as a cost-effective tool to help seriously ill individuals and caregivers. PMID:25148454

Azuero, Casey B; Harris, Grant M; Allen, Rebecca S; Williams, Beverly R; Kvale, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Christine S

2014-01-01

330

The investigation of deaths in custody: a qualitative analysis of problems and prospects.  

PubMed

The right to be treated humanely when detained is universally recognized. Deficiencies in detention conditions and violence, however, subvert this right. When this occurs, proper medico-legal investigations are critical irrespective of the nature of death. Unfortunately, the very context of custody raises serious concerns over the effectiveness and fairness of medico-legal examinations. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and discuss the practical and ethical difficulties encountered in the medico-legal investigation following deaths in custody. Data for this manuscript come from a larger project on Death in Custody that examined the causes of deaths in custody and the conditions under which these deaths should be investigated and prevented. A total of 33 stakeholders from forensic medicine, law, prison administration or national human rights administration were interviewed. Data obtained were analyzed qualitatively. Forensic experts are an essential part of the criminal justice process as they offer evidence for subsequent indictment and eventual punishment of perpetrators. Their independence when investigating a death in custody was deemed critical and lack thereof, problematic. When experts were not independent, concerns arose in relation to conflicts of interest, biased perspectives, and low-quality forensic reports. The solutions to ensure independent forensic investigations of deaths in custody must be structural and simple: setting binding standards of practice rather than detailed procedures and relying on preexisting national practices as opposed to encouraging new practices that are unattainable for countries with limited resources. PMID:24931858

Wangmo, Tenzin; Ruiz, Géraldine; Sinclair, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice Simone

2014-07-01

331

Psychosocial barriers to engagement with an eating disorder service: a qualitative analysis of failure to attend.  

PubMed

Patient non-attendance and failure to engage with health services may be costly to the individual in terms of the delays in obtaining appropriate treatment and the unnecessary suffering and discomfort this may entail. Non-attendance is also costly to health services because of administrative and clinical time lost and the opportunity costs of not treating other patients. Patients who have been referred to eating disorders clinics by general practitioners appear to have high rates of non-attendance or dropping out immediately after assessment. The reasons behind their failure to engage are poorly understood. After undertaking a comprehensive audit in a major eating disorder unit in London we undertook a qualitative study of non-attenders in order to obtain the reasons behind non-engagement. We found that while participants tend to open their explanations with practical difficulties (e.g., child-minding) or service- related factors, what commonly emerged from their narratives were profound social-psychological problems and the ambivalence of confronting or losing a relationship with food that was both comforting and debilitating. Some participants described a world of imprisonment which precluded the likelihood of firm engagement with services. We suggest that such people may require better identification and outreach provision. PMID:21932972

Leavey, Gerard; Vallianatou, Christina; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Rae, Sophie; Gunputh, Vanessa

2011-01-01

332

Communicating about cancer through facebook: a qualitative analysis of a breast cancer awareness page.  

PubMed

Social media channels are increasingly being used for health communication and promotion. Social networking sites such as Facebook have become popular platforms for organizations to communicate health messages and encourage user participation around health topics. While the evaluation of social media's effectiveness in health promotion is beginning to emerge in the literature, few studies have examined actual interactions and user behaviors on Facebook Pages hosted by health organizations. The authors present a qualitative case study of a popular Facebook Page from a nonprofit organization devoted to raising awareness about breast cancer. With the goal of identifying the functions and uses of the Page, our study analyzes the content of Wall posts during Breast Cancer Awareness Month, October 2010. Common themes and characteristics are identified, including open mic communication, scarcity of health information, the commodification of breast cancer, unpredictable locations of conversation, and the use of gendered images and language. The findings have potential implications for health promotion efforts using social media platforms. PMID:25495200

Abramson, Karley; Keefe, Brian; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

2015-02-01

333

The Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Cohorts' Early Enrollment in Physics: concurrent with enrollment in mathematics, biology and chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohorts of 48 entering biological science majors was recruited in the fall of 2007 and again in 2008 and 2009 for the Interdisciplinary Science Experience (ISE). These ISE students enrolled in their own sections of standard courses of physics, chemistry, and biology. In these courses average ISE student out-performed their non-cohort peers by up to a full letter grade. A qualitative analysis of ISE student interviews illuminates the student experience and shows how the ISE students perceived themselves to be different than their non-cohort peers. Quantitative modeling of student performance shows that higher grades are correlated with multiple factors. These factors includes admissions characteristics such as high school GPA, and SAT scores, as well as demographic information. These trends support and elaborate on the selection narratives told by participants. Additionally the quantitative model found that higher student performance is predicted by structural aspects of the ISE program, specifically the timing of course, enrolling as a freshmen in many of their courses, and the sequencing of physics and chemistry courses. There is a statistically significant benefit to student performance in general and organic chemistry courses associated with completing the first quarter of the Physics for Bio-Science majors prior to enrollment. Further the combination of quantitative and qualitative data suggest that there is a epistemological transfer of problem solving skills and outlook from the physics to the chemistry courses.

Lynch, Robert Bruce Rodes

334

Influences of organizational features of healthcare settings on clinical decision making: Qualitative results from a cross-national factorial experiment*  

PubMed Central

A proliferating literature documents cross-national variation in medical practice and seeks to explain observed differences in terms of the presence of certain kinds of healthcare systems, economic, and cultural differences between countries. Less is known about how providers themselves understand these influences and perceive them as relevant to their clinical work. Using qualitative data from a cross-national factorial experiment in the United States and United Kingdom, we analyze 244 primary care physicians’ explanations of how organizational features of their respective healthcare settings influence the treatment decisions they made for a vignette patient, including affordability of care; within-system quality deficits; and constraints due to patient behavior. While many differences are attributed to financial constraints deriving from two very differently structured healthcare systems, in other ways they are reflections of cultural and historical expectations regarding medical care, or interactions between the two. Implications, including possible challenges to the implementation of universal care in the US, are discussed. PMID:21177712

Lutfey, Karen E.; Campbell, Stephen M.; Marceau, Lisa D.; Roland, Martin O.; McKinlay, John B.

2013-01-01

335

A qualitative approach to the transient stability analysis [of power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing stress on today's power systems, there is a urgent need for implementing online dynamic security assessment (DSA). Among the functions of DSA, the most time-consuming function is the dynamic contingency analysis. In this paper, it has been assumed that during this analysis, one is not interested in obtaining trajectories with a very high accuracy but is primarily

M. La Scala; G. Lorusso; R. Sbrizzai; M. Trovato

1996-01-01

336

Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects  

PubMed Central

Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Results Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. Conclusions This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial. PMID:24438471

2014-01-01

337

Why physicians and nurses ask (or don’t) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1) explore physicians’ and nurses’ experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2) determine the variations by discipline; and 3) identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Methods Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher’s Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Results Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated) provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The experiences of these nurses and physicians suggest that more supports (e.g., supportive work environments, training, mentors, consultations, community resources, etc.) are needed by practitioners. These findings reflect the results of previous research yet offer perspectives on why barriers persist. Multifaceted and intersectoral approaches that address individual, interpersonal, workplace and systemic issues faced by nurses and physicians when inquiring about IPV are required. Comprehensive frameworks are needed to further explore the many issues associated with IPV inquiry and the interplay across these issues. PMID:22721371

2012-01-01

338

Parent-son decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Licensed for use in males in 2009, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in adolescent males are extremely low. Literature on HPV vaccination focuses on females, adult males, or parents of adolescent males, without including adolescent males or the dynamics of the parent-son interaction that may influence vaccine decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision-making process of parent-son dyads when deciding whether or not to get vaccinated against HPV. Methods Twenty-one adolescent males (ages 13–17), with no previous HPV vaccination, and their parents/guardians were recruited from adolescent primary care clinics serving low to middle income families in a large Midwestern city. Dyad members participated in separate semi-structured interviews assessing the relative role of the parent and son in the decision regarding HPV vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive content analysis. Results Parents and sons focused on protection as a reason for vaccination; parents felt a need to protect their child, while sons wanted to protect their own health. Parents and sons commonly misinterpreted the information about the vaccine. Sons were concerned about an injection in the penis, while some parents and sons thought the vaccine would protect them against other sexually transmitted infections including Herpes, Gonorrhea, and HIV. Parents and sons recalled that the vaccine prevented genital warts rather than cancer. The vaccine decision-making process was rapid and dynamic, including an initial reaction to the recommendation for HPV vaccine, discussion between parent and son, and the final vaccine decision. Provider input was weighed in instances of initial disagreement. Many boys felt that this was the first health care decision that they had been involved in. Dyads which reported shared decision-making were more likely to openly communicate about sexual issues than those that agreed the son made the decision. Conclusion Parents and sons play an active role in the decision-making process, with an individual’s role being influenced by many factors. The results of this study may be used to guide the messages presented by clinicians when recommending the HPV vaccine, and future vaccine uptake interventions. PMID:23241217

2012-01-01

339

A qualitative analysis of the kidney structure of Meliphagid honeyeaters from wet and arid environments.  

PubMed Central

The qualitative ultrastructural renal anatomy was examined in 4 species of honeyeater (parvorder Corvi) inhabiting 2 distinctly different environments. The kidneys of the wet zone New Holland honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae and little wattlebird Anthochaera lunulata were compared with those of the arid zone white-fronted honeyeater Phylidonyris albifrons and spiny-cheeked honeyeater Acanthogenys rufogularis. The size and structure of glomeruli were similar between species. In all species, except in P. novaehollandiae, the proximal tubule cells contained wide intercellular spaces filled with basolateral cell membrane interdigitations. Medullary nephron tubules were arranged in a sequential manner in all species. Thick and thin limbs of Henle were separated by the collecting ducts and extended the entire length of the medulla, a situation not found in muscicapid passerines. This tubular arrangement is not entirely consistent with the proposed single-effect countercurrent multiplier theory. The thin limb of Henle consisted of only one epithelium type, which had wide intercellular spaces. The thick limb of Henle consisted of 2 types of epithelial cells, each having narrow intercellular spaces, but with varying degrees of cell membrane infoldings. The ultrastructural morphology of the limbs of Henle in honeyeaters differed from those of muscicapid passerines. The ultrastructure of the distal nephron was similar in each species studied. All of the above nephron characteristics are considered to enable honeyeaters to absorb a large proportion of solutes and water from the glomerular filtrate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8376198

Casotti, G; Richardson, K C

1993-01-01

340

Similarities and differences between weight loss maintainers and regainers: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Obesity is remarkably refractory to treatment. Despite a plethora of quantitative studies, little qualitative research has been conducted on the topic of weight loss maintenance. This study used six focus groups to explore which factors promoted or prevented maintaining weight loss among a diverse, urban population. Eligible participants were those who had intentionally lost ?10% of their body weight in the past 2 years and were categorized as either "regainers" or "maintainers" using self-reported length of weight maintenance and amount (%) regained. Regainers had regained ?33% of their weight loss and maintainers had regained ?15%. Participants (n=29) were predominantly African-American (58.6%) females (65.6%) with a mean age of 46.9±11.2 years. Four themes reflected similarities between regainers and maintainers, and four reflected differences between the groups. Both groups experienced lapses, used clothing fit for feedback on weight status, desired greater support during maintenance, and decreased self-monitoring of food intake over time. When compared with regainers, maintainers more often continued strategies used during weight loss, weighed themselves regularly, and used productive problem-solving skills and positive self-talk. Regainers experienced greater difficulty independently continuing food and exercise behaviors during maintenance, identifying decreased accountability and waning motivation as barriers. These findings suggest that weight loss maintenance efforts can be improved by addressing challenges such as long-term self-monitoring and problem-solving skills, and that maintenance success might depend on how people think as much as what they do. PMID:22709701

Reyes, Naomi R; Oliver, Tracy L; Klotz, Alicia A; Lagrotte, Caitlin A; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Virus, Amy; Bailer, Brooke A; Foster, Gary D

2012-04-01

341

Service learning in Guatemala: using qualitative content analysis to explore an interdisciplinary learning experience among students in health care professional programs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interprofessional collaboration among health care professionals yields improved patient outcomes, yet many students in health care programs have limited exposure to interprofessional collaboration in the classroom and in clinical and service-learning experiences. This practice gap implies that students enter their professions without valuing interprofessional collaboration and the impact it has on promoting positive patient outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the interprofessional experiences of students in health care professional programs as they collaborated to provide health care to Guatemalan citizens over a 7-day period. Methods In light of the identified practice gap and a commitment by college administration to fund interprofessional initiatives, faculty educators from nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy conducted a qualitative study to explore a service-learning initiative focused on promoting interprofessional collaboration. Students collaborated in triads (one student from each of the three disciplines) to provide supervised health care to underserved Guatemalan men, women, children, and infants across a variety of community and health care settings. Eighteen students participated in a qualitative research project by describing their experience of interprofessional collaboration in a service-learning environment. Twice before arriving in Guatemala, and on three occasions during the trip, participants reflected on their experiences and provided narrative responses to open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis methodology was used to describe their experiences of interprofessional collaboration. Results An interprofessional service-learning experience positively affected students’ learning, their growth in interprofessional collaboration, and their understanding and appreciation of health care professions besides their own. The experience also generated feelings of gratitude for the opportunity to be a member of an interprofessional team and to serve those in need by giving of themselves. Conclusion The findings support service learning as a platform to encourage interprofessional collaboration among students in health care professional programs. The research will inform future service-learning experiences in which interdisciplinary collaboration is an outcome of interest. PMID:23430865

Fries, Kathleen S; Bowers, Donna M; Gross, Margo; Frost, Lenore

2013-01-01

342

A qualitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans in the reproductive tract of mares  

E-print Network

-conditioned media were analyzed for GAGS. Samples were also purified by chromatography. Quantity of total GAGs was estimated using a calorimetric assay. Compositional analysis of GAGs was performed using an electrophoretic assay in pyridine/fonnic acid or barium...

Santos, Elizabeth Castro Franca

1993-01-01

343

Optimal climate policy is a utopia: from quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate–economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that

2004-01-01

344

A qualitative content analysis of cigarette health warning labels in australia, Canada, the United kingdom, and the United States.  

PubMed

The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced. PMID:25521883

Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

2015-02-01

345

Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. PMID:25186561

Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

2014-09-01

346

Multivariate processing strategies for enhancing qualitative and quantitative analysis based on infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry is gaining increased attention in environmental applications because of its great flexibility. Usually, pattern recognition techniques are used for automatic analysis of large amount of collected data. However, challenging problems are the constantly changing background and high calibration cost. As aircraft is flying, background is always changing. Also, considering the great variety of backgrounds and high expense of data collection from aircraft, cost of collecting representative training data is formidable. Instead of using airborne data, data generated from simulation strategies can be used for training purposes. Training data collected under controlled conditions on the ground or synthesized from real backgrounds can be both options. With both strategies, classifiers may be developed with much lower cost. For both strategies, signal processing techniques need to be used to extract analyte features. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are applied either in interferogram or spectral domain for features extraction. Then, pattern recognition methods are applied to develop binary classifiers for automated detection of air-collected methanol and ethanol vapors. The results demonstrate, with optimized signal processing methods and training set composition, classifiers trained from ground-collected or synthetic data can give good classification on real air-collected data. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry is emerging as a promising tool for noninvasive blood glucose detection. In combination with multivariate calibration techniques, NIR spectroscopy can give quick quantitative determinations of many species with minimal sample preparation. However, one main problem with NIR calibrations is degradation of calibration model over time. The varying background information will worsen the prediction precision and complicate the multivariate models. To mitigate the needs for frequent recalibration and improve robustness of calibration models, signal processing methods can be used to decrease the influence of such non-constant background variation. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are also applied to NIR single-beam spectra collected during short-term and long-term studies. The prediction performance of the calibration models demonstrates, with suppression of non-constant background information by optimal wavelet processing procedures, robustness of calibration models with time can be significantly improved.

Wan, Boyong

2007-12-01

347

Seeking help for depression from family and friends: A qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282) including emotional support (n = 154), informational support (n = 93), companionship support (n = 36) and instrumental support (n = 23). Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72), the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62), the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49), their accessibility (n = 36), and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30). The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53), inappropriate support (n = 45), the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32) and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20) and the relationship (n = 18). Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers. PMID:22171567

2011-01-01

348

Harm reduction and knowledge exchange—a qualitative analysis of drug-related Internet discussion forums  

PubMed Central

Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are continuously and increasingly appearing on the international drug market. Global Internet forums are a publicly available reality where users anonymously discuss and share information about NPS. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the discussions about NPS on international Internet forums. Methods The most post-frequent NPS discussions were collected from three “leading edge” international Internet forums. A total of 13,082 posts from 60 threads of discussion were systematically examined and interpreted to reveal recurring topics and patterns. Each thread was coded with emerging topics and supporting quotations from the data set. Eventually, codes with coherent meaning were arranged into 51 broader categories of abstraction, which were combined into four overarching themes. Results Four themes emerged during the analysis: (1) uncovering the substance facts, (2) dosage and administration, (3) subjectively experienced effects, and (4) support and safety. The first theme dealt primarily with substance identification, pharmacology, and assessed not only purity but also legal status and acquisition. The second theme focused on administration techniques, dose recommendations, technical talk about equipment, and preferred settings for drug use. The third theme involved a multitude of self-reported experiences, in which many different aspects of intoxication were depicted in great detail. The users emphasized both positive and negative experiences. The last theme incorporated the efforts of the communities to prevent and minimize harm by sharing information about potential risks of the harmful effects or contraindications of a substance. Also, online support and guidance were given to intoxicated persons who experienced bad or fearful reactions. Conclusions The findings showed that the discussions were characterized by a social process in which users supported each other and exchanged an extensive and cumulative amount of knowledge about NPS and how to use them safely. Although this publicly available knowledge could entail an increase in drug use, the main characteristics of the discussions in general were a concern for safety and harm reduction, not for recruiting new users. Drug-related Internet forums could be used as a location for drug prevention, as well as a source of information for further research about NPS. PMID:25200686

2014-01-01

349

Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for rapid qualitative screening of toxic glycols in glycerin-containing products.  

PubMed

In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration released guidance recommending testing of glycerin used in regulated consumer products, such as cough syrup preparations, toothpaste, and other pharmaceutical and food products, for the toxic compounds ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Regulatory laboratories routinely test glycerin, and products containing glycerin or related compounds for these toxic glycols, using an official gas chromatographic method, to ensure the safety of these products. The current work describes a companion technique to compliment this GC-FID method utilizing Orbitrap mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time ionization to rapidly screen these samples qualitatively, with results in as little as five seconds, with no sample preparation required. This allows the more time and resource intensive method to be reserved for those rare cases when these compounds are detected, potentially greatly improving laboratory efficiency. The technique was evaluated for qualitative sensitivity and repeatability, and compared against the GC-FID method. The method appears to perform well against these metrics. PMID:23584076

Self, Randy L

2013-06-01

350

An Adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program for Elders in a Continuing Care Retirement Community: Quantitative and Qualitative Results From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

2014-12-01

351

Illumination with a Dim Bulb? What do social scientists learn by employing qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) in the service of multi-method designs?  

PubMed Central

Although there has been much optimistic discussion of integrating quantitative and qualitative findings into sociological analysis, there remains a gap regarding the application of mixed approaches. We examine the potential gains and pitfalls of such integration in the context of the growing analytic power of contemporary qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) programs. We illustrate the issues with our own research in a mixed-methods project examining low fertility in Italy, a project that combines analysis of large nationally representative survey data with qualitative in-depth interviews with women across four (4) cities in Italy. Despite the enthusiasm for mixed-methods research, the available software appears to be underutilized. In addition, we suggest that the sociological research community will want to address several conceptual and inferential issues with these approaches. PMID:23543938

White, Michael J.; Judd, Maya D.; Poliandri, Simone

2012-01-01

352

Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred to as watershed management. Watershed management includes soil and water conservation to create water resources, management of drinking water, improving hygiene and sanitation, plantation of trees, improving agriculture, formation of self-help groups and proper utilisation and management of available natural resources. For successful implementation of such a solution, understanding of perceptions of the tribal community members with regard to public health and socioeconomic implications of watershed management is essential. Methods A qualitative study with six focus group discussions (FGDs), three each separately for men and women, was conducted among tribal community members of the Maharashtra state of India. The data collected from the FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. Results “Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management” was identified as the main theme. Participants perceived that their health problems and socio-economic development are directly and/or indirectly dependent upon water availability. They further perceived that watershed management could directly or indirectly result in reduction of their public health related challenges like waterborne diseases, seasonal migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence, as well as drudgery of women and may enhance overall empowerment of families through agricultural development. Conclusions Tribal people perceived that water scarcity is the main reason for their physical, mental and social health problems and a major obstacle for their overall development. The perceptions of tribal participants indicate that infectious diseases, migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence and drudgery of women are end results of water scarcity and efforts to increase water availability through watershed management may help them to achieve their right to health which is embedded in their right to access to water. PMID:24119537

2013-01-01

353

A Guide to Qualitative Research in Plastic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research can explore parts of the subjective patient experience that cannot be detailed with quantitative methods such as surveys. Unfortunately this powerful methodology is underutilized in Plastic Surgery, a specialty where subjective outcomes are more important than traditional outcomes indicators. Qualitative research can be used to add depth to patient satisfaction questionnaires or other quantitative measures. Qualitative methodology can also be used to explore complex issues such as why patients choose to undergo cosmetic surgery or to detail patient experiences following reconstructive surgery. We explain the basics of qualitative research including asking the appropriate research question, applying steps to collect data, data analysis and practical applications of the results. PMID:20463619

Shauver, Melissa S.; Chung, Kevin C.

2015-01-01

354

Design and Analysis Problems Associated with Qualitative Data in Educational Research. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project addresses a series of methodological and theoretical statistical problems in the analysis of categorical data using loglinear and logistic response models, which grow directly out of problems in the study of the American educational system, and in basic educational research. The project focuses on the adaptation and…

Fienberg, Stephen E.; Larntz, Kinley

355

Learning (Not) to become a Teacher: A Qualitative Analysis of the Job Entrance Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reporting on 12 case studies of student teachers, this paper examines how experiences during teacher education affect graduates' decision on job entrance. Interpretative data-analysis reveals that powerful sources of the shift in motivation to enter teaching concern interactions in which the person of the teacher is at stake. These mainly involve…

Rots, Isabel; Kelchtermans, Geert; Aelterman, Antonia

2012-01-01

356

Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by UPLC-MS/MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a structurally complex and bioactive group of tannins. Detailed analysis of PA concentration, composition, and structure typically requires the use of one or more time-consuming analytical methods. For example, the commonly employed thiolysis and phloroglucinolysis method...

357

A qualitative analysis of GHB use among gay men: Reasons for use despite potential adverse outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) among a sample of gay men in New York City, who identify GHB as their most frequently used club drug. The sample was drawn from a larger longitudinal investigation of club drug using men. Thematic analysis yielded findings regarding perceived stigma for GHB use, tolerance of potential adverse side effects, and reasons

Joseph J. Palamar; Perry N. Halkitis

2006-01-01

358

Qualitative drug analysis of hair extracts by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A technique using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) is applied to a qualitative analysis of three sample extracts from hair suspected of containing various drug compounds. The samples were also subjected to a quantitative target analysis for codeine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), methadone, and benzylpiperazine (BZP) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). GCxGC/TOFMS provided a non-specific procedure that identified various drugs, metabolites, and impurities not included in the target analysis. They included cocaine, diazepam, and methaqualone (quaalude). Comprehensive GCxGC separation was achieved using twin-stage cryo-modulation to focus eluant from a DB-5 ms (5% phenyl) to a BPX50 (50% phenyl) GC column. The TOF mass spectrometer provided unit mass resolution in the mass range m/z 5-1000 and rapid spectral acquisition (< or = 500spectra/s). Clean mass spectra of the individual components were obtained using mass spectral deconvolution software. The 'unknown' components were identified by comparison with mass spectra stored in a library database. PMID:20471020

Guthery, Bill; Bassindale, Tom; Bassindale, Alan; Pillinger, Colin T; Morgan, Geraint H

2010-06-25

359

The Use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis for Critical Event Research in Alcohol and HIV in Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

In this paper we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in critical event analysis to identify under what conditions alcohol is necessary in contributing to unprotected sex. The paper is based on a set of in-depth interviews with 84 men aged 18 = 29 from three typical low income communities in Mumbai who reported using alcohol and having sex with at least one nonspousal partner once or more in the 30 days prior to the interview. The interviews included narratives of critical events defined as recent (past 30–60 day) events involving sexual behavior with or without alcohol. The paper identifies themes related to alcohol, sexuality and condom use, uses QCA to identify and explain configurations leading to protected and unprotected sex, and explains the differences. The analysis shows that alcohol alone is not sufficient to explain any cases involving unprotected sex but alcohol in combination with partner type and contextual factors does explain unprotected sex for subsets of married and unmarried men. PMID:20563636

Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S. K.; Berg, Marlene; Singh, Sharad; Gupta, Kamla

2010-01-01

360

Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

2013-06-01

361

Implementation and adoption of nationwide electronic health records in secondary care in England: final qualitative results from prospective national evaluation in “early adopter” hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the implementation and adoption of the NHS detailed care records service in “early adopter” hospitals in England. Design Theoretically informed, longitudinal qualitative evaluation based on case studies. Setting 12 “early adopter” NHS acute hospitals and specialist care settings studied over two and a half years. Data sources Data were collected through in depth interviews, observations, and relevant documents relating directly to case study sites and to wider national developments that were perceived to impact on the implementation strategy. Data were thematically analysed, initially within and then across cases. The dataset consisted of 431 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders, including hospital staff, developers, and governmental stakeholders; 590 hours of observations of strategic meetings and use of the software in context; 334 sets of notes from observations, researchers’ field notes, and notes from national conferences; 809 NHS documents; and 58 regional and national documents. Results Implementation has proceeded more slowly, with a narrower scope and substantially less clinical functionality than was originally planned. The national strategy had considerable local consequences (summarised under five key themes), and wider national developments impacted heavily on implementation and adoption. More specifically, delays related to unrealistic expectations about the capabilities of systems; the time needed to build, configure, and customise the software; the work needed to ensure that systems were supporting provision of care; and the needs of end users for training and support. Other factors hampering progress included the changing milieu of NHS policy and priorities; repeatedly renegotiated national contracts; different stages of development of diverse NHS care records service systems; and a complex communication process between different stakeholders, along with contractual arrangements that largely excluded NHS providers. There was early evidence that deploying systems resulted in important learning within and between organisations and the development of relevant competencies within NHS hospitals. Conclusions Implementation of the NHS Care Records Service in “early adopter” sites proved time consuming and challenging, with as yet limited discernible benefits for clinicians and no clear advantages for patients. Although our results might not be directly transferable to later adopting sites because the functionalities we evaluated were new and untried in the English context, they shed light on the processes involved in implementing major new systems. The move to increased local decision making that we advocated based on our interim analysis has been pursued and welcomed by the NHS, but it is important that policymakers do not lose sight of the overall goal of an integrated interoperable solution. PMID:22006942

2011-01-01

362

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of oxytetracycline by near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, enable the analysis of raw materials without time-consuming sample preparation methods. The aim of our work was to estimate critical parameters in the analytical specification of oxytetracycline, and consequently the development of a method for quantification and qualification of these parameters by NIR spectroscopy. A Karl Fischer (K.F.) titration to determine the water

Nataša Smola; Uroš Urleb

2000-01-01

363

A non-standard-substance pesticide residue qualitative analysis method based on SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, most pesticide residue analysis methods are based on mass spectrometry instruments, such as Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyzers. However, using these methods, user has to send the chemical standard-substances (pure pesticides) and the samples needed checking simultaneously in order to detect the pesticide residues in foods and agricultural products. Support Vector Machines ?ƒ SVM?? is a statistical learning method

Yi Chen; Rui Wang; Hongqian Chen

2011-01-01

364

Estimation of precipitable water vapour from GPS measurements in Argentina: Validation and qualitative analysis of results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents PWV estimates from GPS data computed at four continuously operated GPS stations in Argentina established at Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Salta over a 1 year period (2006-2007). The objective is to analyze the behaviour of the GPS PWV estimation using mean tropospheric temperature (Tm) values from the Bevis model, Sapucci model and obtained by a numerical

L. I. Fernández; P. Salio; M. P. Natali; A. M. Meza

2010-01-01

365

Estimation of precipitable water vapour from GPS measurements in Argentina: Validation and qualitative analysis of results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents PWV estimates from GPS data computed at four continuously operated GPS stations in Argentina established at Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Salta over a 1 year period (2006–2007). The objective is to analyze the behaviour of the GPS PWV estimation using mean tropospheric temperature (Tm) values from the Bevis model, Sapucci model and obtained by a numerical

L. I. Fernández; P. Salio; M. P. Natali; A. M. Meza

2010-01-01

366

Qualitative Analysis & Results for the 1987 Data Cycle by Career Ladder Program Strengths & Improvement Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northern Arizona University's Arizona Career Ladder Research & Evaluation Project for teachers implements a procedure for rewarding teachers based on performance levels rather than on years of teaching experience and college credits. Research data is collected each spring, analyzed and fed back to the districts for improvement of key program…

Packard, Richard D.; Nichols, Wanda

367

Application of cladistics to terrane history—parsimony analysis of qualitative geological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypotheses of terrane dispersal or accretion can be represented graphically as branching diagrams (cladograms), but an assessment of competing hypotheses of terrane history requires a method of analysis of supporting evidence which resolves the most parsimonious explanation of all available data. Cladistics is a rigorous analytical method first developed for phylogeny reconstruction (i.e. biological history), but applicable to any hierarchical data set. Given appropriate definitions, the various types of geological, geophysical and biological data used to support hypotheses of fragmentation or fusion history for geological regions (terranes) assumed to have had independent geological histories can be organized hierarchically. Terrane fragmentation is equivalent to phylogenetic splitting of biological taxa, and standard algorithms for parsimony analysis may be directly applied. Terrane accretion may be represented as a coalescing area cladogram, and the supporting evidence also forms a hierarchical data set, but with two main differences. The less general attributes historically precede the more general (the reverse applies in phylogeny reconstruction), and the branching points (nodes on the cladogram), unlike hypothetical common ancestors in phylogeny reconstruction, represent defined geographic areas, with a geological structure which can be investigated. In cladistic reconstruction of evolutionary history the common ancestors are hypothetical, and their attributes can only be inferred from the distribution of attributes amongst the terminals (known biological taxa); in contrast, the end product of terrane accretion is a composite structure (geological province) within which juxtaposition of terranes may eliminate some of the possible historical sequences which led to its formation.

Young, Gavin C.

368

A qualitative analysis of Vietnamese adolescent identity exploration within and outside an ethnic enclave.  

PubMed

Focusing on identity development explorations enables a greater understanding of contexts that affect immigrant adolescents. Utilizing thematic and grounded narrative analysis of 46 journal writings, during a one-month period, from first and second generation Vietnamese adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 18 (26 residents of a culturally and politically active ethnic enclave in Southern California; 20 adolescents living outside the enclave), this study establishes ways in which a focus on social context and exploration processes illuminates the complexity of immigrant adolescents' identity formation. The two groups shared many similarities, including precipitants to exploration and steps undertaken to explore identity. However, two factors-social and cultural influences and emotional reactions-revealed interesting contrasts distinguishing enclave from non-enclave dwelling Vietnamese adolescents. Data also suggested that immigrant adolescents strive to integrate different domains of identity (ethnicity, gender, career) both with one another and with the historical, social, and cultural contexts they occupy. PMID:19636763

Vo-Jutabha, Easter Dawn; Dinh, Khanh T; McHale, James P; Valsiner, Jaan

2009-05-01

369

A Qualitative Analysis of Power Differentials in Ethical Situations in Academia  

PubMed Central

Power and organizational hierarchies are ubiquitous to social institutions that form the foundation of modern society. Power differentials may act to constrain or enhance people's ability to make good ethical decisions. However, little scholarly work has examined perceptions of this important topic. The present effort seeks to address this issue by interviewing academics about hypothetical ethical problems that involve power differences among those involved. Academics discussed what they would do in these scenarios, often drawing on their own experiences. Using a think-aloud protocol, participants were prompted to discuss their reasoning and thinking behind their ethical decisions. These interview data were content analyzed using a semantic analysis program that identified a number of distinct ways that academics think about power differences and abuses in ethical situations. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25356066

Gibson, Carter; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Giorgini, Vincent; Mecca, Jensen T.; Devenport, Lynn D.; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D.

2014-01-01

370

A supramolecular sensing array for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organophosphates in water.  

PubMed

The organophosphate class of compounds includes common herbicides as well as highly toxic nerve gases whose detection is important from an environmental and a public safety perspective. We describe here a fluorescence turn-on sensor array for the rapid detection and quantitation of relevant organophosphates in neutral water. The array elements self-assemble from commercially available dyes and PAMAM dendrimers, and sensing is based on an indicator displacement assay. Data interpretation through pattern recognition methods (PCA, LDA) showed excellent cluster separation and sample classification. In addition, we were also able to use this system for simultaneous differentiation and quantitative analysis of methylphosphonate (a nerve gas byproduct), glyphosate (a ubiquitous herbicide), and inorganic phosphate over a wide range of concentrations (10 ?M to 2 mM). PMID:25246316

Liu, Yuanli; Bonizzoni, Marco

2014-10-01

371

Qualitative Analysis of College Students' Ideas about the Earth: Interviews and Open-Ended Questionnaires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOTE: This is a large file, 165.8 mb in size! This article describes a study in which students' conceptual understanding about the Earth was examined. In the study, students enrolled in introductory science courses at four institutions, completed open-ended questionnaires, and participated in interviews. The institutions consisted of a small private university, two large state schools, and one small public liberal arts college. Students were probed on a variety of topics related to the Earth's crust and interior, and to geologic time. Analysis of questionnaire and interview responses indicates that students hold a number of non-scientific ideas about the Earth. Additionally, students apply a range of ontological categories to geologic phenomena, with significant implications for teaching geosciences from a systems perspective.

Julie Libarkin

2005-01-01

372

[Mental conflict of urban Korean housewives--a qualitative analysis of 20 interviews].  

PubMed

This study analysed marital conflicts, related factors, and adjustments to those conflicts described by urban Korean women. The purpose was to discover directions for resolutions that would enhance the helpfulness of volunteers or professionals working with women in counselling settings. The investigator interviewed 20 married women, all mothers and housewives living in Seoul, attending marriage encounter programs and the Lifeline telephone counselling service. An interview schedule using six open-ended questions guided the data collection which took place between May 31 and December 29, 1988. Content analysis of the data revealed, in order of reported frequency, the following areas of conflict: relationships between husband wife, relationships with children, relationships between the wife and her mother-in-Law, unsatisfied sexual needs, the husband's extra marital relationships, lack of self actualization and financial matters. Analysis of the data suggested the following factors were related to the conflicts: reasons for marriage, traditional views about marriage and divorce including to accept a marriage arranged by the parents, the husband's traditional attitude toward the sex role of the wife, the husband's patriarchal authoritarianism, and his attitude toward the wife's employment outside the home. The women thought these conflicts severely affected their relationships within the family, particularly with their children. Literature suggests links with such poor parent-child-family relationships and adolescent or young people's social problems. Volunteers or professionals working with married women in counselling situations need to be conscious of the possibility of these conflicts during assessment, and direct their guidance toward such conflict resolution. The researcher makes several suggestions which include the need for the husband to give emotional support to his wife, to recognize the worth of housework, to share the work of the home, to find ways to enhance the wife's self-actualization and to ease dreary housework routines by providing modern appliances. PMID:2811261

Cho, Y S

1989-08-31

373

Rethinking work-health models for the new global economy: a qualitative analysis of emerging dimensions of work.  

PubMed

Technology change, rising international trade and investment, and increased competition are changing the organization, distribution and nature of work in industrialized countries. To enhance productivity, employers are striving to increase innovation while minimizing costs. This is leading to an intensification of work demands on core employees and the outsourcing or casualization of more marginal tasks, often to contingent workers. The two prevailing models of work and health - demand-control and effort-reward imbalance - may not capture the full range of experiences of workers in today's increasingly flexible and competitive economies. To explore this proposition, we conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 120 American workers [6]. Our analysis identifies aspects of work affecting the quality of workers' experiences that are largely overlooked by popular work-health models: the nature of social interactions with customers and clients; workers' belief in, and perception of, the importance of the product of their work. We suggest that the quality of work experiences is partly determined by the objective characteristics of the work environment, but also by the fit of the work environment with the worker's needs, interests, desires and personality, something not adequately captured in current models. PMID:15328458

Polanyi, Michael; Tompa, Emile

2004-01-01

374

A Generalized Qualitative-Response Model and the Analysis of Management Fraud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management fraud has become a topic of increasing interest to the public accounting profession. Prior research indicates that management fraud is seldom experienced by audiGtors. As a result, it is doubtful that auditors have a well-developed cognitive model for making fraud risk assessments as part of the audit planning process. Early research studies attempted to identify factors that could be

J. V. Hansen; J. B. McDonald; W. F. Messier Jr.; T. B. Bell

1996-01-01

375

Relationship Advice in Top-Selling Men's Magazines: A Qualitative Document Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of men's magazines contain advice columns which counsel readers on relationships. The viewers heed the information provided to them and apply it to their own lives and relationships. As a result, it is imperative to study the relationship advice men are seeking in these magazines. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intimate relational content and

Roy Spalding; Toni Schindler Zimmerman; Christine A. Fruhauf; James H. Banning; Joanna Pepin

2010-01-01

376

Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or…

Larson, Charles U.

377

Qualitative electron probe analysis of secretory ameloblasts and odontoblasts in the rat incisor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly frozen growing rat incisors were freeze fractured and freeze dried in preparation for energy dispersive X-ray emission microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope. Ca levels were found to be elevated in the distal cell body of odontoblasts, whereas Ca was uniformly low over all parts of the cell body of secretory ameloblasts. The results suggest fundamental differences in the

A. Boyde; E. J. Reith

1977-01-01

378

Pursuing and Completing an Undergraduate Computing Degree from a Female Perspective: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computing profession in the United States would benefit from an increasingly diverse workforce, specifically a larger female presence, because a more gender-balanced workforce would likely result in better technological solutions to difficulties in many areas of American life. However, to achieve this balance, more women with a solid…

Ragsdale, Scott

2013-01-01

379

Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral flow dipstick immunoassay for rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking. In this study a lateral flow dipstick immunoassay was developed for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate (ATS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in anti-malarial drugs. Methods This assay was based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against ATS. ATS-bovine serum albumin and goat anti-mouse IgG, used as the test capture reagent and the control capture reagent, were coated on the nitrocellulose membrane to form the test line and control line, respectively. The conjugate pad was saturated with the gold-labelled anti-ATS mAb. Results The indicator range of the dipsticks, defined as lowest concentration of the target analytes between which the test line was not visible, were 100-200 and 200-500 ng mL-1 for ATS and DHA, respectively. No competitive inhibition was observed up to 5,000 ng mL-1 of quinine, chloroquine diphosphate salt, primaquine phosphate, pyrimethamine, lumefantrine, amodiaquine, piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate or pyronaridine tetraphosphate. Semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials with the dipsticks produced result agreeable with those determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Storage test showed that the indicator range for artemisinins remained unchanged after a week at 37°C and increased four-folds after six months of storage at 4°C or ambient temperature. Conclusions The new selected mAb 3D82G7 with high avidity and broad cross reactivity for artemisinins was used to develop and optimize a dipstick immunoassay for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in anti-malarial drugs. The semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials, and the specificity test of the artemisinin-related drugs both proved the accurate performance of the developed dipsticks for semi-quantitation of ACT samples. The dipstick may be used as a point-of-care device for identifying substandard and counterfeit ATS- and DHA-containing anti-malarial drugs. PMID:24678609

2014-01-01

380

The Role Of Qualitative Research In Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity is the relationship between efforts and assigned tasks (inputs) and results (outputs). The paper explores the role of qualitative research to understand the resources of efforts, strategic approaches, modern methods, BPR systems in order to increase productivity. Modern organizations need to identify some intelligent steps. The steps from market analysis, evaluating competitors and suggesting strategies are based on the

Zar Wajidi

2007-01-01

381

Global qualitative analysis of a ratio-dependent predator–prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Ratio-dependent predator–prey models are favored by many animal ecologists recently as more suitable ones for predator–prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves searching process. However, such models are not well studied in the sense that most\\u000a results are local stability related. In this paper, we consider the global behaviors of solutions of a ratio-dependent predator–prey\\u000a systems. Specifically, we shall show that ratio

Yang Kuang; Edoardo Beretta

1998-01-01

382

A Qualitative Analysis of Reasons for Leaving, or Not Attending, a Cancer Support Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that influence participation and long-term retention in cancer support groups were examined, through a study of 87 individuals who had dropped out of a cancer support group, and 26 individuals who had never attended such groups, using a combination of interviews and open-ended questionnaire responses. Support group attrition or non-attendance was positioned as resulting from both individual and group

Jane M. Ussher; Laura Kirsten; Phyllis Butow; Mirjana Sandoval

2008-01-01

383

Qualitative analysis of subcutaneous Lispro and regular insulin injections for stress hyperglycemia: a pilot numerical study.  

PubMed

Increased glucose variability (GV) is an independent risk factor for mortality in the critically ill; unfortunately, the optimal insulin therapy that minimizes GV is not known. We simulate the glucose-insulin feedback system to study how stress hyperglycemia (SH) states, taken to be a non-uniform group of physiologic disorders with varying insulin resistance (IR) and similar levels of hyperglycemia, respond to the type and dose of subcutaneous (SQ) insulin. Two groups of 100 virtual patients are studied: those receiving and those not receiving continuous enteral feeds. Stress hyperglycemia was facilitated by doubling the gluconeogenesis rate and IR was stepwise varied from a borderline to a high value. Lispro and regular insulin were simulated with dosages that ranged from 0 to 6 units; the resulting GV was analyzed after each insulin injection. The numerical model used consists of a set of non-linear differential equations with two time delays and five adjustable parameters. The results show that regular insulin decreased GV in both patient groups and rarely caused hypoglycemia. With continuous enteral feeds and borderline to mild IR, Lispro showed minimal effect on GV; however, rebound hyperglycemia that increased GV occurred when the IR was moderate to high. Without a nutritional source, Lispro worsened GV through frequent hypoglycemia episodes as the injection dose increased. The inferior performance of Lispro is a result of its rapid absorption profile; half of its duration of action is similar to the glucose ultradian period. Clinical trials are needed to examine whether these numerical results represent the glucose-insulin dynamics that occur in intensive care units, and if such dynamics are present, their clinical effects should be evaluated. PMID:24769252

Strilka, Richard J; Armen, Scott B; Indeck, Matthew C

2014-09-01

384

Typology of Analytical Errors in Qualitative Educational Research: An Analysis of the 2003-2007 Education Science Dissertations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…

Karadag, Engin

2010-01-01

385

Prediction and Analysis of Canonical EF Hand Loop and Qualitative Estimation of Ca2+ Binding Affinity  

PubMed Central

The diversity of functions carried out by EF hand-containing calcium-binding proteins is due to various interactions made by these proteins as well as the range of affinity levels for Ca2+ displayed by them. However, accurate methods are not available for prediction of binding affinities. Here, amino acid patterns of canonical EF hand sequences obtained from available crystal structures were used to develop a classifier that distinguishes Ca2+-binding loops and non Ca2+-binding regions with 100% accuracy. To investigate further, we performed a proteome-wide prediction for E. histolytica, and classified known EF-hand proteins. We compared our results with published methods on the E. histolytica proteome scan, and demonstrated our method to be more specific and accurate for predicting potential canonical Ca2+-binding loops. Furthermore, we annotated canonical EF-hand motifs and classified them based on their Ca2+-binding affinities using support vector machines. Using a novel method generated from position-specific scoring metrics and then tested against three different experimentally derived EF-hand-motif datasets, predictions of Ca2+-binding affinities were between 87 and 90% accurate. Our results show that the tool described here is capable of predicting Ca2+-binding affinity constants of EF-hand proteins. The web server is freely available at http://202.41.10.46/calb/index.html. PMID:24760183

Mazumder, Mohit; Padhan, Narendra; Bhattacharya, Alok; Gourinath, Samudrala

2014-01-01

386

Impact of necrotising fasciitis on quality of life: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

Mortality rates from severe necrotising soft tissue infections are improving progressively, therefore more emphasis should be placed on assessing and improving the quality of life of surviving patients. We investigated the functional and psychological issues, ability to social integration and self-perception of appearance in such patients presenting to our unit over 4 years. To conduct the study, we used the Short Form-36 and the Derriford Appearance Scale-24, which were distributed to those willing to participate. Ten patients have returned fully completed questionnaires. The overall quality of life and level of distress about the changed appearance were moderate (average SF-36 score of 65.8, DAS-24 score of 38). Statistical correlations between the scores and demographics were carried out using the Spearman rank correlation test. The capability of psychosocial adjustment was shown to improve with longer follow-up time and older age. However pain, physical limitations and energy levels were considerably more relevant in the older individuals and improved slower with time compared to psychological issues. Our results act as a good indicator of the quality of life in people dealing with the aftermath of necrotising soft tissue infections, but further, more extensive studies are required to achieve comprehensive and statistically significant results. PMID:24252250

Pikturnaite, Jurga; Soldin, Mark

2014-08-01

387

A quantative and qualitative analysis of science communication in the greek mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing interest on how science is communicated by the mass media. Studies have been done in order to define the amount and the quality of science information passing from the experts to the public through newspapers, radio broadcasts and TV programs. In this study, we have tried to find the amount of science presented in 4 Greek newspapers and 4 major Greek TV channels. We've also done an initial evaluation on the quality of the newspaper science articles. The results show that the amount of scientific content in TV and newspapers in Greece, is comparable to those in larger and more scientifically advanced countries such as Canada, USA and Great Britain. The quality of the newspaper articles was studied under a simple but relevant coding scheme. The results demonstrate that scientists do not write popularizing articles but they play an important role as experts. The more serious newspapers provide more reliable information in the form of integrated articles and not as fragmentary science news. Furthermore, Greek newspapers avoid publishing articles on controversial scientific issues and they present science as abstract and authoritative.

Matsopoulos, N.; Zoulias, M.

388

NUD*IST: VIVO PROGRAMA INFORMÁTICO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE DATOS EN INVESTIGACIONES CUALITATIVAS NUD*IST: LIVES COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DATA IN QUALITATIVE INVESTIGATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the basic and more important possibilities of the program NUD*IST is presented I Live. It is used as computer support in the analysis of data of qualitative nature (transcriptions of interviews, newspapers of fields, observation registrations...). This directed to pupil that studies matters related with the educational investigation, in titulaciones like special education, audition and language and

Esperanza Bausela Herreras

389

Racing: A Critical Race Theorist's Qualitative Analysis of Whether African American Male Law School Alumni Were Mismatched or Maligned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the vast research on African Americans and affirmative action, little qualitative analysis has been done to investigate how race exists and functions in American law schools. This dissertation researches the ways in which race is constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed within two American law schools. Three primary lenses guide this…

Jackson, Darrell D.

2012-01-01

390

Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed a rapid method with ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant proanthocyanidins (PAs) directly from crude plant extracts. The method utilizes a range of cone voltages to achieve the depolymeriza...

391

Microscale Procedure for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis with Emphasis on Writing Equations: Chemical Fingerprinting Applied to the "n"-bottle Problem of Matching Samples with Their Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory method for teaching inorganic qualitative analysis and chemical equations is described. The experiment has been designed to focus attention on cations and anions that react to form products. This leads to a logical approach to understand and write chemical equations. The procedure uses 3 mL plastic micropipettes to store and deliver…

Sattsangi, Prem D.

2014-01-01

392

Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

2002-01-01

393

A Qualitative Analysis of Disabilities Support Services in the Virginia Community College System: How Can We Better Serve Special Needs Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation provides a qualitative analysis of support services for students with disabilities and offers recommendations formulated to improve counseling services to future populations. Disability support services (DSS), as practiced by counselors in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS), is examined as a model of support services…

Tutton, Robert J.

394

Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition, a scale was developed for rating the relative effectiveness of whole-class discussions in terms of student participation. This study provides a tool for measuring productive whole-class discussions, as well as practical applications for peer leader (or teacher) training.

Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

395

A qualitative analysis of reasons for leaving, or not attending, a cancer support group.  

PubMed

Factors that influence participation and long-term retention in cancer support groups were examined, through a study of 87 individuals who had dropped out of a cancer support group, and 26 individuals who had never attended such groups, using a combination of interviews and open-ended questionnaire responses. Support group attrition or non-attendance was positioned as resulting from both individual and group factors. Individual factors included resisting or leaving behind a cancer patient identity, presence of existing support, practical issues, and styles of coping. Group factors included mismatches between the group and the individual, lack of knowledge or nonreferral to groups, and problems within individual groups. These disparate factors underlying support group non-attendance need to be taken into consideration when planning support services, when developing programs of education, or when referrals to cancer support groups are made. PMID:18956510

Ussher, Jane M; Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Sandoval, Mirjana

2008-01-01

396

Qualitative analysis of two reconstruction techniques and their application in dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although visualization in the field of dentistry has some of the same requirements as the medicine field, the differences in goal demand specific approaches. This paper reports on the implementation of two fundamentally different approaches to reconstruction of structures from planar cross sections and their application to dentistry data. One of the approaches was an implementation of a distance-based sampling technique, and the other is a new algorithm, based on the Delaunay triangulation. Both were tested using contour data of teeth and the results are compared here in the light of the target applications, which are teaching and training dentistry, as well as simulation of dental procedures and illnesses. Widely mentioned problems encountered in local reconstruction methods such as marching cubes for these cases are clearly illustrated in this paper, and a very satisfactory alternative is given.

Nonato, Luis G.; Minghim, Rosane; Shimabukuro, Milton H.

2000-10-01

397

A Qualitative Engineering Analysis of Occlusion Effects on Mandibular Fracture Repair Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The purpose of this analytical study was to examine and critique the engineering foundations of commonly accepted biomechanical principles of mandible fracture repair. Materials and Methods. Basic principles of static equilibrium were applied to intact and plated mandibles, but instead of the traditional lever forces, the mandibles were subjected to more realistic occlusal forces. Results. These loading conditions produced stress distributions within the intact mandible that were very different and more complex than the customary lever-based gradient. The analyses also demonstrated the entirely different mechanical environments within intact and plated mandibles. Conclusions. Because the loading and geometry of the lever-idealized mandible is incomplete, the associated widely accepted bone stress distribution (tension on top and compression on the bottom) should not be assumed. Furthermore, the stress gradients within the bone of an intact mandible should not be extrapolated to the mechanical environment within the plated regions of a fractured mandible. PMID:22073042

Katona, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

398

The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

2014-01-01

399

Internet Infrastructures and Health Care Systems: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on Networks and Markets in the British National Health Service and Kaiser Permanente  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. Objective To identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization. Methods A qualitative comparative analysis focusing on the British National Health Service and the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization to show how system infrastructures vary according to market dynamics dominated by health care institutions ("push") or by consumer demand ("pull"). System control mechanisms may be technologically embedded, institutional, or behavioral. Results The analysis suggests that telecommunications technologies and the Internet may contribute significantly to health care system performance in a context of ideological diversity. Conclusions The study offers evidence to validate alternative models of health care governance: the national constitution model, and the enterprise business contract model. This evidence also suggests important questions for health care policy makers as well as researchers in telecommunications, organizational theory, and health care management. PMID:12554552

2002-01-01

400

Ecology-centered experiences among children and adolescents: A qualitative and quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research involved two studies that considered ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the opportunity to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences. To do this, I carried out a yearlong ethnographic study at an urban community garden located in a large city in the Southeastern United States. Through participant observations and informal interviews of community garden staff and participants, I found children had opportunities to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences (e.g., interaction with animals) along with other experiences (e.g., playing games, reading books). In light of previous research that shows urban children have diminished ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---because of their lack of ecology-centered experiences (Coley, 2012), the present study may have implications for urban children to learn about ecology. As an extension of Study 1, I carried out a second study (Study 2) to investigate how ecology-centered experiences contribute to adolescents' environmental attitudes and behaviors in light of other contextual factors, namely environmental responsibility support, ecological thought, age and gender. Study 2 addressed three research questions. First, does ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---predict environmental attitudes and behaviors (EAB)? Results showed ecological thought did not predict EAB, an important finding considering the latent assumptions of previous research about the relationship between these two factors (e.g., Brugger, Kaiser, & Roczen, 2011). Second, do two types of contextual support, ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) and environmental responsibility support (i.e., support through the availability of environmentally responsible models) predict EAB? As predicted, results showed that ecology-centered experiences predicted EAB; yet, when environmental responsibility support was taken into consideration, ecology-centered experiences no longer predicted EAB. These findings suggested environmental responsibility support was a stronger predictor than ecology-centered experiences. Finally, do age and gender predict EAB? Consistent with previous research (e.g., Alp, Ertepiner, Tekkaya, & Yilmaz, 2006), age and gender significantly predicted EAB.

Orton, Judy

401

Reducing Hispanic Children's Obesity Risk Factors in the First 1000 Days of Life: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months) mediate Hispanic children's obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children < age 24 months. Domains included influences on childhood obesity risk factors and future intervention ideas. We analyzed data with immersion-crystallization methods until no new themes emerged. Results. Themes included coping with pregnancy may trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Conclusion. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers' understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children.

Woo Baidal, Jennifer A.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Cunningham, Courtney; Taveras, Elsie M.

2015-01-01

402

Barriers to the operation of mental health legislation in Australian emergency departments: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe the perceived barriers faced by emergency clinicians in utilising mental health legislation in Australian hospital emergency departments. A semi-structured interview methodology was used to assess what barriers emergency department doctors and nurses perceive in the operation of mental health legislation. Key findings from the interview data were drawn in accordance with the most commonly represented themes. A total of 36 interviews were conducted with 20 members of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and 16 members of the College for Emergency Nursing Australasia representing the various Australian jurisdictions. Most concerning to clinicians were the effects of access block and overcrowding on the appropriate use of mental health legislation, and the substandard medical care that mental health patients received as a result of long periods in the emergency department. Many respondents were concerned about the lack of applicability of mental health legislation to the emergency department environment, variation in legislation between States and Territories causing problems for clinicians working interstate, and a lack of knowledge and training in mental health legislation. Many felt that clarification of legislative issues around duty of care and intoxicated or violent patients was required. The authors conclude that access block has detrimental effects on emergency mental health care as it does in other areas of emergency medicine. Consideration should be given to uniform national mental health legislation to better serve the needs of people with mental health emergencies. PMID:21774268

Jelinek, George; Mackinlay, Claire; Weiland, Tracey; Hill, Nicole; Gerdtz, Marie

2011-06-01

403

Interpreter-mediated diabetes consultations: a qualitative analysis of physician communication practices  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-provider communication, in particular physicians’ ability to listen to their patients, and support them in making difficult lifestyle changes, is an essential component of effective diabetes care. Clinical communication around diabetes can be especially challenging when language barriers are present, and may contribute to poor diabetes management and outcomes. Clinicians need to be aware of and address potential communication difficulties associated with interpreter-mediated consultations. The purpose of our study was to explore how physicians communicate in interpreter-mediated consultations with diabetic patients, and how their communication behaviors may impact diabetes communication and care. Method We analyzed transcripts from 8 audio recorded, outpatient consultations at the Basel University Hospital general medicine outpatient clinic involving Turkish-speaking patients, German-speaking physicians, and Turkish-German interpreters (both community interpreters and family members). Results Clinicians used closed questions when asking about symptoms and glucose control. When providing information and explanation, they spoke in long and complex speech turns. They often directed their speech to interpreters or became sidetracked by family members’ questions or requests for information. Patients’ participation in the consultation was minimal, and limited to brief answers to clinicians’ questions. Conclusions Clinicians need to be aware of common pitfalls that diminish patient-centeredness during interpreter-mediated consultations, and learn strategies to avoid them. Attention to established guidelines on triadic communication is recommended, as is hands-on training with interpreters. PMID:24152539

2013-01-01

404

A qualitative analysis of the experience and impact of killing in hand-to-hand combat.  

PubMed

A growing body of research suggests that killing during military combat is closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as a number of other adverse mental health related conditions (e.g., dissociative experiences, violent behavior, functional impairment). This article provides first-person perspectives on the experiences and impact of killing by service members with the goal of expanding our understanding of the impact of taking a life during war. In audio-recorded phenomenological interviews, 9 service members described their experiences and the subsequent impact of killing during hand-to-hand combat. A description, supported by participant quotations, was constructed to represent the participants' experiences. Results suggest the experience and aftermath of taking a life in hand-to-hand combat was disturbing, psychologically stressful, and necessitated some form of coping after the event. Service members who killed in hand-to-hand combat viewed their actions as necessary to preserve their life and that killing in hand-to-hand combat was more emotionally taxing than killing by shooting. Our findings may help to improve providers' understanding of service members' first-person experiences of killing in hand-to-hand combat and thus provide the basis for the development of a connected and genuine relationship with such military clients. PMID:25158640

Jensen, Peter R; Simpson, Duncan

2014-08-01

405

A qualitative analysis of the determinants in the choice of a French journal reviewing procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1993 and 2010, two French journals (Aster and Didaskalia) coming from different backgrounds but belonging to the same institution used to publish papers on research in science and technology education. The merging of these journals made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This merging occurred at a time when research is becoming increasingly international which partly determines some of the reviewing procedure choices. In order for a francophone international journal to survive, it needs to take this internationalization into account in a reasoned manner. The author of this article, as a chief editor of RDST (Recherches en Didactique des Sciences et des Technologies)—the journal resulting from the merging- taking part in this merger, analyses the social, cultural and pragmatic determinants which impacted the choices made in reviewing procedures. This paper describes how these diversity of factors leads us to drop the idea of a standard reviewing procedure which would be valid for all journals.

Morge, Ludovic

2014-05-01

406

Reducing Hispanic Children's Obesity Risk Factors in the First 1000 Days of Life: A Qualitative Analysis.  

PubMed

Objectives. Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months) mediate Hispanic children's obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children < age 24 months. Domains included influences on childhood obesity risk factors and future intervention ideas. We analyzed data with immersion-crystallization methods until no new themes emerged. Results. Themes included coping with pregnancy may trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Conclusion. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers' understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children. PMID:25874127

Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Criss, Shaniece; Goldman, Roberta E; Perkins, Meghan; Cunningham, Courtney; Taveras, Elsie M

2015-01-01

407

Why Do Some Eligible Families Forego Public Insurance for Their Children? A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Central to health insurance reform discussions was the recurring question: why are eligible children not enrolled in public insurance programs? We interviewed families with children eligible for public insurance to (1) learn how they view available services and (2) understand their experiences accessing care. METHODS Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 24 parents of children eligible for public coverage but not continuously enrolled were conducted. We used a standard iterative process to identify themes, followed by immersion/crystallization techniques to reflect on the findings. RESULTS Respondents identified four barriers: (1) confusion about insurance eligibility and enrollment, (2) difficulties obtaining public coverage and/or services, (3) limited provider availability, and (4) non-covered services and/or coverage gaps. Regardless of whether families had overcome these barriers, all had experienced stigma associated with needing and using public assistance. There was not just one point in the process where families felt stigmatized. It was, rather, a continual process of stigmatization. We present a theoretical framework that outlines how families continually experience stigma when navigating complex systems to obtain care: when they qualify for public assistance, apply for assistance, accept the assistance, and use the public benefit. This framework is accompanied by four illustrative archetypes. CONCLUSIONS This study provides further insight into why some families forego available public services. It suggests the need for a multi-pronged approach to improving access to health care for vulnerable children, which may require going beyond incremental changes within the current system. PMID:22241340

DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Westfall, Nicholas; Crocker, Stephanie; Eigner, Danielle; Selph, Shelley; Bunce, Arwen; Wallace, Lorraine

2015-01-01

408

Phase Plane Analysis of the Undamped Pendulum Phase plane analysis is a commonly used technique for determining the qualitative  

E-print Network

Phase Plane Analysis of the Undamped Pendulum Phase plane analysis is a commonly used technique pendulum. We first convert this second order equation into a first order system by introducing of the pendulum and y represents its angular velocity. But I find it useful to temporarily ignore this physical

Feldman, Joel

409

A Lacanian view on Balint group meetings: a qualitative analysis of two case presentations  

PubMed Central

Background GPs’ subjectivity is an intrinsic instrument in their daily work. By offering GPs a platform to present and discuss difficult interactions with patients, Balint group work be might provide them an opportunity to explore and articulate aspects of their subjectivity. In order to get a more profound understanding of what participation in a Balint group can offer, we focused on the process of change that can be observed during Balint group meetings. To that end, this study scrutinized two Balint group case discussions on a micro-level. Method Two cases were selected from a larger data set of 68 audio-taped case discussions in four Balint groups. In order to shed light on the type of change that characterizes the presenter’s narrative, we used Lacan’s theoretical distinction between imaginary and symbolic modes of relating to the other. Results In both case discussions, the GPs presenting the case initially appeared to be stuck in a fixed image of a situation, referred to as ‘imaginary relating to the other.’ Through a range of interactions with the group, the presenters were encouraged to explore different subject positions, which allowed them to broaden their initial image of the situation and to discover other issues at stake. This was referred to as a more symbolic way of relating to the other. Conclusion This study throws light on the type of change Balint group participation allows for and on the way this might be achieved. We conclude that Balint group work is potentially beneficial to the participating GPs as well as to the relationship with their patients. PMID:24655833

2014-01-01

410

Chinese immigrant parents’ vaccination decision making for children: a qualitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background While immunization coverage rates for childhood routine vaccines in Hong Kong are almost 100%, the uptake rates of optional vaccines remain suboptimal. Understanding parental decision-making for children’s vaccination is important, particularly among minority groups who are most vulnerable and underserved. This study explored how a subsample of new immigrant mothers from mainland China, a rapidly-growing subpopulation in Hong Kong, made decisions on various childhood and adolescent vaccines for their offspring, and identified key influences affecting their decision making. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 Chinese new immigrant mothers recruited by purposive sampling. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results Participants’ conversation revealed five underlying themes which influenced parents’ vaccination decision-making: (1) Institutional factors, (2) Insufficient vaccination knowledge and advice, (3) Affective impacts on motivation, (4) Vaccination barriers, and (5) Social influences. The role of social norms appeared overwhelmingly salient influencing parents’ vaccination decision making. Institutional factors shaped parent’s perceptions of vaccination necessity. Fear of vaccine-targeted diseases was a key motivating factor for parents adopting vaccination. Insufficient knowledge about vaccines and targeted diseases, lack of advice from health professionals and, if provided, suspicions regarding the motivations for such advice were common issues. Vaccination cost was a major barrier for many new immigrant parents. Conclusions Social norms play a key role influencing parental vaccination decision-making. Insight gained from this study will help inform healthcare providers in vaccination communication and policymakers in future vaccination programme. PMID:24507384

2014-01-01

411

Why Strong Tobacco Control Measures “Can’t” Be Implemented in the U.S. Military: A Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The Institute of Medicine recently called for a tobacco-free military, citing evidence that high rates of tobacco use harm readiness and create enormous costs for the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration. The pro-tobacco activities of the tobacco industry and others, sometimes supported by military authorities even when prohibited by policy, have created a culture highly hospitable to smoking. Through qualitative secondary analysis of data from interviews and focus groups, this article explores the reasons enlisted personnel and their supervisors, installation tobacco control managers, and service policy leaders give for why tobacco control policy change “cannot” effectively be achieved. Three primary reasons were given: policies would impinge on the “right to smoke,” policies would be unenforceable and lead to disciplinary breakdown, and the rights of civilian workers on military installations precluded policy enforcement. Yet evidence suggests that these reasons are not only invalid, but inconsistent with military policies addressing other threats to the health of personnel. This pervasive tobacco “exceptionalism” is a significant barrier to achieving a tobacco-free military. The military, Congress, and the President should re-evaluate the “can’ts” that have prevented effective action, and act to regulate and eventually abolish tobacco use in the armed forces. PMID:23113448

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

412

Social participation of children and adolescents with cochlear implants: a qualitative analysis of parent, teacher, and child interviews.  

PubMed

Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of interviews with parents, teachers, and pediatric cochlear implant users themselves in three eastern states of Australia. We interviewed 24 parents, 15 teachers, and 11 children and adolescents. The findings displayed commonalities across the three groups of participants, indicating positive experiences around the children's psychosocial development with their cochlear implants, but also ongoing difficulties communicating in groups of people and problems related to social skills. Some children had little contact with other deaf children (with or without cochlear implants) despite parents and teachers perceiving such contact beneficial. Children attending schools where there were other deaf children valued friendships with both deaf and hearing peers. Adolescence was a particularly difficult time for some as they struggled with feelings of self-consciousness about their deafness and external cochlear implant equipment and worries around friendships, dating, and their future place in the world. Recommendations for practice and further research are made. PMID:21372111

Punch, Renée; Hyde, Merv

2011-01-01

413

African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major and profession: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics. PMID:18589028

Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W

2008-07-01

414

Between Two Worlds: A Multi-Institutional Qualitative Analysis of Students’ Reflections on Joining the Medical Profession  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recent changes in healthcare system and training mandates have altered the clinical learning environment. We incorporated reflective writing into Internal Medicine clerkships (IMcs) in multiple institutions so students could consider the impact of clerkship experiences on their personal and professional development. We analyzed student reflections to inform curricula and support learning. METHODS We qualitatively analyzed the reflections of students at 3 US medical schools during IMcs (N?=?292) to identify themes, tone, and reflective quality using an iterative approach. Chi-square tests assessed differences between these factors and across institutions. FINDINGS Students openly described powerful experiences. Major themes focused on 4 categories: personal issues (PI), professional development (PD), relational issues (RI), and medical care (MC). Each major theme was represented at each institution, although with significant variability between institutions in many of the subcategories including student role (PI), development-as-a-physician (PD), professionalism (PD) (p?analysis suggests that students at 3 institutions reflect on similar experiences. Theme variability across institutions implies curricula should be tailored to local culture. Reflective quality analysis suggests students are better equipped to reflect on certain experiences over others, which may impact learning. Student reflections can function as a mirror for our organizations, offer institutional feedback for support and improvement, and inform curricula for learners and faculty. PMID:18612724

Harrell, Heather E.; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Cifu, Adam S.; Alper, Eric; Johnson, Krista M.; Hatem, David

2008-01-01

415

Blind analysis results of the TWIST experiment  

E-print Network

The TRIUMF Weak Interaction Symmetry Test (TWIST) experiment was designed to test the standard model at high precision in the purely leptonic decay of polarized muons. A general four-fermion interaction model is used to describe the muon decay. TWIST measures three of the four muon decay parameters of this model, $\\rho$, $\\delta$ and $P_{\\mu}^{\\pi} \\xi$, from the shape of the momentum-angle spectrum. The results of this model independent approach are compared to the standard model predictions and used to constrain new physics. Our collaboration has finalized the blind analysis of the final experimental data taken in 2006 and 2007. This analysis mostly reached our goal of a precision of an order of magnitude improvement over the pre-TWIST measurements.

A. Hillairet; R. Bayes; J. F. Bueno; Y. I. Davydov; P. Depommier; W. Faszer; M. C. Fujiwara; C. A. Gagliardi; A. Gaponenko; A. Grossheim; D. R. Gill; P. Gumplinger; M. D. Hasinoff; R. S. Henderson; J. Hu; D. D. Koetke; R. P. MacDonald; G. M. Marshall; E. W. Mathie; R. E. Mischke; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; R. Openshaw; J. -M. Poutissou; R. Poutissou; V. Selivanov; G. Sheffer; B. Shin; T. D. S. Stanislaus; R. Tacik; R. E. Tribble

2010-06-04

416

“Completely out-at-sea” with “two-gender medicine”: A qualitative analysis of physician-side barriers to providing healthcare for transgender patients  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the transgender community have identified healthcare access barriers, yet a corresponding inquiry into healthcare provider perspectives has lagged. Our aim was to examine physician perceptions of barriers to healthcare provision for transgender patients. Methods This was a qualitative study with physician participants from Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were used to capture a progression of ideas related to barriers faced by physicians when caring for trans patients. Qualitative data were then transcribed verbatim and analysed with an emergent grounded theory approach. Results A total of thirteen (13) physician participants were interviewed. Analysis revealed healthcare barriers that grouped into five themes: Accessing resources, medical knowledge deficits, ethics of transition-related medical care, diagnosing vs. pathologising trans patients, and health system determinants. A centralising theme of “not knowing where to go or who to talk to” was also identified. Conclusions The findings of this study show that physicians perceive barriers to the care of trans patients, and that these barriers are multifactorial. Access barriers impede physicians when referring patients to specialists or searching for reliable treatment information. Clinical management of trans patients is complicated by a lack of knowledge, and by ethical considerations regarding treatments—which can be unfamiliar or challenging to physicians. The disciplinary division of responsibilities within medicine further complicates care; few practitioners identify trans healthcare as an interest area, and there is a tendency to overemphasise trans status in mental health evaluations. Failure to recognise and accommodate trans patients within sex-segregated healthcare systems leads to deficient health policy. The findings of this study suggest potential solutions to trans healthcare barriers at the informational level—with increased awareness of clinical guidelines and by including trans health issues in medical education—and at the institutional level, with support for both trans-focused and trans-friendly primary care models. PMID:22559234

2012-01-01

417

Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records  

PubMed Central

Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people. PMID:24460955

2014-01-01

418

From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

Pearl, Judea

1994-01-01

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