Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.
Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…
Applewhite, Steven Lozano
Quantitative methods such as logical positivism often view nondominant groups as deviant and purport to be objective. Qualitative methods such as ethnography help educational gerontologists understand diverse elderly populations and allow elders to participate in the process of defining reality and producing knowledge. (SK)
Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.
This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative Inquiry: Meaning…
Edmunds, S; Brown, G
The purpose of this paper is to assist dental researchers to develop their expertise in qualitative research. It sketches the key characteristics of qualitative research; summarises theoretical perspectives; outlines the core skills of qualitative data collection and the procedures which underlie three methods of qualitative research: interviewing, focus groups and concept maps. The paper offers some guidance on writing qualitative research and provides examples of qualitative research drawn from dentistry and dental education. PMID:22494310
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…
Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert Q., III.
Mathematics education has benefited from qualitative methodological approaches over the past 40 years across diverse topics. Although the number, type, and quality of qualitative research studies in mathematics education has changed, little is known about how a collective body of qualitative research findings contributes to our understanding of a…
Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant
When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…
Willis, Jerry W.
"Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…
Dooley, Kim E.
The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…
The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian in commensurability thesis (a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchers have interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (research programme) as a revolutionary break through in the Kuhnian sense. A review of the literature in areas relevant to science education shows that researchers are far from advocating qualitative research as the only methodology. It is concluded that competition between divergent approaches to research in science education (cf. Lakatos, 1970) would provide a better forum for a productive sharing of research experiences.
Merriam, Sharan B.
A practical guide for designing and carrying out qualitative case study in education is provided. How-to advice for managing all phases of case study research is included. The focus is on case studies that draw from what is commonly known as the qualitative research paradigm rather than a quantitative, positivistic, experimental orientation. Three…
Murray, Carola; And Others
Three qualitative research methodologies (ethnography, microethnography, and ethology) are contrasted according to their disciplinary origins, methods for data collection and analysis, and use of audiovisual technology. Studies that exemplify the special education applications of these methodologies are summarized. (Author)
Smith, Mary Lee
Article defines qualitative research and describes the form that an article based on qualitative research might take. Encourages readers to submit articles based on qualitative research to the American Educational Research Journal. (RB)
Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.
This study used consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of international immersion on counselor education students' (N = 10) development and growth. Seven domains emerged from the data (cultural knowledge, empathy, personal and professional impact, process/reflection, relationships, personal characteristics, and…
Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Carducci, Rozana, Ed.; Kuby, Candace R., Ed.
"Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry" is an edited volume that examines the possibilities and tensions encountered by scholars who adopt disruptive qualitative approaches to the study of educational contexts, issues, and phenomena. It presents a collection of innovative and intellectually stimulating chapters which illustrate the potential…
Imel, Susan; Kerka, Sandra; Wonacott, Michael E.
Directed at practitioners in adult and career education, this document defines qualitative research, compares qualitative research to quantitative research, describes the "war" between proponents of each kind of research, describes how to assess qualitative research, and explains how to choose and use qualitative techniques. Pitfalls of using…
Merriam, Sharan B.
This book offers a resource guide for qualitative researchers in education, discussing data collection techniques, data analysis, reporting, and the issues of validity, reliability, and ethics. Part 1 reviews the nature and design of qualitative research; it discusses various types of qualitative research (including case studies), and how to…
Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi
This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…
This article presents an overview and discussion of qualitative research in education by analyzing the roles of researchers, the history of the field, its use in policymaking, and its future influence on educational reform. The article begins by describing the unique position that qualitative educational researchers have in higher education, as…
Wright, Handel Kashope
This essay addresses the topic of the state of qualitative research in education by asserting that qualitative research in education is in quite a state. Drawing heavily on Denzin and Lincoln's periodization of qualitative research as a guide, it outlines the various competing developments from within and outside that are vying to characterize the…
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Maxwell, Joseph A.
The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…
There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…
Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.
Explains the pros and cons of the qualitative and quantitative research methods and discusses the role of assessment objectives on choosing the research methodologies. Presents an example study. Includes 13 references. (Author/YDS)
Burge, Elizabeth J.
This report discusses the nature of research in the context of distance education and suggests that qualitative research be included as a research methodology for distance education research. Noting that qualitative research represents a shift toward more perceptual, context-embedded interpretive inquiry, the paper argues that it is well suited to…
Sears, James T.
The article uses research examples to explore how critical and constructionist social theory can raise and address questions of homosexuality in education. It outlines methodological strengths and weaknesses and examines critical research questions that qualitative research methodologies employing critical and constructionist theories might…
One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…
Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.
Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…
Taylor, Edward W.; Beck, Julie; Ainsworth, Elaine
Grounded theory was used to design a content analysis of peer reviewer comments on qualitative research. Six themes emerged: What is the purpose of the study? How does it build on previous research? How thorough is the methodology? How are the findings presented? What are the contributions, implications, significance? and Is the paper well…
Anderson, Gary L.
This article is a critical review of the 1992 "Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education." The article examines diverse approaches to qualitative field research, discusses ambiguous relationships between education and parent disciplines, notes how the collection represents current dialogue, and examines chapters on critical ethnology. (SM)
This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…
Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Nooredin
Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effective patient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patient education from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture. PMID:23983743
Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…
It is only by the considered and judicious use of a range of methodologies that educators, policymakers and the public can make real advances to the system for teaching students to reach their full reading potential. By limiting reading instruction research to experimental and quasiexperimental studies, the National Reading Panel missed critical…
This is a revised version of the 2003 British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Presidential Address delivered at the 7th Oxford International Conference on Education and Development. The processes of globalisation have been viewed by some as a major threat to the qualitative research tradition in education. Two main…
Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn
Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…
In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…
Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.; Haworth, Jennifer Grant, Ed.; Lattuca, Lisa R., Ed.
Chapters in this volume provide an introduction to qualitative research in higher education, organizing the discussion around four central themes. Part 1, Situating Ourselves and Our Inquiry, contains: (1) Objectivity in Educational Research (Elliot Eisner); (2) Truth in Trouble (Kenneth Gergen); (3) Beyond Translation: Truth and Rigoberta Menchu…
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, DeeDee
Triangulation involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitative methods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and…
Schutz, Robert W.
This article comments upon the use of qualitative research in physical education, exercise, and sport science. Topics include unresolved methodological problems, data analysis, and the scope of qualitative research. (IAH)
This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…
Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary
As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…
Maksic, Slavica; Pavlovic, Jelena
The aim of this paper is to investigate implicit theories of educational researchers on creativity and the potential to support creativity in schools. We used qualitative thematic analysis of material produced by 27 educational experts from Serbia. Personal explicit theories about manifestations of creativity are mainly based on qualities and…
Challenges theory's secure place in qualitative inquiry on three counts. Argues (1) the search for theory in such inquiry originates in a crypto-functionalism; (2) theory's supposed importance for policy formulation cannot in itself justify it; and (3) arguments about its successful use are belied by examining discussion about theory in those…
Metcalfe, Amy Scott
Visual juxtaposition is inquiry through contrast, facilitated by side-by-side positioning of two images, or images and text. When combined with a theoretical foundation that explores interactions between the material and discursive elements of visual data, juxtaposition creates opportunities for qualitative analysis that are not as readily…
Kridel, Craig, Ed.
This collection examines many influences of biographical inquiry in education and discusses methodological issues from the perspectives of veteran and novice biographers. The section on qualitative research and educational biography contains the following chapters: "Musings on Life Writing: Biography and Case Studies in Teacher Education" (Robert…
Over the past 30 years, qualitative research has emerged as a widely accepted alternative to the quantitative paradigm for performing research in educational communications and technology. As the new paradigm has evolved, it has spawned a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques that have both increased its potential…
Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…
Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma
Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…
Rothe, J. Peter
This article focuses on the linkage between the quantitative and qualitative distance education research methods. The concept that serves as the conceptual link is termed "complementarity." The definition of complementarity emerges through a simulated study of FernUniversitat's mentors. The study shows that in the case of the mentors, educational…
Cox, Rebecca D.
Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…
Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.
Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid
This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…
Martin, Kathleen Jeanette
This paper examines the philosophical and methodological perspectives of qualitative research and the guiding principles of confluent education. The paper presents issues, concerns, and criticisms of both paradigms and discusses areas for their mutual support and improvement. Qualitative research has established itself as a research methodology…
Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce
In this response to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…
A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory
Hartle, R. Todd
Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships
Freebody, Peter; Freiberg, Jill
The state of qualitative research in education is addressed in this paper in terms of three categories of scientific inquiry (following Heap, 1992) and the varying place and function of qualitative work in each of these categories. The argument is put that one of these categories of inquiry, specifically cultural human sciences, offers the…
Schutz, R W
Larry Locke's timely and well-written introduction to qualitative research procedures will undoubtedly serve its purpose. It makes us reassess our traditional beliefs and practices, educates us on the rudiments of qualitative methodology, and, hopefully, makes us more tolerant and appreciative of alternate ways of conducting research. Although Locke focuses his paper on pedagogical research issues, it is important to realize that many other sub-disciplines within the general field of physical education also utilize qualitative procedures. For example, 10 years ago Martens (1979) called for a paradigm shift in sport psychology by appealing to researchers to abandon their labs and to embark on naturalistic field studies. While North American sport psychologists, and psychologists in general, have been slow to formalize qualitative techniques, the European psychology community has been much more active (e.g., Ashworth, Giorgi, & de Koning, 1986). Perhaps Locke's article will encourage researchers in all our sub-disciplines to consider the utility of qualitative research. Hopefully, readers will treat Locke's article as an introduction to the broad area of qualitative research and not as a rigorous set of procedures for conducting participant observation research in school physical education studies. Additionally, it must be recognized that there are other approaches and other applications, that the area has its critics and its unresolved methodological problems, and that qualitative research does not necessarily exclude the application of formalized data analyses. Keeping these issues in mind, the addition of qualitative approaches to our repetoire of research methodologies can only enhance the quality of research in physical education and exercise and sport science. PMID:2489822
LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.
In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580
Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie
This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…
Willis, Jerry; Jost, Muktha
Discusses the use of computers in qualitative research, including sources of information; collaboration; electronic discussion groups; Web sites; Internet search engines; electronic sources of data; data collection; communicating research results; desktop publishing; hypermedia and multimedia documents; electronic publishing; holistic and…
Hopper, Tim F.; Madill, Leanna E.; Bratseth, Chris D.; Cameron, Kathi A.; Coble, James D.; Nimmon, Laura E.
The purpose of this article is to outline the potential genres of qualitative research that can be used to research the domains of health, sport, recreation, and physical education. Drawing on Denzin and Lincoln (2000) and Sparkes (2002a), and connecting to the work of six researchers, this article will present five genres of qualitative research…
Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…
Creswell, John W.
"Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research" offers a truly balanced, inclusive, and integrated overview of the processes involved in educational research. This text first examines the general steps in the research process and then details the procedures for conducting specific types…
The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…
Current definitions and philosophical foundations of qualitative research are presented; and designs, evaluation methods, and issues in application of qualitative research to education are discussed. The effects of positivism and the post-positivist era on qualitative research are outlined, and naturalist and positivist approaches are contrasted.…
Ragsdale, Judith R; Orme-Rogers, Charles; Bush, Johnny C; Stowman, Sheryl Lyndes; Seeger, Rodney W
This study advances the work of developing a theory for educating Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) Supervisors by describing the behaviors which result from the successful completion of CPE supervisory education. Twenty-eight Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE) Certification Commissioners were interviewed to identify the behaviors demonstrated by Supervisory Education Students (Candidates) which influenced the decision to certify them at the level of Associate Supervisor. Specific behavioral descriptors are listed for each ACPE supervisory competency. PMID:26956745
Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Klass, Patricia H.
This study examined whether new streamed Internet audio and video technology could be used for primary instruction in off-campus research classes. Several different off-campus student cohorts at Illinois State university enrolled in both a fall semester qualitative research methods class and a spring semester quantitative research methods class.…
The article explores how the Internet and email offer space for participants to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…
Qualitative research has extended the boundaries of legitimate knowledge by including the insights of "subjects", valuing the voices of groups that have been excluded from telling their stories, seeing the complex ways researchers may be positioned in relation to other research participants, and becoming more diverse in their views of validity and…
Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Normore, Anthony H.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues relayed to appropriate design and conduct of qualitative studies in educational leadership. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is a conceptual/logical argument that centers around the notion that while scholars in the field have at times paid attention to such dynamics, it is important…
Dockrell, W. B.
This article responds to the "Standards for Evaluation of Educational Programs, Projects and Materials" by addressing three issues in qualitative research: (1) data quality; (2) data verification; and (3) collusion between evaluators and their sponsors. To be of maximum international value, the standards report needs more emphasis on qualitative…
Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.
Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…
Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Cilesiz, Sebnem; Hayes, Sharon
This article seeks to demystify, through deconstruction, the concept of "interdisciplinarity" in the context of qualitative research to contribute to a new praxis of knowledge production through reflection on the possibilities and impossibilities of interdisciplinarity. A review and discussion of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity leads the…
Adair, Jennifer Keys; Pastori, Giulia
The Children Crossing Borders (CCB) study is a polyvocal, multi-sited project on immigration and early childhood education and care in five countries: Italy, Germany, France, England and the USA. The complicated nature of the data pushed us as a group to expand our methodological resources to not only organize the data but also to make it…
Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Kuntz, Aaron M.
In this article, the authors critically examine the use of space in education research and illustrate how spatial analyses of education reframe persistent educational problems in productive, actionable ways. The authors juxtapose critical spatial analyses with traditional temporal analyses. The authors approach the knowledge-construction process…
This literature review looks at the way in which the researcher-practitioner relationship is described in research publications. The main finding of this review points to: a limited description and discussion of the relationship; a similarly limited, sometimes confusing, understanding of the notion of collaboration; as well as limited…
This study explores the usefulness of reflexive photography for qualitative research in the human and social sciences. The investigation was done in the context of how male academics construct their world in a university during transformation. A group of white, male academics in the human sciences were provided with a camera and were requested to…
McDuffie, Kimberly A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
In response to recent trends and legislation, the concept of implementing evidence-based practices has become a critical component of contemporary schooling. It is important that teachers and families of students with disabilities understand the role that qualitative research plays in determining whether a practice is in fact evidence based.…
Fienberg, Stephen E.; Larntz, Kinley
This research project addresses a series of methodological and theoretical statistical problems in the analysis of categorical data using loglinear and logistic response models, which grow directly out of problems in the study of the American educational system, and in basic educational research. The project focuses on the adaptation and…
Brooks, Gordon P.
As lines between research paradigms continue to blur with the ever-increasing popularity of mixed methods research, there are useful, and occasionally oxymoronic, opportunities for educational researchers to juxtapose tools from opposing methods. The gold standard is just not possible in so much of what we do with small-scale research, nor is it…
Marceau, Lisa D; Welch, Lisa C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pearson, Gail D
A gap in information about pediatric clinical trials exists, and parents remain uncertain about what is involved in research studies involving children. We aimed to understand parent perspectives about pediatric clinical research after viewing the online Children and Clinical Studies (CaCS) program. Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted focus groups with parents and phone interviews with physicians. Three themes emerged providing approaches to improve parent's understanding of clinical research by including strategies where parents (a) hear from parents like themselves to learn about pediatric research, (b) receive general clinical research information to complement study-specific details, and (c) are provided more information about the role of healthy child volunteers. Parents found the website a valuable tool that would help them make a decision about what it means to participate in research. This tool can assist parents, providers, and researchers by connecting general information with study-specific information. PMID:26711142
Competence-based teacher education provides new knowledge within the knowledge triangle of education, research and innovation. Communicative competence is of the greatest importance which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission, 2004). The successful…
Hatch, J. Amos, Ed.
This book consists of a set of studies and essays that represent the best work being done in the area of qualitative research in early childhood settings (children from birth to about age 8). Research in this area involves studies of young children in educational contexts, day care, and preschool settings. The Introduction, "Qualitative Research…
Analyzes a research project that utilizes a coherent conceptual model of art education research incorporating the demand for empirical rigor and providing for diverse interpretive frameworks. Briefly profiles the NUD*IST (Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) software system that can organize and retrieve complex…
Harry, Beth; Fenton, Patrice
This article reviews 15 qualitative studies examining factors contributing to the overrepresentation of minorities in special education. Eleven studies constituted numerical surveys of practitioner perspectives, with additional questions that were analyzed qualitatively. Four studies relied on face-to-face interviews or qualitative surveys,…
Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul; McLean, Monica
Drawing upon their large three-year mixed-method study comparing four English university sociology departments, the authors demonstrate the benefits to be gained from concisely recording biographical stories on life-grids. They argue that life-grids have key benefits which are important for comparative European educational research. Some of these…
The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194
Maxwell, Joseph A.
The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…
Flinders, David J.
Questions efficacy of Department of Education's recent decision to support only studies using quantitative experimental research designs. Describes advantages of qualitative research. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)
DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar
Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644
Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Doebbeling, Bradley
The rapid uptake of qualitative approaches in translational research can be best understood in the context of recent innovations in health services research, as well as an overarching concern with improving the quality of health care. Qualitative approaches highlight the human dimension in health care by foregrounding the perceptions, experiences, and behaviors of both consumers and providers of care. As such, these methods are particularly useful for addressing the complex issues related to improving health care quality and implementing system change. This overview traces a brief history of the factors contributing to the recent and rapid growth of qualitative methods in health research in general and translational research in particular; describes the varieties of qualitative approaches employed in this research; and illustrates the utility of these approaches for variable identification, instrument development, description/explanation of patient/provider perceptions and behaviors, individual/organizational change, and theory refinement. PMID:17129338
Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.
This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…
Despite the hostility to positivism shown by qualitative methodologists in nursing, as in other disciplines, the epistemological and ontological instincts of qualitative researchers seem to coincide with those of the positivists, especially Bayesian positivists. This article suggests that positivists and qualitative researchers alike are pro-observation, proinduction, pro-plausibility and pro-subjectivity. They are also anti-cause, anti-realist, anti-explanation, anti-correspondence, anti-truth. In only one respect is there a significant difference between positivist and qualitative methodologists: most positivists have believed that, methodologically, the natural sciences and the social sciences are the same; most qualitative researchers are adamant that they are not. However, if positivism fails as a philosophy of the natural sciences (which it probably does), it might well succeed as a philosophy of the social sciences, just because there is a methodological watershed between the two. Reflex antagonism to positivism might therefore be a major obstacle to understanding the real reasons why qualitative research and the natural sciences are methodologically divergent; and less hostility on the part of qualitative nurse researchers might bring certain advantages in its wake. PMID:11885869
In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…
Perez-Sabater, Carmen; Montero-Fleta, Begona
The application of new technologies and media has changed the concept of teaching and learning, offering effective and attractive possibilities to the educational system, particularly to the learning of languages in specific contexts. Educators in general will agree on the importance of motivation as a key to success in language acquisition as it…
Drisko, James W.
This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…
Nieminen, H; Sansoni, J
The aim of this article is to open a discussion on Nursing research methods. Authors give some thoughts on qualitative nursing research and underlining the difference between positivistic and teleological vision. Relationship between inductive and deductive thinking is discussed. PMID:10474458
Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.
The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…
Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani
This study reports on an action research on increasing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' confidence in speaking. Participants involved in this study were 16 male university students who had an upper-intermediate level of English. Extra speaking activities were incorporated into the classroom for 8 successive weeks. Insights into…
There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or…
Boyd, C O
Although new and still emerging for us, qualitative research approaches have been receiving considerable attention for some time in other disciplines. Along with philosophical debates, there are debates about whether there needs to be a debate. On a philosophical level, there is irreconcilable conflict between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. It is important to recognize this conflict, avoiding illogical compromise. Yet, proponents of each paradigm need to applaud both the existence of the other and the hybrid paradigms that inevitably are born of conflict. An apt beginning would be broader definitions of what constitutes science and research in nursing, eliminating the sense-organ bias that is so contrary to our philosophy for practice. This alone would provide qualitative nurse researchers with the sanction they need to progress in their exploration of various approaches to creating a science and a body of knowledge in, for, and about nursing practice. In the chapters to follow, readers will be introduced to several qualitative research approaches. Each approach represents an interpretation of the qualitative paradigm in nursing research, grounded in the general perspective of phenomenological philosophy. This perspective focuses on phenomena as they appear and recognizes that reality is subjective and a matter of appearances for us in our social world. Subjectivity means that the world becomes real through our contact with it and acquires meaning through our interpretations of that contact. Truth, then, is a composite of realities, and access to truth is a problem of access to human subjectivity. This perspective guides the qualitative researcher in nursing to the subject matter of lived experiences, which are the original contacts with a world, and of the processes and content of interpretation--the meaning attributions that constitute realities and perspectives for a future of possibilities in the world. Other consequences of a phenomenological
Mertens, Donna M.
In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each chapter…
Pitney, William A.; Parker, Jenny
Objective: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. Background: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. Description: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. Applications: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540
Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael
Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…
Lee, Cheu-Jey George
This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…
Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…
Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…
Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes. PMID:27093324
An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...
Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.
This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…
Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna
Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…
Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…
Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Barko, Tim
Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at some…
Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris
Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…
LeTendre, Gerald K.
Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)
de la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen
Reflexivity is an English term that Spanish speaking people have to assign a technical meaning. Reflexivity expresses the conscience of researchers conscience and refers to their connection with the study's situation. It is a process by which researchers step back to critically exam the effect they have on the study and the impact of their interactions with participants. The reflexive process is embedded in all research levels and is present in all the research phases, from the research question to fieldwork, from data analysis to writing the final report. Nevertheless, the question is not so much to engage in reflective activities but to be a reflexive researcher. Reflexivity is a human ability that is present during social interactions. For this reason it is present in qualitative research. A self inquirer can be addressed as it is constructed by the relationships and interactions that are established with study participants. Reflexivity has an educational character that continues after the study is completed. PMID:21531602
Sawada, Daiyo; Pothier, Yvonne
As an alternative to traditional methodology in education research, an approach transcending the distinction between quantitative and qualitative perspectives is suggested. Emerging insights in qualitative research can be enhanced by beginning with the phenomenon of emerging order. The theory of Dissipative Structures suggests that research…
Bufkin, Melissa A.
Qualitative research is a type of research process that is widely used to give people a voice while researching a particular subject matter. In using this research process, one must understand how important it is to develop research questions within the qualitative research process. The purpose of this article is to aid researchers in the…
Husband, Robert; Foster, William
Discusses the basic character of qualitative, humanistic research, identifying its philosophical and theoretical commitments. Provides a taxonomy of investigative strategies employed, including naturalistic inquiry, contextualization, maximized comparisons, sensitizing concepts, and analytic induction. Classifies methods employed as participant…
This is the third in a series of policy reports on the results of a four-year study of America's education schools. This report focuses on the need for quality education research and on the preparation of scholars and researchers who conduct such research. Approximately two decades into a school improvement movement, education research is assuming…
Collins, Donald R.
This book outlines a methodology for viewing multiple generations of African Americans, specifically those who were called or called themselves Negro, Colored, Black, or African American (NCBAA). Within this framework, African Americans of varying ages describe their lives and educational experiences, allowing researchers to address a variety of…
This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.
Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery
In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research…
Pascoa, Maria Beatriz Amorim
Because the production of scientific and technological innovations has been at the center of debates for economic growth, scientists are recognized as important actors in the current global market. In this study, I will examine the undergraduate education of future scientists by focusing on students working in research projects of faculty members. This research activity has been promoted by American and Brazilian public agencies as an attempt to attract more college students to scientific careers as well as to improve their future performance in science. Evaluations of these programs have focused on important quantitative indicators focusing mainly on the amount of students that later choose to pursue scientific careers. However, these studies fail to address important educational aspects of undergraduates' experience. In this research, I explore the educational processes taking place as students are introduced to the making of science in order to understand how and what they are learning. Three bodies of literature illuminates the formulation and the analysis of the research questions: (1) theories of globalization situate the education of scientists within the dynamics of a broader social, economic, cultural, and historical framework; (2) the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire is the basis for the understanding of the pedagogical processes shaping undergraduate students' experiences within the research site; (3) Critical and Cultural Studies of Science and Technology illuminate the analysis of the complex interactions and practices constructed within the laboratory. In order to understand the educational processes shaping the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in research activities, I conducted a qualitative investigation based on participant-observation and in-depth interviews in an American and a Brazilian laboratories. The two sites constituted insightful case studies that illuminated the understanding of inquires about the training of students in
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…
Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634
Aim: The purpose of this critical literature review was to examine qualitative studies done on innovative nursing curriculums in order to determine which qualitative methods have been most effective in investigating the effectiveness of the curriculum and which would be most appropriate in an Arab Islamic country. Data Sources: At least 25 studies…
Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene
Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…
For qualitative researchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and research methods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitative researchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data. PMID:19843971
Qualitative research evokes rather stereotyped responses from the mainstream of social science. The following 10 standardized responses to the stimulus "qualitative research interview" (QRI) are discussed: (1) it is not scientific, only common sense; (2) it is not objective, but subjective; (3) it is not trustworthy, but biased; (4) it is not…
Chenail, Ronald J.
The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.
This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…
Morrow, Susan L.
Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…
Developed as a hands-on guide for students engaged in educational research, this book provides an introduction to key qualitative and quantitative methods necessary for those commencing research for the first time. The reader is shown how these methods work and how their outcomes may be interpreted. The book includes: (1) A variety of examples and…
Poulin, Karen L.
Qualitative research has become increasingly perceived as well suited to the advancement of counseling psychology, yet opportunities for formal training in qualitative inquiry remain inconsistently available within and across graduate programs. For the potential contribution of this approach to counseling psychology to be realized, graduate…
Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel
This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…
Nelson, Mary Lee; Quintana, Stephen M.
This article provides an overview of how qualitative research methods (QRMs) can augment the literature in child and adolescent clinical psychology by contributing to theory and hypothesis building. We discuss the utility of qualitative methods in examining the nature of clinical processes and obtaining deeper understandings about quantitative…
Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro
Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…
This article discusses how the underlying assumptions and practices of teacher research position it as a distinct form of educational inquiry, and identifies qualitative methodology as a central influence on the work. A discussion of some of the common conceptualizations and processes of PK-12 teacher research, the complex yet continually changing…
Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: "quantitative" versus "qualitative." In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the "subjective" and the "objective," and they question the attribution of generalizability to only…
Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth
Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…
Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.
The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…
Arieli, Daniella; Tamir, Batya; Man, Michal
The aim of the present article is to present a model for teaching qualitative research as part of nursing education. The uniqueness of the course model is that it seeks to combine two objectives: (1) initial familiarization of the students with the clinical-nursing environment and the role of the nurse; and (2) understanding the qualitative research approach and inculcation of basic qualitative research skills. The article describes how teaching two central genres in qualitative research - ethnographic and narrative research - constitutes a way of teaching the important skills, concepts, and values of the nursing profession. The article presents the model's structure, details its principal stages, and explains the rationale of each stage. It also presents the central findings of an evaluation of the model's implementation in eight groups over a two-year period. In this way the article seeks to contribute to nursing education literature in general, and to those engaged in clinical training and teaching qualitative research in nursing education in particular. PMID:25799426
McWilliam, R. A.
This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…
This paper draws on my doctoral research study based on consulting work with three primary school Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators (SENCos) that took place in 2008. The study examined the interactions that arose in the consultations with the SENCos and their staff. The findings that emerged from the application of Grounded Theory research…
Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…
Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair
The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…
Enos, Anya Dozier
Pueblo communities want local research to be linked to community needs. To address this requirement, university research must shift from a set agenda that addresses personal or professional goals to a flexible design that moves toward a community-based goal. This can be achieved through collaboration with the Pueblo community. Key to developing…
The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…
Hays, Danica G.; Singh, Anneliese A.
This highly readable text demystifies the qualitative research process--and helps readers conceptualize their own studies--by organizing the different research paradigms and traditions into coherent clusters. Real-world examples and firsthand perspectives illustrate the research process; instructive exercises and activities build on each other so…
Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica
Systems designed to ensure that teaching and student learning are of a suitable quality are a feature of universities globally. Quality assurance systems are central to attempts to internationalise higher education, motivated in part by a concern for greater global equality. Yet, if such systems incorporate comparisons, the tendency is to reflect…
Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle
As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…
This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a PMID:7633241
Wong, Li Ping
Background This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. Methods A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%), Chinese (34%), and Indian (31%) young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Results The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. Conclusion This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs. PMID:23272156
Booker, Keonya C.
The purpose of this paper is to describe pedagogical approaches to qualitative methodology by an instructor of educational psychology at a large research university. The essay begins with an overview of how my graduate training influenced my orientation to empirical study. Next, I will focus on the obstacles encountered when instructing graduate…
Zaruba, Karen E.; And Others
A study investigated the standards used in refereeing scholarly journal articles to judge qualitative research methods. Examination of reviewers' critiques of 57 manuscripts submitted to the "Review of Higher Education" revealed 7 themes that reviewers focused on, and also found reviewers emphasized good writing and clear articulation of all…
Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro
This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…
Robley, Lois R.
Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)
Mendes, Maria Emilia Xavier; Hall, Wendy
Describes a qualitative evaluation that analyzed the processes involved in the authoring of hypermedia applications for education by interviewing both researchers and lecturers from the University of Southampton involved in the development of hypermedia. Considers the quality characteristics of reusability of information, maintainability of…
Robley, L R
Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitative research process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to participate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to probe deeply, when therapy or nursing care supersedes research, and what and how case studies should be documented in the published results are all matters for ethical deliberation. This article seeks to examine some of the less obvious, yet very important, ethical concerns that nurses face throughout the research process and build a common core of values that can lead to meaningful process and socially responsible research results. PMID:7844283
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675
Dingwall, R; Murphy, E; Watson, P; Greatbatch, D; Parker, S
This paper reviews the contribution of qualitative methods to health services research (HSR) and discusses some of the issues involved in recognizing quality in such work. The place of qualitative work is first defined by reference to Archie Cochrane's agenda for HSR and the limitations of the recent focus on randomized trials as the standard method. Health care practice involves large elements of improvisation which cannot be captured by evidence-based approaches. Qualitative methods offer ways of understanding this improvisation and of identifying more efficient and effective practices, as well as considering the traditional topics of equity and humanity. The methodological procedures of qualitative work reflect a long-established inductive tradition in scientific practice. The logic of grounded theory provides a contemporary specification. In its application, it is quite different from the methodological anarchy of postmodernism. The use of qualitative research and the theoretically stated generalizations which arise from it inform reflective work by health service managers, planners and clinicians. PMID:10185376
Stake, Robert E.
This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…
Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan
Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…
Mburu, J; Cogswell, L; Crane, E; Todreas, I L
The Essential Drugs Program in Kenya's Ministry of Health included a qualitative research phase of focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the communication needs in educating the public about responsible essential drug use. This article discusses the general parameters of FGDs, and specific outcomes of essential drug FGDs and the evaluation of the health education tools generated in the FGDs. The purpose of the pilot project was to develop effective materials on the correct use of drug regimens and promoting authorized drug providers. FGDs were used as a quick and relatively inexpensive means of gauging a target audience's beliefs and practices. The facilitator of the group directed discussion and probed for participants views on the community's needs, and forms of expression. (Drawing on positive social customs within a culture helps bridge the difference between local perceptions and knowledge.) Pretesting of draft materials in FGDs assured the ability to reach the target audience. These 2 methods contributed to the project's success by involving the target group as experts in providing useful information, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment, and building a relationship between the staff and target group that renewed dedication and willingness to cooperate. Program staff conducted 19 FGDs with 171 clients and 9 FGDs with 63 providers, and also interviewed 36 providers and observed in 4 locations client/provider exchanges. The results showed that client were unaware of the importance of strict compliance with a drug regimen, and consequences of ineffectiveness. Clients were uneasy about side effects, and purchased drugs from unauthorized dealers. The 3 messages to be promoted were 1) return to the clinic or hospital if drug problems arise, 2) use only authorized providers, and 3) follow directions carefully and completely. It was also decided that posters and audio cassette were the communication modes. A description of the materials developed is
Cura Della Redazione, A
Resources for qualitative research: the DIPEX website. DIPEx (Personal Experiences of Health & Illness) produces a website giving personal accounts of health and illness. These accounts are in written, audio and video format and aim to give information and support so that people are better informed about the life choices they might need to make when encountering a new health experience, serious illness or health problem. Modules on 75 illnessess/problems are available. PMID:24441464
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito
This paper seeks to promote reflection on ethics in anthropological and qualitative research and emphasize the comprehensive, relational and reflective character of this process, as well as the advantages and problems that arise from different logic and often conflicting interests between researchers and their interlocutors. The text is divided into four parts and addresses the ethical: (a) significance of these approaches; (b) behavior of the researcher in the field; (c) analysis of the empirical material; and (d) considerations in the preparation of results of anthropological and qualitative studies, using some classic examples from the international literature. The paper concludes by reflecting on the distinction between the requirements of the Ethics Committee and the Ethics of research itself. It must be clear that the comprehensive sense of ethics which includes the responsibility of the researcher cannot be condensed in the instruments required for the judgment of projects because the following elements are involved in the development of research, namely the social significance of the work, the institutional relations with fund providers, how to treat staff and research students in academic work and commitments with the scientific community. PMID:24820593
Farber, Nancy K.
This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…
Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi
In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally. PMID:25794522
Ferszt, Ginette G; Hickey, Joyce
The United States has more people, per capita, in prisons and jails than any other country in the world. Because the prison population is largely composed of people who have been economically and socially disadvantaged, a very high percentage enter correctional facilities in poor health. Because of the large concentrated numbers of women, men, and youth in prisons and jails, an exceptional opportunity exists for nurses and other researchers to conduct creative and innovative research to improve the health care of this hard-to-reach population. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse researchers who have been successful in conducting studies in different correctional settings. A qualitative descriptive design was used, and telephone interviews with 16 participants were completed. The participants described how they established credibility, the challenges they faced, and the unexpected personal and professional rewards they received. Recommendations for potential researchers will hopefully lead to an increase in research with this invisible population. PMID:24256982
Osborn, Mike; Rodham, Karen
Qualitative research exposes and explores important aspects of the pain experience that are inaccessible to other approaches. Qualitative work adopts a different epistemological and ontological perspective to quantitative work. Qualitative research is not well established in the field of pain, but is growing. More interpretative engagement with qualitative data is required. PMID:26527327
Simpson, Robert G.; Stainback, Susan
The authors respond to an earlier article by S. Stainback and W. Stainback which suggested the need for more qualitative research in special education. The response centers on the need for better research in the field. The Stainbacks reply, questioning the underlying rationales denigrating qualitative research. (CL)
There is no defined theory for teaching Qualitative Inquiry, and very few studies have focused on the topic. This study is a qualitative case study focused on the Qualitative Methods course that I teach at a college of education in Israel. The aim of the study is to explore and describe the course, to provide a true picture of my pedagogy, and to…
Busier, Holly-Lynn; Pigeon, Yvette
A qualitative research conversation needs to include a critical examination of a study's relational dimension. Excerpts are presented from two doctoral dissertations that discuss the nature of the researcher-participant relationships formed through the studies. The first dissertation, "Beyond the Yellow Brick Road: Educational Portraits of…
Gorard, Stephen; Taylor, Chris
There is growing interest in the possibilities of combining research approaches in education and social sciences, as dissatisfaction mounts with the limitations of traditional mono-method studies and with the schism between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book argues the case for combining multiple research methods, and provides…
Kalinowski, Pav; Lai, Jerry; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff
Our research in statistical cognition uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method approach makes our research more comprehensive, and provides us with new directions, unexpected insights, and alternative explanations for previously established concepts. In this paper, we review four statistical cognition studies that used mixed…
Cutcliffe, J R; Goward, P
Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction? In response to issues arising out of curriculum developments, the authors wished to examine more closely the potential reasons why psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses appear to gravitate towards certain research methodologies. This paper therefore briefly examines the essential differences between qualitative and quantitative research paradigms, focusing on philosophical, epistemological and methodological issues. It then proceeds to examine some of the essential characteristics and attributes of P/MH nurses and suggests some differences in emphasis between these and other disciplines of nursing. The authors posit that psychiatric/mental health nurses are drawn to the qualitative paradigm as a result of the potential synchronicity and linkage that appears to exist between the practice of mental health nursing and qualitative research. This apparent synchronicity appears to centre around the three themes of: (a) the purposeful use of self; (b) the creation of an interpersonal relationship; and (c) the ability to accept and embrace ambiguity and uncertainty. Given this alleged synchronicity the authors argue that there are implications for nurse education and nursing research. Further it is possible that each nursing situation where the mental health nurse forms a relationship and attempts to gain an empathic sense of the individual's world is akin to an informal phenomenological study, the product of which would be a wealth of qualitative data. However, as this would be a subconscious, implicit process, the data would remain predominantly unprocessed. The authors conclude that perhaps these data are the knowledge that expert practitioners draw upon when making intuition-based clinical judgements. PMID:10718878
In this comparative essay, I examine how musical ways of knowing inform my educational research. To understand this question, I employ dual perspectives as a musician and qualitative researcher. I use Eisner's concept of the art of educational evaluation (1985a, 1985b, 1997)--particularly as educational evaluation relates to connoisseurship and…
Research on engineering practice is scarce and sharing of qualitative research data can reduce the effort required for an aspiring researcher to obtain enough data from engineering workplaces to draw generalizable conclusions, both qualitative and quantitative. This paper describes how a large shareable qualitative data set on engineering…
Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn
Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…
Policy Research Brief, 1991
This Policy Research Brief explores the strengths of qualitative research and the types of information it can make available to policymakers concerned with issues affecting persons with disabilities. The naturalistic methodology employed in qualitative research is described. Three specific studies using qualitative methodology are excerpted and…
Madill, Anna; Gough, Brendan
In discussing the place of diverse qualitative research within psychological science, the authors highlight the potential permeability of the quantitative-qualitative boundary and identify different ways of increasing communication between researchers specializing in different methods. Explicating diversity within qualitative research is…
Pope, C; van Royen, P; Baker, R
There are no easy solutions to the problem of improving the quality of care. Research has shown how difficult it can be, but has failed to provide reliable and effective ways to change services and professional performance for the better. Much depends on the perspectives of users and the attitudes and behaviours of professionals in the context of their organisations and healthcare teams. Qualitative research offers a variety of methods for identifying what really matters to patients and carers, detecting obstacles to changing performance, and explaining why improvement does or does not occur. The use of such methods in future studies could lead to a better understanding of how to improve quality. PMID:12448807
Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia
In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered. PMID:26179872
Devers, K J; Frankel, R M
In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results. PMID:14742088
This paper discusses the ways in which photography was used for data generation in a 9-month qualitative study on a mixed-age elementary school classroom. Through a review of the research literature in anthropology, sociology, and education, and an analysis of the research data, the usefulness of photography for educational research with young…
McCormack, Tim; Schnee, Emily; VanOra, Jason
Background: The field of higher education abounds with qualitative research aimed at highlighting the needs, struggles, strengths, and motivations of academically struggling students. However, because of the small-scale nature of these studies, they rarely enter the public debate or impact institutional policy concerning access, remediation,…
This article describes a study in which seven students with diverse disabilities participated in a one-credit online library research course which had been adapted to be accessible using the best practices literature on distance education for students with special needs. Students provided feedback on the design of the course and participated in…
Lee, Thomas W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Sablynski, Chris J.
Describes qualitative techniques and their use in industrial and vocational psychology for theory generation, elaboration, and testing. Discusses research design, data analysis, and best practices using qualitative methods. Contains 54 references. (SK)
Orleans, Myron, Ed.
Online education continues to permeate mainstream teaching techniques in higher education settings. Teaching upper-level classes in an online setting is having a major impact on education as a whole and is fundamentally altering global learning. "Cases on Critical and Qualitative Perspectives in Online Higher Education" offers a…
The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…
Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Joussemet, Mireille; Dufour, Sarah
Research Findings: The present study explored the concrete manifestations of autonomy support (AS) toward toddlers. Eight child care educators were interviewed. Based on our assessment, these educators all valued AS. A qualitative content analysis revealed 18 practices that this group of child care educators considered supportive of toddlers'…
This research explored issues surrounding service-learning directors (SLDs) within higher education institutions, including who they are, how they became SLDs, and what they experience in the role. Qualitative data were drawn from in-depth interviews of 11 SLDs, as well as review of their vitaes. A qualitative inductive analysis was conducted in…
Groth, Randall E.
In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…
Perl, Emily J.; Noldon, Denise F.
Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research in student affairs research, noting that many student affairs professionals question the value of more traditional quantitative approaches to research, though they typically have very good people skills that they have applied to being good qualitative researchers.…
Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)
Ramani, Subha; Mann, Karen
Many research questions posed by medical educators could be answered more effectively by the application of carefully selected qualitative research design than traditional quantitative research methods. Indeed, in many cases using mixed methods research would expand the scope of a study and yield meaningful qualitative data in addition to quantitative data. Qualitative research seeks to understand people's experiences, the meanings they assign to those experiences, the psychosocial aspects of and language used in interpersonal interactions, and the factors that influence perspectives and interactions. This understanding is vital in exploring learning and teaching styles, learners' experiences and perceptions, implementing and studying the impact of educational interventions and faculty development. This article aims to advance medical educators' understanding and application of qualitative research principles in educational scholarship by summarising and consolidating the fundamental principles of research in medical education described in recent AMEE guides. The 12 tips below offer a systematic, yet practical approach to designing a qualitative research study, particularly targeting educators new to this arena. PMID:25897710
Daytner, Katrina M.
The construct of validity has received considerable attention in qualitative methods literature (Denzin, 1989; Erickson, 1986; Geertz, 1973; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984; Howe & Eisenhart, 1990; Maxwell, 1992; Smith & Glass, 1987). Much of the attention has been focused upon the issue of whether qualitative results and interpretations accurately reflect…
LaPrince, Shelly L.
The exploratory qualitative research study explored management education business school offerings in comparison to employer expectations. Through the lens of alumni and human-resources personnel participants, the research examined the skills deemed as transferrable to the workplace and competencies that undergraduate-management education alumni…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.
In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…
Brigham, Don L.
Examines John Dewey's theory of the qualitative mind, showing how his thought illuminates the process of artistic creation. Exemplifies Dewey's theory by referring to the documented creative processes of master artists, Picasso, Moore, Giacometti, and Cezanne. Identifies attributes of the qualitative thinker and artist, and presents educational…
Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q
Although relatively uncommon in health care research, qualitative research is now receiving recognition and is increasingly used in health care research with social and cultural dimensions. Unlike quantitative research, which is deductive and tends to analyze phenomena in terms of trends and frequencies, qualitative research seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon through description. It aims to develop concepts that aid in the understanding of natural phenomena with emphasis on the meaning, experiences and views of the participants. Differences among qualitative researchers exist on matters of ontology, epistemology, data collection methods and methods of evaluation. The aim of this article is not to act as a practical guide on how to conduct qualitative research, but is an attempt to give an introduction to qualitative research methods and their use in health-related research. PMID:21654952
Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation. PMID:19522941
Eslamian, Jalil; Moeini, Mahin; Soleimani, Marzie
Background: Nursing continuing education with development of knowledge, skill, and attitude results in improvement of nursing activity, and thus improves the health care in the society. If the education is not planned and implement properly, it affects the patient care. This study was designed to explore the challenges of nursing continuing education in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted from April 2012 to February 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. The sampling was begun with purposeful method and continued with snowball method. Thirty-nine participants were selected among the nurses of Alzahra, Kashani, and Noor hospitals, nursing and midwifery faculty, continuing education center, and the vice-chancellery for treatment. The participants were both learners and planners of continuing education program. In this descriptive explorative qualitative research, we interviewed 39 participants in five focus group and five individual interviews, until data saturation was achieved. We used semi-structured interviews and field notes for data gathering, and members checking, triangulation (data and method), peer debriefing, and peer review to increase the strength of data. Data were analyzed with thematic analysis method that was proposed by Broun and Clarke in 2006. Results: Data analysis produced 175 initial codes, 8 subthemes, and 5 main themes. The main themes included: Learners related factors, teachers related factors, educational process related factors, inadequate facilities, and defective evaluation. Conclusions: According to the results, we need to revise the educational process in nursing continuing education. To achieve this goal, we need a team for needs assessment, planning, and evaluation. In addition, we must pay attention to educators’ and learners’ issues. PMID:26120340
Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva
Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245
This paper describes Present Tense Commentary (PTC) as a technique to gather rich data which satisfies the requirements of a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to research. Using PTC, the informant is encouraged to relieve significant events by conveying them to the researcher as if they are happening now. This process demands greater cognitive ability, greater exposure to the event and more thorough grammatical correctness than in a standard interview situation. The reward, however, is insight for the informant and the researcher into the meaning and understanding, otherwise concealed within the experience. PTC was used as the third phase of data collection in a study involving eight student nurses undertaking the Diploma in Higher Education, Nursing Studies Course (Project 2000). The intention of the study is to illuminate the student's development and their socialization into nursing and to portray the total learning milieu for the students as they describe it. The technique has enabled the students to record experiences in clinical practice, reflect upon them and identify their own development during the course. PTC contrasts with traditional interview methods because it empowers the informant and addresses their agenda and not the researcher's. This paper gives a brief rationale for selecting PTC and describes the process of preparing informants and conducting the technique. The paper focuses upon issues related to philosophical and ethical considerations and recommends that the technique is recognized as a valuable phenomenological tool. PMID:10335198
In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…
Parker, D. Randall
The application of computer technology in qualitative research and evaluation ranges from simple word processing to doing sophisticated data sorting and retrieval. How computer software can be used for qualitative research is discussed. Researchers should consider the use of computers in data analysis in light of their own familiarity and comfort…
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Piercy, Fred P.
Discusses the experiential activities that are used in a graduate course on qualitative research that addresses focus groups, observation, data collection, cultural sensitivity, ethnomethodology, data analysis, and morals and ethics in research. Explains that students participate in an activity in which they defend qualitative research. (CMK)
Merchant, Niloufer; Dupuy, Paula
Identifies similarities between multicultural counseling competencies and the basic assumptions and methodology of qualitative research. Examines how various characteristics shared by these two approaches (i.e., using appropriate strategies and skills) are addressed under aspects of qualitative research, such as selection of the research question…
Beck, Cheryl Tatano
A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)
The quantitative methodologies have been traditionally employed in the educational research so far. However, as long as with the appreciation and widespread use of the qualitative methodologies in many disciplines, many different educational areas have started to be examined in terms of qualitative research aspects. Particularly, the qualitative…
Wilson discusses ways in which educational research is rendered ineffective, stemming from distortion of the concepts of "education" and "research." Includes three commentaries: Harry Brighouse discusses factors impeding research, John White contests the definition of education, and Marian Sainsbury argues that educational research should not be…
Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.
Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education.…
The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…
Grammatikopoilos, Vasilios; Hassandra, Maria; Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Yannis
This study was conducted to provide further information regarding factors associated with educational evaluation, using a qualitative approach. Fifty-five interviews were carried out with school principals. The results of the present study supported the notion that the qualitative methods could provide information that quantitative procedures…
Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali
Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers' role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers' potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged. PMID:25512833
Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid
Background The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. Methods A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Results Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually “rules” the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in “inferior” and “superior” knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Conclusion Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature. PMID:27307132
Cohen, Deborah J.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.
PURPOSE We wanted to review and synthesize published criteria for good qualitative research and develop a cogent set of evaluative criteria. METHODS We identified published journal articles discussing criteria for rigorous research using standard search strategies then examined reference sections of relevant journal articles to identify books and book chapters on this topic. A cross-publication content analysis allowed us to identify criteria and understand the beliefs that shape them. RESULTS Seven criteria for good qualitative research emerged: (1) carrying out ethical research; (2) importance of the research; (3) clarity and coherence of the research report; (4) use of appropriate and rigorous methods; (5) importance of reflexivity or attending to researcher bias; (6) importance of establishing validity or credibility; and (7) importance of verification or reliability. General agreement was observed across publications on the first 4 quality dimensions. On the last 3, important divergent perspectives were observed in how these criteria should be applied to qualitative research, with differences based on the paradigm embraced by the authors. CONCLUSION Qualitative research is not a unified field. Most manuscript and grant reviewers are not qualitative experts and are likely to embrace a generic set of criteria rather than those relevant to the particular qualitative approach proposed or reported. Reviewers and researchers need to be aware of this tendency and educate health care researchers about the criteria appropriate for evaluating qualitative research from within the theoretical and methodological framework from which it emerges. PMID:18626033
Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.
The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…
DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea
Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960
The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate theoretical principles, possibilities and limits of the qualitative research method called phenomenography. The article is based on a literature review. Phenomenography is a research methodology initiated by Ference Marton and his research group in Sweden in the 1970s. Unlike phenomenology, phenomenography is not a philosophical school. It is a pragmatic method for doing qualitative research. In phenomenography, the aim of research is to describe the qualitatively different ways in which people perceive the world around them (the second-order perspective). The most common method of data collection is thematic interviewing. The results are categories of description representing the different conceptions of a phenomenon found among a certain population. Phenomenography is a useful method for qualitative analyses. However, it has also been criticized for a static view of human thought--a criticism that points toward the risks of relying on a single method in qualitative research. PMID:8484953
Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C
Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy. PMID:27479165
This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…
This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…
Haverkamp, Beth E.
The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
Thomas, R. Murray
This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…
Bowen, Glenn A.
In this article, a newly minted Ph.D. shares seven lessons learned during the process of preparing a dissertation based on qualitative research methods. While most of the lessons may be applicable to any kind of research, the writer focuses on the special challenges of employing a qualitative methodology. The lessons are: (1) Read, read, read; (2)…
Dolby, Nadine; Rahman, Aliya
Until recently, international education has existed at the margins of educational research. However, in the current context of globalization, international education has moved closer to the center of educational research throughout the world. In this article, the authors identify, describe, and analyze six distinct research approaches to…
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.
This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book contains:"Preface" (1…
Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.
This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during…
In this paper, I address the question of how a philosophically enriched view of method might inform both educational theory and educational research. The first part of the paper elaborates recent discussions on "philosophical method" in the educational-philosophical discourse. These discussions point toward the importance of analyzing the…
The flipped, or inverted, classroom has gained popularity in a variety of fields and at a variety of educational levels, from K-12 through higher education. This paper describes the author's positive experience flipping a graduate qualitative research methods classroom. After a review of the current literature on flipped classrooms in higher…
Campbell, Stephen R.
This paper outlines an initiative in mathematics education research that aims to augment qualitative methods of research into mathematical cognition and learning with quantitative methods of psychometrics and psychophysiology. Background and motivation are provided for this initiative, which is coming to be referred to as educational neuroscience.…
Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali
Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers’ role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers’ potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged. PMID:25512833
Limberg, Dodie; Bell, Hope; Super, John T.; Jacobson, Lamerial; Fox, Jesse; DePue, M. Kristina; Christmas, Chris; Young, Mark E.; Lambie, Glenn W.
The professional identity of a counselor educator develops primarily during the individual's doctoral preparation program. This study employed consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of professional identity development in counselor education doctoral students (CEDS) in a cohort model. Cross-sectional focus groups…
This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…
Wood, Susannah M.
Given the lack of information in either the school counseling or the gifted education fields on how school counselors and educators of the gifted work together, research into how individuals from both professions collaborate to serve gifted students and their families becomes important. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to…
The impact of social class backgrounds on young children's educational experiences has attracted increasing attention in early childhood research. However, few longitudinal studies related to social class and parental involvement in young children's education are available, especially in East Asian contexts. In this longitudinal qualitative study,…
Stipanovic, Natalie; Stringfield, Sam
This qualitative study explores career counseling and guidance services as provided to students engaged in career and technical education programs at three sites in the United States. The sites, consisting of high schools and community colleges, were part of the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's 5-year studies of…
What new tendencies can be made out in Swedish educational research in the last three decades? Briefly, the following developments are described: In the 1970s, a long-prevailing emphasis on quantitative research was challenged by a number of different qualitative methods. Traditional sociology of education, meanwhile, was challenged by the new…
Based on my own research education courses for doctoral students, I examine the ways in which music provides powerful and rich models for perception, conceptualisation and engagement for both listeners and performers, to cultivate the processes and products of qualitative research in the social science in general, and in music education in…
Ashworth, P D
For a number of reasons qualitative techniques have taken firm root in nursing research generally and are of growing importance in research undertaken by nurse educators. But there is a great deal of confusion about the nature of the data which are produced by qualitative research, the way such data must be handled, and the use to which such data can be put. The confusion often results from a failure to differentiate between several orientations to qualitative data. Positivist research may use qualitative data (something not always recognized). It presupposes that there is some underlying, true, unequivocal reality, and a theory covering this is to be sought by the research. There must be evidence of validity-in the sense of a match between the data and the reality they are supposed to reveal. Non-positivist research is of a number of kinds, despite often being treated as unified. These will be treated in the second part of this paper. PMID:9277162
Abma, Tineke; Jonsson, Hans; Deeg, Dorly
This article discusses challenges of language differences in qualitative research, when participants and the main researcher have the same non-English native language and the non-English data lead to an English publication. Challenges of translation are discussed from the perspective that interpretation of meaning is the core of qualitative research. As translation is also an interpretive act, meaning may get lost in the translation process. Recommendations are suggested, aiming to contribute to the best possible representation and understanding of the interpreted experiences of the participants and thereby to the validity of qualitative research. PMID:21212820