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While empiricalstudies in software engineering are beginning to gain recognition in the research community, this subarea is also entering a new level of maturity by beginning to address the human aspects of software development. This added focus has added a new layer of complexity to an already challenging area of research. Along with new research questions, new research methods
Qualitativeempirical research and case studies have, like any other scientific method, their strengths and weaknesses. But\\u000a how valid are the findings stemming from such research, particularly when they are base on data gained from interviews? This\\u000a paper primarily deals with the methodological problems throughout the whole research process. Areas of concerns are: (1) before\\u000a collecting data and during the
AIM To review the literature on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children with respect to occurrence, seriousness, type, therapeutic group, age and gender of the child and category of reporter. METHODS Medline and Embase databases were searched from origin and updated until February 2010. We included empirically based articles on ADRs in populations aged 0 to 17 years. Studies monitoring ADRs in patients with particular conditions or drug exposure were excluded. We extracted information about types and seriousness of ADRs, therapeutic groups, age and gender of the child and category of reporter. ADR occurrence was calculated as incidence rate and prevalence. RESULTS We included 33 studies monitoring ADRs in general paediatric populations. The highest numbers of ADRs were reported in national ADR databases where data were collected over a longer period than in studies monitoring inpatients and outpatients. However, prevalence and incidence were much lower in the national databases. Types of reported ADRs, seriousness of ADRs and types of medicines differed substantially between studies due to differences in time periods and patient populations. Information about ADRs was mainly provided by health care professionals, although parents also contributed reports. CONCLUSIONS We found a higher incidence rate of ADRs in hospitalized children and outpatients than in national databases. There seems to be considerable potential for increasing the knowledge of ADRs by advocating the submission of reports to the spontaneous reporting systems. Our study underscores that ADRs in children constitute a significant public health problem.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the most relevant marketing factors and examine existing theories and to provide guidance for planning future studies. Since drug markets are very complex, this paper will focus on a particular market\\/country to reduce some of this complexity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A serial research study is undertaken to examine the essential marketing
This paper presents an approach in discovering automation level of software change request process from qualitativeempirical data. In the study is investigated common practice in local very small software companies. Constructivist grounded theory was used as a research method suitable for discovering common practice and for creating explanations that are grounded in empirical data. In the research participated software
The purpose of this mixed methods case study was to examine the generalization practices in qualitative research published\\u000a in a reputable qualitative journal. In order to accomplish this, all qualitative research articles published in Qualitative Report since its inception in 1990 (n = 273) were examined. A quantitative analysis of the all 125 empiricalqualitative research articles revealed that a
Models of athlete decisions to use performance?enhancing substance and method (PESM) lack an empirical base. In this paper, the validity of the content (variables thought to influence use) and process (how the variables come together) of these models is assessed. Reporting the second qualitative stage of a broader choice modelling study, n = 20 interviews (conducted from August 2007 to
This chapter reviews empiricalstudies of criminal punishment and the criminal justice system by economists. Since the modern exposition of the economic model of criminal behavior, empirical economists have tested its predictions using variation in expected criminal punishments. In the past decade, empirical economists have made substantial progress in identifying the effects of punishment on crime by finding new ways
Background To review empiricalstudies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported to be associated with the use of medications generally licensed for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the pediatric population. Methods PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO® databases were searched from origin until June 2011. Studies reporting ADRs from amphetamine derivates, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and modafinil in children from birth to age 17 were included. Information about ADR reporting rates, age and gender of the child, type, and seriousness of ADRs, setting, study design, ADR assessors, authors, and funding sources were extracted. Results The review identified 43 studies reporting ADRs associated with medicines for treatment of ADHD in clinical studies covering approximately 7000 children, the majority of 6- to 12-year-old boys, and particularly in the United States of America (USA). The most frequently reported ADRs were decrease in appetite, gastrointestinal pain, and headache. There were wide variations in reported ADR occurrence between studies of similar design, setting, included population, and type of medication. Reported ADRs were primarily assessed by the children/their parents, and very few ADRs were rated as being serious. A large number of children dropped out of studies due to serious ADRs, and therefore, the actual number of serious ADRs from use of psychostimulants is probably higher. A large number of studies were conducted by the same groups of authors and sponsored by the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing the respective medications. Conclusion Reported ADRs from use of psychostimulants in children were found in clinical trials of short duration. Since ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies. The pharmaceutical companies should make all information about ADRs reported for these medications accessible to the public, and further studies are needed on the impact of the link between researchers and the manufacturers of the respective products.
BACKGROUND: Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups
This chapter reviews empiricalstudies of criminal punishment and the criminal justice system by economists. Since the modern exposition of the economic model of criminal behavior, empirical economists have tested its predictions using variation in expected criminal punishments. In the past decade, empirical economists have made substantial progress in identifying the effects of punishment on crime by finding new ways
This article examines the 50 qualitativestudies published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) over a 15-year period in light of methodological principles advocated by qualitative theorists. The match between practices and principles is not high. In the modal investigation, coders (most of whom did not interact with or observe…
This article examines the 50 qualitativestudies published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) over a 15-year period in light of methodological principles advocated by qualitative theorists. The match between practices and principles is not high. In the modal investigation, coders (most of whom did not interact with or observe participants) worked from transcripts of a 60-min interview conducted
In this article we summarize the strengths and weaknesses of empirical research in software engineering. We argue that in order to improve the current situation we must create better studies and draw more credible interpretations from them. We finally present a roadmap for this improvement, which includes a general structure for software empiricalstudies and concrete steps for achieving these
Dewayne E. Perry; Adam A. Porter; Lawrence G. Votta
|This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitativestudy,…
In this essay, we discuss empirical research on the economic effects of the civil justice system. We discuss research on the effects of three substantive bodies of law- contracts, torts, and property- and research on the effects of the litigation process. We begin with a review of studies of aggregate empirical trends and the important issues involving contracts and torts,
With the approach of the new millennium, a primary focus in software engineering involves issues relating to upgrading, migrating, and evolving existing software systems. In this environment, the role of careful empiricalstudies as the basis for improving software maintenance processes, methods, and tools is highlighted. One of the most important processes that merits empirical evaluation is software evolution. Software
Despite the burgeoning of publications in nursing ethics, only more recently has empirical evidence on nursing ethics been published. How nursing ethics can be empiricallystudied as well as enriched by empirical data will be the focus of this paper. Two empiricalstudies will be briefly presented and their contribution to ethics discussed. The first one is a quantitative research
Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé; Mieke Grypdonck; Nancy Cannaerts; Els Steeman
|Ever since Dr. Dabrowski raised his theory of positive disintegration, several studies focusing on overexcitabilities (OEs) have been performed. This study reviewed previous findings on overexcitabilities and their application, focusing in particular on studies in Taiwan. Since 2001, a series of studies related to overexcitabilities has been…
Qualitative research is becoming increasingly popular amongst curriculum subject specialists and this is noticeable amongst geographical educators seeking alternative approaches to conducting studies concerned with complex human phenomena. It has not been ascertained just what conception geographical educators have of qualitative research. In this paper we seek to address the questions: What is the experience of qualitative research possessed by
|Presents a qualitativestudy of an Amish elementary school where classroom management and teaching methods prepare children to cope with their everyday lifestyle. Religious values are reinforced with reading lessons and Bible study. The article concludes with a brief description of Amish culture and lifestyle. (SM)|
User behavior analysis has played an important role in Web information retrieval. Rare queries, whose frequencies are rather low, are usually ignored in existing studies due to the data sparseness. Little has been known about the mass of rare queries on either the information need or the user behavior. In this paper, we make an empiricalstudy of users’ behavior
Ting Yao; Min Zhang; Yiqun Liu; Shaoping Ma; Liyun Ru
This exploratory study sought to gather detailed information about how domestic violence affects women's employment, specifically to identify the types of job interference tactics used by abusers and their consequences on women's job performance; identify and understand the context associated with disclosure about victimization to employers and coworkers; and identify the supports offered to employees after disclosure. Qualitative analyses, guided
The Supreme Court has long viewed mitigation evidence as key to saving the death penalty from constitutional challenge. Mitigation evidence about a capital defendant’s life history, combined with other procedural protections, is thought to alleviate arbitrariness in juries’ decisions of whether a defendant deserves to die. This Article presents original empirical research studying that hypothesis. Interviews with thirty mitigation specialists
Abstract This paper describes an empiricalstudy of the “Information Synthesis” task, defined as the process of (given a complex information need) extracting, organizing and inter-relating the pieces of information contained in a set of relevant documents, in order to obtain a comprehensive, non redundant report that satisfies the information need. Two main results are presented: a) the creation of
Enrique Amigó; Julio Gonzalo; Víctor Peinado; Anselmo Peñas; Felisa Verdejo
This paper studiesempirically why price distortions are more prevalent in some countries than in others. We find no significant difference between democracies and dictatorships, but frequent regime changes reduce distortions. Political systems (factional-subordinate) that encourage redistributive activities (RDA) tend to have more distortions. Allowing for different effects of RDA in democracies and dictatorships, there is a positive and significant
|This study examines the suspected positive outcomes of participating as a volunteer in a peer education program. To address a need for empiricalstudies, the authors conducted a qualitative evaluation of 21 narratives written by graduating educators. Three raters analyzed these narratives through content analysis, supported by strong inter-rater…
|This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on the current generation of students and their relationship to technology, providing qualitative, empirical information obtained in the Chilean context. The study analyses and discusses the ideas regarding the emergence of a new generation of learners, or digital natives, as characterised by…
Drawing on the empirical findings of a qualitativestudy on Chinese women with breast cancer, this article presents the women's experience of spirituality and discusses the implications of culturally competent practice that addresses spirituality. Following the constructivist research approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Chinese women with breast cancer. The findings reveal their spirituality is manifested through (1) experiencing
BACKGROUND: The population of elderly in Iran and in the world is increasing. It is predicted that the population of elderly reaches to 10 millions in Iran by the year 2019. Elders more than other age groups are at risk of chronic diseases and health problems; and elderly affects their self-management and makes them feel disabled. Since the knowledge of self-management for Iranian elderly is not well developed, this paper aimed to determine the concept of self-management for Iranian elders. METHODS: This was a qualitativestudy with grounded theory approach on Iranian elderly self-management. Data were collected through deep interviews with 26 participants in a period of one year and were analyzed using a Strauss Corbin analysis method. RESULTS: Self-management in the context of power means using different managing methods in dealing with daily life needs, especially in interactions with others in a way that accelerates affairs with efficiency and satisfaction. The main categories emerged from this qualitativestudy included: managing plans, managing life goals and policies, persuading the desired goals, managing self-care, directing others, coordinating and consulting with others. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provided a deep understanding of elderly perceptions of self-management in their lives. These findings can be a baseline for future researches on developing effective health interventions such as developing a nursing model for increasing the elderly self-management abilities in Iran. Such a model can provide a strong basis for nursing care.
Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali
|This qualitativestudy was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…
Purpose – This aim of this paper is to explore the understanding and use of lead benchmarking and performance measurement as a possible means of achieving increased organisational change. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical research methodology is used to survey 800 UK organisations, with 157 responses, in relation to their approach to lead benchmarking and performance measurement. A working definition of
The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive exploratory study was to enhance understanding about quality of life after a stroke from the patient's own perspective. The guiding theoretical perspective was Parse's human becoming theory. Loosely structured interviews aimed at eliciting descriptions of quality of life were scheduled during the acute care stay and at one and three months after stroke onset. A total of 32 interviews were conducted with 13 participants, including 9 men and 4 women, aged 40-91 years. Through a process of analysis-synthesis, four themes representing participants' descriptions were created: (1) suffering emerges amid unaccustomed restrictions and losses, (2) hopes for endurance mingle with dreams of new possibilities, (3) appreciation of the ordinary shifts perspectives, and (4) consoling relationships uplift the self. When interpreted in light of the human becoming theory, the themes expand understanding of what it is like to live with a stroke and provide insights that may enhance the quality of care. PMID:10726242
This qualitativestudy aimed to gain a deeper insight into the effects of cochlear implants on recipients' lives, as perceived by the recipients themselves. To obtain this insight, we used four open-ended questions. We invited 107 adult patients from two Norwegian implant centres. Of these, 74 returned completed questionnaires (69%). Recipients perceived that they had got 'A new life' with the implant. Contributing to this global category of effects were four other categories. These concerned subjects' interactions with the world around them, experience of themselves, ability to hear the world around them and finally certain device-related issues. Overall, psychological well-being was improved. The questionnaire described might prove a useful tool in the follow-up of patients. PMID:19148877
We investigate the statistical properties of the empirical data taken from the Chinese stock market during the time period from January, 2006 to July, 2007. By using the methods of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and calculating correlation coefficients, we acquire the evidence of strong correlations among different stock types, stock index, stock volume turnover, A share (B share) seat number, and GDP per capita. In addition, we study the behavior of “volatility”, which is now defined as the difference between the new account numbers for two consecutive days. It is shown that the empirical power-law of the number of aftershock events exceeding the selected threshold is analogous to the Omori law originally observed in geophysics. Furthermore, we find that the cumulative distributions of stock return, trade volume and trade number are all exponential-like, which does not belong to the universality class of such distributions found by Xavier Gabaix et al. [Xavier Gabaix, Parameswaran Gopikrishnan, Vasiliki Plerou, H. Eugene Stanley, Nature, 423 (2003)] for major western markets. Through the comparison, we draw a conclusion that regardless of developed stock markets or emerging ones, “cubic law of returns” is valid only in the long-term absolute return, and in the short-term one, the distributions are exponential-like. Specifically, the distributions of both trade volume and trade number display distinct decaying behaviors in two separate regimes. Lastly, the scaling behavior of the relation is analyzed between dispersion and the mean monthly trade value for each administrative area in China.
Business analysts, business architects, and solution consultants use a variety of practices and methods in their quest to understand business. The resulting work products could end up being transitioned into the formal world of software requirement definitions or as recommendations for all kinds of business activities. We describe an empiricalstudy about the nature of these methods, diagrams, and home-grown conceptual models as reflected in real practice at IBM. We identify the models as artifacts of "enterprise conceptual modeling". We study important features of these models, suggest practical classifications, and discuss their usage. Our survey shows that the "enterprise conceptual modeling" arena presents a variety of descriptive models, each used by a relatively small group of colleagues. Together they form a "long tail" that extends from "drawings" on one end to "standards" on the other.
Background: Diabetes has a high prevalence in Iran, and its incidence is estimated to increase from 3.5 million adults in 2005 to 5.1 million by 2025. Given the high prevalence of diabetes in Iranians, it is surprising that little is known about understanding of diabetes in the general population. This study aimed to explore how people without diabetes interpreted the disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative content analysis, using unstructured and in-depth interviews, with the participation of 21 individuals without diabetes (13 women and 8 men), 18-61 years old, who were selected for this purpose from the cities of Isfahan and Tehran from October 2010 to May 2011. The data were analyzed using latent content analysis method. Results: The participants had different beliefs and ideas about diabetes and most of them gave a negative and black image of diabetes. Although a small number of individuals considered diabetes better than AIDS and cancer, they often took diabetes as blackness, end of romances, and a gradual death. Conclusion: However, the study sample was small. The findings show that the participants’ perspective on diabetes is negative and destructive. It seems shaping a new identity in the path of empowerment could be difficult within the social and cultural context. These findings can give an insight to health care providers to realize how important it is to find the public perception about diabetes. They are responsible to change or modify the public view on diabetes by introducing the disease with the help of prominent people and educating individuals in the society on all aspects of living with diabetes, not simply the symptoms and disabilities it brings along.
Abdoli, Samereh; Mardanian, Leila; Mirzaei, Marjan
Comprehending and debugging computer programs are inherently difficult tasks. The current approach to building program execution\\u000a and debugging environments is to use exclusively visual stimuli on programming languages whose syntax and semantics has often\\u000a been designed without empirical guidance. We present an alternative: Sodbeans, an open-source integrated development environment\\u000a designed to output carefully chosen spoken auditory cues to supplement empirically
Although there are well-known theories of adolescent development in the West, there is a notable lack of theory and empirical support for understanding the outcome of Chinese adolescent development. This paper examines the cultural themes that account for Chinese–Canadian parents’ and adolescent’s construction of adolescent development outcome. A qualitativestudy approach was used to explore the experiences and views of
It is often the case that locality boundaries are not sharply delineated in our mental maps. This paper examines the level of uncertainty involved in perceiving qualitative boundaries of urban vs. rural localities. To measure location indeterminacy of locality, we begin with modeling locality as fuzzy region or also known as egg-yolk model which is composed of core, boundary, and
Algorithm animations are dynamic graphical illustrations of computer algorithms, and they are used as teaching aids to help explain how the algorithms work. Although many people believe that algorithm animations are useful this way, no empirical evidence has ever been presented supporting this belief. We have conducted an empiricalstudy of a priority queue algorithm animation, and the study's results
|Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitativestudy. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…
Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.
????????????????“??”??????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????* This article forms part of the phased findings of the project “An EmpiricalStudy of Justice in Criminal Law,” undertaken by the author with the support of the National Social Sciences Program. The author would like to take this opportunity to thank Chen Hao and other researchers from the Empirical Legal Research Institute of Peking University
In this essay, we discuss empirical research on the economic effects of the civil justice system. We discuss research on the effects of three substantive bodies of law—contracts, torts, and property—and research on the effects of the litigation process. We begin with a review of studies of aggregate empirical trends and the important issues involving contracts and torts, both positive
Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.
J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer
The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitativestudy and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitativestudy proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitativestudy. PMID:16432800
This paper presents preliminary findings from our empiricalstudy of the cognition employed by performers in improvisational theatre. Our study has been conducted in a laboratory setting with local improvisers. Participants performed predesigned improv \\
Brian Magerko; Waleed Manzoul; Mark Riedl; Allan Baumer; Daniel Fuller; Kurt Luther; Celia Pearce
Medical mistakes often are responsible for patient injury and suffering, but not all such mistakes are negligent. In the United States, injured patients have recourse to legal action under the common law. The medical malpractice tort trial system is intended to provide compensation for patients who have been negligently injured and to deter future negligent acts by physicians. The deterrent function of torts largely rests on practitioners' capacity and willingness to internalize, or 'process', the lessons of tort trials. However, physicians' willingness or ability to process the tort deterrent signal, while widely assumed in much contemporary legal writing on medical malpractice, has never been empirically verified. This study is a qualitative assessment of how practicing physicians process the tort deterrent signal. We interviewed a random sample of 47 internists, surgeons, and obstetrician/gynecologists from New York State as part of the Harvard Medical Practice Study. The interviews reveal three notable findings: physicians in our sample largely define medical negligence by reference to moral qualities of the practitioner; they claim that lawyers and the legal process of tort trials lack the moral authority to guide medical practice; and finally, while they consequently reject the lessons of lawyer-dominated, confrontational tort trials, they indicate that they would respond more favorably to hospital-based, physician-led, educational quality-control measures. Based on these findings, we identify several potential impediments to the receipt and processing of the tort deterrent signal by individual physicians and we suggest that the interview results support the notion of institutional liability for medical malpractice. PMID:8816005
Hupert, N; Lawthers, A G; Brennan, T A; Peterson, L M
The China High Education Publisher distributed ten thousands of questionnaires to university students for knowing their satisfaction degree on the published textbooks. We empirically investigate the statistical properties by using a network description. In the network the vertices are defined as textbooks, two vertices are connected by an edge when the students in a common specialty used them. A student specialty is defined as an act. The average satisfaction degree mark given by students on each textbook is defined as the vertex weight. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The degree distribution shows an exponential decay, while the act degree distribution shows a SPL function that indicates an interpolation between a power law and an exponential decay. Both the dependence of the clustering coefficient on the vertex degree and the cumulative vertex weight distribution show SPL functions. The assortativity shows a positive number, 0.14.
Peer assessment provides a powerful avenue for students to receive feedback on their learning. Although student perceptions\\u000a of peer assessment have been studied extensively in higher education, little qualitative research has been undertaken with\\u000a medical students in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. A qualitativestudy of students’ attitudes to, and perceptions\\u000a of, peer assessment was undertaken within the framework of a
Studies of consumer behavior are fraught with difficulties. Apart from the usual empirical difficulties, there are serious methodological ones. Some concern the way in which theories are said to explain phenomena, or to have a sound behavioral basis; othe...
We conducted an ethnographic field study examining the ways in which building design teams used visual representations of data to coordinate their work. Here we describe our experience with this field study approach, including both quantitative and qualitative analysis of field study data. Conducting a field study enabled us to effectively examine real work practice of a diverse team of
This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within
Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of marketing in small hotels specifically, and, more generally, to the area of SME or entrepreneurial marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A deductive-inductive approach based on interviews with 15 small hotel owner-managers, supported by web site analysis and three in-depth case study interviews, was used to provide a profile
Jane Moriarty; Rosalind Jones; Jennifer Rowley; Beata Kupiec-Teahan
\\u000aThe purposes of this dissertation research were to understand the methods by which building-level school administrators collect office discipline referral data, and to understand the ways they make decisions based on that data. In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this study:\\u000a1.\\u0009To what extent do administrators have access to behavior data that inform
This explorative study is a qualitative assessment of culture as a critical aspect of public relations practice in Puerto Rico. Reviewing definitions of culture, Hofstede's dimensions of cultural values, the Excellence Theory, and international case studies, this study sought to answer the following research questions: What national cultural traits have an impact on the practice of public relations in Puerto
Background Fatigue is recognized as a disabling symptom in many chronic conditions including rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lupus. Fatigue in osteoarthritis (OA) is not routinely evaluated and has only been considered in a very limited number of studies. To date, these studies have focused primarily on patients with OA under rheumatological care, which represent the minority of people living with OA. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the fatigue experience in community dwelling people with OA. Methods In 2004, 8 focus groups were conducted with 28 men and 18 women (mean age 72.3) with symptomatic hip or knee OA recruited from a population-based cohort. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographics, measures of OA severity (WOMAC), depression (CES-D) and fatigue (FACIT). Sessions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts to identify themes. Findings were compared and consensus reached. Results Mean pain, disability, depression and fatigue scores were 8.7/20, 27.8/68, 15.4/60, and 30.9/52, respectively. Participants described their fatigue as exhaustion, being tired and "coming up against a brick wall". Participants generally perceived fatigue as different from sleepiness and distinguished physical from mental fatigue. Factors believed to increase fatigue included OA pain and pain medications, aging, various types of weather and poor sleep. Mental health was identified as both affecting fatigue and being affected by fatigue. Participants described fatigue as impacting physical function, and their ability to participate in social activities and to do household chores. Rest, exercise, and avoiding or getting assistance with activities were cited as ways of coping. Participants generally did not discuss their fatigue with anyone except their spouses. Conclusion Participants with OA described experiencing notable amounts of fatigue and indicated that it had a substantial impact on their lives. Further research is required to better understand the role of fatigue in OA in order to identify strategies to reduce its impact.
Power, J Denise; Badley, Elizabeth M; French, Melissa R; Wall, Angela J; Hawker, Gillian A
This paper studies the factors associated with organizations’ internal audit sourcing decisions, building from a previous study by Widener and Selto (henceforth W&S) [Widener, S.K., Selto, F.H., 1999. Management control systems and boundaries of the firm: why do firms outsource internal audit activities? J. Manage. Account. Res. 11, 45–73]. In their study, W&S used Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to explain
Roland F. Speklé; Hilco J. van Elten; Anne-Marie Kruis
|A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data…
A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…
Purpose – This study aims to examine Chinese college students' perceptions of police. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using survey data collected from over 400 college students in two cities, the studyempirically analyzes the global and specific perceptions of police among Chinese college students and factors that accounted for the variation in Chinese college students' evaluations of police. The study incorporates a
The purpose of the study was to use a naturalistic approach to better understand phenomena in the area of mothers’ emotional functioning after adopting a child internationally. A qualitative research design was used to help identify variables, that would be appropriate for later study by quantitative design. A sample of 10 mothers who adopted a child internationally, selected by convenience
|This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach to examine educators' experiences in the virtual world of Second Life[TM]. The rationale for this study's focus on educators using a virtual world stems from an interest in the factors that influence educational practices in virtual worlds. The researcher conducted focus groups…
This study utilized qualitative methods to examine the social interactions that occur within supported employment settings between workers with disabilities and nondisabled co-workers. The study also examined the job supports at work settings, to understand the relationship between formal, job coach support services and natural job supports. Seven…
As ageing is an upcoming issue in low-income countries, an increase dependence on familial support is expected. Yet, traditional familial support mechanisms are threatened by declining family size, urban migration and globalisation. Our aim for this qualitativestudy was to explore the personal experiences and perception of elderly Pakistani patients about social and family support dynamics. The study was nested
Objectives: Interventions aimed at enhancing the quality of antibiotic prescribing often highlight the threat of antimicrobial resistance. Although most antibiotics are prescribed by general practitioners (GPs), little is known of their perceptions of this issue. The aim of this study was therefore to achieve a deeper understanding of GPs' perceptions of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: A qualitative interview, grounded theory study.
Sharon A. Simpson; Fiona Wood; Christopher C. Butler
This article utilized a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 214 dissertations listed by title only in Volume 31 of the Community College Journal of Research and Practice (CCJRP). Complete abstracts for these dissertations from 2004–2005 were obtained via Proquest Digital Database. The following was the overarching research question for this study: What can we learn from the examination
Timothy Gray Davies; Ellyn Dickmann; Clifford P. Harbour; James H. Banning
|Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitativestudy using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the…
Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff
Most visualization tools fail to provide support for missing data. We identify sources of missing, and categorize data visualization techniques based on the impact missing data have on the display: region dependent, attribute dependent, and neighbor dependent. We then report on a user study with 30 participants that compared three design variants. A between-subject graph interpretation study provides strong evidence
This paper presents an experimental study of distributed multipopulation genetic programming. Using three well-known benchmark problems and one real-life problem, we discuss the role of the parameters that characterize the evolutionary process of standard panmictic and parallel genetic programming. We find that distributing individuals between subpopulations offers in all cases studied here an advantage both in terms of the quality
Francisco Fernández; Marco Tomassini; Leonardo Vanneschi
This study developed a model to test the disincentive effects of unemployment compensation, based on the work-leisure choice model of labor supply theory. The model hypothesizes that the duration of unemployment of individuals increases as the difference ...
We take a new, scenario based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data analysis and reasoning, evaluating user performance, evaluating user experience, evaluating environments and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms, and evaluating collaborative data analysis were derived through an extensive literature review of over 800 visualization publications. These scenarios distinguish different study goals and types of research questions and are illustrated through example studies. Through this broad survey and the distillation of these scenarios we make two contributions. One, we encapsulate the current practices in the information visualization research community and, two, we provide a different approach to reaching decisions about what might be the most effective evaluation of a given information visualization. Scenarios can be used to choose appropriate research questions and goals and the provided examples can be consulted for guidance on how to design one's own study. PMID:22144529
|A study of training evaluation activity and challenges in 77 Kuwaiti organizations found that most respondents evaluate their programs only occasionally through the use of questionnaires. Most use the Kilpatrick model for evaluation and the most common level of evaluation is reaction type. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)|
To what extent would the rate of development and introduction of inventions decline in the absence of patent protection? To what extent do firms make use of the patent system, and what differences exist among firms and industries and over time in the propensity to patent? These questions are in need of much more study. This paper, which reports the
Despite their increasing use by advertisers, little research has examined the effectiveness of infomercials. This study explores the influence of infomercial advertisement design elements, such as the use of customer testimonials or expert comments, and consumer characteristics, such as level of prior interest in the advertised product, upon perceptions of advertising effectiveness. With the assistance of the New Zealand division
Social networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter have been a crucial source of information for a wide spectrum of users. In Twitter, popular information that is deemed important by the community propagates through the network. Studying the characteristics of content in the messages becomes important for a number of tasks, such as breaking news detection, personalized message recommendation, friends
AbstractThe links between income, sexual behavior and reported happiness are studied using recent data on a sample of 16,000 adult Americans. The paper finds that sexual activity enters strongly positively in happiness equations. Higher income does not buy more sex or more sexual partners. Married people have more sex than those who are single, divorced, widowed or separated. The happiness‐maximizing
\\u000a The first grand wave of twentieth century cognitive science and philosophy of mind sought and still seeks to show how, contra\\u000a Cartesian dualism, cognition is materialized in the brain. A new wave is rising from this, though, one that studies cognition\\u000a not merely as “embrained” (Damasio 2000, 118; Collins 2000) but as embodied in a much stronger sense, as inseparable
An empiricalstudy has been carried out to decide about the performance of various estimators used in unequal probability sampling without replacement and a sample of size 2. The Hansen-Hurwitz estimator and simple random sampling method has also been compared in this study. Some suggestions have been given at the end.
We report an empiricalstudy of aircraft maintenance workers using wearable visual interfaces and collaborative systems to support troubleshooting and repair work. Preliminary results suggest gains in coordination and ease of work when users have shared hypertext, video and audio capability. Study results are being used to inform design and rapid prototyping of wearable systems for use in vehicle maintenance
Jane Siegel; Robert E. Kraut; Bonnie E. John; Kathleen M. Carley
|This volume includes reports of six studies of the thought processes of children aged four through eight. In the first paper Steffe and Smock outline a model for learning and teaching mathematics. Six reports on empiricalstudies are then presented in five areas of mathematics learning: (1) equivalence and order relations; (2) classification and…
Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…
The assumption that formal features in literary texts typically shape response, which has been a theme of literary theory almost since its beginnings, has been rejected by poststructuralist critics. If formal features are considered, they argue, this is because social or institutional conventions direct readers' attention to them. We argue that this claim is unsupported by empiricalstudy. Studies designed
The empiricalstudy described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or
Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data.
|Observations on qualitative manuscripts submitted for publication identified problem areas: organization and format, relationship of concept and method, methodological issues (study type, conceptual framework, sample, data collection/analysis, integrity, data management), discussion, and data presentation. Recommendations for improving quality of…
Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitativestudies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through…
Kisiel, John B.; Bundrick, John B.; Beckman, Thomas J.
|The authors describe a qualitativestudy that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…
Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas
This study investigates language minority experiences of 7 heritage bilinguals via ethnographic interviewing and analytic induction. Themes are identified after qualitative clustering and contrasting of the data. Results are presented for all levels of participant-reported linguistic proficiency and researcher-inferred bilingual identity.…
Orlov, Leonid Y.; Ting, Siu-Man Raymond; Tyler, Richard E.
|This study investigates language minority experiences of 7 heritage bilinguals via ethnographic interviewing and analytic induction. Themes are identified after qualitative clustering and contrasting of the data. Results are presented for all levels of participant-reported linguistic proficiency and researcher-inferred bilingual identity.…
Orlov, Leonid Y.; Ting, Siu-Man Raymond; Tyler, Richard E.
A variety of brain structural abnormalities, which can be identified only by qualitative methods, have been shown to correlate with clinical presentation and course of schizophrenia. In the present study, MRI scans of 122 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 81 non-psychiatric controls were evaluated. Among males, the frequency of CNS developmental abnormalities (CDAs) was higher in patients than in controls.
Silvana Galderisi; Antonio Vita; Alessandro Rossi; Paolo Stratta; Marco Leonardi; Mario Maj; Giordano Invernizzi
Despite a growing bereavement literature, relatively little is known about what families find helpful after a child's death and how best to assist them during the grieving process. In this qualitativestudy, the authors explored advice from 40 families (65 parents, 39 siblings) of children who died from cancer 6–19 months earlier. Content analysis emphasized the individual nature of grief
Amanda L. Thompson; Kimberly S. Miller; Maru Barrera; Betty Davies; Terrah L. Foster; Mary Jo Gilmer; Nancy Hogan; Kathryn Vannatta; Cynthia A. Gerhardt
Women participating in biannual mammography screening for 20 years have a cumulative risk of 20% of being recalled. We conducted a prospective qualitative interview study with eight nonsymptomatic women recalled after mammography screening. These women expressed mixed emotions over being recalled. Information about recall rates and breast cancer risk was seen as alarming, and cancer risk estimates were seen by
Marit Solbjør; Siri Forsmo; John-Arne Skolbekken; Ann Rudinow Sætnan
BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitativestudies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.
This qualitativestudy was designed to explore the relationship between supervisor mentoring and psychotherapist professional development. Ten individual semistructured interviews were conducted with the members of five supervisee-supervisor dyads who were in long term mentoring relationships. A number of categories and themes were developed that generated several hypotheses appropriate for future research. First, the quality of the mentoring relationship was
Despite traumatic experiences of cancer, survivors often report positive changes. Since little research has been conducted into such changes among Japanese breast cancer survivors, our knowledge is minimal. This qualitativestudy aimed to explore the nature of the positive changes among this group. A thematic analysis suggested that participants had experienced seven types of positive change: Attitudinal changes towards life,
|The study uses qualitative methodology to understand the "nature" of spiritual experiences that resemble self-realization or oneness, and the linguistic structures and representational knowledge used to comprehend and communicate such an experience. It draws upon Habermas' theory of communicative action to explain the nuances of communication as…
ABSTRACT. Objective: To describe the subjective quality of life (QOL) of persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Study Design: Qualitative analysis of transcribed interviews. Participants: Forty community-dwellers with SCI. Results: Few participants could define QOL, but most could identify indicators of QOL and provided clear ratings of their own QOL. Individuals were grouped into three QOL ratings categories (excellent
The aim of this study was to document the perceptions of elders in six Caribbean countries about ' active ageing ' and on the basis of their reports to make recom- mendations to improve their situation. Data were collected principally through 31 focus group discussions conducted in both urban and rural areas. Comparative analysis was carried out of the qualitative
PATRICK CLOOS; CAROLINE F. ALLEN; BEATRIZ E. ALVARADO; MARIA VICTORIA ZUNZUNEGUI; DONALD T. SIMEON; DENISE ELDEMIRE-SHEARERk
The Behavioral Change Consortium (BCC) Nutrition Workgroup (NWG) is a multidisciplinary collaboration of representatives from BCC sites and federal agencies. Its mission is to improve measurement of dietary variables. This article presents findings from a qualitativestudy of perceived effectiveness of the workgroup collaboration. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted and examined for common themes using the constant comparison method. Themes
Geoffrey W. Greene; Linda C. Nebeling; Mary L. Greaney; Ana C. Lindsay; Cary K. Hardwick; Deborah J. Toobert; Ken Resnicow; Geoffrey C. Williams; Diane L. Elliot; Tamara Goldman Sher; Holly A. McGregor; Andrea Domas; Carol A. DeFrancesco; Karen E. Peterson
The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitativestudy looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent
Stephanie Chambers; Alexandra Lobb; Laurie Butler; Kate Harvey; W. Bruce Traill
|This exploratory qualitativestudy examined consumers' perceived barriers and benefits of plant food (fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds) consumption and views on the promotion of these foods. Ten focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Groups consisted of employees of various workplaces, community group members,…
This qualitativestudy explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide instructional guidance on how to increase validity and reduce subjectivity in qualitativestudies, such as grounded theory. The paper also demonstrates how different techniques can help management research by including informants\\/managers in a time efficient way. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper describes how three complementary triangulation methods can be used for
|This paper reports findings from a qualitativestudy examining young people's perceived motivations for "binge drinking", and the associated harmful outcomes. Sixty-four, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 14 to 17 year olds in southern England who had experience of binge drinking. Given the underage sample, most of this…
|The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…
Chinese is spoken by the largest number of people in the world, and it is regarded as one of the most important languages. In this paper, we explore the statistical properties of Chinese language networks (CLNs) within the framework of complex network theory. Based on one of the largest Chinese corpora, i.e. People’s Daily Corpus, we construct two networks (CLN1 and CLN2) from two different respects, with Chinese words as nodes. In CLN1, a link between two nodes exists if they appear next to each other in at least one sentence; in CLN2, a link represents that two nodes appear simultaneously in a sentence. We show that both networks exhibit small-world effect, scale-free structure, hierarchical organization and disassortative mixing. These results indicate that in many topological aspects Chinese language shapes complex networks with organizing principles similar to other previously studied language systems, which shows that different languages may have some common characteristics in their evolution processes. We believe that our research may shed some new light into the Chinese language and find some potentially significant implications.
Web-based electronic stores have become more and more popular. However, there are not many guidelines, nor theories, showing what features of a store would work and why. This paper develops a set of functional guidelines for designing electronic stores and classifies them into three categories: motivational, hygiene, and media richness factors. An empiricalstudy was conducted to evaluate the relative
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Recent advances in prepositional satisfiability (SAT) include studying the hidden structure of unsatisfiable formulas, i.e. explaining why a given formula is unsatisfiable. Although theoretical work on the topic has been developed in the past, only recently two empirical successful approaches have been proposed: extracting unsatisfiable cores and identifying strong backdoors. An unsatisfiable core is a subset of clauses that defines
This paper is an empiricalstudy of unsupervised sentiment classification of Chinese reviews. The focus is on exploring the ways to improve the performance of the unsupervised sentiment classification based on limited existing sentiment resources in Chinese. On the one hand, all available Chinese sentiment lexicons — individual and combined — are evaluated under our proposed framework. On the other
The brand loyalty is the important component of enterprise marketing strategy. So at first, this article proposes three dimensions which can influence brand loyalty based on the literature review and carry out the empiricalstudy through the analysis of valid questionnaires. Finally, we can conclude that the brand cognition, quality of service and the customer satisfaction have a remarkable positive
Purpose – Quality function deployment (QFD) has had considerable success in terms of its implementation in companies. It has also been the subject of many studies in recent years. It seems, however, that there are some shortcomings in the research on this subject and in particular the lack of an adequate conceptual framework suitable for empirical research. The purpose of
Andreas Herrmann; Frank Huber; René Algesheime; Torsten Tomczak
|This paper presents new evidence obtained from an empiricalstudy which used three distinct groups of professionals engaged in the attempt to "brainstorm" reasons for pupils' non-attendance. The evidence suggests that the "causes" of pupils' non-attendance can be sub-divided into three main fields: pupils who dislike coming to school; those who…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand better the gendered nature of role model status within organizations. The paper aims to argue that women require organizational legitimacy to be perceived as a role model, whereas men rely primarily on the strength of social ties within their friendship networks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empiricalstudy of admissions department employees
This paper examines how leadership influences organizational learning. Leadership always had a major impact on the learning capabilities of a corporation. In particular 'leaders' play a key role to facilitate and foster the process of innovation and organizational learning in knowledge-based organizations. Based on a conceptual framework and an empiricalstudy, seven propositions will be developed about specific elements that
Stefan Güldenberg; Heinz Konrath; Avaya Austria; Vienna Twin Tower
Distributed applications use predictions of network traffic to sustain their performance by adapting their behavior. The timescale of interest is application- dependent and thus it is natural to ask how predictabil- ity depends on the resolution, or degree of smoothing, of the network traffic signal. To help answer this question we empiricallystudy the one-step-ahead predictability, measured by the ratio
This paper presents r esults from the first of t wo empiricalstudies which examine the e ffectiveness of guidelines for use case authoring. The ESPRIT 21.903 CREWS long-term research project has developed style and content guidelines for authoring u se c ases for requirements acquisition and validation. The effectiveness of t hese guidelines has been evaluated under different conditions.
Camille Ben Achour; Colette Rolland; Carine Souveyet; Neil A. M. Maiden
n this paper, we report some results from an empiricalstudy on program charac- f d teristics that are important to parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area o ata dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are also examined.
|This document describes an empiricalstudy on the patterns of teacher behavior and a comparison of student outcomes from two settings where different programs (types of curricula) were used. The two psychological positions identified within the curricula were stated to have been operationalized in the two programs developed for the elementary…
|The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empiricalstudy focused on applying and…
This paper conducts an empiricalstudy on output, costs and incomes in organic farming with a sample of Spanish firms. Financial accounting data reveals that organic and partly or transitional to organic farming do not get significantly different output than intensive farming. Farms in transition to organic farming bear significantly higher costs and obtain significantly lower income than intensive farming.
This studyempirically tests a structural model of factors affecting consumers' online purchase intentions for travel products. The findings indicate that information quality, service quality, and system quality are valid measurements to evaluate the quality of travel-oriented website designs. In terms of travelers' perceptions, convenience, value, and merchandise options are three effective measurements of travelers' attitudes toward purchasing travel products
This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empiricalstudy in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…
|This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empiricalstudy in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…
Over the past decade we have performed a sustained series of qualitativestudies of software development practice, focusing on social factors. Using an ethnographically-informed approach, we have addressed four areas of software practice: software quality management systems, the emergence of object technology, professional end user development and agile development. Several issues have arisen from this experience, including the nature of
Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499
In this paper we discuss our empiricalstudy about the advantages and difficulties 15 Greek software companies experienced\\u000a applying Extreme Programming (XP) as a holistic system in software development. Based on a generic XP system including feedback\\u000a influences and using a cause-effect model including social-technical affecting factors, as our research tool, the study statistically\\u000a evaluates the application of XP practices
Panagiotis Sfetsos; Lefteris Angelis; Ioannis Stamelos
This study proposes an empirical analysis of the relation between the prices of illegal drugs and the use of violence to administrate\\u000a the markets of illegal drugs. The study hypothesizes that the prices of illegal drugs affect the level of violent crime, since\\u000a changes in profitability of the drugs’ markets affect the offenders’ expected utility of using violence to operate
This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based\\u000a leadership program. This qualitativestudy utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female\\u000a adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms\\u000a and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see
BackgroundWhile the use of emergency contraception (EC) is becoming more widespread in Australia, little is known about the reasons for, and the social context of, this use.MethodsIn order to explore the use of EC from the perspective of users, a qualitativestudy was conducted with women presenting to one of three health care settings in Melbourne, Australia for EC.ResultsThirty-two women
Although generally acknowledged as health enhancing, exercise has also been recognised as having the potential to become damaging.\\u000a The most popular viewpoint has been that extreme exercising is a form of addiction. The current study was designed to provide\\u000a an exploratory qualitative analysis of the themes underlying exercise behaviour. A total of 100 self-selected gym users were\\u000a administered a questionnaire
The development of E-commerce brings new topics to enterprise competitive intelligence research. It is important to study the E-commerce influences to competitive intelligence in E-commerce environment for better supporting the planning and implementing of enterprise competitive strategy. The article puts forward an E-commerce influence model to competitive intelligence work and a revised model by empirical research. The result can benefit
The community structure and motif-modular-network hierarchy are of great importance for understanding the relationship between structures and functions. We investigate the distribution of clique degrees, which are an extension of degree and can be used to measure the density of cliques in networks. Empiricalstudies indicate the extensive existence of power-law clique-degree distributions in various real networks, and the power-law exponent decreases with an increase of clique size.
Xiao Weike [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Research Group of Complex Systems, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren Jie [Research Group of Complex Systems, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Muse 3, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Qi Feng; Song Zhiwei; Zhu Mengxiao; Yang Hongfeng; Jin Huiyu [Research Group of Complex Systems, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Tao [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Muse 3, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
This paper consists of three main parts i.e. theory, analytical tool and case studies of comparative advantage. Firstly, we review the theory and various empirical measures of comparative advantage. We would argue that for the catching-up economies, like ASEAN countries, the meaning of “leading exported products” could be examined from the two points of view i.e. international competitiveness and country’s
The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology. PMID:20940342
Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitativestudies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitativestudies (n = 18) on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.
Researchers and practitioners have problems retrieving qualitativestudies. Search strategies that can easily and effectively retrieve these studies from large databases such as PsycINFO are therefore important. To determine if search strategies can identify qualitativestudies, 64 journals published in 2000 were hand searched using explicit methodological criteria to identify qualitativestudies. The authors tested multiple search strategies using 4,985
K. Ann McKibbon; Nancy L. Wilczynski; R. Brian Haynes
Objective Medicine lacks good models for understanding and treating chronic muscle pain. The aim of this study was to explore whether participation in a treatment group for women with chronic muscle pain can help the participants to develop strategies to handle their chronic muscle pain. Methods The study was carried out as a qualitative research project. Eight women completed a treatment programme consisting of movement training and group discussions. The qualitative data consisted of transcriptions from audio-taped individual interviews. The data material was analysed by systematic text condensation inspired by Giorgi. Results All the women describe participation in the treatment group as useful. Their experiences could be categorized as follows: To know oneself, to negotiate with oneself and others, to be able to choose, and to be able to act. Conclusion The participants developed strategies for handling their chronic muscle pain. Both the women's new understanding of their chronic muscle pain and increased confidence in themselves were important. These phenomena can help women in their encounters with their surroundings, for example when consulting doctors. The doctor's awareness of the women's resources and their own mastering strategies may contribute to a new understanding of the disposing, triggering, and maintaining factors, and of the curative and health-promoting forces at work in those with chronic muscle pain.
Personal injury victims involved in compensation processes have a worse recovery than those not involved in compensation processes. One predictor for worse recovery is lawyer engagement. As some people argue that this negative relation between lawyer engagement and recovery may be explained by lawyers' attitude and communications to clients, it seems important to investigate lawyer-client interaction. Although procedural justice and therapeutic jurisprudence had previously discussed aspects relevant for lawyer-client interaction, the client's perspective has been rather ignored and only few empiricalstudies have been conducted. In this qualitativestudy, 21 traffic accident victims were interviewed about their experiences with their lawyer. Five desirable characteristics for lawyers were identified: communication, empathy, decisiveness, independence, and expertise. Communication and empathy corresponded with aspects already discussed in literature, whereas decisiveness, independence and expertise had been addressed only marginally. Further qualitative and quantitative research is necessary to establish preferable lawyer characteristics and to investigate what would improve the well-being of personal injury victims during the claims settlement process. PMID:22866183
Elbers, Nieke A; van Wees, Kiliaan A P C; Akkermans, Arno J; Cuijpers, Pim; Bruinvels, David J
Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitativestudy aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitativestudies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.
Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this investigation could be immediately satisfied (the need for psychological support, the need for economic aid, the need for spiritual support), while others will have to be faced in the longer term; for example, the presence of a high percentage of needs in patient-physician relationships and/or information-communication issues, could be resolved by setting up structured introductory training courses for all clinicians in the institution. On the other hand, the needs related to the living infrastructure (bathrooms, meals, etc...) could encourage the Institution to improve its services.
A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…
|A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories…
Many business enterprises have recently integrated the concepts of social responsibility and performance into their policies, but this rapid adoption has meant that the content has remained relatively loose in practice. This paper analyses and structures the concept empirically by quantitative and qualitative methods, employing the acceptability of operations as an indicator. The data were gathered at four mills belonging
Objective To describe priority setting for new technologies in medicine. Design Qualitativestudy using case studies and grounded theory. Setting Two committees advising on priorities for new technologies in cancer and cardiac care in Ontario, Canada. Participants The two committees and their 26 members. Main outcome measures Accounts of priority setting decision making gathered by reviewing documents, interviewing members, and observing meetings. Results Six interrelated domains were identified for priority setting for new technologies in medicine: the institutions in which the decision are made, the people who make the decisions, the factors they consider, the reasons for the decisions, the process of decision making, and the appeals mechanism for challenging the decisions. Conclusion These domains constitute a model of priority setting for new technologies in medicine. The next step will be to harmonise this description of how priority setting decisions are made with ethical accounts of how they should be made.
Singer, Peter A; Martin, Douglas K; Giacomini, Mita; Purdy, Laura
This was a qualitativestudy utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo. PMID:23498352
The study is concerned with measuring and explaining the quality of recent research in education. The problem was approached by locating empirical research in education published in American behavioral science and education journals in 1967-68, plus empir...
This is the second in a series of four papers on understanding and doing qualitative research (Frankel & Devers (2000) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Devers & Frankel (2000) Study design in qualitative research—2: sampling and data collection strategies, Education for Health, 13, 263-271). Here, we focus on problems of study design, including question develop-
Background Few qualitativestudies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitativestudy of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.
Leiper, Deborah A; Elliott, Alison M; Hannaford, Philip C
Objectives To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Design Qualitativestudy. Setting Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Participants Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Method Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. Results 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. Conclusions This is the first qualitativestudy to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future research should investigate the feasibility and sustainability of general practice pharmacist roles.
Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson
Objectives To explore issues of intervention tailoring for ethnic minorities based on information and experiences shared by researchers affiliated with the Health Maintenance Consortium (HMC). Methods A qualitative case study methodology was used with the administration of a survey (n=17 principal investigators) and follow-up telephone interviews. Descriptive and content analyses were conducted, and a synthesis of the findings was developed. Results: A majority of the HMC projects used individual tailoring strategies regardless of the ethnic background of participants. Follow-up interview findings indicated that key considerations in the process of intervention tailoring for minorities included formative research; individually oriented adaptations; and intervention components that were congruent with participants’ demographics, cultural norms, and social context. Conclusions Future research should examine the extent to which culturally tailoring long-term maintenance interventions for ethnic minorities is efficacious and should be pursued as an effective methodology to reduce health disparities.
Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Toobert, Deborah; Smith, Matthew Lee; Osuna, Diego; McKay, James; Villarreal, Edna K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rimer, Barbara K.
The number of incarcerated mothers has risen steadily in the past 20 years, with a majority of the mothers’ children being cared for by relatives, usually the maternal grandmother (Smith, Krisman, Strozier, & Marley, 2004). This article examines the unique coparenting relationship of grandmothers and mothers through qualitative individual interviews with a sample of 24 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 6, and 24 grandmothers raising their children. The study revealed many different variants of healthy coparenting alliances, achieved against often huge odds. Much variation was also discovered in dyads where coparenting alliances were not as successful. Implications for practice include performing structural family assessments, enhancing jail education programs, and offering extended coparenting treatment after discharge.
Strozier, Anne L.; Armstrong, Mary; Skuza, Stella; Cecil, Dawn; McHale, James
This interpretive descriptive, qualitativestudy explored secondary school nurses' perceptions of factors that impact on their role and their views on how their role can be best supported. Nine secondary school nurses from four Department of Human Services regions in Victoria, Australia, participated in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Purposive sampling was used, with participants required to have a minimum of 2?years' experience as secondary school nurses. Data were thematically analyzed, revealing a complex and challenging role. The findings identified key factors necessary to support quality practice. All stakeholders need a shared understanding of the purpose and principles underpinning the secondary school nurse role and the nurse's professional obligations. Knowledge and experience are required that recognize the breadth and depth necessary for secondary school nurses to work effectively within their scope of practice. The adoption of a model of critical companionship is recommended to provide facilitated reflection on practice as a support mechanism for the role. PMID:23480208
This qualitativestudy explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain from parents of neonates born before 27 weeks’ gestational age how to improve predelivery counselling for delivery room resuscitation. METHODS: Qualitative ethnographic study using semistructured, face-to-face interviews of 10 families. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. RESULTS: Parents had no previous knowledge about prematurity. They would have preferred prioritized information during predelivery counselling focused on the immediate risks to their child. Resuscitation wishes were inconsistently sought. Opportunities for repeat discussions involving both parents were often missed. Parents agreed that the opportunity to explicitly state resuscitation wishes should be offered. Additional materials, such as pamphlets or videos, would improve counselling. CONCLUSIONS: Information about prematurity should be offered when the pregnancy is deemed high risk, with repeat counselling opportunities for both parents to discuss options. Once the decision is made to resuscitate, parents want the neonatal team to convey a message of hope and compassion.
Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs. PMID:23971307
Context: Choosing a career is an important decision for each individual, which is affected by many different factors. The process of entering nursing, as one of the pivotal healthcare discipline, certainly affects quality of care, and retention of nurses in the profession. Aims: Exploring factors affecting the students’ decision to enter nursing. Setting and Design: This qualitative content analysis was carried at the school of Nursing and Midwifery of Tehran University of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: The semi structured interview method was used to conduct this qualitativestudy on 11 nursing freshmen in 2010. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analyzed them using the conventional content analysis approach. Results: Four main categories, reflecting the factors affecting the participants’ decision to enter nursing emerged in this study: Capabilities of the profession, coercion, having an interest in the medical and allied health fields, and receiving positive feedbacks. The participants had tried to gather information about nursing through different sources, including nurses and other health care professionals, counselors and Internet, which almost all the time, yielded to no useful information and sometimes with negative feedback. Conclusions: Findings revealed that, unlike other countries, few participants had entered nursing with a real interest in helping and caring for others, and other factors such as having an interest in the medical and allied health fields, coercion, and good employment opportunities were the most important motives. Students’ lack of knowledge about the profession deserves special attention. Nursing managers’ should try to introduce the reality of nursing to the public and as a result, attract more competent students to the profession.
Background Despite the well-documented benefits of using warfarin to prevent stroke, physicians remain reluctant to initiate therapy, and especially so with the elderly owing to the higher risk of hemorrhage. Prior research suggests that patients are more accepting of the risk of bleeding than are physicians, although there have been few qualitativestudies. The aim of this study was to employ qualitative methods to investigate the experience and perspective of individuals taking warfarin. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 21 older patients (12 male, 9 female) who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of six months. Participants were patients at a family practice clinic situated in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. We used a semistructured interview guide with four main thematic areas: decision-making, knowledge/education, impact, and satisfaction. Data were analysed according to the principles of content analysis. Results and Discussion Participants tended to have minimal input into the decision to initiate warfarin therapy, instead relying in great part on physicians' expertise. There appeared to be low retention of information received regarding the therapy; half the patients in our sample possessed only a superficial level of understanding of the risks and benefits. This notwithstanding, participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the care provided and a low level of impact on their day-to-day lives. Conclusions Minimal patient involvement in the initial decision and modest knowledge did not appear to diminish satisfaction with warfarin management. At the same time, care providers exert a tremendous influence on the initiation of warfarin therapy and should strive to incorporate patient preferences and expectations into the decision-making process.
Dantas, Guilherme Coelho; Thompson, Barbara V; Manson, Judith A; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross EG
The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs. PMID:17368921
The use of qualitative research in the study of leadership is growing and its impact on the field is beginning to be felt. This article outlines some of the advantages of qualitative investigations of leadership and reports the results of an investigation of police leadership in England in which a qualitative approach was employed. Drawing on ideas from the New
A qualitative case study of eight doctoral level organic chemists from academia (6) and industry (2) solved eleven qualitative organic analysis problems using the Identification of Organic CompoundsRTM software computer simulation. Think-aloud protocols were analyzed for content knowledge and strategic knowledge to account for expert performance. Each of the eleven qualitative organic analysis problems included a variety of functional groups and structures and was solved in a computer-simulated environment to allow for extensive problem-solving by the experts and to evaluate the simulation's ability to model the problem-solving environment. The data provided consisted of the typical instrumentation available to university undergraduate students, including infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral data. Traditional wet chemistry data were also provided in the software, including solubility tests, fusion tests, classification tests, and derivatives. The subjects from industry did not effectively utilize the wet chemistry techniques, whereas the subjects from academia emphasized spectrometric techniques but also used wet chemistry techniques. Only two of the subjects made the determination of an empirical formula an initial part of their problem-solving strategy. This strategy was used on 24 percent of the problems. On 16 percent of the problems the subjects reverted to calculating an empirical formula when the problem became difficult to solve. The most effective strategy for utilizing the percent composition was to check the answer's percent composition with the elemental analysis. This was 100 percent successful and was used on 15 percent of problems. The elemental analysis was not used quantitatively by these experts on 45 percent of the problems. Problem-solving was idiosyncratic in that subjects utilized a particular experimental method that they were the most comfortable interpreting as their initial experimental space search. Then subsequent problem-solving largely consisted of a series of explorations of the experimental space with subsequent searches for confirmation of model-building conclusions drawn from the data. Derivatives were used exclusively by the academic chemists both to search for solutions and to confirm proposed solutions.
Qualitative and quantitative studies were made of the hemocytes of 4 tick species from 2 genera representing the 2 principal tick families: Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum Koch and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Family Ixodidae), and Argas (Persicargas) persicus...
The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484
Purpose – This paper aims to provide a research framework to explore the change in corporate environmental strategy based on the resource-based view of the firm and institutionalization theory and to present empirical evidence that illustrates how environmental strategy has changed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The framework and propositions are examined by using a longitudinal empirical analysis using mail surveys conducted in
BACKGROUND: Doctors are aware of the commercial bias in pharmaceutical representative information; nevertheless, such information is known to change doctors' prescribing, and augment irrational prescribing and prescribing costs. AIM: To explore GPs, reasons for receiving visits from pharmaceutical representatives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitativestudy with semi-structured interviews. SETTING: One hundred and seven general practitioners (GPs) in practices from two health authorities in the North West of England. RESULTS: The main outcome measures of the study were: reasons for receiving/not receiving representative visits; advantages/disadvantages in receiving visits; and quality of representative-supplied information. Most GPs routinely see pharmaceutical representatives, because they bring new drug information speedily; they are convenient and accessible; and can be consulted with a saving of time and effort. Many GPs asserted they had the skills to critically appraise the evidence. Furthermore, the credibility and social characteristics of the representative were instrumental in shaping GPs' perceptions of representatives as legitimate information providers. GPs also received visits from representatives for reasons other than information acquisition. These reasons are congruent with personal selling techniques used in marketing communications. CONCLUSIONS: The study draws attention to the social and cultural contexts of GP-representative encounters and the way in which the acquisition of pharmacological information within the mercantile context of representative visits is legitimated. This highlights the need for doctors to critically appraise information supplied by representatives in relation to other information sources.
Our objective was to explore citizens' informed and reasoned values and expectations of personalized medicine, a timely yet novel genomics policy issue. A qualitative, public deliberation study was undertaken using a citizens' reference panel on health technologies, established to provide input to the health technology assessment process in Ontario, Canada. The citizens' panel consisted of five women and nine men, aged 18-71 years, with one member selected from each health authority region. There were shared expectations among the citizens' panel members for the potential of personalized medicine technologies to improve care, provided they are deemed clinically valid and effective. These expectations were tempered by concerns about value for money and the possibility that access to treatment may be limited by personalized medicine tests used to stratify patients. Although they questioned the presumed technological imperative presented by personalized medicine technologies, they called for increased efforts to prepare the health-care system to effectively integrate these technologies. This study represents an early but important effort to explore public values toward personalized medicine. This study also provides evidence of the public's ability to form coherent judgments about a new policy issue. Concerned that personalized tests might be used to ration care, they suggested that treatment should be made available if patients wanted it, irrespective of tests that indicate little benefit. This issue raises clinical and policy challenges that may undermine the value of personalized medicine. Further efforts to deliberate with the public are warranted to inform effective, efficient and equitable translation of personalized medicine. PMID:23340511
Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that seek to measure nursing work environments will most likely apply in Mexico and other Latin American or middle-income countries. Instruments designed to measure the work environment of nurses in these countries may prove relevant in those contexts, but require careful adaptation and systematic translations to ensure it.
Recent rhetorical scholarship suggests a new focus on qualitative theories of human communication. This essay explores the implications of three general emphases for future inquiry: (1) rules research, (2) constructivism, and (3) constructionism.
Objectives To explore the reasons why general practitioners do not always implement best evidence. Design Qualitativestudy using Balint-style groups. Setting Primary care. Participants 19 general practitioners. Main outcome measures Identifiable themes that indicate barriers to implementation. Results Six main themes were identified that affected the implementation process: the personal and professional experiences of the general practitioners; the patient-doctor relationship; a perceived tension between primary and secondary care; general practitioners' feelings about their patients and the evidence; and logistical problems. Doctors are aware that their choice of words with patients can affect patients' decisions and whether evidence is implemented. Conclusions General practitioner participants seem to act as a conduit within the consultation and regard clinical evidence as a square peg to fit in the round hole of the patient's life. The process of implementation is complex, fluid, and adaptive. What is already known on this topicGeneral practitioners do not always act on evidence in clinical practiceGeneral practitioners are reluctant to jeopardise their relationship with the patient and sometimes feel that patients are unwilling to take drugsWhat this study addsImplementation of evidence by general practitioners is a complex and fluid processDecisions are influenced by the doctor's personal and professional experience as well as by their knowledge of and relationship with the patientDoctors' choice of words can influence patients' decisions about treatment
Objective To explore decision-making on treatment with antidepressants among doctors and nurses in nursing homes. Design and subjects A qualitativestudy based on interviews with three focus groups comprising eight physicians engaged full time, eight physicians engaged part time, and eight registered nurses, respectively. The interview guide comprised questions on initiating, evaluating, and withdrawing treatment with antidepressants. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed by systematic text condensation. Results The first theme was the diagnostic process. The informants expressed difficulty in differentiating between depression and sorrow resulting from loss in old age. Further, the doctors reported that they relied on nurses’ observations and rarely carried out systematic diagnostic work and follow-up of patients with depression. The second theme was treatment. Antidepressants were usually the only type of treatment provided, and patients were kept on medication even though staff felt uncertain whether this was effective. The third theme was who really determines the treatment. Registered nurses reported that unskilled and auxiliary nursing staff requested drug treatment, and doctors felt some pressure from the nurses to prescribe antidepressants. Conclusions This study suggests that the quality of diagnosis and treatment for depression in nursing homes needs to be improved in Norway. Doctors should be more available and take responsibility and leadership in medical decisions.
People who develop depression experience a maelstrom of emotions as they struggle to understand what is happening to them. While the experience has been comparatively well documented in older adults, much less is known about the depression experience and responses of young people. In this study, we aimed to explore the experience of young people diagnosed with depression. Twenty-six young people were recruited from a youth mental health service. A qualitative interpretative design was used, incorporating semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews. Results provided four overlapping themes, reflecting the young people's difficulties in coming to terms with, and responding in self-protective, harmful and at times life-threatening ways to their depression: (1) struggling to make sense of their situation; (2) spiralling down; (3) withdrawing; and (4) contemplating self-harm or suicide. Study conclusions are that young people faced considerable difficulties coming to terms with, and responding to, depression. Improving young people's understanding of depression and its treatment, reducing community stigma and providing accessible and youth-focused services remain important targets for intervention. It is also important to improve mental health literacy in the community to increase awareness of depression and how mental health professionals, including nurses, respond effectively to the young person. PMID:22070382
Background Many women stop smoking during pregnancy. Factors associated with relapse are known, but no intervention prevents the return to smoking among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine why women return to smoking after prolonged abstinence during pregnancy by examining mothers’ intention to smoke at the time of delivery and the perceptions that shape their intention. Methods We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during their postpartum hospital stay with 24 women who stopped smoking while pregnant. We asked participants whether they intended to resume smoking after pregnancy and why. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory-based qualitative methods to identify themes. Results Participants ranged in age from 18 to 36 years, and 63 percent were white. Three themes emerged from the interviews with the mothers: 1) they did not intend to return to smoking but doubted whether they would be able to maintain abstinence; 2) they believed that it would be possible to protect their newborns from the harms of cigarette smoke; and 3) they felt that they had control over their smoking and did not need help to maintain abstinence after pregnancy. Conclusions Although most participants did not intend to resume smoking, their intentions may be stymied by their perceptions about second-hand smoke and by their overestimation of their control over smoking. Further study should quantify these barriers and determine their evolution over the first year after pregnancy with the goal of informing more successful, targeted interventions. (BIRTH 39:1 March 2012)
Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Nguyen, Stephanie N.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R.
Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.
Background Despite the rapid rise in the use of multicompartmental compliance aids (MCAs), little is known about the role they play in self-management of medication. Aim To explore the perceived benefits of MCAs for people using them to manage their own or a relative's medication. Design of studyQualitativestudy using in-depth interviews. Setting West Northumberland. Method Recruitment was via posters and leaflets in general practices and community pharmacies. In-depth interviews were conducted using a topic guide. Results Nineteen people were interviewed. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to medicine taking: disruption, organisation, and adherence, which impacted on control. The medication regime had caused disruption to their lives and this had led to the purchase of an MCA. The MCA enabled them to organise their medication, which they believed had improved the efficiency of medicine taking and saved time. Although the MCA did not prompt them to take their medication, they could see whether they had actually taken it or not, which alleviated their anxiety. To meet their individual needs and lifestyles, some had developed broader systems of medication management, incorporating the MCA. For a small cost – the initial outlay for the MCA and time spent loading it – they gained control over the management of their medication and their condition. Conclusion This group found the use of an MCA to be beneficial, but advice and support regarding how best to manage their medication and on the most appropriate design to suit their needs would be helpful.
Lecouturier, Jan; Cunningham, Bill; Campbell, David; Copeland, Richard
This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about social learning in animals. The last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.
|Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…
Summary Objective To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Design Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. Setting The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Main outcome measures Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. Results In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. Conclusions The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health.
Background The Internet is an important source of health information for people with psychiatric conditions. Little is known about the way patients with schizophrenia use the Internet when it comes to issues related to their illness. Data on their specific needs, difficulties, and the consequences related to Internet use are lacking. Objective Our objective was to investigate the nature and subjective consequences of health-related Internet use among patients with schizophrenia. Methods In all, 26 individual semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed qualitatively in groups of 4 until theoretical saturation was achieved. Results Study results suggest that the Internet is an influential source of illness-related information for patients with schizophrenia. Many aspects of their behavior around the Internet resemble those of individuals not afflicted by mental illness. Importantly, problems specific to patients with schizophrenia were stimulus overflow, an inability to deal with the abundance of information, difficulties with concentration, lack of energy, paranoid ideas, symptom provocation, and the need to distance themselves from illness-related topics as part of the recovery process. Internet information was subjectively perceived as having the potential to significantly change patients’ attitudes toward medication and their relationships with doctors. Conclusions These findings provide insight into how individuals with schizophrenia handle illness-related Internet information. The data could contribute to the continuous development of Internet-based interventions and offer novel approaches to optimizing traditional treatment options.
Background Despite the considerable impact of migraine, the use of preventive medication in primary care is limited. Only about 5% of migraine patients who qualify for prophylaxis actually receive it, and adherence is far from optimal. Aim To explore the opinions of GPs regarding preventive medication for migraine. Design and setting A qualitative focus group study in Dutch general practice. Method Four focus groups (six GPs each) were formed. GPs were purposively sampled to acquire a range of participants, reflecting the more general GP population. Results GPs perceived patients' concerns about the impact of migraine and the potential benefits of prophylaxis. However, some were hesitant to start prescribing prophylaxis due to doubts about effectiveness, potential side effects, and the risk of developing drug dependency. GPs' decisions were often based on considerations other than those presented in national guidelines, for example, the patient's need to control their own problem. Many GPs placed responsibility for initiating prophylaxis with the patient. Conclusion Various considerations hamper GPs from managing migraine with preventive medication, and various patient-related concerns cause GPs to deviate from national headache guidelines.
Dekker, Frans; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Andriesse, Boukje; Kernick, David; Ferrari, Michel D; Assendelft, Willem JJ
Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early breastfeeding experience, be able to identify and claim a reliable support system supportive of breastfeeding, and gain through their experience, a belief in their own agency and competency as mothers.
This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…
Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.
The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) EmpiricalStudy is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to 'translate' the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.
Lois, Erasmia (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Forester, John Alan; Dang, Vinh N. (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland); Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Bye, Andreas (OECD Halden Reactor Project, Halden, Norway)
Abstract Background Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, had been introduced into three pioneer hospitals in Malaysia, as part of the integrated hospital program. It was introduced primarily for the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. After almost 3 years since it was first implemented, there are currently plans to extend it to other hospitals in the country. Information from this study will contribute toward a better future implementation plan. Objectives This study was conducted to gain an insight into the experiences and views of poststroke patients and their urut Melayu practitioners. Methods A qualitativestudy design was adopted. A total of 17 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with poststroke patients who were undergoing urut Melayu treatment at one of the three integrated hospitals. Information was solicited from their accompanying caregivers whenever necessary. The 2 urut Melayu practitioners at the hospital were also interviewed. All the interviews were carried out in Malay by the authors, at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit of the relevant hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded into categories through a constant-comparison method of data analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative descriptions of the themes. Results It was found that urut Melayu was sought by patients who had experienced stroke brought about by hypertension and postdelivery complications. They reported the unique characteristics of urut Melayu and their positive experiences with it. Conclusions Urut Melayu has potential as a complementary therapy for poststroke patients. It is recommended that the number of practitioners at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit be increased to provide the optimum care for poststroke patients.
Fadzil, Fariza; Ahmad, Norlaili; Abd Ghani, Norsuria
Background Services for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have evolved with the development of independently led outreach Rheumatology Practitioner (RP) clinics in Primary Care (PC). Their clinical and cost effectiveness, compared with Secondary Care (SC) services, has not been assessed. The RECIPROCATE study aims to evaluate their clinical and cost effectiveness. This part of the study aimed to explore health professionals’ opinions of rheumatology outreach service. Methods Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs, practice nurses, hospital doctors and RPs, from one hospital and seven PC practices in Norfolk, to elicit their opinions of the service. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All participants agreed the service was supportive and valuable providing high quality personalised care, disease management, social, and educational support. Advantages identified included convenience, continuity of care and proximity of services to home. RPs helped bridge the communication gap between PC and SC. Some participants suggested having a doctor alongside RPs. The service was considered to be cost effective for patients but there was uncertainty about cost effectiveness for service providers. Few disadvantages were identified the most recurring being the lack of other onsite services when needed. It was noted that more services could be provided by RPs such as prescribing and joint injections as well as playing a more active role in knowledge transfer to PC. Conclusions Professionals involved in the care of RA patients recognised the valuable role of the RP outreach clinics. This service can be further developed in rheumatology and the example can be replicated for other chronic conditions.
Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitativestudy which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary support functions are available locally, especially for early stage clinician managers.
Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitativestudy involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.
Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon
This study explored two research questions: (1) What are college students' conceptions of river topics and (2) What are the emergent patterns between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity? A basic interpretive qualitative research design was used. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 24 college students from an introductory geology class. In-depth interviews were conducted and a demographic questionnaire administered. Interview responses were analyzed using a modified version of constant comparative analysis. Between-gender patterns and between-ethnic group patterns of the type of conceptions held were investigated by calculating relative likelihood statistics. Four findings emerged. Finding 1: students held mostly scientific and incomplete scientific conceptions of the nine river topics covered in the study. Finding 2: students' conceptions were complex. In addition to scientific and alternative conceptions, students also held incomplete scientific, incomplete scientific-alternative, and scientific-alternative conceptions. Individual students held a range of conceptions across the river topics. For each topic, there was a range of conceptions held by students. Finding 3: students had more alternative conceptions for processes, causes, and difficult-to-observe features. Finding 4: patterns were observed between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity. Men held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did women. Women held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did men. White students held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did Hispanic students. Hispanic students held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did White students.
The increasing demand for multi-modal systems and applications that are highly interactive and multi-sensory in nature has led to the introduction of new media and new user interface devices in multimedia computing. Computer generated smell, also known as olfactory data, is one of such media objects currently generating a lot of interest in the multimedia industry. We are currently focusing our attention on exploring user perception of computer generated smell when combined with other media to enrich their multimedia experience. In this paper, we present the results of an empiricalstudy into users' perception of olfactory enhanced multimedia displays. Results showed that users generally enjoy an enhanced multimedia experience when augmented by olfactory stimuli, and that the presence of such stimuli increases the sense of relevance. Whilst there is a general positive bias towards olfactory enhanced multimedia applications, specific properties of smell such as diffusion and lingering mean that in practice specific attention needs to be given when a mix of smells is associated with visualised multimedia content; moreover, it was found that whilst smell was incorrectly identified in some instances, the presence of smell per se is generally enough to create a richer user multimedia experience.
Context: The need to reinvigorate medical confidentiality protections is recognised as an important objective in building patient trust necessary for successful health outcomes. Little is known about patient understanding and expectations from medical confidentiality. Objective: To identify and describe patient views of medical confidentiality and to assess provisionally the range of these views. Design: Qualitativestudy using indepth, open ended face-to-face interviews. Setting: Southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, USA. Participants: A total of 85 women interviewed at two clinical sites and three community/research centres. Main outcome measures: Subjects' understanding of medical confidentiality, beliefs about the handling of confidential information and concerns influencing disclosure of information to doctors. Results: The subjects defined medical confidentiality as the expectation that something done or said would be kept "private" but differed on what information was confidential and the basis and methods for protecting information. Some considered all medical information as confidential and thought confidentiality protections functioned to limit its circulation to medical uses and reimbursement needs. Others defined only sensitive or potentially stigmatising information as confidential. Many of these also defined medical confidentiality as a strict limit prohibiting information release, although some noted that specific permission or urgent need could override this limit. Conclusions: Patients share a basic understanding of confidentiality as protection of information, but some might have expectations that are likely not met by current practice nor anticipated by doctors. Doctors should recognise that patients might have their own medical confidentiality models. They should address divergences from current practice and provide support to those who face emotional or practical obstacles to self-revelation.
Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine.
Objectives The aim of this study was to apply qualitative techniques to assimilate data on patient experience and attitudes during MR colonography (MRC) and colonoscopy (CC). Methods 18 patients (11 male, 8 female, median age 40.5 years), 10 of whom had known colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 8 who were under investigation for suspected colonic neoplasia (non-IBD), underwent MRC and conventional CC. Semi-structured interviews were performed to assimilate test experiences and preferences, and themes were extracted using thematic analysis. Results Thematic analysis identified three main themes: (i) physical experience, (ii) information provision and (iii) overall preference. Patients expressed mixed views about the physical experience of MRC but specifically identified water filling, breath holding and lying still as problematic. Anxiety was expressed regarding potential incontinence. Scanner noise interfered with the understanding of instructions, particularly amongst non-IBD patients. Non-IBD patients expressed greater anxiety over the delay in receiving the MRC report than IBD patients. In general MRI was considered as the more informative and safer investigation. Patients reported more physical discomfort during CC (notably IBD patients) related to air insufflation and colonoscopic manipulation but were more satisfied with the feedback they received. 10 patients (56%) stated an overall preference for MRC and 5 (28%) preferred CC. Reasons for preferences stated by the patients included discomfort, speed of the test, safety, perceived diagnostic ability and the ability to take biopsies. Conclusion Experiences of MRC and CC are complex and influenced by clinical indication. Individuals place different weightings on the relative importance of test attributes including discomfort, noise, immobility, feedback, safety and fear of incontinence and this defines overall preference.
Hafeez, R; Wagner, C V; Smith, S; Boulos, P; Halligan, S; Bloom, S; Taylor, S A
Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.
Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitativestudy based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite.
Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitativestudy aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.
Relational theory encourages women to be connected in relationships. The authors used qualitative methodology to explore the interactions of a nonfamilial intergenerational group of 7 female adolescents (13-15 years) and 5 older women (62-80 years) in a structured retreat. Findings indicated that the participants experienced increased connectivity…
Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Bartlett, Jan R.; Carlson, Laurie A.
|Qualitative analysis of a large ethnographic database from observations of a resident teaching clinic revealed three important findings. The first finding was that breakdown, a situation where an "actor" (such as a person or the group) is not achieving expected effectiveness, was the most important category because of its frequency and…
Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Francovich, Chris; Hill, William; Gieselman, Janet
Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…
The findings represent the qualitative assessment of attitudes that were explored and obtained in different regions of the country from a broadly-based cross-section of the population. The intent of the project was not to suggest either a definitive or an...
|Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…
Purpose – The purpose this paper is to expand upon existing knowledge of this important topic by providing an expanded inventory of the causes and consequences of having enemies at work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Qualitative data were collected from 412 respondents using an internet-based questionnaire with respondents spanning a wide range of occupations, industries and nationalities. Using a structured methodology for
|A particular framework of teachers' conceptions about assessment in school is presented. Fifty teachers of primary and secondary school were interviewed. Results of a qualitative analysis allowed building a model of conceptions of assessment. This model comprises four dimensions about the effects of assessment on: teaching, learning,…
|The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…
Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees
Background Due to the armed conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s many families escaped to other countries. The main goal of this study was to explore in more detail the complexity of various family members’ experiences and perceptions from their life before the war, during the war and the escape, and during their new life in Sweden. There is insufficient knowledge of refugee families’ perceptions, experiences and needs, and especially of the complexity of family perspectives and family systems. This study focused on three families from Bosnia and Herzegovina who came to Sweden and were granted permanent residence permits. The families had at least one child between 5 and 12 years old. Method Family therapy sessions were videotaped and verbatim transcriptions were made. Nine family therapy sessions were analysed using a qualitative method with directed content analysis. Results Three main categories and ten subcategories were found - 1. Everyday life at home, with two subcategories: The family, Work and School/preschool; 2. The influence of war on everyday life, with three subcategories: The war, The escape, Reflections; 3. The new life, with five subcategories: Employment, Health, Relatives and friends, Limited future, Transition to the new life. Conclusions Health care and social welfare professionals need to find out what kind of lives refugee families have lived before coming to a new country, in order to determine individual needs of support. In this study the families had lived ordinary lives in their country of origin, and after experiencing a war situation they escaped to a new country and started a new life. They had thoughts of a limited future but also hopes of getting jobs and taking care of themselves and their families. When analysing each person’s point of view one must seek an all-embracing picture of a family and its complexity to tie together the family narrative. To offer refugee families meetings with family-oriented professionals to provide the opportunity to create a family narrative is recommended for the health and social welfare sector. Using this knowledge by emphasizing the salutogenic perspectives facilitates support to refugee families and individuals. This kind of support can help refugee families to adapt to a new system of society and recapture a sense of coherence, including all three components that lead to coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. More studies are needed to further investigate the thoughts, experiences and needs of various refugee families and how refugee receiving societies can give the most effective support.
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese adolescents toward smoking, giving up smoking, and smoking cessation programs presently available. The study was a qualitativestudy carried out in 2002 by focus groups of 32 male secondary school students in Hong Kong who were either current smokers or had recently given up smoking. Subjects were students (grades 8-10) attending two full-day secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants did not feel the need to make any serious psychological preparation for quitting. They underestimated the addictive nature of cigarette smoking and felt that they could choose to quit smoking at any time with little difficulty. Several barriers to quitting were reported, including boredom, peer influence, the urge to smoke, school work pressure, the wish to do something with their hands, difficulty in concentrating, and the ready availability of free cigarettes from peers. Those who had attempted to quit smoking (26/32) reported that peer influence and boredom were the main reasons why they started smoking and insisted that willpower and determination could have helped them in their quitting attempt. Participants were unanimous that pressure or encouragement from teachers, parents, or girlfriends did not help them to stay off cigarettes. Most (24/32) of the current smokers knew that smoking cessation services were available in Hong Kong, only 50% (12/24) of those who knew had made use of such services. None of the participants were able to identify any effective way of quitting smoking, though some suggested that the best practical measure was to avoid friends who smoked. The study suggests that attempts to persuade young people to quit smoking might benefit if they were framed to address issues such as the strong influence of their peers, the ease with which tobacco products can be obtained, the casual attitudes of young people toward smoking cessation, the perceived pros and cons of quitting, and (given that underage smoking is frowned upon by many parents and teachers) the need to respect confidentiality when offering support. PMID:17118813
Study objective: To identify ethical issues encountered by staff in the development and implementation of public health activities at two sites in Scotland. Design: Qualitative research study involving face to face semi-structured interviews with participants. Setting: A public health directorate in a National Health Service Trust, and a public health demonstration project in child health. Participants: Health promotion specialists, managers, nurses, public health consultants and specialists, researchers, trainees, and other public health staff. Main results: Three main categories of ethical issues were identified: paternalism, responsibilities, and ethical decision making. Consulting with the community and sharing information raised issues of paternalism and honesty. Participants identified multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities. Barriers to fulfilling responsibilities included meeting targets, working with partners, and political influences. Defining the limits of responsibilities posed challenges. Participants identified values for ideal decision making, but lack of time often led to a more pragmatic approach. Conclusion: These empirical findings complement and extend existing discussions of public health ethics, emphasising the complex nature of ethical issues in public health. The implications for public health policy and future research are discussed.
There is little qualitative research on depression in motherhood from non-Western societies. The objective of the study described in this paper was to use qualitative methods to investigate the cultural validity of the construct of post-natal depression (PND) and its social and cultural contexts. The study was nested in a cohort of mothers recruited to study the risk factors and
Merlyn Rodrigues; Vikram Patel; Surinder Jaswal; Nandita de Souza
Our study examines the state of qualitative case studies in operations management. Five main operations management journals are included for their impact on the field. They are in alphabetical order: Decision Sciences, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Journal of Operations Management, Management Science, and Production and Operations Management. The qualitative case studies chosen were published between 1992 and
Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diary studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning their pertinence to the field. Limitations and potential critiques regarding the use of diaries are also addressed.
This qualitativestudy, using the Zaltaman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), investigated differences between male and female sport event tourists. Study participants cited different attributes, consequences, and values with respect to the five themes that emerged from this study: loyalty, socialization, self-actualization, volunteering, and equality through sport. The use of a grounded qualitative research approach made it possible to discover that
|This study examines the administrative qualities held by women who are state public service personnel. The value sectors identified in the study are political acuity, professional efficiency and managerial competency. Primary empirical data was collected through survey. The empirical data analysis of the study conclude that though many women have…
Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts' authority as a pillar of EBM could be challenged by the emergence of new kinds of EBM texts and experts to believe in.
Objective To explore and explain socioeconomic variations in perceptions of and behavioural responses to chest pain. Design Qualitative interviews. Setting Community based study in Glasgow, Scotland. Participants 30 respondents (15 men and 15 women) from a socioeconomically deprived area of Glasgow and 30 respondents (15 men and 15 women) from an affluent area of Glasgow. Outcome measures Participants' reports of their perceptions of and actions in response to chest pain. Results Residents of the deprived area reported greater perceived vulnerability to heart disease, stemming from greater exposure to heart disease in family members and greater identification with high risk groups and stereotypes of cardiac patients. This greater perceived vulnerability was not associated with more frequent reporting of presenting to a general practitioner. People from the deprived area reported greater exposure to ill health, which allowed them to normalise their chest pain, led to confusion with other conditions, and gave rise to a belief that they were overusing medical services. These factors were associated with a reported tendency not to present with chest pain. Anxiety about presenting among respondents in the deprived area was heightened by self blame and fear that they would be chastised by their general practitioner for their risk behaviours. Conclusions Important socioeconomic variations in responses to chest pain may contribute to the known inequities in uptake of secondary cardiology services. Primary care professionals and health promoters should be aware of the ways in which perceptions of symptoms and illness behaviour are shaped by social and cultural factors. What is already known on this topicSocioeconomic variations in rates of angiography and revascularisation existAmong socioeconomically deprived patients with a diagnosis of angina, barriers to accessing services include fear, denial, low expectations, and diagnostic confusionWhat this study addsPerceived vulnerability to heart disease is associated with socioeconomic deprivation and is underpinned by positive family history and identification with high risk groups and stereotypesGreater perceived vulnerability to heart disease does not lead to reported presentation in deprived patientsIllness behaviour is influenced by normalisation of chest pain, comorbidity, and poor experience and low expectations of health care, which are more prominent in deprived patients
Richards, Helen Mary; Reid, Margaret Elspeth; Watt, Graham Charles Murray
Objective To explore the factors that influence help seeking for mental distress by offenders. Design Qualitativestudy based on in-depth interviews with prisoners before and after release. Setting One category B local prison in southern England. Participants 35 male offenders aged 18-52, a quarter of whom had been flagged as being at risk of self harm. Results Most respondents reported that they would not seek help from a general practitioner or other healthcare professional if experiencing mental distress. When followed up after release, none had sought medical help despite the fact that many had considerable emotional problems. Many participants were hesitant to seek help because they feared being given a formal diagnosis of mental illness. Some of these men feared the stigma that such a diagnosis would bring, whereas others feared that a diagnosis would mean having to confront the problem. Lack of trust emerged as the most prominent theme in prisoners' discourse about not seeking help from health professionals. Distrust towards the “system” and authority figures in general was linked to adverse childhood experiences. Distrust directed specifically at healthcare professionals was often expressed as specific negative beliefs: many perceived that health professionals (most often doctors) “just don't care,” “just want to medicate,” and treat patients “superficially.” Those men who would consider going to a general practitioner reported positive previous experiences of being respected and listened to. Conclusions Distrust is a major barrier to accessing health care among offenders. Like most people, the respondents in this study wanted to feel listened to, acknowledged, and treated as individuals by health professionals. By ensuring that a positive precedent is set, particularly for sceptical groups such as ex-prisoners, general practitioners and prison doctors may be able to encourage future help seeking. Information specifically designed for prisoners is needed to help to de-stigmatise mental illness, and preparation for release should include provision of information about access to health and social services. Awareness training for health professionals is recommended: trust might be fostered in this population by seemingly trivial gestures that indicate respect.
Interviews form an essential part of data collection for many qualitative nursing studies. Information about how to individualize interview formats to meet the purpose and style of specific qualitative research approaches, however, is not readily accessible to the researcher. This paper offers an overview of use of the interviewer as an instrument in qualitative research, as well as ways in which the differing purposes and styles of ethnographic and phenomenological research approaches affect the format for the interview. PMID:7665776
Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…
Empirical evidence suggests that people perform poorly in dynamic tasks. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping people to develop more accurate mental models of the task stems through training with debriefing supported computer simulation-based interactive learning environments (CSBILEs). I report a laboratory experiment in which subjects managed a dynamic task by
There is growing awareness that the distribution of IMF facilities may not be influenced only by the economic needs of borrowers. This paper focuses on the fact that the IMF may favour geopolitically important countries in the distribution of IMF loans, differentiating between concessional and non-concessional facilities. To carry out the empirical analysis, we construct a new database that compiles
This paper considers the structure of advertising effectiveness on the internet. It investigates empirically the importance of creative and media factors for banner effectiveness. Econometric modelling of actual data on banner ads demonstrates that creative factors such as banner size, animation, message length and logos, as well as media factors such as campaign length, number of host websites, use of
Background Several strategies to optimise the use of antibiotics have been developed. Most of these interventions can be classified as educational or restrictive. Restrictive measures are considered to be more effective, but the enforcement of these measures may be difficult and lead to conflicts with prescribers. Any intervention should be aimed at targets with the highest impact on antibiotic prescribing. The aim of the present study was to assess the adequacy of empirical and adjusted antibiotic therapies in a Swiss university hospital where no antibiotic use restrictions are enforced, and to identify risk factors for inadequate treatment and targets for intervention. Methods A prospective observational study was performed during 9 months. All patients admitted through the emergency department who received an antibiotic therapy within 24 hours of admission were included. Data on demographic characteristics, diagnoses, comorbidities, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) parameters, microbiological tests, and administered antibiotics were collected prospectively. Antibiotic therapy was considered adequate if spectrum, dose, application modus, and duration of therapy were appropriate according to local recommendations or published guidelines. Results 2943 admitted patients were evaluated. Of these, 572 (19.4%) received antibiotics within 24 hours and 539 (94%) were analysed in detail. Empirical antibiotic therapy was inadequate in 121 patients (22%). Initial therapy was adjusted in 168 patients (31%). This adjusted antibiotic therapy was inadequate in 46 patients (27%). The main reason for inadequacy was the use of antibiotics with unnecessarily broad spectrum (24% of inadequate empirical, and 52% of inadequate adjusted therapies). In 26% of patients with inadequate adjusted therapy, antibiotics used were either ineffective against isolated pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic therapy was continued despite negative results of microbiological investigations. Conclusion The rate of inadequate antibiotic therapies was similar to the rates reported from other institutions despite the absence of a restrictive antibiotic policy. Surprisingly, adjusted antibiotic therapies were more frequently inappropriate than empirical therapies. Interventions aiming at improving antibiotic prescribing should focus on both initial empirical therapy and streamlining and adjustment of therapy once microbiological results become available.
Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature) and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher than their younger and more junior colleagues. Conclusion When trying to establish an efficient reward system for nurses, hospital managers should not concentrate on the financial reward possibilities alone. They also ought to consider non-financial and psychological rewards (in combination with financial rewards), since nurses value these as well and they may lead to a more personalized reward system.
De Gieter, Sara; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland; Caers, Ralf; Du Bois, Cindy; Jegers, Marc
Reports of qualitativestudies typically do not offer much information on the numbers of respondents linked to any one finding. This information may be especially useful in reports of basic, or minimally interpretive, qualitative descriptive studies focused on surveying a range of experiences in a target domain, and its lack may limit the ability to synthesize the results of such studies with quantitative results in systematic reviews. Accordingly, the authors illustrate strategies for deriving plausible ranges of respondents expressing a finding in a set of reports of basic qualitative descriptive studies on antiretroviral adherence and suggest how the results might be used. These strategies have limitations and are never appropriate for use with findings from interpretive qualitativestudies. Yet they offer a temporary workaround for preserving and maximizing the value of information from basic qualitative descriptive studies for systematic reviews. They show also why quantitizing is never simply quantitative.
|The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations over the past five years that focused on student affairs organizational issues. A bounded qualitative meta-study was used and the methods, theories, and findings of the dissertations were examined. A variety of research methods were used including quantitative, qualitative and mixed designs.…
Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitativestudies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitativestudies that
|This qualitativestudy aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…
Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to find out if No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has affected the academic achievement rates of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). This qualitative phenomenological study explored perceptions of both regular education and special education teachers on the achievement rate…
|The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to find out if No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has affected the academic achievement rates of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). This qualitative phenomenological study explored perceptions of both regular education and special education teachers on the achievement…
Few qualitative process research studies have been conducted on change processes in couples therapy, and even fewer have focused on the clients' perceptions of change processes. None have focused specifically on sudden change processes, such as pivotal moments. In this qualitativestudy, three couples shared their perceptions of pivotal moments in marital therapy. Therapy sessions were videotaped, and data were
Inquiry into a product development organization in the semiconductor industry revealed a high level of organizational anxiety. Using causal loop diagramming in conjunction with qualitative data analysis, inside members of a research team created a map of the organization's cognitive schema (or collective mental model) using data obtained from informants in the organization. The map showed how the organization's use
This paper presents research in progress, as well as tentative findings related to the empiricalstudy of so called bad code smells. We present a taxonomy that cate- gorizes similar bad smells. We believe the taxonomy makes the smells more understandable and recognizes the relationships between smells. Additionally, we present our initial findings from an empiricalstudy of the use
Evidence shows that integrated development environments (IDEs) are too often functionality-oriented and difficult to use, learn, and master. This article describes challenges in the design ofusable IDEs and in the evaluation ofthe usability ofsuch tools. It also presents the results of three different empiricalstudies of IDE usability. Different methods are sequentially applied across the empiricalstudies in order to
This is the second in a series of four papers on understanding and doing qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Devers & Frankel (2000) Study design in qualitative research--2: sampling and data collection strategies, Education for Health, 13, 263-271]. Here, we focus on problems of study design, including question development, literature review, identifying a target audience and resource needs assessment. We provide a step-by-step description of major issues and choice points in the process. There are three key differences between qualitative and quantitative research designs. First, the logic of qualitative research is often inductive, rather than deductive, and consists of describing people's and groups' particular situations, meanings and experiences. Second, qualitative research designs are often emergent and flexible, and the research itself is quite dynamic. Third, the qualitative research process is non-linear and non-sequential. There is agreement that good qualitativestudies answer clearly stated, important research questions. How qualitative research questions are formulated has implications for conducting a literature review. Some scholars believe that literature should be reviewed prior to beginning a study; others argue that this may impede the researcher from truly listening, observing and remaining open to new concepts and ideas. We offer suggestions about formulating research questions and how and when to conduct a literature review. Another important issue in conducting qualitative research is determining the resources that will be needed to conduct a study. These include internal resources, such as research skills, and external resources, such as personnel (expertise and time), equipment, supplies and travel. A description of typical resource and management issues in conducting a qualitative research study is included. PMID:14742087
In this paper, several empirical and semiempirical models are used to describe the formative time delay dependence on working voltages tf (U) in neon at the pressure of 13.3 mbar. Besides our models, the empirical and theoretical models from the literature are successfully applied to the experimental data, without and with empirical corrections on the basis of our analysis. Good agreements with experimental data were found primarily at low overvoltages and with empirical corrections even at high overvoltages. The statistically based measurements of the breakdown time delay are shown to be convenient for the study of the formative time delay under different conditions.
Stamenkovi?, S. N.; Markovi?, V. Lj.; Goci?, S. R.
BitTorrent has attracted attention from researchers and the press for its wide deployment and explicit goal of eliminating free-riding, but many of the most impor- tant peers in BitTorrent operate outside of its incentive mechanisms. Altruistic seeders help bootstrap new peers and provide a signicant fraction of the global upload bandwidth. We have taken an empirical approach to un- derstanding
Justin Bieber; Michael Kenney; Nick Torre; Landon P. Cox
Using a gravity model, we conduct an empirical analysis of the impact of U.S. economic sanctions on U.S. trade with target countries and on third countries. Our findings show that the impact on U.S. trade is very sensitive to how the sanctioned country list is identified and selected. We find no significant impact of U.S. economic sanctions on trade between
Jiawen Yang; Hossein Askari; John Forrer; Hildy Teegen
BACKGROUND: Few empiricalstudies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach
\\u000a Green Manufacturing (GM) has attracted the attention of organizations all over the world. However, managers, who are considering\\u000a the introduction of GM in their organizations not only have to identify the application and plan its implementation but also\\u000a have to ensure that the use of GM will be a viable alternative. Most critical issue with the industry, particularly with SMEs
Terrorists disengage from the groups or organizations to which they belong as a result of structural, organizational, or personal factors. These types of factors seem to operate with relative mutual independence. All this can be analytically induced from research conducted at an individual level of analysis, based on 35 long interviews with former members of ETA who voluntarily decided to
Background: This qualitative paper describes perceptions of smoking risk and ways of thinking about risk for 31 persons with a Severe Mental Illness (SMI). Research has shown that many people with SMI want to quit smoking, and, like many other disadvantaged groups, make many quit attempts.Aim: The authors undertook a qualitativestudy to explore views and experiences about smoking and
Kristin Davis; Mary Brunette; Vanessa Vorhies; Joelle Ferron; Rob Whitley
Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitativestudy was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…
This exploratory, qualitativestudy investigates the perceptions of Guatemalans regarding the impact of tourism and migration in Antigua, Guatemala. The vehicle of data representation is the research poem, a new and valuable innovation within qualitative research. The research poems presented were derived from twenty-two interviews with owners and directors of language schools and the Maya of Antigua. The sociohistorical factors
The objective of this qualitativestudy is to assess the viability of the use of the female condom among Spanish university students. To reach this objective, we adopted a qualitative research approach. This is the first research on the viability of female condom use using a Spanish sample with young adult participants. Four groups were formed, consisting of sixteen individuals
María Lameiras Fernández; José María Faílde Garrido; Alberto Saco Alvarez
|Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitativestudy was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…
|There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…
The primary objective of the study reported in this paper was to look at the use of qualitative methodology in ergonomics research and practice. Qualitative methodology itself was chosen as a compatible approach to explore these aims, with ergonomics being seen as a socially situated practice. Semi-structured interviews were carried out using a prompt sheet which developed iteratively during the
In this qualitativestudy, 8 Hispanic counseling student interns told the story of their professional identity development. Qualitative analysis of the transcripts of audiotaped semistructured interviews revealed 7 general themes. Results may provide counselor educators with direction in facilitating the socialization of Hispanic graduate…
|Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empiricalstudy into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…
Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.
This paper empirically tests the relation between capital structure and firm performance in China. We selected sample consists of knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) firms from Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets in 2008. Empiricalstudy shows that the proportions of intangible asset and capital structure have a weak positive correlation. We also find that asset-liability ratio is negative to firm performance.
Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empiricalstudy into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…
Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.
Problem outline: It is common to classify empirical research designs as either qualitative or quantitative. Typically, particular research methods (e.g., case studies, action research, experiments and surveys) are associated with one or the other of these types of design. Studies in empirical software engineering (ESE) are often exploratory and often involve software developers and development organizations. As a consequence, it
Objectives—To examine children's accounts of injury risks and opportunities for prevention. Setting—Schools, youth clubs, and a holiday activity scheme in the south east of England. Methods—Sixteen focus groups were held with 7–11 year old children. Transcripts of the discussions were analysed using qualitative methods. Results—Children were knowledgeable about injury risks and how to reduce them. They also saw injury prevention as primarily their own responsibility. However, they were also sophisticated in their criticisms of generalised prevention advice, and evaluated safety messages in the light of local environmental and social knowledge. Personal experience was more often reported as a reason for risk reduction than formal prevention advice. Risks for injury were not isolated from other risks faced. Conclusions—Effective educational interventions aimed at changing children's risk behaviour should build more on children's own competence and knowledge of their local environment, and stress the need to manage risks rather than avoid dangers.
This analysis examines the practice of care providers in residential aged care lying to residents with dementia. Qualitative data were collected through multiple methods. Data here represents perceptions from registered and enrolled nurses, personal care assistants, and allied health professionals from five residential aged care facilities located in Queensland, Australia. Care providers in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) lie to residents with dementia. Lying is conceptualized as therapeutic whereby the care provider's intent is to eliminate harm and also control behaviour. Care providers of residents with dementia in RACFs need guidance around lying. An ethical framework cognisant of an ethical theory of good and ethical theory of right supplemented by a theory of virtue is proposed. A complimentary four stage communication strategy that promotes truth telling as a first option while also recommending the lie as a suitable strategy is also promoted. PMID:22140189
Abstract Objectives. Health is a subjective concept that considers the social, cultural, environmental and behavioural problems of the individual. This study was conducted with the objective of better understanding the sociocultural aspects related to the oral health of the Fulani populations of Ferlo, Senegal. Methods. The study was qualitative and based in the area of the Great Green Wall (GGW) in the region known as Ferlo, northern Senegal. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews in a sample of the population and through discussions with a focus group. It concerned health and aesthetics of the teeth, care and traditional herbal recipes, teeth and superstitions. Results. It appears that people were using the toothpick, the chewing stick and/or charcoal to clean their teeth. Confusion persisted with respect to the types of food consumed that were implicated in the occurrence of dental caries: tea, rice, 'jumbo' (a seasoning spice) and tobacco. 'Borom bop', which means 'master of the head', was the most commonly reported cause of caries. Healthy, beautiful teeth were attributes of beauty and elegance, enhanced by tattoos and crafted crowns in the Fulani. Their health problems were generally managed by healers or traditional practitioners who based their practices on empirical and 'handed down' knowledge. Socio-anthropological meanings were given to children with neonatal teeth. Conclusions. It is therefore important to consider the sociocultural aspects in oral health projects and programmes; the place of herbal medicine in dentistry should be recognized and maybe researched in the region of the Great Green Wall. PMID:23675695
Diouf, Massamba; Boetsch, Gilles; Ka, Khady; Tal-Dia, Anta; Bonfil, Jean Jacques
Qualitativestudies have played an important role in elucidating the lived experience of psychosis and there has recently been an increase in the number of such studies. There is now an urgent need to draw together the findings of these studies. This paper performed a meta-synthesis of inductive qualitative peer-reviewed research into psychosis. Ninety-seven articles were identified for systematic appraisal.
Simon McCarthy-Jones; Michael Marriott; Rebecca Knowles; Georgina Rowse; Andrew R. Thompson
Examines various criteria that have been proposed for evaluating the increasing number of empiricalstudies carried out using qualitative research methods and demonstrates how such criteria may privilege certain forms of qualitative research while excluding others. Select existing evaluative criteria for qualitative research proposed by applied…
|Examines various criteria that have been proposed for evaluating the increasing number of empiricalstudies carried out using qualitative research methods and demonstrates how such criteria may privilege certain forms of qualitative research while excluding others. Select existing evaluative criteria for qualitative research proposed by applied…
|Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empiricalstudies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded,…
Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empiricalstudies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…
Despite calls for physician engagement to reduce disparities, little is known about what drives physicians to become engaged or what engaged physicians are doing. We conducted in-depth interviews with a group of highly engaged physicians and used qualitative methods to identify how these physicians became interested in alleviating healthcare disparities and what strategies they use to improve care for their minority patients. We found that most participants have experienced being a minority, though only half were racial minorities, and many related extensive childhood experiences with minorities. Participants identified several key barriers to quality care for minorities, including language barriers, resource limitations, lack of patient education and low patient empowerment. When asked how physicians can reduce health disparities, most subjects emphasized interpersonal respect, though some promising non-interpersonal approaches to reducing disparities were also identified. These interviews document the lived experiences of a group of physicians who are highly engaged in reducing disparities and suggest that connecting with experiences as a minority and other early life experiences can prompt later professional engagement in this important issue.
Vanderbilt, Susanne K.; Wynia, Matthew K.; Gadon, Margaret; Alexander, G. Caleb
OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required.
Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.
Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice.
Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith
Objective: This is an empiricalstudy exploring the personal level of experience of social dysfunction in persons with schizophrenia. Method: We adopted a qualitative method of inquiry based on a review of transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 52 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. Results: In our interviews, the experience of the social world in
BackgroundThis longitudinal, qualitativestudy explores barriers to postpartum sterilization from the perspective of low-income minority women. We examine women's feelings and attitudes regarding a canceled or postponed procedure over time.
Melissa Gilliam; Shawna D. Davis; Amy Berlin; Nikki B. Zite
This report includes two separate but related empiricalstudies of the relationship between financial measures for defense aerospace contractors and pricing strategies adopted by contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified: skimming and penetration...
Lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation is a major risk factor for all types of skin cancer. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine theory-guided empiricalstudies examining adolescent tanning practices. PMID:18286858
This paper describes an empiricalstudy of open-source and closed-source software projects. The motivation for this research is to quantitatively investigate common perceptions about open-source projects, and to validate these perceptions through an empiricalstudy. This paper investigates the hypothesis that open-source software grows more quickly, but does not find evidence to support this. The project growth is similar for
This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157
Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N
This qualitativestudy focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and\\u000a relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were\\u000a conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified\\u000a 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a)
Terri N. SullivanElizabeth; Elizabeth H. Erwin; Sarah W. Helms; Saba W. Masho; Albert D. Farrell
Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited\\u000a but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empiricalstudy into the combined effects of both\\u000a music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants took part in one of four\\u000a experimental conditions (14 participants in
Jenny Spenwyn; Doug J. K. Barrett; Mark D. Griffiths
Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain
Background There is a growing ethical imperative to feedback research results to participants but there remains a striking lack of empirical research on how people respond to individualised feedback. We sought to explore longitudinal study participants' response to receiving individual written feedback of weight-related and blood results, and to consider the balance of harms against benefits. Methods A qualitativestudy with face-to-face and telephone interviews conducted with 50 men and women who had participated in the fifth and most recent wave of the cohort study 'West of Scotland Twenty-07' and received a feedback letter containing body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) results. Results Expectations of, and response to, the feedback of their individual results varied. Whilst half of the participants were on the whole 'pleased' with their results or held neutral views, half reported negative responses such as 'shock' or 'concern', particularly in relation to the weight-related results. Participants who were overweight and obese used the most negative language about their results, with some being quite distressed and reporting feelings of powerlessness, low self-image and anxiety over future health. Nevertheless, some people reported having implemented lifestyle changes in direct response to the feedback, resulting in significant weight-loss and/or dietary improvements. Others reported being motivated to change their behaviour. Age and gender differences were apparent in these narratives of behaviour change. Conclusions The potential harm caused to some participants may be balanced against the benefit to others. More evaluation of the impact of the format, content and means of individualised feedback of research findings in non-trial studies is required given the growing ethical imperative to offer participants a choice of receiving their results, and the likelihood that a high percentage will choose to receive them.
Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…
Few physical activity research studies have been conducted with minority women. The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of physical activity among minority women. Focus groups were conducted with volunteers older than age 40. Each group was led by a trained moderator familiar with the ethnic community targeted. The sessions were audiotaped and professionally transcribed. Constructs were researched
Amy A. Eyler; Elizabeth Baker; LaChenna Cromer; Abby C. King; Ross C. Brownson; Rebecca J. Donatelle
What is known about freshman students, especially about their lived experience, is fragmentary and unsystematic. This study attempted to construct a comprehensive portrait of the daily experience of freshmen at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. A total of 24 students (20 women, 4 men) participated in the study during a 3-month period.…
The purpose of this descriptive, single case study was to provide knowledge and insight about state education policy-making, specifically, the process by which education-related bills pass through a legislature. This study was also designed to identify factors of influence shaping legislative decision-making as perceived by lawmakers and observers…
The purpose of the present study was to explore the use of guided imagery as a tool to facilitate the expression of children’s grief. The children in the study were participating in open-ended, age specific, grief groups. Nine children participated in pre and post drawings. The Rosebush drawing itself and the feelings engendered by drawing appeared to be the most
Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…
van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham
A model of social studies textbook analysis and evaluation is developed in this paper and is applied to the analysis and evaluation of the content on Hawaii in selected elementary school social studies textbooks. Innovative methods of content analysis and evaluation of textbook presentations were developed and applied to the subject of Hawaii to…
|The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
The main purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study was to answer the question: what is feminist supervision in marriage and family therapy? The researcher investigated how feminist marriage and family therapy supervisors conceptualized the goals and purpose of supervision, how they constructed the supervisory relationship, and what feminist family therapy supervisors actually did in supervision. This study also assessed
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
|This is a qualitative interpretive study that explores the past and present experiences of heritage learners (HLs) of Mexican descent who were studying or had recently studied advanced Spanish in institutions of higher education. All of the participants had been exposed to Spanish in the home and began their studies in elementary or middle school…
Background This study examines research knowledge infrastructures (RKIs) found in health systems. An RKI is defined as any instrument\\u000a (i.e., programs, interventions, tools) implemented in order to facilitate access, dissemination, exchange, and\\/or use of evidence\\u000a in healthcare organisations. Based on an environmental scan (17 key informant interviews) and scoping review (26 studies),\\u000a we found support for a framework that we developed
Moriah E Ellen; John N Lavis; Mathieu Ouimet; Jeremy Grimshaw; Pierre-Olivier Bédard
This study was conducted with 11 Latina/o college students in order to provide insight into how these students develop a sense of resilience. Five factors from J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed's (1994) concept of resiliency appeared to play an important role in these students' high academic achievement: high educational goals, support and…
|This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…
Maintaining therapeutic programmes for people with learning disabilities over long periods of time presents a major challenge to care systems as the limited and slow pace of client behavioural change is often insufficient to sustain staff behaviour. In this study, a 17-year-old young man with profound learning difficulties was successfully…
Suicide is a leading cause of death in prisons across the United States. Existing research on prison suicides has been criticized for focusing on static variables such as demographics and ignoring process variables. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the experiences of inmates who attempted suicide in order to shed light on factors associated with the suicide
Sexual practices and attitudes to sex have raised concerns among the young and the old alike in India. The topic of sex has become slightly more open following the AIDS\\/HIV epidemic. The present study is aimed at understanding nuances of sexual behaviour and analysing the impact of different life stages on sexual attitudes and practices. Four focus groups and four
Dinesh Bhugra; Reenu Mehra; Padmal de Silva; Vijay Rahul Bhintade
The study objective was to investigate physicians’ perceptions of three patient decision aids (DA). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 family physicians and 12 gynecologists about a DA for women considering long-term hormone replacement therapy; with 16 respirologists about a DA for the use of intubation and mechanical ventilation for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and with
Ian D Graham; Jo Logan; Annette O’Connor; Shawn Aaron; Ann Cranney; Robert Dales; Thomas Elmslie; Paul Hebert; Elaine Jolly; Andreas Laupacis; Susan Mitchell; Peter Tugwell
|Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…
Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.
BACKGROUND: Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study
To date little is known about the effects of financial hardship on student parents, who remain a significant although largely unrecognized proportion of the student population. The objective of this study was to gain an insight into their concerns and illuminate issues which may have far?reaching consequences not only for the mental and physical health of student parents but also
While conducting a grounded theory study of Chinese American and Mexican American families' experiences in pediatric palliative care, we encountered a number of unanticipated challenges regarding project development, Institutional Review Boards, recruitment, data collection, and data analysis. In this article, we describe our experiences, strategies, and insights for the benefit of other researchers and clinicians in the field. PMID:19001106
|Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…
Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles
|When children are removed from their parents due to child maltreatment, the goal remains to reunite families whenever possible. Although extensive research exists regarding barriers to reunification, little is known about the families who are successfully reunited. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths families found helpful in the…
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe priority setting in cardiac surgery and evaluate it using an ethical framework, “accountability for reasonableness”. Introduction: Cardiac surgery is an expensive part of hospital budgets. Priority setting decisions are made daily regarding ever increasing volumes of patients. While much attention has been paid to the management of cardiac surgery waiting lists, little
Nancy A. Walton; Douglas K. Martin; Elizabeth H. Peter; Dorothy M. Pringle; Peter A. Singer
|The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
BACKGROUND: Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. METHODS: Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of
As an initial step toward uncovering the therapeutic potential of expressive writing for treating perfectionism, the current study utilized an emotional writing prompt to penetrate the inner world of 14 maladaptive perfectionists. The major question driving the inquiry was whether informative themes would emerge when perfectionists were prompted to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings. Procedures derived from Consensual
Robert S. Merrell; David J. Hannah; Amy C. Van Arsdale; Matthew P. Buman; Kenneth G. Rice
The identification of healthy carriers by newborn screening programmes raises questions about how and when the carrier results will be conveyed to child. There is currently a lack of information concerning how best to convey carrier information to children. This is a serious gap in the literature and practice. This study examined genetic counsellors’ experiences of counselling children to explore
Fiona Ulph; James Leong; Cris Glazebrook; Ellen Townsend
|Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…
Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.
Broadly, gatekeeping is the effort to prevent impaired clinical practice and strengthen minimal standards for the profession of marriage and family therapy (MFT). This function is important in MFT supervision, but scant research describes what actually happens when supervisors encounter trainees who evoke concerns about their competence. In this study, I explore gatekeeping by interviewing a sample of AAMFT Approved
Objective:Monthly audits for the multicenter Canadian Oxygen Trial have shown that our neonatal team has consistently maintained study participants within the intended pulse oximetry alarm limits between 68 and 79% of the time during the first 3 days of life while infants were receiving supplemental oxygen. This good performance prompted us to explore our nurses’ perceptions of what makes them
Background: the practical issues confronting older people who suffer chronic pain may not be tackled in a pain clinic setting and little is known of their strategies for coping. They seem to have little or no information on how to improve the quality of their lives or on resources available to them. Aim: the aim of this study was to
B. Sofaer; A. P. MOORE; I. HOLLOWAY; J. M. LAMBERTY; T. A. S. THORP; J. O'DWYER
One of the popular reasons given for differential treatment of women in management stems from stereotyping females as ineffective leaders. Thirty-two female leadership studies were reviewed. Trait, style, and contingency leadership theories were used as a framework to analyze the studies. The trait studies consistently supported the traditional attitude that women lack adequate leadership characteristics. Both style and contingency studies
Given the trust the public places in the medical profession, the question of when it might be acceptable to minimally deceive\\u000a patients, in their best interests, is a challenging one to answer. In this study, we explore neuro-oncology patients’ attitudes\\u000a towards dilemmas in which they may feel deceived, and with that information make recommendations on what steps physicians\\u000a can take
Sustainable investment (SI), which integrates social, environmental and ethical issues, has grown from a niche market of individual\\u000a ethical investors to embrace institutional investors (e.g. pension funds) resulting in £764 billion in assets under management\\u000a in the UK alone [Eurosif, 2008: ‘European SRI Study 2008’ (Eurosif, Paris)]. Explaining this growth is complex, involving shifts in personal and collective\\u000a values, reactions
The introduction of new consumer technology is often greeted with declarations that the way people conduct their lives will\\u000a be changed instantly. In some cases, this might create hype surrounding a specific technology. This article investigates the\\u000a adoption of hyped technology, a special case that is absent in the adoption literature. The study employs a consumer research perspective, specifically\\u000a the
Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The participants used problem-focused (problem solving, spending leisure time, confrontation) and
Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami; Forough Rafii; Seyede Fatemeh H. Oskouie
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus and engagement. Our study identified the most common sources of positive and negative emotions to be "being able to prepare well" and "lack of self-confidence," respectively. Our findings suggest that there are factors that we can influence in the surgical learning environment to minimize negative emotions and enhance positive emotions and engagement, thereby improving students' learning. PMID:23187024
|The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an "Evaluation…
A qualitative case study method is predominantly used in the field of education, political sciences, sociology, anthropology, organisational studies, industrial relations and so forth (Yin, 2003; Mertens, 2005; Kitay & Callus, 1998; Whitfield & strauss, 2000; Silverman, 2005; Hartley, 2004; Yusoff, 2001). Many of this literature is focus on the conceptual and theoretical aspects of case study approach. There is
|This qualitativestudy used a case study design to explore the teaching and learning that takes place in an adult Latino financial literacy education that was aimed specifically at Latina single mothers. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by a blend of critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives, as…
This study examines the structure of the Ogu family and its influence on reproductive health decision-making using a qualitative approach. Data were sourced through nine focus groups organized in the study area among married men and women. The data reveal that the family structure in the study area is changing, although the dominant pattern remains extended. The findings of the
This study examines the process of change in filial therapy, a type of play therapy, which engages parents as therapeutic agents in working with troubled children. Outcome studies have supported the efficacy of this approach in building parent-child relationships, reducing parenting stress, and reducing child behavior problems. The purpose of this qualitativestudy is to examine the process in order
Jon Winek; Jennifer Lambert-Shute; Laura Johnson; Liza Shaw; Jeff Krepps; Kelly Wiley
Little is known about strategies that physicians use to encourage receipt of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). This study conducted focus groups with physicians. Twenty-seven physicians participated in four focus groups. Physicians described four categories of approaches: (1) why screening is important, (2) providing test information, (3) motivational strategies, and (4) tailoring strategies. Participants reported tailoring based on their relationship with a patient, as well as to patient gender, education, and language. Tailoring to cultural background or ethnicity was not prominent. Most physicians reported a typical approach to CRCS and reported some tailoring based on gender, education, and language, but not on ethnicity.
Karliner, Leah; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pham, Linda A.; Pasick, Rena
Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…
The present study focuses on franchisee discontinuances and failures during the three years 1999-2001. The study was the first of its kind in Finland while internationally the topic has been studied for instance in the USA, the UK and Australia. As a matter of fact, few franchise topics have generated more interest over the years than franchise failure rates. Past
The benefits of reusing software components have been studied for many years. Several previous studies have concluded that reused components have fewer defects in general than non-reusable components. However, few of these studies have gone a further step, i.e., investigating which type of defects has been reduced because of reuse. Thus, it is suspected that making a software component reusable
Jingyue Li; Anita Gupta; Jon Arvid Børretzen; Reidar Conradi
Purpose – This study uses a stakeholder perspective to explain the content of mission statements, in particular the inclusion of stakeholder groups. The study uses stakeholder dependency theory and resource dependency theory to explain the content of mission statement. In line with this perspective, stakeholders in this study will be classified as either being resource providers, such as employees and
Gertjan van Nimwegen; Laury Bollen; Harold Hassink; Thomas Thijssens
This study of managerial ideology focuses on the question of legitimacy and attempts to reconstruct the way in which the role of the chief executive is perceived in the context of Overseas Chinese economic cultures. The location of the study is Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore and those studied were 72 chief executives in Chinese business organizations. Three determinants of
|Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in…
Endoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that demands high levels of cognitive and technical skill to perform effectively. Surprisingly little is known about how endoscopy is best taught and training is often inadequate. The aims of this study were to explore the learning experiences of endoscopy trainees to improve our understanding of current training. Following the use of an initial focus group to generate appropriate themes semi-structured interviews were performed on 10 trainees to assess their learning experiences. Many different components of the learning experience were identified; one-to-one supervised performance forms the basis for teaching but is often sub-optimal; endoscopy learners experience anxiety and find re-adopting the role of novice difficult; motivation, clear explanation and feedback are crucial to learning; breaking down endoscopy training into segments is seen as valuable and as learners progress a gradual withdrawal of supervision is appreciated. Several of the issues contributing to a positive learning experience relate closely to published evidence and theory relating to skills teaching from other fields. A model identifying the key elements of endoscopy learning is proposed. Further work to apply and test the findings from this study should lead to improved endoscopy training. PMID:16973460
Thuraisingam, Adrian I; MacDonald, Janet; Shaw, Ian S
This article describes the experiences of women in Northern Ireland who have experienced a miscarriage or stillbirth. Pregnancy loss encompasses several dimensions of loss for women, loss of the future, loss of self-identity, and the loss of anticipated parenthood. The study explored how women emotionally responded to loss and the care they received from medical staff. Burial arrangements for the remains of the baby are also explored. The methodology adopted a narrative approach based upon in-depth interviews with 23 women who attended pregnancy loss self-help groups. The women's narratives highlight their emotional responses to loss, the medicalization of perinatal grief, and burial arrangements. Women felt that their experience was emotionally negative in that they had been subjected to a rationalizing process of medicalization. The primary focus for the women was on the need to recover space for their emotions and seek acceptance and recognition of the validity of their grief. The study demonstrated that the women's response to being marginalized led them to make sense of their experiences and to create spaces of resistance to medicalization. The way in which women placed emotion at the center of their narratives is taken to be a powerful indicator that the support they require from professionals should take account of the meanings they have constructed from their experience of loss. PMID:18507324
|This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empiricalstudies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…
Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.
Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…
|Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…
This paper reports the highlights of a user study which gauges reactions to a variety of common "trust indicators" - such as logos, third party endorsements, and padlock icons - over a selection of authentic and phishing stimuli. In the course of the think-aloud protocol, participants revealed different sensitivities to email messages and web pages. Our principal result is the analysis of what makes phishing emails and web pages appear authentic. This is not only of interest from a pure scientific point of view, but can also guide the design of legitimate material to avoid unnecessary risks. A second result of ours are observations of what makes legitimate content appear dubious to consumers. This is a result with obvious applications to online advertising.
Childhood sexual assault (CSA) is a common experience for women. Little research has explored the breastfeeding experience of CSA survivors who successfully breastfeed. The objective of this study is to explore the experience of successful breastfeeding with mothers with a history of CSA. Eleven women are interviewed after responding to a community-based advertisement. The women self-identify as having experienced CSA by a family member. Semistructured interviews are conducted by the author. Interviews are transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four key themes are identified: enhancement of the mother- baby relationship, validation of the maternal body, splitting of the breasts' dual role as maternal and sexual objects, and exposure and control when breastfeeding in public. Healthcare professionals should be aware of these maternal issues when promoting breastfeeding and counseling breastfeeding women. PMID:19414736
Longitudinal data suggest heterogeneity in the long-term course of schizophrenia. It is unclear how older adults with schizophrenia perceive changes in their experience of schizophrenia over the lifespan. We interviewed 32 adults aged 50 years and older diagnosed with schizophrenia (mean duration 35 years) about their perceived changes in the symptoms of schizophrenia and functioning over the lifespan. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison. The study was conducted by a research partnership involving a multidisciplinary team of academic researchers, community members, and mental health clients engaged in all aspects of study design, interviewing, and analysis and interpretation of data. Results revealed that, in regard to early course of illness, participants experienced confusion about diagnosis, active psychotic symptoms, and withdrawal/losses in social networks. Thereafter, nearly all participants believed that their symptoms had improved, which they attributed to increased skills in self-management of positive symptoms. In contrast to consistency among participants in describing illness course, there was marked heterogeneity in perceptions about functioning. Some participants were in despair about the discrepancy between their current situations and life goals, others were resigned to remain in supported environments, and others working toward functional attainments and optimistic about the future. In conclusion, middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia believed that their symptoms had improved over their lifespan, yet there was substantial variability among participants in how they perceived their functioning. Functional rehabilitation may need to be tailored to differences in perceptions of capacity for functional improvement. PMID:20603443
Shepherd, Sally; Depp, Colin A; Harris, Gloria; Halpain, Maureen; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Jeste, Dilip V
Longitudinal data suggest heterogeneity in the long-term course of schizophrenia. It is unclear how older adults with schizophrenia perceive changes in their experience of schizophrenia over the lifespan. We interviewed 32 adults aged 50 years and older diagnosed with schizophrenia (mean duration 35 years) about their perceived changes in the symptoms of schizophrenia and functioning over the lifespan. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison. The study was conducted by a research partnership involving a multidisciplinary team of academic researchers, community members, and mental health clients engaged in all aspects of study design, interviewing, and analysis and interpretation of data. Results revealed that, in regard to early course of illness, participants experienced confusion about diagnosis, active psychotic symptoms, and withdrawal/losses in social networks. Thereafter, nearly all participants believed that their symptoms had improved, which they attributed to increased skills in self-management of positive symptoms. In contrast to consistency among participants in describing illness course, there was marked heterogeneity in perceptions about functioning. Some participants were in despair about the discrepancy between their current situations and life goals, others were resigned to remain in supported environments, and others working toward functional attainments and optimistic about the future. In conclusion, middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia believed that their symptoms had improved over their lifespan, yet there was substantial variability among participants in how they perceived their functioning. Functional rehabilitation may need to be tailored to differences in perceptions of capacity for functional improvement.
Shepherd, Sally; Depp, Colin A.; Harris, Gloria; Halpain, Maureen; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Jeste, Dilip V.
Emergency contraception has the potential to greatly reduce the number of unintended pregnancies. Experiences in the use of emergency contraception have rarely been reported in the literature. Thirteen young women (a subset of a larger study cohort), were individually interviewed in a variety of settings about their personal experiences in relation to the use of emergency contraception. A thematic analysis of the transcribed data was undertaken. Barriers and facilitators to its use are explicated using excerpts from individual interviews with participants. Some young women had positive experiences, however many experiences were negative and reflected difficulties with access and availability of emergency contraception, as well as poor provider attitudes. Positive experiences generally occurred where services were responsive to the needs of young people or when a provider was well known to the young woman. Their experiences underscore the need to understand the situational stress and sometimes difficult arrangements needed to obtain this method of contraception. To optimise young women's experiences of emergency contraceptive use, a number of strategies need to be implemented. These include improvement of information about emergency contraception for young women and their partners; for health professionals; and for the broader community. Of critical importance is the need to include strategies to improve access to emergency contraception. A number of recommendations to achieve this within current health care delivery sectors in Australia, as well as suggestion forfuture access are provided. PMID:15729808
Objective: To describe the perceptions of diverse professionals involved in computerized physician order entry (POE) at sites where POE has been successfully implemented and to identify differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Design: A multidisciplinary team used observation, focus groups, and interviews with clinical, administrative, and information technology staff to gather data at three sites. Field notes and transcripts were coded using an inductive approach to identify patterns and themes in the data. Measurements: Patterns and themes concerning perceptions of POE were identified. Results: Four high-level themes were identified: (1) organizational issues such as collaboration, pride, culture, power, politics, and control; (2) clinical and professional issues involving adaptation to local practices, preferences, and policies; (3) technical/implementation issues, including usability, time, training and support; and (4) issues related to the organization of information and knowledge, such as system rigidity and integration. Relevant differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals include extent of collaboration, staff longevity, and organizational missions. Conclusion: An organizational culture characterized by collaboration and trust and an ongoing process that includes active clinician engagement in adaptation of the technology were important elements in successful implementation of physician order entry at the institutions that we studied.
Ash, Joan S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Lavelle, Mary; Payne, Thomas H.; Massaro, Thomas A.; Frantz, Gerri L.; Lyman, Jason A.
Background Scientific evidence on how to manage multimorbidity is limited, but GPs have extensive practical experience with multimorbidity management. Aim To explore GPs’ considerations and main objectives in the management of multimorbidity and to explore factors influencing their management of multimorbidity. Design and setting Focus group study of Dutch GPs; with heterogeneity in characteristics such as sex, age and urbanisation. Method The moderator used an interview guide in conducting the interviews. Two researchers performed the analysis as an iterative process, based on verbatim transcripts and by applying the technique of constant comparative analysis. Data collection proceeded until saturation was reached. Results Five focus groups were conducted with 25 participating GPs. The main themes concerning multimorbidity management were individualisation, applying an integrated approach, medical considerations placed in perspective, and sharing decision making and responsibility. A personal patient–doctor relationship was considered a major factor positively influencing the management of multimorbidity. Mental-health problems and interacting conditions were regarded as major barriers in this respect and participants experienced several practical problems. The concept of patient-centredness overarches the participants’ main objectives. Conclusion GPs’ main objective in multimorbidity management is applying a patient-centred approach. This approach is welcomed since it counteracts some potential pitfalls of multimorbidity. Further research should include a similar design in a different setting and should aim at developing best practice in multimorbidity management.
Luijks, Hilde D; Loeffen, Maartje JW; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L; van Weel, Chris; Lucassen, Peter L; Schermer, Tjard R
The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…
INTRODUCTION: Hospital pharmacists' have traditionally focused on the manufacture and supply of medicines. However, the increasing complexity and range of medicines and a greater awareness of medication errors has facilitated a change towards a patient-centred role. Given this movement, it is surprising that a search of the published literature shows very little research that evaluated patients' views of hospital-based pharmacy services. OBJECTIVE: To explore inpatients' expectations and experiences of hospital-based pharmacy services. STUDY SETTING AND DESIGN: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with inpatients admitted to acute medical wards of three NHS general hospitals. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventy-four inpatients were interviewed: 37 were male with average age 73 years (age range of 19 -86 years). The predominate number of participants (62/74, 84%) being in the 65-80 years of age group. Thematic analysis of the data was driven by three themes; patients' expectations of the pharmacist's involvement in their treatment and care, the patients' experiences of any interaction that may have taken place and the patients' evaluation of their interaction with the pharmacist. CONCLUSIONS: There was a dichotomy of expectations and opinions from patients about the role of hospital pharmacists and the services being provided. As pharmacists' roles are developing towards a patient-orientated model in which pharmacists have direct contact with patients and their care, it is important to ensure that patients are aware of these developments to help them maximize the benefit they derive from their country's health-care system. PMID:23647781
Morecroft, Charles W; Thornton, David; Caldwell, Neil A
Lean manufacturing is a production strategy for organizational effectiveness focusing on waste reduction and improving productivity through application of various tools. This paper attempts to find out the reasons for sparse adoption of the concept in Indian manufacturing organisations through a cross-sectional survey study. The study highlights knowledge and understanding levels of Indian managers about the concept of lean manufacturing,
This study investigates the judgments made by accounting majors when confronted with selected ethical dilemmas that pertain to accounting practice. Drawing upon literature in philosophy and moral psychology, it then examines these judgments for potential gender differences. Five case studies, each involving a specific ethical dilemma that a practicing accountant might face, were administered to 151 acounting majors (males =
MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group) is an industrial standard for video processing and is widely used in multimedia applications in the Internet. However, no security provision is specified in the standard. We conducted an experimental study of previously proposed selective encryption schemes for MPEG video security. This study showed that these methods are inadequate for sensitive applications. We discuss the
The paper presents a case study that investigates programmer learning during incremental program development. Dialog based protocol and protocol analysis are used to explore the learning from the point of view of self-directed learning theory. The replicated case study confirmed that the Bloom's levels of cognitive domain and the cognitive activities of absorption, denial, reorganization, and expulsion characterize the programmer
Dependence analysis underpins many activities in soft- ware maintenance such as comprehension and impact anal- ysis. As a result, dependence has been studied widely for programming languages, notably through work on program slicing. However, there is comparatively little work on de- pendence analysis at the model level and hitherto, no em- pirical studies. We introduce a slicing tool for Extended
Kelly Androutsopoulos; Nicolas Gold; Mark Harman; Zheng Li; Laurence Tratt
I employ data drawn from the Retirement History Survey to study the accuracy of pre-retirement expectations concerning social security benefits. The major findings of this study are as follows. First, survey responses to questions about expected benefits are reasonably noisy. However, when one properly filters out the noise, reported forecasts appear to explain roughly 60% of the variance in realizations.
Social Networking Sites are a phenomenon of the times. For example, the largest of them, Facebook, has more than 798 million users worldwide. Unfortunately, not much is known about the usage of Social Networking Sites in the European context. This study tries to reduce the gap. The study explores some of the most important questions regarding usage of Social Networking
Miroslav KARLÍ?EK; Ivan TOMEK; Mária HASPROVÁ; Marcela ZAMAZALOVÁ
This study investigates the impact of the electronic communication and anonymity capabilities of a group support system (GSS) on group polarization. Three support levels were studied: verbal support, identified GSS support, and anonymous GSS support. Information exposure was varied at two levels: exposure to positions without arguments and exposure to positions with arguments. The dependent variables were preference change and
The websites marketing is becoming an important tool both for multinationals and SMEs, in their effort to internationalizing their business. This study focuses on the international opportunities that are present within the European markets. The paper aims at identifying the degree of websites marketing standardization vs. adaptation, as a marketing tool for cosmetic products. Moreover, the study examines in a
Although simulated drainage networks at the laboratory scale would represent highly-simplified models of natural drainages, they would provide a significant contribute to the comprehension of the complex dynamics governing the fluvial systems. Laboratory experiments also give the advantage to detect transient growth phases shedding some light on the knowledge of temporal and spatial landform evolution. Perhaps, pioneering laboratory experiments on drainage network evolution were carried out in 1977 at REF (Rainfall Erosion Facility) of Colorado State University by Schumm and co-workers. This study deals with an analysis of physical experiments simulating the evolution and the development of drainage networks. To this purpose, some experiments were carried out at University of Basilicata by using a 1.5 m by 1.5 m box-basin-simulator with an outlet incised in the middle of the downslope-end side. The experimental landscape was made of a weakly cohesive soil mainly constituted by clay and silt. A system of microsprinklers generated an almost uniform artificial precipitation. Simulations were performed at a constant rainfall rate with intensity of 100 mm/h. In total four experiments were carried out. Three of those were conducted by ensuring consistent initial conditions except for the initial landscape planar slope of 9%, 5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The remaining experiment was performed with a landscape slope of 9% again, but with the (surface) base-level coinciding with the base of the outlet (i.e. streams could not erode below the base-level). Despite the central outlet constraint, the generated stream system for the 9% plane exhibited trellis-like drainage patterns with many short tributaries joining the main stream at nearly right angles. For the 5% experiment still sub-parallel drainage patterns were formed but mainly in the centre of the watershed. Channels were clearly shallower than those of the 9% experiment. For the gentler slope of 0.6% dendritic drainage patterns developed with tributaries entering the main channel at acute angles (less than 90Ë? ). Digital elevation models (DEM) of the evolving landscape were achieved through detailed soil surveys with a laser pointer or a laser scanner. Then, the drainage networks were extracted from the DEMs by using the D8 algorithm. Based on the data collected, the scaling properties of the simulated networks are analysed and compared with those of natural basins. Findings are provided mainly in terms of Hortonian laws, fractal dimensions and informational entropy. Scaling properties and space filling tendencies are discussed and peculiar differences between quasi-equilibrium and transient stages are also highlighted. Experimental evidences are also provided on the interaction between the base-level and growing mechanisms.
|The study concludes that the patterns of motivation, attitude and personality development of students who belong to different ability levels in a comprehensive high school were somewhat similar. (Author)|
Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software ...
Loan demand within LDCs is a growing economic activity and therefore merits greater understanding. This document is a review of recent loan demand studies from two perspectives: those concerned with loan demand projections; and those that quantify loan re...
This article examines the impact of divorce on relationships between siblings. It is argued that despite the massive number of children who go through this experience few studies have invited children to talk about their experiences. An exploratory qualitativestudy is reported with eight young women who talk about the effects of the divorce of their parents on their relationships
|This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…
Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye
|Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitativestudy about personal growth beginning in July…
Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.
|The purpose of this qualitativestudy was to explore the perceptions of female registered nurses who have intentions to leave the profession with particular attention to the influence of gender. The theoretical framework of feminist poststructuralism informed this study, which emphasizes the role of discourse and power relations in the…
|In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…
This qualitativestudy investigated the psychological experience of poverty among 2 groups of Filipinos who were interviewed about the effects of being raised poor, 12 who became rich, and 13 who remained poor. Using constructivist and critical theories as research paradigms and grounded theory as methodology, the results of the study illustrated…
This qualitativestudy was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…
|A significant body of research exists that explores the stressors of raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are fewer studies, however, that examine specific effective coping strategies of mothers of children with an ASD. This qualitativestudy explored mothers' perceptions of effective coping strategies for their parenting…
|Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitativestudy. Setting: A deprived…
|General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…
BACKGROUND: Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitativestudy described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women; and (ii) inform interventions which
Zoe Weir; Judith Bush; Stephen C Robson; Catherine McParlin; Judith Rankin; Ruth Bell
Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitativestudy. Setting: A deprived…
Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitativestudy to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…
Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert
An abundance of literature exists concerning the marital relationship. While most research focuses on divorce and the social consequences of this phenomenon, more recently social scientists have focused on the marriages that remain intact. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into what factors make marriages last. This study used qualitative methodology to gain further insight into long-term
In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…
BACKGROUND: Vaginal prolapse affects quality of life negatively and is associated with urinary, bowel, and sexual symptoms. Few qualitativestudies have explored women's experiences of vaginal prolapse. The objective of the study was to elucidate the experiences of living with prolapse and its impact on daily life, prior to surgical intervention. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women with
Mojgan Pakbaz; Margareta Persson; Mats Löfgren; Ingrid Mogren
|This qualitativestudy investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…
Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.
A high demand exists in the United Kingdom for breast cancer genetic counselling. Due to the disease's high incidence, many women who received such counselling are eventually assessed as not being at high genetic risk. This study elicits the experiences and perceptions of such women, as little research has been conducted. A qualitative interview-based study was conducted in the north-east
Aileen M. Grant; Edwin R. van Teijlingen; Karen Forrest-Keenan; Nicola Torrance; Brenda J. Wilson; Neva E. Haites
BACKGROUND: A recent qualitativestudy in Denmark showed that genital warts (GWs) can considerably lower the quality of life of heterosexual patients. In this follow-up study, we interviewed men having sex with men (MSM) suffering from GWs to obtain an in-depth understanding of their perception of GWs and determine the extent to which minority (homosexual) cultural issues affect these patients'
Title. Cultural encounters in reflective dialogue about nursing care: a qualitativestudy. Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore how students developed reflective nursing practice through cultural encounters between students from Tanzania and Norway. Background. Nursing students need to develop cultural care competence to care for patients in a globalized world. One way to achieve this
We stand poised to marry the fruits of qualitative research on children's conceptions with the machinery of psychometrics. This merger allows us to build upon studies of limited groups of subjects to generalize to the larger population of learners. This is accomplished by reformulating multiple choice tests to reflect gains in understanding cognitive development. This study uses psychometric modeling to
This study draws from 4 years of qualitative case study data to describe how programmatic and district factors interacted to affect reform sustainability in two school districts--one urban and the other suburban. These districts have been implementing a reform developed by the National Network of Partnership Schools (NNPS) for over a decade. NNPS…
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from
|This study reports the results of an international qualitativestudy conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation…
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal as a method of birth control is still used in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore married women's perspectives and attitudes on withdrawal use instead of oral contraceptive (OC) in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This was a qualitativestudy. Participants were 50 married women, not currently pregnant, not desiring pregnancy and who had been using withdrawal
This article draws on a longitudinal qualitativestudy of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and disciplinary…
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients have difficulty following a long-term treatment regimen. Efforts to improve treatment outcomes require better understanding of adherence as a complex behavioral issue and of the particular barriers to and facilitators of patient adherence. METHODS: This study was carried out in Jiangsu Province of China with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. For the quantitative study, 780 sputum-smear
Weiguo Xu; Wei Lu; Yang Zhou; Limei Zhu; Hongbing Shen; Jianming Wang
This qualitativestudy sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls
This article portrays the cultural norms and value orientation of a Jewish day school, including the influence of the principal and teachers on school culture. This qualitative case study allows the reader to better understand the integration and manifestation of institutional values embedded within the context of the school.The outcomes of this study confirm that at the heart of the
Our aim for this study was to explore the factors influencing women to initiate and continue as sex workers and to explore their perceptions about human immuno deficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and health seeking behavior. We conducted a qualitativestudy based on interviews with 20 purposively selected women selling sex. Content analysis of data
Mohsin Saeed Khan; Eva Johansson; Shakila Zaman; Magnus Unemo; Naveed I. Rahat; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Caregivers of people with severe mental disorders suffer from having a considerable burden as a result of their caregiving role. They develop different kinds of coping strategies to deal with this burden. There has been a lack of qualitativestudies on caregiver burden and coping, especially from non-Western populations. The present paper reports findings of a longitudinal study of burden
BACKGROUND: There has been much debate regarding the refugee health situation in the UK. However most of the existing literature fails to take account of the opinions of refugees themselves. This study was established to determine the views of asylum seekers and refugees on their overall experiences in primary care and to suggest improvements to their care. METHODS: Qualitativestudy
|This study draws from 4 years of qualitative case study data to describe how programmatic and district factors interacted to affect reform sustainability in two school districts--one urban and the other suburban. These districts have been implementing a reform developed by the National Network of Partnership Schools (NNPS) for over a decade. NNPS…
The present study aimed to determine the obstacles in creating effective teamwork and generate suggestions for overcoming these obstacles. The study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approaches and used purposive sampling. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 52 teachers who were working at a primary school in…
This qualitativestudy is ethnographic in design. Two questions guide the study. How important is theological reflection to pastoral identity in pastoral care and counseling? With whom do practitioners converse in terms of theological reflection? A review of the literature is outlined and 75 persons are interviewed that include chaplains, pastoral counselors, community clergy and students. Findings indicate that theological
Prepracticum service-learning (PPSL) was investigated through a qualitative case study of a counselor education program. Participants were PPSL instructors, coordinators, and alumni of the selected program. As it relates to the counselor education program under study, this article illustrates perceived effects of PPSL on student counselors'…
|The present study aimed to determine the obstacles in creating effective teamwork and generate suggestions for overcoming these obstacles. The study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approaches and used purposive sampling. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 52 teachers who were working at a primary school in…
This qualitativestudy investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically
|Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitativestudies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…
Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana
|Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitativestudies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…
Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana
This study reports the results of an international qualitativestudy conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…
|This article draws on a longitudinal qualitativestudy of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and disciplinary…
This qualitativestudy examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25 years or less
The fastest growing segment of the hospitality industry is gaming-related business. This industry has experienced record numbers of companies going public, and their stocks are considered favorable long-term investments. Research in the initial public offering (IPO) area suggests that investors acquiring stock at the initial offering price earn large returns. The purpose of this study was to determine if large
This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated the effectiveness of using an algorithmic approach to error correction to help Hong Kong English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners overcome persistent lexico-grammatical problems. Ten error types were selected for the experiment, and one set of remedial instructional…
We apply the Gönül and Shi (1998) approach to the analysis of the optimal messaging and pricing policy mix by studying the past transaction patterns between a local supermarket and its consumers. We develop a dynamic customer relationship management model and investigate the relationship between customer utility and purchasing frequency by modifying the return function of the model discussed in
Influenza vaccination has been shown to be cost effective in reducing morbidity and mortality and in decreasing work absenteeism and use of health-care resources. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and beliefs regarding people's vaccination decision against the influenza. It was hypothesized that Health Belief Model (HBM) categories, such as severity of illness, vaccine effectiveness and side
A major portion of the effort expended in developing commercial software today is associated with program testing. Schedule and\\/ or resource constraints frequently require that testing be conducted so as to uncover the greatest number of errors possible in the time allowed. In this paper we describe a study undertaken to assess the potential usefulness of various product-and process-related measures
Vincent Yun Shen; Tze-jie Yu; Stephen M. Thebaut; Lorri R. Paulsen
Domestic violence has not been traditionally awarded a high priority by the police in the United Kingdom. Research has shown that the service provided by the police is often regarded by victims as unsatisfactory. The concerns of victims usually extend beyond the criminal justice system. A research study was funded by the Home Office as part of the Safer Cities
|The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…
|Discusses softlifting as a form of software piracy and describes a study that analyzed the softlifting intentions of computing students in Brunei Darussalam. Considers student attitudes; gender; family income; personal computer ownership; experience; faculty remarks; institutional monitoring; and implications for attempts to curb software piracy.…
|The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this…
This paper addresses two typically separate issues contributing to urban quality of life: increasing noise levels and declining quality of public green space. Drawing from environmental psychology, ecology and acoustical methods, this interdisciplinary research studied the soundscapes of three green spaces in a UK city through interviews with 70 park users, the measurement of habitat and recording of sound levels.
Katherine N. Irvine; Patrick Devine-Wright; Sarah R. Payne; Richard A. Fuller; Birgit Painter; Kevin J. Gaston
To reduce the cost of regression testing, software testers may prioritize their test cases so that those which are more important, by some measure, are run earlier in the regression testing process. One potential goal of such prioritization is to increase a test suite's rate of fault detection. Previous work reported results of studies that showed that prioritization techniques can
Sebastian G. Elbaum; Alexey G. Malishevsky; Gregg Rothermel
Relatively few studies have been conducted to determine the readability of business-related textbooks. This article reports the results of a survey of twelve recently published textbooks in business communication to deter mine the level of readability of those textbooks. The survey shows that, using the Flesch Reading Ease Score, important differences do exist in readability among business communication texts. The
In order to investigate the effect of the electronic medium on comprehension and reading speed, a study of user interaction with electronic books was carried out comparing children reading an electronic book with children reading the same text in two different printed versions. The children were aged 9–11 years and were matched according to both gender and reading ability. The
Purpose – Planning processes along a demand supply network in an environment characterized by rapid market fluctuations and product changes are studied. The relationship between demand planning and the bullwhip effect is investigated by comparing planning accuracy in different demand supply network echelons and locating where there is most nervousness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The current demand supply planning process flow was
|Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…
The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this investigation are tests for Google Scholar publication
Chris Neuhaus; Ellen Neuhaus; Alan Asher; Clint Wrede
This paper examines the concept of alignment between the organizational values embedded in a systems development approach and the organizational values of a project team. Though past research has suggested that firm performance relates to the degree of strategic and structural alignment, the role of organizational values alignment remains ambiguous at the project level. Using a multiple case study approach,
Purpose – Recently, many enterprises are using a variety of methods and techniques to examine and improve their current maturity level of information technology (IT). Although IT evaluation studies based on IT maturity stages have been conducted widely, the stages theory has not been confirmed through statistical testing. IT evaluation activities can present managerial implications to an enterprise by determining
Choon Seong Leem; Byeong Wan Kim; Eun Jung Yu; Min Ho Paek
The role of interest groups in the political process has been the subject of much analysis in both political science and economics. However, few studies have examined directly the factors which influence the variation in interest group formation across industrial sectors and between countries. Using data on 75 industrial sectors in 10 countries, we examine the way in which variations
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…
|The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C. Millon,…
Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.
Regression testing is an expensive maintenance process used to revalidate modified software. Regression test selection (RTS) techniques try to lower the cost of regression testing by selecting and running a subset of the existing test cases. Many such techniques have been proposed and initial studies show that they can produce savings. We believe, however, that issues such as the frequency
Two subject index terms (toxicity and penicillin) from an operating retrieval system were studied intensively to determine how well a computer could assign them. The humanly produced indexing for the system was used as a standard, with some checking for indexer errors. Thesaurus rules failed to identify one fourth of the toxicity papers. A new rule, using \\
Internet privacy concerns (IPC) is an area of study that is receiving increased attention due to the huge amount of personal information being gathered, stored, transmitted, and published on the Internet. While there is an emerging literature on IPC, there is limited agreement about its conceptualization in terms of its key dimensions and its factor structure. Based on the multidimensional
Previous research suggests that most of the applications of marketing information systems (MkIS) appear to support marketing routine function rather than marketing strategic function. By conducting a survey of 55 UK marketing managers in computer and financial industries, this study examines the current practice of the strategic function of marketing, and the application of information systems in supporting the strategic
Social science research on terrorism has grown rapidly in recent years, aided by social and legal studies. In this review, we examine research on the causes of terrorism and the effectiveness of strategies for countering it. We define terrorism as the threatened or actual use of illegal force directed against civilian targets by nonstate actors in order to attain a
This research was conducted to study the ethical issues involved in managing change-related issues and assess whether people in organizations perceive them to be ethical. Besides assessing people's perceptions of ethicality, it also explored the reasons people give for judging a situation as ethical or unethical. Research was conducted using scenarios involving ethical dilemmas related to lay offs, skills obsolescence,
A. Uday Bhaskar; Kanika T. Bhal; C. S. Venkata Ratnam
An online upper division undergraduate MIS course has been designed and delivered over consecutive five semesters to a sample of over 200 students. The same course was also delivered in a Web-enhanced version (paperless course with regular classroom lectures). This paper reports on a study, which attempts to answer numerous questions regarding impact of an e-learning format on quality of
|Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students…
Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur
The law school validity studies are primarily concerned with the prediction of first-year average in law school from Law School Aptitude Test score and undergraduate grade point average. Traditionally, a separate admitting equation is estimated in each law school by the method of least squares based on data from students who attended the law school in recent years. These least
In this paper, we describe a study that tests the following hypothesis: A programming lanage construct that has a closer "cognitive fit" with an individual's preferred cognitive strategy will be easier 1o use effectively. After analyzing Pascal programs that employed loops, we identified two distinct looping strategies: 1) on the ith pass through the loop, the ith element is both
Caring is a complex phenomenon. Nurses aim to relieve patient suffering, acknowledge subjective experiences, display empathy but also manage emotions related to care provision. This study explored nurses' perceptions, experiences and emotions related to caring for cancer patients. This qualitativestudy used semi-structured interviews to explore the emotions management of 32 nurses working in a cancer hospital in Pakistan. Data saturation occurred after 20 interviews. Three themes emerged from the data related to caring, acknowledgement of patients' feelings, professional behaviour, patient involvement and emotional control. Some nurses repressed their emotions and feelings over patients who had difficulties sustaining hope. In such cases nurses require supportive networks to assist their emotions management and intra-personal skills. Educational support is needed to help nurses express their views in relation to emotional contagion, significance of repressed emotions and to identify supportive ways to assist nurses to communicate their experiences. PMID:23893852
Trust is expected to reduce transaction costs and agency costs and thus influence the cost of credit for small businesses.\\u000a Assessments of trustworthiness are based on the ability, benevolence and integrity of the owner manager. The study examines\\u000a whether lending managers’ assessments of the trustworthiness of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owner managers are\\u000a associated with the interest rate charged.
It has been noted that the introduction of the Internet to gambling activities may change some of the fundamental situational\\u000a and structural characteristics and make them potentially more addictive and\\/or problematic. This study examined some of the\\u000a differences between Internet gamblers and non-Internet gamblers. Based on past literature it was hypothesised that (1) males\\u000a would be significantly more likely to
Past research papers on consumer behaviour of Internet non-shoppers in Hong Kong have been lacking. This empiricalstudy by on -line questionnaire and focus group interview is an attempt to explore further into the key aspects in this subject area. The focus of this study is on understanding what are the barriers against Internet shopping in Hong Kong, and what
A new class of networked systems is emerging that involve very large numbers of small, low-power, wireless devices. We present findings from a large scale empiricalstudy involving over 150 such nodes operated at various transmission power settings. The study reveals that even a simple epidemic protocol, flooding, can exhibit surprising complexity at scale. The instrumentation in our experiments permits
Deepak Ganesan; Bhaskar Krishnamachari; Alec Woo; David Culler; Deborah Estrin; Stephen Wicker
This paper reports on an empiricalstudy that investigates the effects of the personality trait of neuroticism on the academic performance of students who practiced pair programming during one academic semester. The experiment was conducted at The University of Auckland involving 270 first year undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory programming course. In this study, we hypothesized that neuroticism or
This paper is based on an empiricalstudy of TQM implementation in the Malaysian industrial context. The main focus of the study was to identify quality factors for effective TQM implementation, which are critical for TQM to flourish in Malaysian industries, and to understand the dynamics of TQM implementation in a Malaysian context. The paper presents the outcomes from this
OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empiricalstudies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on
C. T. J. Hulshof; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; F. J. van Dijk; W. E. van der Weide; I. T. J. Braam
Interactivity remains a central and yet notoriously difficult notion in studies of computer- mediated communication. Compared to most previous research, which has taken theoreti- cal and deductive routes, this article explores interactivity empirically and inductively with particular reference to collaboration within organizations. The study relied on a theoretical sample of interview respondents - designers of web applications as well as
In a computer-adaptive test (CAT), learners are not usually allowed to revise previously entered responses. In this paper, we present findings from our most recent empiricalstudy, which involved two groups of learners and a modified version of a CAT application that provided the facility to revise previously entered responses. Findings from this study showed that the ability to modify
Rivalry and conflict among siblings are common problems that affect many contemporary families. This article presents an empirical case study of sibling conflict in a single-parent family. A theoretical perspective on sibling conflict is presented as well as the treatment plan employed and the results derived therefrom. As is standard for intensive, single case study research, the data were subjected
This article explores the statistical methodologies used in demonstration and effectiveness studies when the treatments are applied across multiple settings. The importance of evaluating and how to evaluate these types of studies are discussed. As an alternative to standard methodology, the authors of this article offer an empirical binomial…
Hardin, J. Michael; Anderson, Billie S.; Woodby, Lesa L.; Crawford, Myra A.; Russell, Toya V.
Purpose – Recent studies have advocated the impact of technological innovation capabilities (TIC) on firms' competitive performances. This paper adopts a study framework of innovation audit to examine the relevance of TIC on the innovation performance of the electronics industry in Hong Kong (HK)\\/Pearl River Delta region. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Empirical data were acquired through a recent survey of electronics firms
Antonio K. W. Lau; Richard C. M. Yam; Esther P. Y. Tang
Fast-developing social networking sites (SNS) have become the major media by which people develop their personal network online in recent years. To explore factors affecting user’s joining SNS, this study applies network externalities and motivation theory to explain why people continue to join SNS. This study used an online questionnaire to conduct empirical research, and collected and analyzed data of
This paper presents an empiricalstudy of the determinants of a motion picture's financial success. Among the many factors which are included in this study, we find that quality and marketing expenditures are important determinants. Film ratings, production cost, and the presence of star performers are only important determinants when marketing is not included. We find that marketing expenditures are
|This study offers empirical evidence in HRD e-learning completion. Based on the Learning Participation Theory (LPT) (Wang & Wang, 2004), a study was conducted with U.S. corporate e-learners to explore the determinants of e-learning completion. The results generally confirmed the hypothesis by the LPT that individual, learning process, and…
Supporting awareness plays a prominent role in facilitating natural and effective communication in Instant Messaging (IM). This paper reports our empiricalstudy of awareness in IM, using an online survey and face-to-face interviews to identify user needs for awareness support. The study has identified three themes, including awareness of multiple concurrent conversations, presence awareness of a group conversation, and visibility
Virtual communities have been the focus of research for some time. However, while many studies provide recommendations on how to build, extend and manage virtual communities, few verify the success factors they consider essential for virtual communities. Conclusions made regarding basic preferences and distinct priorities of different stakeholders in virtual communities have not been empirically substantiated. This study uses an
Jan Marco Leimeister; Pascal Sidiras; Helmut Krcmar
An empiricalstudy of test scores shows the variance of the errors of measurement to be significantly associated with true score in each of four groups studied; it also shows the distribution of the errors of measurement to be significantly skewed in three of these four groups. The mathematical rationale underlying the statistical treatment is presented. Standard error formulas are
Excitation generated by ultrasonic horns typically used in thermosonics (or Sonic IR) is non-reproducible, raising concerns that cracks in some locations can be missed. This paper presents an empiricalstudy on the thermosonic inspection of turbine blades. The objective is to assess the reliability of thermosonics as an NDT screening method for findings crack in turbine blades. First, a study
The Land Evaluation (LE) comprise the evaluation procedures to asses the attitudes of the land to a generic or specific use (e.g. biomass production). From local to regional and national scale the approach to the land use planning should requires a deep knowledge of the processes that drive the functioning of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. According to the classical approaches the assessment of attitudes is the result of a qualitative comparison between the land/soil physical properties and the land use requirements. These approaches have a quick and inexpensive applicability; however, they are based on empirical and qualitative models with a basic knowledge structure specifically built for a specific landscape and for the specific object of the evaluation (e.g. crop). The outcome from this situation is the huge difficulties in the spatial extrapolation of the LE results and the rigidity of the system. Modern techniques instead, rely on the application of mechanistic and quantitative simulation modelling that allow a dynamic characterisation of the interrelated physical and chemical processes taking place in the soil landscape. Moreover, the insertion of physical based rules in the LE procedure may make it less difficult in terms of both extending spatially the results and changing the object (e.g. crop species, nitrate dynamics, etc.) of the evaluation. On the other side these modern approaches require high quality and quantity of input data that cause a significant increase in costs. In this scenario nowadays the LE expert is asked to choose the best LE methodology considering costs, complexity of the procedure and benefits in handling a specific land evaluation. In this work we performed a forage maize land suitability study by comparing 9 different methods having increasing complexity and costs. The study area, of about 2000 ha, is located in North Italy in the Lodi plain (Po valley). The range of the 9 employed methods ranged from standard LE approaches to the extensive use of simulation modelling (SWAP and CropSyst), using as data input pre-existing soil information (soil map 1:50000) and also hydraulic properties measured as well estimated by PTF. The comparison between the different methods was based on both cost and predictive ability of each of the methods. The latter was evaluated by comparison to the estimate of forage maize biomass obtained by using locally tested remote sensing measurements. Statistical indexes like correlation, relative variance and ANOVA test were applied. As expected, higher method complexity corresponds to higher quality/quantity of input parameters and as consequence higher costs. Generally, results show that more complex methods gave better results in terms of their predictive ability and those operating on measurements gave better performance than those operating on PTF. Moreover, the best predictive results were obtained abandoning the support of the soil mapping units, incrementing dramatically the number of sampling and analysis and applying the simulation modelling on real benchmark soils rather than averaging more soils observations. Keywords: Land Evaluation, simulation modelling, CropSyst, SWAP, NDVI.
Manna, P.; Basile, A.; Bonfante, A.; Terribile, F.
There is nothing quite so useless as doing with great efficiency that which should not be done at all.\\u000d\\u000a\\u000d\\u000a–Peter Drucker\\u000d\\u000a\\u000d\\u000aThis study explores the issue of effectiveness within virtual teams — groups of people who work together although they are often dispersed across space, time, and\\/or organizational boundaries. Due to the recent trend towards corporate restructuring, which can, in
Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Discussion addresses methodology, the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis, and the need for more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena.
Xiaolandi-Huayuankou region is an important rainstorm centre in the middle Yellow river, which drainage area of 35883km2. A set of forecasting methods applied in this region was formed throughout years of practice. The Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model and empirical model were introduced in this paper. The simulated processes of the Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, river flow. Infiltration and surface runoff are calculated utilizing the Horton model for infiltration into multilayered soil profiles. Overland flow is routed by Nash instantaneous unit hydrograph and Section Muskingum method. The empirical model are simulated using P~Pa~R and empirical relation approach for runoff generation and concentration. The structures of these two models were analyzed and compared in detail. Yihe river basin located in Xiaolandi-Huayuankou region was selected for the purpose of the study. The results show that the accuracy of the two methods are similar, however, the accuracy of Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model for flood forecasting is relatively higher, especially the process of the flood; the accuracy of the empirical methods is much worse, but it can also be accept. The two models are both practicable, so the two models can be combined to apply. The result of the Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model can be used to guide the reservoir for flood control, and the result of empirical methods can be as a reference.
The use of polarized light imaging can facilitate the determination of skin cancer borders before a Mohs surgery procedure. Linearly polarized light that illuminates the skin is backscattered by superficial layers where cancer often arises and is randomized by the collagen fibers. The superficially backscattered light can be distinguished from the diffused reflected light using a detector analyzer that is sequentially oriented parallel and perpendicular to the source polarization. A polarized image pol = parallel - perpendicular / parallel + perpendicular is generated. This image has a higher contrast to the superficial skin layers than simple total reflectance images. Pilot clinical trials were conducted with a small hand-held device for the accumulation of a library of lesions to establish the efficacy of polarized light imaging in vivo. It was found that melanoma exhibits a high contrast to polarized light imaging as well as basal and sclerosing cell carcinoma. Mechanisms of polarized light scattering from different tissues and tissue phantoms were studied in vitro. Parameters such as depth of depolarization (DOD), retardance, and birefringence were studied in theory and experimentally. Polarized light traveling through different tissues (skin, muscle, and liver) depolarized after a few hundred microns. Highly birefringent materials such as skin (DOD = 300 mum 696nm) and muscle (DOD = 370 mum 696nm) depolarized light faster than less birefringent materials such as liver (DOD = 700 mum 696nm). Light depolarization can also be attributed to scattering. Three Monte Carlo programs for modeling polarized light transfer into scattering media were implemented to evaluate these mechanisms. Simulations conducted with the Monte Carlo programs showed that small diameter spheres have different mechanisms of depolarization than larger ones. The models also showed that the anisotropy parameter g strongly influences the depolarization mechanism. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
One hypothesis of traditional psychoanalytic theory holds that a cardinal aspect of the "natural" development of femininity involves the woman's substitution of the wish for a baby in place of her original wish for a penis. The current study modified and extended earlier research examining the validity of Freud's this "penis-baby" theory. College-aged women and men were presented with either subliminal or supraliminal auditory messages concerned with either pregnancy or penetration themes. Subjects' written responses to Holtzman ink-blots, obtained both before and after exposure to an auditory message, were content-coded for phallic imagery and sexual imagery. Consistent with Freud's speculations about the phallic significance of pregnancy for women, female subjects who were exposed to the subliminal pregnancy message produced significantly more phallic imagery responses to ink-blots than did women in any of the other experimental conditions (p < .01). The phallic imagery production of males did not vary significantly as a function of message condition. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of modern revisions to Freud's psychology of women and the current psychoanalytic conceptualization of penis envy as a highly condensed mental product with many layers of meaning. PMID:7509371
As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452
ZZ Ceti stars are pulsating hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs, which are found in a rather narrow strip within the Teff-log g plane: the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Historically, the instability strip has been studied by analyzing the ZZ Ceti stars themselves. However, an analysis of the photometrically constant DA white dwarfs that lie near the instability strip can be just as insightful. Therefore, in an effort to delineate better the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, we have gathered optical spectra for all known constant DA white dwarfs near the instability strip. By comparing the Balmer-line profiles to synthetic spectra generated from model atmospheres, it is possible to determine with great accuracy the atmospheric parameters of these stars. These spectra have been secured as part of a broader observing campaign during which we are hoping to identify new candidate ZZ Ceti stars as well. Indeed, already two of our program stars have showed themselves to be genuine ZZ Ceti pulsators, PB 520 and G232-38. Luminosity variations in the latter were recently discovered by us at the Observatoire du mont Mégantic.
The present study examined the impact of work on marriage across three cultures: London (UK), Hong Kong, and Beijing (China), via qualitative interviews. A total of 79 respondents were interviewed in the three cultures, and template analysis was used as the method of analysis. The results showed that although one-third to half of the respondents from each culture mentioned the
In this review of recent qualitativestudies in the UK, we highlight tensions involved in the contemporary setting. The insertion of a market ideology into educational matters has resulted in specific policy outcomes with damaging consequences for the welfare state. Paradoxically, there is still funding available to investigate these policies. Policy work has become the dominant (funded) paradigm within the
|This qualitativestudy examined the experiences and impressions of first-time freshmen at Boise State University (BSU) in Idaho. Twenty-five freshmen completed weekly open-ended interviews, kept journals, and participated in an end-of-term group meeting during the fall term of 1996. The results indicated that most students found getting…
|This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…
Dialysis can be very stressful with the initial months onto treatment being highly critical in terms of both adaptation and mortality. This qualitativestudy aimed to explore the lived experiences of incident haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Topics related to the end-stage renal disease diagnosis and haemodialysis treatment were raised with 13 incident haemodialysis patients in the form of semi-structured interviews,
The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that…
|This qualitativestudy explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…
|Noting that there are signs of a relaxation in the long tension caused by the methodological "cold war" between quantitative and qualitative research proponents, this paper points to communications research as one area where the trend is developing. Placing communications studies in the framework of current public attitudes toward research and…
|This article is based on a qualitative longitudinal study of children's changing peer relationships through childhood, with particular emphasis on experiences of disabled children. Initial observation of face-to-face-encounters among children in school made us aware of social inclusion and exclusion mechanisms relating to informal interaction…
|This study employed a qualitative research design to investigate how instructional designers use evaluation in everyday design practice. While past research has examined how designers spend their time, how they generally make decisions, and expert-novice differences, little attention has been paid to use of context, input, process, or product…
Williams, David D.; South, Joseph B.; Yanchar, Stephen C.; Wilson, Brent G.; Allen, Stephanie
The effectiveness of educational reform initiatives depends on the quality of teachers. Professional development (PD) of teachers has therefore become a major focal point of school improvement initiatives. The National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and Development (2007) attempts to address the need for suitably qualified teachers in South Africa. The study discussed in this article was qualitative within purposefully
The aim of the study was to explore experiences of practising mindfulness and how this related to living with, and managing, bipolar disorder. Qualitative methodology was used to explore the experiences of 12 people with bipolar disorder who had been practising mindfulness for at least 18 weeks. Semi-structured interviews exploring how mindfulness practice related to living with bipolar disorder were
Paul Chadwick; Hardeep Kaur; Maged Swelam; Susan Ross; Lyn Ellett
|This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…
Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer
This qualitativestudy attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…
The present study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of long-term contraceptive implant users. Group interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative in-depth attitude and opinion data from 31 women who had used the implant for a minimum of four years. Results indicated that many women had experienced side effects with implant use, in particular during the first year. The primary
Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar; Margaret L. Frank; Lori Leonard; Alfred N. Poindexter
This qualitativestudy is intended to illuminate factors that affect the generalizability of portfolio assessments of beginning teachers. By generalizability, we refer here to the extent to which the portfolio assessment supports generalizations from the particular evidence reflected in the portfolio to the conception of competent teaching…
Moss, Pamela A.; Sutherland, LeeAnn M.; Haniford, Laura; Miller, Renee; Johnson, David; Geist, Pamela K.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.; Star, Jon R.; Pecheone, Raymond L.
|The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…
This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…
|Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitativestudy, the author describes the…
Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within…
Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.
|The purpose of this qualitativestudy was to explore graduate students' perspectives of how graduate school affected their participation in physical and social activities and their self worth. Seven focus groups (n = 47) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Finances and quality of interactions were among the main social…
Longfield, Amanda; Romas, Joanne; Irwin, Jennifer D.
Objectives To determine the effects of erectile dysfunction and to explore the impact of treatment with sildenafil (Viagra). Design An exploratory qualitativestudy with semistructured interviews. Setting Men's health clinic in NHS hospital. Participants 40 men who had had erectile dysfunction and had attended the clinic during the year before interview. Main outcome measures Impact of erectile dysfunction on men,
|Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n…
There is increasing awareness in the health sciences of the potential of qualitative research to address questions that quantitative research cannot satisfactorily answer. While a growing number of studies in health sciences and health sciences edu- cation discuss the value of such research or describe the methodology and data collection processes, few detail how analysis was carried out. Reliability and
This qualitativestudy was designed to gather information, using focus groups, about Asian international students' experiences with and attitudes toward African Americans, to identify the sources of these attitudes, and to discover methods that would address negative attitudes that Asian students might have towards African American students.…
Talbot, Donna M.; Geelhoed, Robyn J.; Ninggal, Mohd. Tajudin Hj.
Many health professionals and policymakers in Africa lack access to the information needed to make evidence-based decisions for effective health care. This study collected qualitative data from 75 key informants and members of two focus groups in Senegal on various aspects of health information needs, particularly in family planning and reproductive health, including information sources, strategies, and systems to transfer
Amadou Hassane Sylla; Elizabeth T. Robinson; Laura Raney; Karim Seck
This qualitativestudy explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…
Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitativestudy based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…
This qualitativestudy is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London, regarding their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for adopting unhealthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking alcohol. Views
|This qualitativestudy attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…
In this qualitativestudy, 26 white Dutch women were interviewed who had recently undergone breast cancer surgery. The interviews indicated that during their hospital stay many of them had hardly expressed their postoperative pain and had rarely asked for pain medication. Patients' conceptions of postoperative pain and analgesics, their insecurity and lack of assertiveness, and some suboptimal interactions with nurses
The purpose of the present study was to compare county council politicians’ attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention in five European countries. A questionnaire was distributed and here the responses to the open-ended questions are analyzed qualitatively. Considerable differences were found in what the politicians in the five countries believed to be the most important causes of suicide and how
Birthe Loa Knizek; Heidi Hjelmeland; Paulius Skruibis; Reinhold Fartacek; Sandor Fekete; Danute Gailiene; Peter Osvath; Ellinor Salander Renberg; Rudolf R. Rohrer
The purpose of this qualitativestudy was to explore the social experiences of preschoolers with severe disabilities in an inclusive early education setting. Teachers, paraprofessionals, and peers were interviewed, and the children and adults were observed in daily routines of the preschool. Findings showed that social experiences with adults were…
Many states have adopted alternative oral health care delivery systems that include expanded roles for dental hygien- ists. This qualitativestudy was designed to evaluate the impact of the Limited Access Permit (LAP) legislation in Oregon and to understand the relationship between dental hygienists and dentists within this delivery system. The snowball sampling technique was used to identify LAP dental
Ann M. Battrell; Cynthia C. Gadbury-Amyot; Pamela R. Overman
This qualitative case study examined how educators collaborate and coteach within an inclusive classroom. The reauthorization of the original federal disabilities education law, Public Law 94-142, known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as well as the No Child Left Behind…
This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…
Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert
This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…
Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer
|This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…
Restorative justice has grown extensively in recent years. However, existing research data indicate a lack of information regarding its process. This qualitativestudy aimed at providing an understanding of the experiences of participants in the delivery process. In addition to observation, 34 face-to-face interviews were conducted with 37 individuals. Analyses yielded important insights into multiple layers of participants' experiences. Though
Students who aspire to become school principals and superintendents must be prepared to lead schools committed to serving boys and girls equitably. In this qualitativestudy, 122 graduate students in a cultural diversity course maintained journals of their experiences. The authors kept records of teaching the course and of selected written…
Previous research suggests that effects of television fiction on the perception of reality are coding errors occurring when viewers remember what they saw without remembering the validity of the source. A qualitativestudy of 33 prison inmates discussing their first entry into the prison system shows that when experiences which previously were of secondary importance suddenly and acutely become of
Over the past few years, social media and social networking systems have become increasingly popular and have become immersed into people's lives in many ways. In this paper, we investigate how social media influence people in making decisions about fashion consumption of digital artifacts, especially from the perspective of sustainability. As a way to investigate, we conducted a qualitativestudy
Aims: To describe individuals' perceptions of the activities that take place within the cancer genetics clinic, the relationships between these activities and how these relationships are sustained. Design: Qualitative interview study. Participants: Forty individuals involved in carrying out cancer genetics research in either a clinical (n = 28) or research-only (n = 12) capacity in the UK. Findings: Interviewees perceive
N Hallowell; S Cooke; G Crawford; M Parker; A Lucassen
|The concept of cultural competency, its application, and impact on K-12 learning have not received much attention in the literature. Teachers need to understand the connection between culture and pedagogy when teaching minority and underrepresented students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine whether the skill sets in…
We conducted a qualitativestudy to explore the benefits of one gay male community resource, gay mentorship, particularly regarding sexual identity development. Findings indicate that gay mentorship is most involved in gay identity integration, and aided in supporting gay identity development, connecting men to gay-related resources, helping men to feel part of a gay community, improving management of gay-related stressors