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1

Qualitative Methods in Empirical Studies of Software Engineering  

E-print Network

of research. Along with new research questions, new research methods are needed to study nontechnical aspects of software engineering. In many other disciplines, qualitative research methods have been developed]. Qualitative research methods were designed, mostly by educational researchers and other social scientists [19

2

The Politics of Race in Two Languages: An Empirical Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon critical analyses of participant observations of classrooms, school documents, and in-depth interviews with teachers, administrators, and school-district supervisors conducted from 1999 to 2002, this qualitative study employs a post-structuralist framework to probe one US public elementary school's quest to realize educational equity…

Juarez, Brenda G.

2008-01-01

3

The politics of race in two languages: an empirical qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon critical analyses of participant observations of classrooms, school documents, and in?depth interviews with teachers, administrators, and school?district supervisors conducted from 1999 to 2002, this qualitative study employs a post?structuralist framework to probe one US public elementary school’s quest to realize educational equity through dual language education. Focused on exploring the ways that students’ racial identities influenced teachers’ pedagogies,

Brenda G. Juárez

2008-01-01

4

An Examination of Qualitative Empirical Studies at the AHRD from 1999-2003: Research Purpose, Research Questions, and Inquiry Literature Cited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the nature of qualitative empirical studies published in the AHRD proceedings from 1999-2003 and discusses findings on research purpose, research question(s), and inquiry literature cited. (Contains 4 tables.)

Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.; McCarley, Howard; Ianinska, Silvana; Bernier, Judith D.

2006-01-01

5

The relevance of marketing activities in the Swiss prescription drugs market : Two empirical qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the most relevant marketing factors and examine existing theories and to provide guidance for planning future studies. Since drug markets are very complex, this paper will focus on a particular market\\/country to reduce some of this complexity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A serial research study is undertaken to examine the essential marketing

Michael Stros; Juerg Hari; John Marriott

2009-01-01

6

Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

Mills, Rilla Dean

7

The occurrence of adverse drug reactions reported for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in the pediatric population: a qualitative review of empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Background To review empirical studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported to be associated with the use of medications generally licensed for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the pediatric population. Methods PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO® databases were searched from origin until June 2011. Studies reporting ADRs from amphetamine derivates, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and modafinil in children from birth to age 17 were included. Information about ADR reporting rates, age and gender of the child, type, and seriousness of ADRs, setting, study design, ADR assessors, authors, and funding sources were extracted. Results The review identified 43 studies reporting ADRs associated with medicines for treatment of ADHD in clinical studies covering approximately 7000 children, the majority of 6- to 12-year-old boys, and particularly in the United States of America (USA). The most frequently reported ADRs were decrease in appetite, gastrointestinal pain, and headache. There were wide variations in reported ADR occurrence between studies of similar design, setting, included population, and type of medication. Reported ADRs were primarily assessed by the children/their parents, and very few ADRs were rated as being serious. A large number of children dropped out of studies due to serious ADRs, and therefore, the actual number of serious ADRs from use of psychostimulants is probably higher. A large number of studies were conducted by the same groups of authors and sponsored by the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing the respective medications. Conclusion Reported ADRs from use of psychostimulants in children were found in clinical trials of short duration. Since ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies. The pharmaceutical companies should make all information about ADRs reported for these medications accessible to the public, and further studies are needed on the impact of the link between researchers and the manufacturers of the respective products. PMID:22247615

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2011-01-01

8

An Empirical Study of How People Perceive Online Behavioral Advertising  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of How People Perceive Online Behavioral Advertising Aleecia M. Mc 15213 #12; 1 An Empirical Study of How People Perceive Online Behavioral Advertising Aleecia M. Mc a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with 14 subjects who answered advertisements to participate

Sadeh, Norman M.

9

Childhood Bereavement: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the long-term effects of bereavement on adults who experienced the death of a parent during childhood. By using a qualitative approach, this study is designed to gather information on each participant's unique understanding of how bereavement has impacted his or her life. This information is then used to identify general themes in

Colleen M. Scott

2007-01-01

10

Breastfeeding twins: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, instructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care. PMID:24592592

Cinar, Nursan Dede; Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

2013-12-01

11

Qualitative Case Study in Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From case study articles drawn from four journals in gifted education, two are identified as exemplars of qualitative case study research. The works of Coleman (2001) and Hebert and Beardsley (2001) are used to illustrate how researchers can plan qualitative case studies so that the perspectives of gifted students are included. (Contains…

Mendaglio, Sal

2003-01-01

12

Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

2009-01-01

13

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative

Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

2012-01-01

14

Anorexia nervosa: treatment expectations – a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Anorexia nervosa is a serious illness with a high mortality rate, a poor outcome, and no empirically supported treatment of choice for adults. Patients with anorexia nervosa strive for thinness in order to obtain self-control and are ambivalent toward change and toward treatment. In order to achieve a greater understanding of patients’ own understanding of their situation, the aim of this study was to examine the expectations of potential anorexic patients seeking treatment at a specialized eating-disorder unit. Methods A qualitative study design was used. It comprised 15 women between 18 and 25 years of age waiting to be assessed before treatment. The initial question was, “What do you expect, now that you are on the waiting list for a specialized eating-disorder unit?” A content analysis was used, and the text was coded, categorized according to its content, and further interpreted into a theme. Results From the results emerged three main categories of what participants expected: “treatment content,” “treatment professionals,” and “treatment focus.” The overall theme, “receiving adequate therapy in a collaborative therapeutic relationship and recovering,” described how the participants perceived that their expectations could be fulfilled. Discussion Patients’ expectations concerning distorted thoughts, eating behaviors, a normal, healthy life, and meeting with a professional with knowledge and experience of eating disorders should be discussed before treatment starts. In the process of the therapeutic relationship, it is essential to continually address patients’ motivations, in order to understand their personal motives behind what drives their expectations and their desire to recover. PMID:22888259

Paulson-Karlsson, Gunilla; Nevonen, Lauri

2012-01-01

15

Qualitative Case Study Research in Business Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

O'Connor, Bridget N.

2002-01-01

16

An Empirical Study of the Effect of Agent Competence on User Performance and , John Stasko1  

E-print Network

Interfaces ­ Evaluation/methodology Keywords Embodied conversational agents, interface agents, empirical evaluation, Wizard-of-Oz technique, qualitative study 1. Introduction The creation of interface agents the potential of interface agents demonstrated in the laboratory is compelling, attempts to realize

Stasko, John T.

17

Teacher and librarian collaboration: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twenty-first century is marked by increased challenges in education and limited resources to address them. A solution proposed within school librarianship is teacher and librarian collaboration. This qualitative study examines the practices of highly collaborative teachers and librarians and identifies mechanisms that operate within schools to facilitate high-end collaboration. Five broad themes emerge from the data and identify essential

Patricia Montiel-Overall

2008-01-01

18

Challenges of Nursing Handover: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of nursing handover process during shift rotation in hospitals. The research had a descriptive exploratory design with a qualitative content analysis approach. To conduct the study, three pediatric wards were selected at first. Data were gathered through a 4-month observation of nursing handovers by recording the oral conversations of nurses during the process and semistructured interviews. Then, qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis. Two major themes and five subthemes emerged through the data analysis. The first and the second themes were a nonholistic approach and poor management, respectively. In general, applying a holistic approach and managing handover situations are recommended for nursing managers to overcome handover challenges. Future focus could be on addressing handover challenges through an action research study. PMID:24302325

Sabet Sarvestani, Raheleh; Moattari, Marzieh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad

2014-02-18

19

An Empirical Study of AAA Consumer Arbitrations  

E-print Network

This Article presents the results from the first detailed empirical study of consumer arbitration as administered by the American Arbitration Association. Primarily using a sample of 301 AAA consumer arbitrations that ...

Drahozal, Christopher R.; Zyontz, Samantha

2010-01-01

20

The dynamics and characteristics of buying centre networks : A qualitative study on Finnish firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study does the structure of buying centre networks dynamically change between buying situations and during the buying processes. Furthermore, the influence of organizational culture on participation, extensivity, lateral involvement, and vertical involvement of buying centre networks is studied. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative study with empirical data gathered by semi-structured interviews with

Pentti Järvi; Juha Munnukka

2009-01-01

21

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial. PMID:24913438

2014-01-01

22

Empirical study of hybrid zone movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid zones are ‘natural laboratories’ for studying the origin, maintenance and demise of species. Theory predicts that hybrid zones can move in space and time, with significant consequences for both evolutionary and conservation biology, though such movement is often perceived as rare. Here, a review of empirical studies of moving hybrid zones in animals and plants shows 23 examples with

R J A Buggs; RJA Buggs

2007-01-01

23

Empirical studies and intelligent language tutoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this paper addresses how a language tutoring system tackles a practical problem in learning a language — negative transfer (mother tongue influence). The empirical studies we have undertaken indicate that negative transfer is the most obvious explanation for most of the errors committed by first-year students in their study of Chinese grammar at the University of

Yang Wang; Roberto Garigliano

1995-01-01

24

Empirical Studies of Java Optimizations Steve Caudill  

E-print Network

. #12;1 Introduction Originally, Java was designed as a web language, with some of the goals being, and our plans for future research. Overview of Java Since Java was originally developed to be a webEmpirical Studies of Java Optimizations Steve Caudill University of Minnesota Morris Morris

Machkasova, Elena

25

Qualitative Studies: Developing Good Research Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research is a type of research process that is widely used to give people a voice while researching a particular subject matter. In using this research process, one must understand how important it is to develop research questions within the qualitative research process. The purpose of this article is to aid researchers in the…

Bufkin, Melissa A.

2006-01-01

26

Qualitative Methods for Studying Distributed Software Development: Issues and Challenges  

E-print Network

the begin- ning stages of my doctoral studies via a formal course on qualitative research methods as well. Subsequently, I have applied the knowl- edge and insights by incorporating qualitative methods in my research approach by using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in complemen- tary ways (see e

Patil, Sameer

27

Frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice - a systematic review of empirical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of placebo interventions outside clinical trials is ethically, professionally and legally controversial. Little is known about the frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice. Our aim was to summarize the available empirical studies addressing these issues. METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE from inception to July 2009 in order to identify cross-sectional surveys, qualitative or

Margrit Fässler; Karin Meissner; Antonius Schneider; Klaus Linde

2010-01-01

28

A qualitative study of the organizational consequences of telemedicine.  

PubMed

The organizational consequences of telemedicine have frequently been mentioned in the telemedicine community, but there are few empirical studies. A study was therefore carried out of what happens in organizations when telemedicine is implemented. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. Almost all respondents reported numerous organizational changes, some important. Changes in work processes were the most common. Examples of the organizational consequences of telemedicine were organizational restructuring, new organizational units, changed mechanisms for internal coordination, different flows of patients through the health-care system, improved coordination of care, new job descriptions, relocation of the place of work, employment of personnel living far away from the workplace, effects on employees not directly involved in telemedicine, sharing of experiences, minor staffing changes, clinical teamwork independent of co-location, administrative meetings arranged by telemedicine, merger of organizations independent of location, less travel by staff (and patients), a possible beneficial effect on the quality of care, and limited opposition to the adoption of the technology. Telemedicine may be important in the future organization of the disciplines studied and in health-care generally. The infrastructure of electronic networks may play an important role for organizations as the volume of telemedicine activity increases and economies of scale are realized. PMID:11265934

Aas, I H

2001-01-01

29

Parasexuality in genitourinary investigations: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Genitourinary investigations are performed on a large proportion of middle-aged and older men and the majority undergo investigations for prostate issues. The effects that genitourinary disease can have on men depend on the type of problem, investigations required and treatment including impotence, gynaecomastia and urinary incontinence that have lasting devastating physical, social and psychological effects. The aim was to explore older men’s experience and views of intimate and intrusive genitourinary investigations and specifically to develop hypotheses and theories concerning gender and sexuality issues in intimate genitourinary investigations. Methods Written informed consent was obtained for this qualitative study. Data were collected through one-off, semi-structured interviews involving 15 men in the first year following patient’s last urological procedure. Initially, multiple themes were identified and when analysed further concepts were repeatedly present. As the urological investigations were limited to men, gender and sexuality became prominent issues in the data. Results On analysis, the term parasexuality appeared to explain the dynamic of the situation. Parasexuality is a modified form of sexuality which is channelled and limited to maintain propriety. This was not expressed as sexuality in its overt, explicit sense, but instead a type of covert sexuality where professional boundaries are maintained but nonetheless undercurrents remain. This managed version of sexuality created a common currency by which interactions between staff and patients could take place safely. Feeding into parasexuality were gender role stereotypes and for some of the participants this reflected their own experience, context, historical and cultural norms. Intimate contact in the form of exposure and handling of the participants' genitalia during the investigations particularly challenged the boundaries of parasexuality. In order to remain parasexual, many of the participants suppressed their sexuality. Viewing staff as professional was an additional strategy used by participants to limit any sexuality as parasexuality. Conclusion This study has contributed towards the appeal for more studies to examine privacy perceptions of patients in genitalia-related care, however, it is by no means definitive. Parasexuality goes some way to explain the dynamics of communication between older men and health care professionals during genitourinary investigations. PMID:24606673

2014-01-01

30

Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics  

E-print Network

Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics Benedikt L¨owe1 for the philosopher of mathematics who takes mathematical practice seriously: Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics) to evaluate empirical questions connected to or derived from philosophical positions about mathematics

Amsterdam, University of

31

Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. Methods Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants were 28 male motorcyclists who never used a safety helmet during rides, and 4 male police officers. All transcripts, codes and categories were read for several times to exhaust identifiable major themes. During this process data were reduced from text to codes and themes. Results Five major themes emerged from the data analyses, including themes related to the following: (1) circumventing or dodging police officers; (2) simulating a helmet wearing behavior; (3) accepting the probability of receiving a ticket; (4) taking advantage of the police neglect and carelessness; and (5) using a cheap or convenient helmet. Conclusion Our findings suggest certain levels of reckless driving among the participating motorcyclists in this study. They also point to a system of law enforcement that operates haphazardly and fails to consistently penalize those who deviate from it. Further studies are needed to investigate how "risks" are perceived and relate to "reactions", and how a 'culture of masculinity' may encourage risk tolerance and a disposition toward lawlessness and carelessness among male motorcyclists. Also, there is a need for the development and implementation of multidimensional interventions that would offer socio-culturally sensitive educational and motivational messages to the motorcyclists and the in-service traffic-enforcement officers in Iran. PMID:19843325

Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Bazargan, Shahrzad Hejazi

2009-01-01

32

An empirical study of software design practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

1986-01-01

33

[The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study. PMID:16432800

Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

2005-12-01

34

PM3 semi-empirical study of stereoelectronic effects in the Baeyer–Villiger reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baeyer–Villiger reaction of polymethoxybenzaldehydes with peroxysuccinic acid (PSA) is studied theoretically. The semi-empirical SCF-MO\\/PM3 method has been used to study the reaction and to calculate the energy profiles. In addition, heat of formation computations and bond order analyses of the transition species along the reaction coordinates have been performed and are interpreted qualitatively in terms of electron flow through

Hedi Hannachi; Naoual Anoune; Christian Arnaud; Pierre Lantéri; Rémi Longeray; Henry Chermette

1998-01-01

35

Transition mixing study empirical model report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

1988-02-01

36

Transition Mixing Study Empirical Model Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of 3-D numerical model results generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all the test cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

1988-02-01

37

Transition mixing study empirical model report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

1988-01-01

38

Empirical Studies in Discourse Marilyn A. Walker  

E-print Network

under investigation (Cohen, 1995; Sparck-Jones and Galliers, 1996; Walker, 1996).1 The role of empirical Sparck-Jones and Galliers (1996, p.23) call features performance factors and distinguish between

Moore, Johanna D.

39

Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agile software development represents a major departure from traditional, plan-based approaches to software engineering. A system- atic review of empirical studies of agile software development up to and including 2005 was conducted. The search strategy identified 1996 studies, of which 36 were identified as empirical studies. The studies were grouped into four themes: introduction and adoption, human and social factors,

Tore Dybå; Torgeir Dingsøyr

2008-01-01

40

Empirical studies on programming language stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehending and debugging computer programs are inherently difficult tasks. The current approach to building program execution\\u000a and debugging environments is to use exclusively visual stimuli on programming languages whose syntax and semantics has often\\u000a been designed without empirical guidance. We present an alternative: Sodbeans, an open-source integrated development environment\\u000a designed to output carefully chosen spoken auditory cues to supplement empirically

Andreas Stefik; Ed Gellenbeck

2011-01-01

41

An empirical study of scanner system parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

1976-01-01

42

Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

Bell, Edward E.

2014-01-01

43

Applying Infant Massage Practices: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the dynamic interaction between a mother and her 11-month-old visually impaired infant before and after the mother was taught infant massage. After the mother learned infant massage, she had more appropriate physical contact with her infant, engaged with him within his field of vision, directly vocalized to him, and had a…

Lappin, Grace; Kretschmer, Robert E.

2005-01-01

44

Marketing in small hotels: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of marketing in small hotels specifically, and, more generally, to the area of SME or entrepreneurial marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A deductive-inductive approach based on interviews with 15 small hotel owner-managers, supported by web site analysis and three in-depth case study interviews, was used to provide a profile

Jane Moriarty; Rosalind Jones; Jennifer Rowley; Beata Kupiec-Teahan

2008-01-01

45

Nondirectiveness in genetic counseling: an empirical study.  

PubMed Central

Nondirectiveness is considered an essential part of genetic counseling, yet there is no generally accepted definition nor data documenting its impact on counselees. This study is an empirical investigation of directiveness, using ratings from transcripts of consultations and comparing these with counselor-reported and counselee-reported directiveness. Rated directiveness was defined as advice, expressed views about or selective reinforcement of counselees' behavior, thoughts, or emotions (advice, evaluation, and reinforcement). Analysis of 131 transcripts revealed a mean of 5.8 advice statements per consultation, 5.8 evaluative statements, and 1.7 reinforcing statements. When asked to describe their counseling style, none of the 11 counselors rated it as "not at all" directive. Half the counselees who faced a decision felt steered by the counselor. Items of rated directiveness showed satisfactory interrater reliability (kappa = .63). Factor analysis revealed that they formed one factor (eigenvalue 1.72). There were no associations either between counselor-reported, counselee-reported, and rated directiveness or between these measures and counselee anxiety and concern, satisfaction with information, or the meeting of counselees' expectations. Rated directiveness was the only measure to be associated with other process measures of the consultation, being associated with longer consultations, more blocks of speech, more social and emotional issues being raised, and fewer concerns being followed up. Advice was more likely to be given to counselees of lower socioeconomic status and to counselees judged by counselors to be highly concerned. Evaluative statements were more likely to be made by counselors who had received counseling training. These results show that genetic counseling was not characterized--by counselors, counselees, or a standardized rating scale--as uniformly nondirective. PMID:8981945

Michie, S; Bron, F; Bobrow, M; Marteau, T M

1997-01-01

46

Simulation Studies on Bootstrap Empirical Likelihood Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider to test the hypothesis using the empirical likelihood. To calculate the critical value of the test, two bootstrap methods are applied. Our simulation results indicate that the bootstrap methods improve the small sample property of the test.

Akio Namba

2004-01-01

47

Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.  

PubMed

Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside. PMID:24077096

Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

2014-05-01

48

PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

2004-01-01

49

Personal TV: A Qualitative Study of Mobile TV Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a qualitative user study of mobile phone TV usage undertaken during September 2005 and centered on the real world Mobile TV usage of paying subscribers of live Mobile TV service in Seoul, South Korea. The study identified four primary use cases: at home; during the evening commute (both likely to be significantly culturally dependent); macro-breaks; and secret

Yanqing Cui; Jan Chipchase; Younghee Jung

2007-01-01

50

Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

2015-01-01

51

A Qualitative Study of Educator Experiences in a Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach to examine educators' experiences in the virtual world of Second Life[TM]. The rationale for this study's focus on educators using a virtual world stems from an interest in the factors that influence educational practices in virtual worlds. The researcher conducted focus groups…

Dutton, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

52

Where Do College Drinkers Draw the Line?: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…

Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

2014-01-01

53

A Qualitative Study: Integrating Art and Science in the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was used to develop an understanding of the nature of a creative learning experience that incorporated the foundational elements of Reggio Emilia, place-based education, and experience design. The study took place in an urban high school with eight students in an advanced placement art class. The qualitative research project revolved…

Mills, Deborah N.

2013-01-01

54

DOING MOTHERING BEHIND BARS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INCARCERATED MOTHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study was performed involving 109 mothers in a minimum-security prison. The purpose of this study was to explore how mothers in prison define the word “mother” and how they fulfill that role while incarcerated. Most of the mothers defined mother as someone who loves and cares for her children. Four novel identities were identified, which include Self-Improving Incarcerated

Phyllis E. Berry; J. Smith-Mahdi

2006-01-01

55

A Qualitative Study of Parental Resistance to Girls' Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons for parental resistance to girls' schooling. The study was conducted in Ordu, Giresun, Gumushane, and Sinop provinces of Turkey where school enrollment rates for girls were among the lowest in the Black Sea Region. The results showed that obstacles for female education varied and…

Alat, Zeynep; Alat, Kazim

2011-01-01

56

EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF THE ARTS, Vol. 26(1) 5-13, 2008 CREATIVITY AND E-ADVERTISING  

E-print Network

EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF THE ARTS, Vol. 26(1) 5-13, 2008 CREATIVITY AND E-ADVERTISING: A QUALITATIVE of the past century, several areas of aesthetic research have examined advertising. Most research has focused; Locher, Martindale, & Dorfman, 2006; Sternberg, 1999, 2006), research on creativity in e-advertising has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.

Mabel LS Lie; Stephen C Robson; Carl R May

2008-01-01

58

Community College Dissertations--2004: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article utilized a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 214 dissertations listed by title only in Volume 31 of the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" ("CCJRP"). Complete abstracts for these dissertations from 2004-2005 were obtained via Proquest Digital Database. The following was the overarching research…

Davies, Timothy Gray; Dickmann, Ellyn; Harbour, Clifford P.; Banning, James H.

2011-01-01

59

Language Minority Experience: A Qualitative Study of Seven Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates language minority experiences of 7 heritage bilinguals via ethnographic interviewing and analytic induction. Themes are identified after qualitative clustering and contrasting of the data. Results are presented for all levels of participant-reported linguistic proficiency and researcher-inferred bilingual identity.…

Orlov, Leonid Y.; Ting, Siu-Man Raymond; Tyler, Richard E.

2009-01-01

60

The Cult of Parenthood: A Qualitative Study of Parental Alienation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty adults who were alienated from a parent as a child participated in a qualitative research study about their experience. A content analysis was conducted on the transcripts and a comparison was undertaken to identify similarities between alienating parents and cult leaders. Results revealed that adults whose parents alienated them from their other parent described the alienating parent much the

Amy J. L. Baker

2005-01-01

61

Australian Adult Consumers' Beliefs about Plant Foods: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory qualitative study examined consumers' perceived barriers and benefits of plant food (fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds) consumption and views on the promotion of these foods. Ten focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Groups consisted of employees of various workplaces, community group members,…

Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David

2005-01-01

62

Participants' Perspectives of Training Experiences: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptions concerning training and development continue to appear in practitioner literature; however, the fact that those perceptions are not explored in HRD literature is a problem. The purpose of this study was to examine perspectives of participants in organization-sponsored training. A general qualitative methodology was utilized in this…

Mathis, Robin Smith

2010-01-01

63

Young Dutch People's Experiences of Trading Sex: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with

Robert van de Walle; Charles Picavet; Willy van Berlo; Arnoud Verhoeff

2011-01-01

64

A qualitative study of college students' conceptions of rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored two research questions: (1) What are college students' conceptions of river topics and (2) What are the emergent patterns between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity? A basic interpretive qualitative research design was used. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 24 college students from an introductory geology class. In-depth interviews were conducted and a demographic questionnaire

Julie Marie Sexton

2008-01-01

65

Local, national and imported foods: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent

Stephanie Chambers; Alexandra Lobb; Laurie Butler; Kate Harvey; W. Bruce Traill

2007-01-01

66

An Empirical Study of Infrasonic Propagation  

SciTech Connect

Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.

J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer

1999-10-01

67

A review of empirical studies of verbal behavior.  

PubMed

This paper reviews empirical research which has been directly influenced by Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Despite the importance of this subject matter, the book has generated relatively little empirical research. Most studies have focused on Skinner's mand and tact relations while research focused on the other elementary verbal operants has been limited. However, the results of empirical research that exist support Skinner's analysis of the distinction between elementary verbal operants and his distinction between the speaker's and listener's repertoires. Further, research suggests that language training programs may not be successful if they do not provide explicit training of each elementary verbal operant and independent training of speaker's and listener's repertoires. PMID:22477586

Oah, S Z; Dickinson, A M

1989-01-01

68

A review of empirical studies of verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews empirical research which has been directly influenced by Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Despite the importance of this subject matter, the book has generated relatively little empirical research. Most studies have focused on Skinner's mand and tact relations while research focused on the other elementary verbal operants has been limited. However, the results of empirical research that exist support Skinner's analysis of the distinction between elementary verbal operants and his distinction between the speaker's and listener's repertoires. Further, research suggests that language training programs may not be successful if they do not provide explicit training of each elementary verbal operant and independent training of speaker's and listener's repertoires. PMID:22477586

Oah, She-zeen; Dickinson, Alyce M.

1989-01-01

69

Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

2014-01-01

70

Why general practitioners do not implement evidence: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives: To explore the reasons why general practitioners do not always implement best evidence.Design: Qualitative study using Balint-style groups.Setting: Primary care.Participants: 19 general practitioners.Main outcome measures: Identifiable themes that indicate barriers to implementation.Results: Six main themes were identified that affected the implementation process: the personal and professional experiences of the general practitioners; the patient-doctor relationship; a perceived tension between primary

A C Freeman; K Sweeney

2001-01-01

71

Empirical study on human acupuncture point network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

2007-03-01

72

Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural gas is also an input into the generation of electricity. However because these firms are regulated, these differing incentives would only be acted upon if regulation is imperfect in some way. Chapter 2 analyzes these issues. In particular, I estimate equilibrium pricing and investment equations that capture the relative incentives of single and dual-product electricity firms. The results imply that both electricity prices and reliance on natural gas generation are higher in a dual-product setting, both suggesting that regulators respond to the relative incentives of electricity and natural gas firms. Chapter 3 analyzes electricity firm production incentives when regulated via performance based regulation. Although many electricity markets are currently considering adopting a competitive market for electricity generation, and still others have already done so, the vast majority of electricity markets remain tightly regulated. Within this traditional regulatory environment, the use of incentive regulation schemes in US electricity markets has grown during the past two decades. While every state has some program that it refers to as an incentive regulation program, these programs differ in both their goals and how they attempt to meet these goals. In this chapter, I discuss the wide array of programs that have been utilized to alter the incentives of US investor-owned utilities (IOUs). In addition, using stochastic frontier methods, I provide empirical analysis of the impact that a number of incentive regulation programs have on the efficiency of a large set of coal and natural gas generator units.

Knittel, Christopher Roland

73

A study on the prognostic significance of qualitative olfactory dysfunction.  

PubMed

We investigated the frequency and prognostic significance of qualitative olfactory dysfunction (parosmia, phantosmia) in a retrospective patient based study. A total of 392 patients with impairment of olfaction were tested at least two times for their olfactory function using the "Sniffin' Sticks". The mean interval between the first and the last test was 11 months. At the first visit 34% of all patients reported parosmia. Parosmia was most frequent in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss (56%), and less frequent in idiopathic, posttraumatic, sinunasal disease with frequencies of 10, 14, and 28%, respectively. In contrast, only 12% of all patients had phantosmias, with no significant differences between the patient groups. Improvement of olfactory function was found in 23% of all patients (n = 90). Pre-existing parosmia or phantosmia had no significant effect on recovery rate. Regarding qualitative olfactory dysfunction, 29% of those patients reporting parosmia reported relief of this symptom after an average of 12 months, whereas 53% of phantosmic patients lost phantosmia during the observation period. Although it has been suggested that olfactory distortion s could be regarded as an indicator of early recovery of decreased olfactory sensitivity, the current data indicate that occurrence of parosmia or phantosmia has little prognostic value. Phantosmia disappears at a faster rate than parosmia. These insights into qualitative olfactory dysfunction are regarded to be significant in the counseling of patients with olfactory loss. PMID:17006637

Reden, J; Maroldt, H; Fritz, A; Zahnert, T; Hummel, T

2007-02-01

74

An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

75

Perceptions of police: an empirical study of Chinese college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine Chinese college students' perceptions of police. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using survey data collected from over 400 college students in two cities, the study empirically analyzes the global and specific perceptions of police among Chinese college students and factors that accounted for the variation in Chinese college students' evaluations of police. The study incorporates a

Yuning Wu; Ivan Y. Sun

2010-01-01

76

Empowerment Needs of Women With Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Objectives: Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed regarding their empowerment needs using the individual open-ended and, in-depth interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three main categories of empowerment needs from the participants’ perspectives were as follows: 1- information: the initial empowerment plans (timely and comprehensive information, coordination and continuity of information, easy and full-time access to information), 2- beliefs: the approval of the empowerment plans for execution (actuality, trust and hope and new beliefs), and 3- skills: efficient execution of the empowerment plans (communication skills, expression the needs, emotions, questions and use of the internet). Conclusions: It seems that promoting the empowerment of women with breast cancer is essential. Factors found in this study and also in similar studies, in which empowerment needs are explained in-depth through the experiences of the patients, should be considered and used in the treatment, educational and counseling programs to promote the empowerment of women with breast cancer.

Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

2014-01-01

77

Automated summative usability studies: an empirical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates a method for summative usability testing using an automated data collection system. We found automated summative testing to be a simple and effective alternative to lab-based summative testing and could be successfully conducted remotely. In our study, a web-based control window led participants through the summative study, provided tasks to perform, and asked follow up questions about

Ryan West; Katherine R. Lehman

2006-01-01

78

An Empirical Study of Operating System Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of operating system errors found by automatic, static, compiler analysis applied to the Linux and OpenBSD kernels. Our approach differs from previous studies that consider errors found by manual inspection of logs, testing, and surveys because static analysis is applied uniformly to the entire kernel source, though our approach necessarily considers a less comprehensive variety of

Andy Chou; Junfeng Yang; Benjamin Chelf; Seth Hallem; Dawson R. Engler

2001-01-01

79

An empirical study of operating systems errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of operating system errors found by automatic, static, compiler analysis applied to the Linux and OpenBSD kernels. Our approach differs from previous studies that consider errors found by manual inspection of logs, testing, and surveys because static analysis is applied uniformly to the entire kernel source, though our approach necessarily considers a less comprehensive variety of

Andy Chou; Junfeng Yang; Benjamin Chelf; Seth Hallem; Dawson Engler

2001-01-01

80

Responsibility and burden from the perspective of seniors’ family caregivers: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the experience of seniors’ family caregivers with regarding the responsibility, burden and support needs during caregiving in Shanghai, China. Materials and methods: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative design was used and a semi-structure interview was conducted. A convenience sample of 11 participants in two community service centers in Shanghai was recruited. Data saturation guided the size of the sample. The Colaizzi method of empirical phenomenology was used for interviewing and analyzing data obtained from 11 caregivers. Results: Three major themes were found: It is a hard work; It is my responsibility; Social support is not enough. Conclusion: The findings of the study are practical and helpful for health care providers to develop appropriate caregiver support services, to balance the responsibility and burden of caregivers, and to consider the factors influencing the utility of support services. PMID:25126186

Zeng, Li; Zhu, Xiaoping; Meng, Xianmei; Mao, Yafen; Wu, Qian; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Lanshu

2014-01-01

81

Deadline Dodgers: An Empirical Study, Of Sorts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details (facetiously) a study that examines why English students do not turn their work in on time. Concludes that numerous distractions, such as "Dear Abby," are responsible for sidetracking students doing research. (NKA)

Fletcher, J. B.

1987-01-01

82

An Empirical Microeconomic Study of the Entrepreneur  

E-print Network

Entrepreneurs are an important segment of the economy, particularly in terms of economic development (Baumol, et al. 2007). However, the study of entrepreneurs and how they create firms is still an open question (Venkataraman ...

Leonard, John Mark

2007-12-03

83

The Healing Nature of Mandalas: Empirical Study of Active Imagination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandalas in therapy were first used by Carl Jung, who found that the act of drawing mandalas had a calming and healing effect on patients while at the same time facilitating psychic integration. There are no reported empirical studies of the healing impact of mandalas on mental health. However, James Pennebaker has studied the efficacy of written expression regarding traumatic

Patti Henderson; Nathan Mascaro; David Rosen; Tiffany Skillern

84

A qualitative study of advice from bereaved parents and siblings.  

PubMed

Despite a growing bereavement literature, relatively little is known about what families find helpful after a child's death and how best to assist them during the grieving process. In this qualitative study, the authors explored advice from 40 families (65 parents, 39 siblings) of children who died from cancer 6-19 months earlier. Content analysis emphasized the individual nature of grief and revealed advice that fit into three temporal categories: before the death, soon after, and long-term. Findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theory and provide insight into the development and timing of grief interventions. PMID:21895435

Thompson, Amanda L; Miller, Kimberly S; Barrera, Maru; Davies, Betty; Foster, Terrah L; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Hogan, Nancy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

2011-01-01

85

The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.  

PubMed

The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider. PMID:24418525

Brewster, Liz

2014-03-01

86

Patents and Innovation: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent would the rate of development and introduction of inventions decline in the absence of patent protection? To what extent do firms make use of the patent system, and what differences exist among firms and industries and over time in the propensity to patent? These questions are in need of much more study. This paper, which reports the

Edwin Mansfield

1986-01-01

87

An Empirical Study of Delta Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Delta algorithms compress data by encoding one file in terms of another. This type of compression is useful in a number of situations: storing multiple versions of data, distributing updates, storing backups, transmitting video sequences, and others. This paper studies the performance parameters of several delta algorithms, using a benchmark of over 1300 pairs of files taken from two

James J. Hunt; Kiem-phong Vo; Walter F. Tichy

1996-01-01

88

Training Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Kuwait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of training evaluation activity and challenges in 77 Kuwaiti organizations found that most respondents evaluate their programs only occasionally through the use of questionnaires. Most use the Kilpatrick model for evaluation and the most common level of evaluation is reaction type. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

Al-Athari, Ahmad; Zairi, Mohamed

2002-01-01

89

Iranian patient's expectations about coronary angiography: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Coronary angiography is recognized as the gold test for diagnosis of coronary artery diseases. Based on the literature review, little is known about patients’ expectations about this procedure. Understanding the patient's expectations is an important way to achieve patient-centered care. The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of Iranian patients undergoing coronary angiography. Materials and Methods: This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was carried out between 2011 and 2012 in three hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, with a purposive sample of 15 patients (7 men and 8 women, about 28-70 years of age). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to explore the patients’ expectations. Interview data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The interviews revealed that the participants had four main categories of expectations about coronary angiography. The patient's expectations were those from angiography, from the treatment team, and the need for preparation of angiography, education, and training. Conclusions: In general, the results of this study revealed a new insight into the expectations of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patient education and preparation should include information addressing the expectations. Moreover, an appropriate care program based on the patients’ expectations can promote the quality of care and satisfaction of patients. PMID:23983751

Kalyani, Majid N.; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Iman, Mohammad T.

2013-01-01

90

Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

Giardina, Irene

2008-01-01

91

Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Results: Analysis of the participants’ experiences led to five main concepts: “Disturbed in femininity-body image,” “discouragement of sexual relations,” “sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant,” “confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment,” and “striving to protect their marriage.” Conclusions: Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples. PMID:25709688

Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

2015-01-01

92

Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many observations of the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization phenomena, have been successfully described by simple many-particle models. For ethical reasons, however, there is a serious lack of experimental data regarding crowd panic. Therefore, we have analyzed video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006. They reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and “turbulent” flows, which question many previous simulation models. While the transition from laminar to stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is responsible for sudden eruptions of pressure release comparable to earthquakes, which cause sudden displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In particular, they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H.

Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein

2007-04-01

93

Incorporating Music into the Social Studies Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Secondary Social Studies Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a six-month qualitative study, this article examines how four secondary Social Studies teachers made meaning of music, and how those perspectives informed their pedagogical choices regarding music in their classrooms. Specifically, this article analyzes three ways the teachers talked about, viewed and incorporated music in their…

Mangram, Jeffery A.; Weber, Rachel L.

2012-01-01

94

Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

2009-01-01

95

Continued Use of a Chinese Online Portal: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…

Shih, Hung-Pin

2008-01-01

96

An Empirical Study of Students on Academic Probation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial number of university students are placed on academic probation each year, many of whom never succeed in academia. Hence, it is critical to identify who these students are, why they end up on academic probation, and most importantly how best to intervene. To determine this, an empirical study of students on academic probation for the…

James, Cindy L.; Graham, Sarah

2010-01-01

97

An Empirical Study of Fortran Programs for Parallelizing Compilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

n this paper, we report some results from an empirical study on program charac- f d teristics that are important to parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area o ata dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are also examined.

Zhiyu Shen; Zhiyuan Li; Pen-chung Yew

1990-01-01

98

Empirical methods for the study and interpretation of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of empirical research in language psychology can be helpful in reorganizing the domain of literary studies. Following a rapid survey of the major considerations in regard to such an undertaking, a specific demonstration is provided. Semantic categorization (with card?sorting plus network?drawing) and semantic differential were used to test the agreement between concepts from a literary text and from

Norbert Groeben

1980-01-01

99

Juror Prejudice: An Empirical Study of a Challenge for Cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors empirically examine the challenge for cause process in the context of a murder trial in a rural region in southern Ontario. A survey was under-taken to assess prejudice and is compared to prejudice found in potential jurors. The study also compares the verdicts on each potential juror screened in the challenge for cause process, as rendered by the

Neil Vidmar; Julius Melnitzer

1984-01-01

100

An empirical study of quality function deployment on company performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Quality function deployment (QFD) has had considerable success in terms of its implementation in companies. It has also been the subject of many studies in recent years. It seems, however, that there are some shortcomings in the research on this subject and in particular the lack of an adequate conceptual framework suitable for empirical research. The purpose of

Andreas Herrmann; Frank Huber; René Algesheime; Torsten Tomczak

2006-01-01

101

Inspections and Reviews An Empirical Study of Communication in Code  

E-print Network

to control, pre- dict, manipulate, or even identify them. One factor that has been identified [3Inspections and Reviews #12;An Empirical Study of Communication in Code Inspect ions Carolyn B as the point in the project that an in- spection occurs. All but the last of these factors are or- ganizational

Basili, Victor R.

102

Profiling ChangeAn Empirical Study of Change Process Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profile analysis is proposed as a means for advancing empirical change process research. In the context of organizational studies, a profile can be viewed as a set of sequentially arranged factors that expresses the relative strength of individual factors and holistic patterns inside or between organizational entities. To demonstrate the utility of the approach in change process research, profile analysis

Matthew W. Ford; Bertie M. Greer

2006-01-01

103

Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on economic growth has exploded in the past decade. Hundreds of empirical studies on economic growth across countries have highlighted the correlation between growth and a variety of variables. Determinants of Economic Growth, based on Robert Barro's Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures, delivered at the London School of Economics in February 1996, summarizes this important literature. The book contains three

Robert J. Barro

1999-01-01

104

Empirical Study on the Healing Nature of Mandalas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandalas were first used in therapy by Carl Jung, who found that the act of drawing mandalas had a calming effect on patients while at the same time facilitating psychic integration. There is a scarcity of controlled empirical studies of the healing impact of mandalas on mental health. Based on the efficacy of James Pennebaker's written disclosure paradigm in promoting

Patti Henderson; David Rosen; Nathan Mascaro

2007-01-01

105

An Empirical Study of a Highly Available File System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present results from a six-month empirical study of the high availability aspects of the Coda File System. We report on the service failures experienced by Coda clients, and show that such failures are masked suc- cessfully. We also explore the effectiveness and resource costs of key aspects of server replication and disconnected operation, the two high

Brian D. Noble; Mahadev Satyanarayanan

1994-01-01

106

Principals' Performance Assessment: Empirical Evidence from an Israeli Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the current interest in many countries in assessing the principal's performance, stemming from the greater attention to educational reform and accountability, the empirical study of principal's appraisal has been slow to develop. This article was designed to fill partially this gap. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews of eight…

Gaziel, Haim

2008-01-01

107

An empirical study on Principal Component Analysis for clustering  

E-print Network

An empirical study on Principal Component Analysis for clustering gene expression data Ka Yee Yeung Analysis for clustering gene expression data Ka Yee Yeung, Walter L. Ruzzo Dept of Computer Science data analysis techniques and different clustering algorithms to analyze the same data set can lead

Borenstein, Elhanan

108

Ethnographically-informed empirical studies of software practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade we have performed a sustained series of qualitative studies of software development practice, focusing on social factors. Using an ethnographically-informed approach, we have addressed four areas of software practice: software quality management systems, the emergence of object technology, professional end user development and agile development. Several issues have arisen from this experience, including the nature of

Hugh Robinson; Judith Segal; Helen Sharp

2007-01-01

109

Understanding “revolving door” patients in general practice: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Revolving door’ patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners’ (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise ‘revolving door’ patients and their impact from professionals’ perspectives. Results ‘Revolving door’ patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when ‘revolving door’ patients interacted with NHS staff. Conclusions We utilise the ‘sensitising concepts’ of legitimacy by drawing on literature about ‘good and bad’ patients and ‘dirty work designations.’ We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with ‘revolving door’ patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature. PMID:24524363

2014-01-01

110

Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was performed. The moderator asked participants to clarify the terms professionalism and professional behaviour, and to explore the questions "How do you learn the mentioned aspects?" and "What ways of learning do you find useful or superfluous?". Qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA2007) facilitated analysis using an inductive coding approach. Thirty-five fellows across eight groups participated. The themes most frequently addressed were communication, keeping distance and boundaries, medical knowledge and expertise, respect, teamwork, leadership and organisation and management. Medical knowledge, expertise and technical skills seem to become more tacit when training progresses. Topics can be categorised into themes of workplace-based learning, by gathering practical experience, by following examples and receiving feedback on action, including learning from own and others' mistakes. Formal teaching courses (e.g. communication) and scheduled sessions addressing professionalism aspects were also valued. The emerging themes considered most relevant for intensivists were adequate communication skills and keeping boundaries with patients and relatives. Professionalism is mainly learned 'on the job' from role models in the intensive care unit. Formal teaching courses and sessions addressing professionalism aspects were nevertheless valued, and learning from own and others' mistakes was considered especially useful. Self-reflection as a starting point for learning professionalism was stressed. PMID:21375100

van Mook, W N K A; De Grave, W S; Gorter, S L; Zwaveling, J H; Schuwirth, L W; van der Vleuten, P M

2011-01-01

111

Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo. PMID:23498352

Sabo, Megin

2013-01-01

112

Sexual Activity during Pregnancy in Taiwan: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a special period in a woman's life that involves physical and mental changes. These changes are influenced by cultural, social, religious, and emotional factors among others. Aim The aims of this article were to gather information, to describe the changes and behavior of sexual experiences in pregnancy, and to identify the reasons why pregnant women from central Taiwan decrease coital frequency during pregnancy. Methods This phenomenological qualitative research was intended to respond to open-ended questions that allowed the respondents to elaborate on the individuals' experiences. We collected data from in-depth, tape-recorded, and semi-structured interviews conducted in a cross-sectional study of 62 healthy pregnant women. The investigation ended when three consecutive interviewed subjects could not offer any new activities, which indicated that the study had reached its saturation point. Main Outcome Measures We performed data collection and content analysis to ensure standards of rigor and reliability. Credibility was enhanced by prolonged engagement, triangulation, referential adequacy, member checking, and expert review; we categorized meaningful unit-codes in a mutually exclusive and exhaustive manner into perceptions, experiences, and practices such that common themes were grouped into categories. Results Three themes emerged: negative aspects of sexual experiences; stress and emotional responses; and changes in sexual practices. The majority of the women stopped engaging in coital activities during pregnancy. We determined that in most cases, the 62 participants obtained information regarding sexual activity during pregnancy from postpartum women and the Internet. Conclusions The current evidence-based findings encourage the provision of sexuality education to newlyweds and the discussion of sex-related issues during pregnancy. We propose developing strategies for increasing sexual knowledge and focusing on emotional support to decrease pregnant women's anxiety regarding sexuality in Taiwan. Liu HL, Hsu P, and Chen KH. Sexual activity during pregnancy in Taiwan: A qualitative study. Sex Med 2013;1:54–61. PMID:25356288

Liu, Hsin-Li; Hsu, Pohan; Chen, Kuang-Ho

2013-01-01

113

Reexamining competitive priorities: Empirical study in service sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general objective of this study is to validate the multi-level concept of competitive priorities using reflective-formative model at a higher order for service industries. An empirical study of 228 firms from 9 different service industries is conducted to answer the objective of this study. Partial least square analysis with SmartPLS 2.0 was used to perform the analysis. Finding revealed six priorities: cost, flexibility, delivery, quality talent management, quality tangibility, and innovativeness. It emerges that quality are expanded into two types; one is related to managing talent for process improvement and the second one is the physical appearance and tangibility of the service quality. This study has confirmed competitive priorities as formative second-order hierarchical latent construct by using rigorous empirical evidence. Implications, limitation and suggestion for future research are accordingly discussed in this paper.

Idris, Fazli; Mohammad, Jihad

2015-02-01

114

A qualitative study of predelivery counselling for extreme prematurity  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain from parents of neonates born before 27 weeks’ gestational age how to improve predelivery counselling for delivery room resuscitation. METHODS: Qualitative ethnographic study using semistructured, face-to-face interviews of 10 families. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. RESULTS: Parents had no previous knowledge about prematurity. They would have preferred prioritized information during predelivery counselling focused on the immediate risks to their child. Resuscitation wishes were inconsistently sought. Opportunities for repeat discussions involving both parents were often missed. Parents agreed that the opportunity to explicitly state resuscitation wishes should be offered. Additional materials, such as pamphlets or videos, would improve counselling. CONCLUSIONS: Information about prematurity should be offered when the pregnancy is deemed high risk, with repeat counselling opportunities for both parents to discuss options. Once the decision is made to resuscitate, parents want the neonatal team to convey a message of hope and compassion. PMID:24082803

Young, Elizabeth; Tsai, Ellen; O’Riordan, Anne

2012-01-01

115

Rash orientation in pityriasis rosea: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Rash orientation in pityriasis rosea (PR) has been described as Christmas-tree pattern, inverted Christmas-tree pattern, fir tree pattern, parallel to the ribs or along skin cleavage lines. We retrieved clinical photographs of 11 patients diagnosed as having PR over a two-year period for qualitative study of rash orientation. We found that Langer's cleavage lines are the most appropriate description. All three components of these lines on the trunk, i.e. V-shaped pattern on upper chest and upper back, circumferential pattern around the shoulders and hips, and transverse pattern on the lower anterior trunk and lower back, are demonstrated by most patients. We believe with the present state of knowledge, the mechanism for PR following Langer's lines is best considered unknown. We advocate abandoning other descriptions which might cause confusion to students and trainee physicians. PMID:11978566

Chuh, Antonio A T

2002-01-01

116

Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457

Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

2008-01-01

117

Drugs Prices and Systemic Violence: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes an empirical analysis of the relation between the prices of illegal drugs and the use of violence to administrate\\u000a the markets of illegal drugs. The study hypothesizes that the prices of illegal drugs affect the level of violent crime, since\\u000a changes in profitability of the drugs’ markets affect the offenders’ expected utility of using violence to operate

Fabrizio Sarrica

2008-01-01

118

Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

2006-01-01

119

Insecurities of Women Regarding Breast Cancer Research: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Only 1.2%–11% of all potential study participants participate in cancer studies. Low participation rates can result in bias or in a failure to obtain data saturation. Subject-scientific psychology assumes that reasons for acting are based on individual premises. The objective of this study was to render reproducible individual reasons of female breast cancer patients to participate or not participate in breast cancer studies using a qualitative approach. Methods Problem-based interviews were conducted with female breast cancer patients. The selection of interview partners continued until theoretical data saturation was achieved. Results As main arguments against participation emotional overload and too many medication side-effects were stated. Improvement of health-related values, long-term protection and comprehensive follow-up exams were stated as arguments for participation. Trust in the attending physician was mentioned as influencing both participation and non-participation. Conclusions A significant influential factor determining willingness to participate in studies was one's contentment with patient-physician communication. In order to guarantee an adequate patient decision-making process, keeping existing standards for patient briefings is absolutely mandatory. PMID:24312584

Habersack, Marion; Luschin, Gero

2013-01-01

120

Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies  

PubMed Central

Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. PMID:25379256

Roesler, Christian

2013-01-01

121

Understanding why GPs see pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative interview study.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Doctors are aware of the commercial bias in pharmaceutical representative information; nevertheless, such information is known to change doctors' prescribing, and augment irrational prescribing and prescribing costs. AIM: To explore GPs, reasons for receiving visits from pharmaceutical representatives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. SETTING: One hundred and seven general practitioners (GPs) in practices from two health authorities in the North West of England. RESULTS: The main outcome measures of the study were: reasons for receiving/not receiving representative visits; advantages/disadvantages in receiving visits; and quality of representative-supplied information. Most GPs routinely see pharmaceutical representatives, because they bring new drug information speedily; they are convenient and accessible; and can be consulted with a saving of time and effort. Many GPs asserted they had the skills to critically appraise the evidence. Furthermore, the credibility and social characteristics of the representative were instrumental in shaping GPs' perceptions of representatives as legitimate information providers. GPs also received visits from representatives for reasons other than information acquisition. These reasons are congruent with personal selling techniques used in marketing communications. CONCLUSIONS: The study draws attention to the social and cultural contexts of GP-representative encounters and the way in which the acquisition of pharmacological information within the mercantile context of representative visits is legitimated. This highlights the need for doctors to critically appraise information supplied by representatives in relation to other information sources. PMID:12879831

Prosser, Helen; Walley, Tom

2003-01-01

122

Relapse Model among Iranian Drug Users: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Relapse is a common problem in drug user’s rehabilitation program and reported in all over the country. An in-depth study on patients’ experiences can be used for exploring the relapse process among drug users. Therefore, this study suggests a model for relapse process among Iranian drug users. Methods: In this qualitative study with grounded theory approach, 22 participants with rich information about the phenomenon under the study were selected using purposive, snowball and theoretical sampling methods. After obtaining the informed consent, data were collected based on face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews. All interviews were analyzed in three stages of axial, selective and open coding methods. Results: Nine main categories emerged, including avoiding of drugs, concerns about being accepted, family atmosphere, social conditions, mental challenge, self-management, self-deception, use and remorse and a main category, feeling of loss as the core variable. Mental challenge has two subcategories, evoking pleasure and craving. Relapse model is a dynamic and systematic process including from cycles of drug avoidance to remorse with a core variable as feeling of loss. Conclusion:  Relapse process is a dynamic and systematic process that needs an effective control. Determining a relapse model as a clear process could be helpful in clinical sessions. Results of this research have depicted relapse process among Iranian drugs user by conceptual model. PMID:25553329

Jalali, Amir; Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid

2015-01-01

123

Empirical Study of MacroBIM and Conceptual Estimation  

E-print Network

or ?concepts that are building blocks of theory? (Strauss and Corbin 1998). ?Grounded Theory is a systematic generation of theory from data that contains both inductive and deductive thinking.? (Glaser and Strauss 1967) ?It is the practice of developing... iii ABSTRACT Empirical Study of MacroBIM and Conceptual Estimation. (May 2010) Anand Dhanraj Gajbhiye, B.E., University of Mumbai Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Julian Kang Building Information Modeling (BIM) has set up a mark...

Gajbhiye, Anand Dhanraj

2011-08-08

124

[About the turning point in a nurse's life when giving up the profession. A qualitative-empirical study on the willingness to continue to work and on the conditions for continuing to work in the post-professional phase of life].  

PubMed

Due to the increasing life expectancy and population ageing, the post-professional phase of life is becoming more and more important to the individual and to society as a whole. The perception of the potentials of elderly people and, hence, the call for self-directed and independent activities in the post-professional phase are becoming more intense. The relation between retirement and work in nurses has not been of scientific importance so far. This is primarily due to the assumption that nurses cannot or do not stay in their profession until retirement. However, nurses do manage to pursue their profession continuously and permanently until they reach the age of retirement. The aim of this qualitative research study is to investigate the post-professional phase of life of former nurses within the context of the profession pursued. The guiding research questions in this regard were: How do former nurses spend their retirement period? How do nurses use their nursing-related abilities and experiences in their postprofessional phase of life? What do nurses associate with their former profession in the post-professional phase of life? In one-to-one interviews, these questions were posed to eight retired nurses who had pursued their profession for many years. The assessment instruments used were a socio-demographic questionnaire, a guideline and a record from memory. All data were summarized and evaluated analytically with regard to their content according to Mayring (2008). The present article shows the partial results of the study on retirement and work in the post-professional life of nurses. The results indicate that the transition to retirement is often accompanied by problems, that retired nurses do not fundamentally refuse to continue to work and that the willingness to continue to work is subject to certain conditions. Reasons and conditions for and against profession-based post-professional activities were revealed. Consequentially, concepts for the systematic identification of potentials of nurses in their post-professional phase of life should be developed. PMID:20960735

Schöbel, Jacqueline; Rester, David; Them, Christa; Seeberger, Bernd

2010-10-01

125

When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

2013-01-01

126

A qualitative study of televideo consultations for COPD patients.  

PubMed

This article presents results from a small qualitative study investigating the experiences of patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with televideo consultations at home, as a supplement to conventional control and treatment. The research question was: what are the experiences and preferences of COPD patients in relation to discharge from hospital with televideo consultations? The study shows that the patients' assessments of the effectiveness and value of the televideo consultations in their everyday lives are based on tough cost-benefit calculation of the extent to which the intervention makes their lives easier or more difficult. In public settings, the expectations are high that digital mediation between clients' everyday lives and the healthcare system can strengthen patients' abilities regarding their self-management. Nonetheless, the study shows that patients have a number of reservations concerning televideo consultations at home. The patients' assessments of the service must be understood in relation to the routines and strategies developed to handle the array of problems related to a life affected by chronic illness. PMID:25723262

Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Sandholm, Niels

2015-02-26

127

Relapse Experience in Iranian Opiate Users: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: To understand the relapse process, it is required to notice the clients learned behaviors and environmental contexts. We aimed to explore and describe relapse experiences of Iranian drug users. Methods: This is a grounded theory study and twenty two participants were selected using purposive sampling, snowball and theoretical sampling. After obtaining written informed consent, data gathering was done by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. According to Strauss and Corbin three phases of open coding, axial coding and selection coding were done for qualitative analysis and continuous comparison. During the research period Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to be reassured of the accuracy and rigor of the study findings. Results: The main categories of this study were craving and conflict, family stress and psychological indicators of relapse that emerged in three phases including recovery, tension and pre-relapse. High anxiety, withdrawal, rationalization and lying were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: Family reactions and social conditions play a key role in relapse. Relapse process is an active and multidimensional event in which the clients experience a psychosocial status continuum from recovery to relapse. Most psychological problems are seen in the tension phase. PMID:25349849

Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid; Jalali, Amir

2014-01-01

128

Older adults' perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. PMID:24302685

Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E

2014-06-01

129

Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi’s seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done. Results: The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy). Conclusion: Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy. PMID:25114669

Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

2014-01-01

130

Staff's perception of abuse in healthcare: a Swedish qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aim was to apprehend staff's perception of abuse in healthcare (AHC) after an intervention based on ‘Forum Play’, and make comparisons to preintervention interviews and interviews with male and female patients. AHC can be described as a failing encounter from the patient's perspective. Design Qualitative interview follow-up study. Setting A Swedish Women's Clinic. Participants In a preintervention study 21 staff members were interviewed. Eligible for the follow-up study were 14 informants who had participated in the intervention. Four declined participation leaving ten informants for this study. Intervention During January 2008–January 2009, all staff members (N=136) were invited to participate in Forum Play workshops. Seventy-four participants took part in at least 1 of the 17 half-day workshops. Primary outcome measures Staffs perception of AHC. Results The core category, ‘a summoning stone in the shoe’, was constructed of five categories: ‘Dehumanising the patient’, ‘Unacceptable: you are bound to act!’, ‘Ubiquitous’, ‘Unintentional’ and ‘Relative’. Forum Play had demonstrated possibilities to act even in seemingly ‘impossible’ situations, and that the taboo status of AHC was altered at the clinic. When our results were compared to those in the preintervention study, we found an increased awareness about AHC, more concrete examples of AHC, a stronger empathy for patients, and fewer explanations, justifications and trivialisations of AHC. Conclusion In this follow-up study staff's perception of AHC was closer to the patient's perspective. Compared to the preintervention interviews staff showed a greater willingness not only to acknowledge AHC, but also to take on a responsibility to act in order to stop or prevent AHC. Explanations for this stance could be that Forum Play had showed staff that there were possibilities to act, and that the taboo status of AHC had been broken at the clinic. PMID:23015598

Swahnberg, Katarina; Wijma, Barbro

2012-01-01

131

Being a Parent with a Learning Disability: A Qualitative Study   

E-print Network

This research portfolio aims to further explore the issues faced by parents with a learning disability. Firstly, a systematic review of qualitative research into the social support of parents with a learning disability ...

Shewan, Laura

2011-01-01

132

Medication compliance aids: a qualitative study of users' views  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rapid rise in the use of multicompartmental compliance aids (MCAs), little is known about the role they play in self-management of medication. Aim To explore the perceived benefits of MCAs for people using them to manage their own or a relative's medication. Design of study Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting West Northumberland. Method Recruitment was via posters and leaflets in general practices and community pharmacies. In-depth interviews were conducted using a topic guide. Results Nineteen people were interviewed. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to medicine taking: disruption, organisation, and adherence, which impacted on control. The medication regime had caused disruption to their lives and this had led to the purchase of an MCA. The MCA enabled them to organise their medication, which they believed had improved the efficiency of medicine taking and saved time. Although the MCA did not prompt them to take their medication, they could see whether they had actually taken it or not, which alleviated their anxiety. To meet their individual needs and lifestyles, some had developed broader systems of medication management, incorporating the MCA. For a small cost – the initial outlay for the MCA and time spent loading it – they gained control over the management of their medication and their condition. Conclusion This group found the use of an MCA to be beneficial, but advice and support regarding how best to manage their medication and on the most appropriate design to suit their needs would be helpful. PMID:21276336

Lecouturier, Jan; Cunningham, Bill; Campbell, David; Copeland, Richard

2011-01-01

133

Young heroin users in Baltimore: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 67 young heroin users, interviewed using a semistructured qualitative questionnaire (QQ) as part of a larger study of 18- to 25-year-old heroin users seeking detoxification with buprenorphine at a drug treatment center in Baltimore. This new generation of heroin users has a different demographic profile compared to older heroin users in this area. Our data, supported by data from another clinic and from the Maryland State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Administration, seem to indicate that the younger heroin users in treatment settings are predominantly White, with a high proportion of women, often living in the suburbs. Based on responses to the QQ, all subjects initiated heroin use intranasally, usually in a group setting; 75% had subsequently gone on to use intravenously. The typical young heroin user in Baltimore Metropolitan area appears to be a young White man or woman from a middle/working-class background, with exposure to drug use among close contacts while growing up, experimenting with gateway drugs with peers before proceeding first to intranasal, and then intravenous heroin use, engaging in criminal activities to support the habit, repeatedly seeking help with assistance from family, but failing to sustain abstinence due to continued exposure to drug using peers and a poorly implemented plan of aftercare. Further research should focus on efforts to engage peer groups and families in order to improve treatment outcomes in young heroin users. PMID:16595322

Gandhi, Devang H; Kavanagh, Greg J; Jaffe, Jerome H

2006-01-01

134

Spiritual Needs of Cancer Patients: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence) were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients’ spiritual needs is particularly important. PMID:25709188

Hatamipour, Khadijeh; Rassouli, Maryam; Yaghmaie, Farideh; Zendedel, Kazem; Majd, Hamid Alavi

2015-01-01

135

A Qualitative Study on the Prospective Social Studies Teachers' Role-Model Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study is intended to investigate prospective social studies teachers' role model preferences and the reflections of these preferences to their daily lives. This study was designed as a qualitative study in the form of descriptive model. The participants consisted of 306 prospective social studies teachers enrolled in nine different…

Tonga, Deniz

2014-01-01

136

Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early breastfeeding experience, be able to identify and claim a reliable support system supportive of breastfeeding, and gain through their experience, a belief in their own agency and competency as mothers. PMID:23020833

2012-01-01

137

Family physicians managing tuberculosis. Qualitative study of overcoming barriers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify the types of non-clinical barriers family physicians face in the management of TB, and to suggest strategies for overcoming these barriers. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on focus group discussions with family physicians and specialists in different types of practices. SETTING: Private practices, community health centres, and family practice units in hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians and specialists working in different practice settings. METHOD: At least one specialist participated in each focus group in order to understand possible differences in non-clinical barriers to TB management between family physicians and specialists. MAIN FINDINGS: Physicians can identify many types of non-clinical obstacles to TB management. Some obstacles appear to be directly related to the organization of family practice medicine, while others stem from the type of patient population seen or the stigma associated with TB. Some physicians question whether or not patient "noncompliance" is in fact a barrier to TB management. Many family physicians believe that they have readily available to them the expert opinion needed to manage TB effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Some specific interventions, such as changes in TB guidelines, could overcome some of the obstacles identified. Differences among family physicians in the organization and nature of their practice, and in their understanding of their role in TB management, however, should be taken into account in developing interventions because such differences could influence both the need for, and receptivity to, any changes. PMID:9111981

Jackson, L.; Yuan, L.

1997-01-01

138

The development of guideline implementation tools: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Research shows that guidelines featuring implementation tools (GItools) are more likely to be used than those without GItools, however few guidelines offer GItools and guidance on developing GItools is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify common processes and considerations for developing GItools. Methods Interviews were conducted with developers of 4 types of GItools (implementation, patient engagement, point-of-care decision-making and evaluation) accompanying guidelines on various topics created in 2008 or later identified in the National Guideline Clearinghouse. Participants were asked to describe the GItool development process and related considerations. A descriptive qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze data. Results Interviews were conducted with 26 GItool developers in 9 countries. Participants largely agreed on 11 broad steps, each with several tasks and considerations. Response variations identified issues lacking uniform approaches that may require further research including timing of GItool development relative to guideline development; decisions about GItool type, format and content; and whether and how to engage stakeholders. Although developers possessed few dedicated resources, they relied on partnerships to develop, implement and evaluate GItools. Interpretation GItool developers employed fairly uniform and rigorous processes for developing GItools. By supporting GItool development, the GItool methods identified here may improve guideline implementation and use.

Brouwers, Melissa C.; Bhattacharyya, Onil K.

2015-01-01

139

Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain. PMID:22424384

Dugan Day, Michele

2012-01-01

140

Perceptions of childhood immunization in a minority community: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Design Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. Setting The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Main outcome measures Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. Results In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. Conclusions The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health. PMID:18463280

Henderson, Lesley; Millett, Christopher; Thorogood, Nicki

2008-01-01

141

Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

Krasner, Herb

1988-01-01

142

Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote timely antenatal care for all women. PMID:24935100

2014-01-01

143

The NHS health check programme in England: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Despite an extensive evidence-base linking patterns of health with social determinants, recent public health policy has emphasized 'lifestyle diseases' and risk factor modification through behavioural and pharmacological intervention. In England, one manifestation of this has been the launch of the National Health Service Health Check programme. This paper reports findings from a small-scale qualitative study exploring experiences of engaging with a community-based health check in Knowsley, England, among 17 males and 19 females, with varying levels of risk for cardiovascular disease, who agreed to be contacted for the purpose of research at the time they underwent their check. Analysis revealed that the community-based nature of the checks provided opportunities for people to find out more about their health who might not otherwise have done so. Participants expressed a range of responses to the communication of the risk score, often revealing their confusion about its meaning. Changes in behaviour were identified, which participants connected with having had a check. This study raises questions about where, how and by whom health checks are delivered. Emphasis on health checks reflects the dominant individualist ideology, but this study also suggests that the process provides opportunities to enable and empower individuals, albeit in small ways. However, they remain a 'downstream' approach to public health, emphasizing medical and behavioural options for risk factor reduction rather than focussing on primary prevention through changes to the wider environment. Furthermore, although developed as a central feature of the UK's strategy to reduce health inequalities, health checks may widen them. PMID:25073761

Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Alford, Simon; Cushing, Jill; Panter, Lee

2014-07-29

144

Informal hospice caregiver pain management concerns: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Informal, unpaid, family caregivers provide much hospice care in the United States. These caregivers suffer physically, psychologically, emotionally, and socially from the burden of caring. The most often identified area of caregiver burden is the management of end-of-life pain. However, little empirical evidence exists of effective interventions to help caregivers manage end-of-life pain, and issues surrounding caregiver pain management remain vague and undefined. Understanding these concerns will inform the design of effective caregiver interventions. Aim The purpose of this study was to describe and organize caregiver pain management challenges faced by home hospice caregivers of cancer patients. Design A content analysis of secondary data, namely, recordings of caregiver interviews, was conducted to describe pain management issues. These interviews were part of a larger clinical trial. Setting/participants Multiple sessions with 29 informal caregivers, of patients dying of cancer, were audio-recorded. Subjects were purposively selected from two hospice programs in the Northwestern United States. Caregivers of noncancer patients were excluded from the study sample. Results A framework of six major themes with subordinate subthemes was developed through a literature review and peer review. The framework was used to organize the content of 87 caregiver interviews. The six major themes identified in the analysis included Caregiver-Centric Issues, Caregiver Medication Skills and Knowledge Issues, End-of-Life Symptom Knowledge Issues, Communication and Teamwork Issues, Organizational Skill Issues, and Patient-Centric Issues. Conclusion This analysis clearly articulated and classified caregiver issues surrounding pain management. Future hospice research may benefit from the use of this analysis and framework in the development of tools to alleviate this major cause of caregiver burden. PMID:23612959

Kelley, Marjorie; Demiris, George; Nguyen, Huong; Oliver, Debra P; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

2014-01-01

145

Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

2009-01-01

146

Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

2012-01-01

147

Mothers' Response to Psychological Birth Trauma: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Psychologically traumatic events can affect anybody, but consequences of psychological birth trauma for the mother are very profound, extensive and unforgettable. Furthermore, the mother’s response not only touches the mother, but also affects the child, the father and the society. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers’ response to psychological birth trauma. Objectives Psychological birth trauma is a complex matter as the length of a women`s life and mother`s responds can be present through different psychological and physical ways. In this regard, the mothers suffer from its consequences, but they do not know what is going on? Mothers are getting worse every day by “the silent effects of the psychological phenomena”. Materials & Methods This qualitative study was conducted on 23 mothers with psychological birth trauma experience, who were recruited from health centers of the capital and one of the metropolises of Iran. Their interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the content analysis method. Results Three themes were extracted from the data: impact on health, changes in mother`s roles, and changes decision making ability. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data (physical and psychological problems, bonding with the child, relationship with husband, social role, cesarean request and psychological inability to have another child). Conclusions By considering the mothers` responses to traumatic labor, which endangers the health of the child as well as that of the mother and impairs their familial and social relationships, midwives should notice the consequences of psychological birth trauma in order to plan supportive and timely interventions. PMID:24693361

Taghizadeh, Ziba; Irajpour, Alireza; Arbabi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

148

Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people. PMID:24245830

2013-01-01

149

Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary support functions are available locally, especially for early stage clinician managers. PMID:23173953

2012-01-01

150

A qualitative study of college students' conceptions of rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored two research questions: (1) What are college students' conceptions of river topics and (2) What are the emergent patterns between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity? A basic interpretive qualitative research design was used. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 24 college students from an introductory geology class. In-depth interviews were conducted and a demographic questionnaire administered. Interview responses were analyzed using a modified version of constant comparative analysis. Between-gender patterns and between-ethnic group patterns of the type of conceptions held were investigated by calculating relative likelihood statistics. Four findings emerged. Finding 1: students held mostly scientific and incomplete scientific conceptions of the nine river topics covered in the study. Finding 2: students' conceptions were complex. In addition to scientific and alternative conceptions, students also held incomplete scientific, incomplete scientific-alternative, and scientific-alternative conceptions. Individual students held a range of conceptions across the river topics. For each topic, there was a range of conceptions held by students. Finding 3: students had more alternative conceptions for processes, causes, and difficult-to-observe features. Finding 4: patterns were observed between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity. Men held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did women. Women held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did men. White students held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did Hispanic students. Hispanic students held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did White students.

Sexton, Julie Marie

151

Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

2011-01-01

152

A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

Snyder, Catherine

2012-01-01

153

German imperialism in the ottoman empire: a comparative study  

E-print Network

Empire. Additionally, the chapter emphasizes the threat that the Egyptian ruler (although technically Egypt remained part of the Ottoman Empire) Mehemet Ali and the French expansion in North Africa posed to the continued existence of the Ottoman...

Illich, Niles Stefan

2008-10-10

154

German imperialism in the ottoman empire: a comparative study  

E-print Network

Empire. Additionally, the chapter emphasizes the threat that the Egyptian ruler (although technically Egypt remained part of the Ottoman Empire) Mehemet Ali and the French expansion in North Africa posed to the continued existence of the Ottoman...

Illich, Niles Stefan

2009-05-15

155

Stories from Frequent Attenders: A Qualitative Study in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Patients who make frequent office visits (frequent attenders) in primary care are often considered a major burden on resources, yet we know little about their perceptions and expectations. We wanted to explore how these patients viewed their rates of consultation, what they expected from the consultation, and how they perceived their relationship with the primary health care team. METHODS Using a qualitative study design, we undertook in-depth semi-structured interviews with frequent attenders at 4 primary care practices of the Mersey Primary Care R&D Consortium in the North West of England. Participants were identified on the basis of office visits at least twice the mean standardized rate for 1 year and a medical assessment that these visits had no important clinical outcome. Interviews with 30 patients aged 24 to 81 years (18 men) were audiotaped and transcribed, and the text was methodically coded; data were analyzed by generating common themes. RESULTS Participants were unable or unwilling to quantify their consultation rates. Despite the assertion by many participants that family doctors are caring, authority figures, there was an underlying tension between such perceptions and the apparent medical mismanagement of symptoms. Their expectations of the consultation were complex and included the presentation of old and new symptoms implicitly embedded within an illness framework. Gaining access to family doctors was generally perceived as problematic. CONCLUSION The criteria held by family doctors and researchers regarding the appropriate rate of consultations in primary care may not be shared by patients who attend frequently. Such patients require family doctors to acknowledge their symptoms and to provide reassurance PMID:16046564

Hodgson, Paula; Smith, Patricia; Brown, Trish; Dowrick, Christopher

2005-01-01

156

Patient experiences of MR colonography and colonoscopy: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to apply qualitative techniques to assimilate data on patient experience and attitudes during MR colonography (MRC) and colonoscopy (CC). Methods 18 patients (11 male, 8 female, median age 40.5 years), 10 of whom had known colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 8 who were under investigation for suspected colonic neoplasia (non-IBD), underwent MRC and conventional CC. Semi-structured interviews were performed to assimilate test experiences and preferences, and themes were extracted using thematic analysis. Results Thematic analysis identified three main themes: (i) physical experience, (ii) information provision and (iii) overall preference. Patients expressed mixed views about the physical experience of MRC but specifically identified water filling, breath holding and lying still as problematic. Anxiety was expressed regarding potential incontinence. Scanner noise interfered with the understanding of instructions, particularly amongst non-IBD patients. Non-IBD patients expressed greater anxiety over the delay in receiving the MRC report than IBD patients. In general MRI was considered as the more informative and safer investigation. Patients reported more physical discomfort during CC (notably IBD patients) related to air insufflation and colonoscopic manipulation but were more satisfied with the feedback they received. 10 patients (56%) stated an overall preference for MRC and 5 (28%) preferred CC. Reasons for preferences stated by the patients included discomfort, speed of the test, safety, perceived diagnostic ability and the ability to take biopsies. Conclusion Experiences of MRC and CC are complex and influenced by clinical indication. Individuals place different weightings on the relative importance of test attributes including discomfort, noise, immobility, feedback, safety and fear of incontinence and this defines overall preference. PMID:22010031

Hafeez, R; Wagner, C V; Smith, S; Boulos, P; Halligan, S; Bloom, S; Taylor, S A

2012-01-01

157

The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical’s equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program’s functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education. PMID:25610819

Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

2014-01-01

158

An empirical approach to the study of blanketing type Es  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of analysis of blanketing Es data, based on an empirical formula proposed by Smith (1957), is outlined and it is shown that fbEs data can be fitted well by the empirical formula. The empirical method of analysis can provide information on occurrence frequency of Es- layers with fbEs less than foE. Results obtained from empirical analysis of data

J. O. Oyinloye

1973-01-01

159

Family therapy sessions with refugee families; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the armed conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s many families escaped to other countries. The main goal of this study was to explore in more detail the complexity of various family members’ experiences and perceptions from their life before the war, during the war and the escape, and during their new life in Sweden. There is insufficient knowledge of refugee families’ perceptions, experiences and needs, and especially of the complexity of family perspectives and family systems. This study focused on three families from Bosnia and Herzegovina who came to Sweden and were granted permanent residence permits. The families had at least one child between 5 and 12 years old. Method Family therapy sessions were videotaped and verbatim transcriptions were made. Nine family therapy sessions were analysed using a qualitative method with directed content analysis. Results Three main categories and ten subcategories were found - 1. Everyday life at home, with two subcategories: The family, Work and School/preschool; 2. The influence of war on everyday life, with three subcategories: The war, The escape, Reflections; 3. The new life, with five subcategories: Employment, Health, Relatives and friends, Limited future, Transition to the new life. Conclusions Health care and social welfare professionals need to find out what kind of lives refugee families have lived before coming to a new country, in order to determine individual needs of support. In this study the families had lived ordinary lives in their country of origin, and after experiencing a war situation they escaped to a new country and started a new life. They had thoughts of a limited future but also hopes of getting jobs and taking care of themselves and their families. When analysing each person’s point of view one must seek an all-embracing picture of a family and its complexity to tie together the family narrative. To offer refugee families meetings with family-oriented professionals to provide the opportunity to create a family narrative is recommended for the health and social welfare sector. Using this knowledge by emphasizing the salutogenic perspectives facilitates support to refugee families and individuals. This kind of support can help refugee families to adapt to a new system of society and recapture a sense of coherence, including all three components that lead to coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. More studies are needed to further investigate the thoughts, experiences and needs of various refugee families and how refugee receiving societies can give the most effective support. PMID:23537380

2013-01-01

160

Moral Responsiveness and Discontinuity in Therapy: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenological qualitative methods were used to identify and describe moral elements in therapeutic relationships. Using the relational philosophy of E. Levinas (1961/1969, 1979/1987) as a base, data in which therapists and clients identified and described morally responsive experiences in therapy sessions were analyzed. These moments were often…

Whiting, Jason B.; Nebeker, R. Scott; Fife, Stephen T.

2005-01-01

161

Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

2011-01-01

162

First insights into export sales forecasting practice: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on forecasting makes hardly any distinction between domestic and export sales forecasting. Based on in-depth interviews with exporting firms, suggests that companies face additional problems when preparing export sales forecasts compared to forecasts for the domestic market. More specifically, using a qualitative data analysis methodology, offers insights into actual export sales forecasting practices and forecast performance. Also links

H. Winklhofer; A. Diamantopoulos

1996-01-01

163

A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. METHODS: All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish

Kathleen Ann McKibbon; Cynthia S Gadd

2004-01-01

164

Listening to mothers: qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little qualitative research on depression in motherhood from non-Western societies. The objective of the study described in this paper was to use qualitative methods to investigate the cultural validity of the construct of post-natal depression (PND) and its social and cultural contexts. The study was nested in a cohort of mothers recruited to study the risk factors and

Merlyn Rodrigues; Vikram Patel; Surinder Jaswal; Nandita de Souza

2003-01-01

165

Unstated factors in orthopaedic decision-making: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Total joint replacement (TJR) of the hip or knee for osteoarthritis is among the most common elective surgical procedures. There is some inequity in provision of TJR. How decisions are made about who will have surgery may contribute to disparities in provision. The model of shared decision-making between patients and clinicians is advocated as an ideal by national bodies and guidelines. However, we do not know what happens within orthopaedic practice and whether this reflects the shared model. Our study examined how decisions are made about TJR in orthopaedic consultations. Methods The study used a qualitative research design comprising semi-structured interviews and observations. Participants were recruited from three hospital sites and provided their time free of charge. Seven clinicians involved in decision-making about TJR were approached to take part in the study, and six agreed to do so. Seventy-seven patients due to see these clinicians about TJR were approached to take part and 26 agreed to do so. The patients' outpatient appointments ('consultations') were observed and audio-recorded. Subsequent interviews with patients and clinicians examined decisions that were made at the appointments. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Clinical and lifestyle factors were central components of the decision-making process. In addition, the roles that patients assigned to clinicians were key, as were communication styles. Patients saw clinicians as occupying expert roles and they deferred to clinicians' expertise. There was evidence that patients modified their behaviour within consultations to complement that of clinicians. Clinicians acknowledged the complexity of decision-making and provided descriptions of their own decision-making and communication styles. Patients and clinicians were aware of the use of clinical and lifestyle factors in decision-making and agreed in their description of clinicians' styles. Decisions were usually reached during consultations, but patients and clinicians sometimes said that treatment decisions had been made beforehand. Some patients expressed surprise about the decisions made in their consultations, but this did not necessarily imply dissatisfaction. Conclusions The way in which roles and communication are played out in decision-making for TJR may affect the opportunity for shared decisions. This may contribute to variation in the provision of TJR. Making the importance of these factors explicit and highlighting the existence of patients' 'surprise' about consultation outcomes could empower patients within the decision-making process and enhance communication in orthopaedic consultations. PMID:20849636

2010-01-01

166

Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

2004-01-01

167

Developing a change model for peer worker interventions in mental health services: a qualitative research study.  

PubMed

Aims. A range of peer worker roles are being introduced into mental health services internationally. There is some evidence that attests to the benefits of peer workers for the people they support but formal trial evidence in inconclusive, in part because the change model underpinning peer support-based interventions is underdeveloped. Complex intervention evaluation guidance suggests that understandings of how an intervention is associated with change in outcomes should be modelled, theoretically and empirically, before the intervention can be robustly evaluated. This paper aims to model the change mechanisms underlying peer worker interventions. Methods. In a qualitative, comparative case study of ten peer worker initiatives in statutory and voluntary sector mental health services in England in-depth interviews were carried out with 71 peer workers, service users, staff and managers, exploring their experiences of peer working. Using a Grounded Theory approach we identified core processes within the peer worker role that were productive of change for service users supported by peer workers. Results. Key change mechanisms were: (i) building trusting relationships based on shared lived experience; (ii) role-modelling individual recovery and living well with mental health problems; (iii) engaging service users with mental health services and the community. Mechanisms could be further explained by theoretical literature on role-modelling and relationship in mental health services. We were able to model process and downstream outcomes potentially associated with peer worker interventions. Conclusions. An empirically and theoretically grounded change model can be articulated that usefully informs the development, evaluation and planning of peer worker interventions. PMID:24992284

Gillard, S; Gibson, S L; Holley, J; Lucock, M

2014-07-01

168

Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.  

PubMed

Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ. PMID:20103848

Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

2009-12-01

169

Ethical issues in public health: a qualitative study of public health practice in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To identify ethical issues encountered by staff in the development and implementation of public health activities at two sites in Scotland. Design: Qualitative research study involving face to face semi-structured interviews with participants. Setting: A public health directorate in a National Health Service Trust, and a public health demonstration project in child health. Participants: Health promotion specialists, managers, nurses, public health consultants and specialists, researchers, trainees, and other public health staff. Main results: Three main categories of ethical issues were identified: paternalism, responsibilities, and ethical decision making. Consulting with the community and sharing information raised issues of paternalism and honesty. Participants identified multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities. Barriers to fulfilling responsibilities included meeting targets, working with partners, and political influences. Defining the limits of responsibilities posed challenges. Participants identified values for ideal decision making, but lack of time often led to a more pragmatic approach. Conclusion: These empirical findings complement and extend existing discussions of public health ethics, emphasising the complex nature of ethical issues in public health. The implications for public health policy and future research are discussed. PMID:15143108

Rogers, W

2004-01-01

170

EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts' authority as a pillar of EBM could be challenged by the emergence of new kinds of EBM texts and experts to believe in. PMID:21827662

2011-01-01

171

Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions Poor and good health influence early retirement via several different pathways. To prolong working life, a dialogue between employers and employees and tailored work-related interventions may be helpful. PMID:23551994

2013-01-01

172

A qualitative and quantitative study of coronary artery MRA.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose an analysis of the coronary arterial tree obtained through magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Ten datasets of the state-of-the-art SSFP MRI sequence are first qualitatively evaluated and labelled. Second, a quantitative analysis of anatomical and image features is performed. Finally, a comparison with an existing semi-automatic centreline extraction method is reported. The discussion deals with the clinical usage of such an imaging modality for both global anatomy visualisation and quantification purpose. PMID:21097327

Velut, Jérôme; Lentz, Pierre-Axel; Philipot, Clément; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Toumoulin, Christine

2010-01-01

173

A qualitative and quantitative study of coronary artery MRA  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we propose an analysis of the coronary arterial tree obtained through magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Ten datasets of the state-of-the-art SSFP MRI sequence are first qualitatively evaluated and labelled. Second, a quantitative analysis of anatomical and image features is performed. Finally, a comparison with an existing semi-automatic centreline extraction method is reported. The discussion deals with the clinical usage of such an imaging modality for both global anatomy visualisation and quantification purpose. PMID:21097327

Velut, Jerome; Lentz, Pierre-Axel; Philipot, Clement; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Toumoulin, Christine

2010-01-01

174

Weight maintenance and relapse in obesity: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate, among women with obesity who have lost weight, the psychological factors associated with successfully maintaining the new lower weight, as opposed to weight regain.DESIGN: Qualitative research methods (in-depth individual interviews and group interviews) were used to assess the characteristics of successful weight maintainers, as compared with weight regainers and healthy-weight women.SUBJECTS: In all, 76 females were recruited

S Byrne; Z Cooper; C Fairburn

2003-01-01

175

Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

2012-01-01

176

Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: the necessity to develop a specific guideline  

PubMed Central

Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers’ role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers’ potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged. PMID:25512833

Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

177

Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

Groth, Randall E.

2010-01-01

178

Study design in qualitative research--1: Developing questions and assessing resource needs.  

PubMed

This is the second in a series of four papers on understanding and doing qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Devers & Frankel (2000) Study design in qualitative research--2: sampling and data collection strategies, Education for Health, 13, 263-271]. Here, we focus on problems of study design, including question development, literature review, identifying a target audience and resource needs assessment. We provide a step-by-step description of major issues and choice points in the process. There are three key differences between qualitative and quantitative research designs. First, the logic of qualitative research is often inductive, rather than deductive, and consists of describing people's and groups' particular situations, meanings and experiences. Second, qualitative research designs are often emergent and flexible, and the research itself is quite dynamic. Third, the qualitative research process is non-linear and non-sequential. There is agreement that good qualitative studies answer clearly stated, important research questions. How qualitative research questions are formulated has implications for conducting a literature review. Some scholars believe that literature should be reviewed prior to beginning a study; others argue that this may impede the researcher from truly listening, observing and remaining open to new concepts and ideas. We offer suggestions about formulating research questions and how and when to conduct a literature review. Another important issue in conducting qualitative research is determining the resources that will be needed to conduct a study. These include internal resources, such as research skills, and external resources, such as personnel (expertise and time), equipment, supplies and travel. A description of typical resource and management issues in conducting a qualitative research study is included. PMID:14742087

Frankel, R M; Devers, K J

2000-01-01

179

Study design in qualitative research--2: Sampling and data collection strategies.  

PubMed

In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results. PMID:14742088

Devers, K J; Frankel, R M

2000-01-01

180

The Beach Study: An Empirical Analysis of the Distribution of Coastal Property Values  

E-print Network

165 The Beach Study: An Empirical Analysis of the Distribution of Coastal Property Values empirical evidence suggests that coastal properties, and particularly those proximate to a beach, have empirical evidence suggests that coastal properties, and particularly those proximate to a beach, have

Omiecinski, Curtis

181

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

2010-06-01

182

Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

2012-01-01

183

The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve: a Case Study for Qualitative Modeling of Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

We present progress towards developing a qualitative reasoning model of sustainable developmentThe Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve: a Case Study for Qualitative Modeling of Sustainable's Strategy for Sustainable Development (SSD) that call for increasing participation in the process of making

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

184

Attitudes of Roma toward Smoking: Qualitative Study in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Aim To understand the reasons for widespread smoking behavior among Roma in Slovenia for the purpose of developing successful smoking cessation interventions. Method A qualitative focus group approach using a combination of pre-structured and open-ended questions was applied to collect the data from the representative members of the Roma community in southern Slovenia. The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and the collected data analyzed according to qualitative content analysis theory. Results The content analysis revealed that smoking was a strong part of the cultural, ethnic, and individual identity of the Roma. Even children smoked. Doctor’s advice to quit smoking was usually not followed and the attempts to quit were usually unsuccessful. Difficult financial situation was never mentioned as a possible motive to quit. Roma held a tenacious belief that the harmful effects of smoking were in the hands of destiny and did not associate the smoking-related illness with the habit. Conclusions Traditional strategies for smoking cessation are largely ineffective among the Roma because of their different attitudes toward smoking. Therefore, innovative and culturally acceptable methods need to be developed. PMID:16625703

Petek, Davorina; Rotar Pavli?, Danica; Švab, Igor; Loli?, Damir

2006-01-01

185

Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach

Karen Daniels; Simon Lewin

2008-01-01

186

Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. METHODS: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Structural facilitators

Alicia O'Cathain; Jon Nicholl; Elizabeth Murphy

2009-01-01

187

Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about social learning in animals. The last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.

BENNETT G. GALEF JR. and KEVIN N. LALAND (; )

2005-06-01

188

Transition mixing study empirical model report, September 1986-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

1988-02-01

189

Responsibility and Collaboration Empirical Studies of Corporate Social Responsibility in  

E-print Network

of stakeholder engagement, such as partnership, dialogue or multi-stakeholder initiatives. The results indicated! Research Design and Methods 23! 2.1! The Empirical Setting 24! 2.1.1! Sweden as Geographical Context 24! 2

190

Setting healthcare priorities in hospitals: a review of empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Priority setting research has focused on the macro (national) and micro (bedside) level, leaving the meso (institutional, hospital) level relatively neglected. This is surprising given the key role that hospitals play in the delivery of healthcare services and the large proportion of health systems resources that they absorb. To explore the factors that impact upon priority setting at the hospital level, we conducted a thematic review of empirical studies. A systematic search of PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Econlit databases and Google scholar was supplemented by a search of key websites and a manual search of relevant papers’ reference lists. A total of 24 papers were identified from developed and developing countries. We applied a policy analysis framework to examine and synthesize the findings of the selected papers. Findings suggest that priority setting practice in hospitals was influenced by (1) contextual factors such as decision space, resource availability, financing arrangements, availability and use of information, organizational culture and leadership, (2) priority setting processes that depend on the type of priority setting activity, (3) content factors such as priority setting criteria and (4) actors, their interests and power relations. We observe that there is need for studies to examine these issues and the interplay between them in greater depth and propose a conceptual framework that might be useful in examining priority setting practices in hospitals. PMID:24604831

Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

2015-01-01

191

Qualitative study of influences on food store choice.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (three African-American and two Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques-content analysis and constant comparison-were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, non-food merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

Krukowski, Rebecca A; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

2012-10-01

192

Qualitative study of influences on food store choice  

PubMed Central

Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

2012-01-01

193

Qualitative study of employment of physician assistants by physicians  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore the experiences and perceptions of Ontario physician assistant (PA) employers about the barriers to and benefits of hiring PAs. Design A qualitative design using semistructured interviews. Setting Rural and urban eastern and southwestern Ontario. Participants Seven family physicians and 7 other specialists. Methods The 14 physicians participated in semistructured interviews, which were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Main findings Physician-specific benefits to hiring PAs included increased flexibility, the opportunity to expand practice, the ability to focus more time on complex patients, overall reduction in work hours and stress, and an opportunity for professional fellowship. Physicians who hired PAs without government financial support said PAs were affordable as long as they were able to retain them. Barriers to hiring PAs included uncertainty about funding, the initial need for intensive supervision and training, and a lack of clarity around delegation of acts. Conclusion Physicians are motivated to hire PAs to help deal with long wait times and long hours, but few are expecting to increase their income by taking on PAs. Governments, medical colleges, educators, and regulators must address the perceived barriers to PA hiring in order to expand and optimize this profession. PMID:24235209

Taylor, Maureen T.; Wayne Taylor, D.; Burrows, Kristen; Cunnington, John; Lombardi, Andrea; Liou, Michelle

2013-01-01

194

A qualitative study of physicians' engagement in reducing healthcare disparities.  

PubMed Central

Despite calls for physician engagement to reduce disparities, little is known about what drives physicians to become engaged or what engaged physicians are doing. We conducted in-depth interviews with a group of highly engaged physicians and used qualitative methods to identify how these physicians became interested in alleviating healthcare disparities and what strategies they use to improve care for their minority patients. We found that most participants have experienced being a minority, though only half were racial minorities, and many related extensive childhood experiences with minorities. Participants identified several key barriers to quality care for minorities, including language barriers, resource limitations, lack of patient education and low patient empowerment. When asked how physicians can reduce health disparities, most subjects emphasized interpersonal respect, though some promising non-interpersonal approaches to reducing disparities were also identified. These interviews document the lived experiences of a group of physicians who are highly engaged in reducing disparities and suggest that connecting with experiences as a minority and other early life experiences can prompt later professional engagement in this important issue. PMID:18229768

Vanderbilt, Susanne K.; Wynia, Matthew K.; Gadon, Margaret; Alexander, G. Caleb

2007-01-01

195

A qualitative case study of the impact of socio-cultural factors on prominent Turkish writers  

E-print Network

, creative processes and products by highly creative Turkish writers, and socio-cultural factors that influenced the development of their creativity. The qualitative case study was used and interviews with four participants, or cases, shed light onto...

Gunersel, Adalet Baris

2009-05-15

196

Early palliative care in advanced lung cancer: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Early ambulatory palliative care (PC) is an emerging practice, and its key elements have not been defined. We conducted a qualitative analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated improved quality of life, mood, and survival in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received early PC integrated with standard oncologic care vs standard oncologic care alone. Our objectives were to (1) identify key elements of early PC clinic visits, (2) explore the timing of key elements, and (3) compare the content of PC and oncologic visit notes at the critical time points of clinical deterioration and radiographic disease progression. METHODS We randomly selected 20 patients who received early PC and survived within 4 periods: less than 3 months (n = 5), 3 to 6 months (n = 5), 6 to 12 months (n = 5), and 12 to 24 months (n = 5). We performed content analysis on PC and oncologic visit notes from the electronic health records of these patients. RESULTS Addressing symptoms and coping were the most prevalent components of the PC clinic visits. Initial visits focused on building relationships and rapport with patients and their families and on illness understanding, including prognostic awareness. Discussions about resuscitation preferences and hospice predominantly occurred during later visits. Comparing PC and oncologic care visits around critical time points, both included discussions about symptoms and illness status; however, PC visits emphasized psychosocial elements, such as coping, whereas oncologic care visits focused on cancer treatment and management of medical complications. CONCLUSIONS Early PC clinic visits emphasize managing symptoms, strengthening coping, and cultivating illness understanding and prognostic awareness in a responsive and time-sensitive model. During critical clinical time points, PC and oncologic care visits have distinct features that suggest a key role for PC involvement and enable oncologists to focus on cancer treatment and managing medical complications. PMID:23358690

Yoong, Jaclyn; Park, Elyse R; Greer, Joseph A; Jackson, Vicki A; Gallagher, Emily R; Pirl, William F; Back, Anthony L; Temel, Jennifer S

2013-02-25

197

Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ?65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ?65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines, policy should be better translated into high vaccination rates through evidence-based implementation approaches. PMID:25490542

Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

2014-01-01

198

Imbalanced learning for pattern recognition: an empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imbalanced learning problem (learning from imbalanced data) presents a significant new challenge to the pattern recognition and machine learning society because in most instances real-world data is imbalanced. When considering military applications, the imbalanced learning problem becomes much more critical because such skewed distributions normally carry the most interesting and critical information. This critical information is necessary to support the decision-making process in battlefield scenarios, such as anomaly or intrusion detection. The fundamental issue with imbalanced learning is the ability of imbalanced data to compromise the performance of standard learning algorithms, which assume balanced class distributions or equal misclassification penalty costs. Therefore, when presented with complex imbalanced data sets these algorithms may not be able to properly represent the distributive characteristics of the data. In this paper we present an empirical study of several popular imbalanced learning algorithms on an army relevant data set. Specifically we will conduct various experiments with SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique), ADASYN (Adaptive Synthetic Sampling), SMOTEBoost (Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling in Boosting), and AdaCost (Misclassification Cost-Sensitive Boosting method) schemes. Detailed experimental settings and simulation results are presented in this work, and a brief discussion of future research opportunities/challenges is also presented.

He, Haibo; Chen, Sheng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi; Quoraishee, Shafik

2010-10-01

199

Empirical study on assortativity in some collaboration networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We (and cooperators) have suggested extending the conception collaboration network to some non-social networks, which have structures as sets of completed graphs [1]. In this view of point, we may divide practical networks into four groups: a) social collaboration networks, b) social non-collaboration networks, c) non-social collaboration networks, and d) non-social non-collaboration networks. We have done an empirical study on assortativity in some practical networks, which belong to the four groups. The results show that all the networks of a) and b) groups show positive assortativity, all the networks of d) group show negative assortativity. This is in agreement with the conclusion obtained by Newman [2]. However, for some of the networks belonging to group c), we obtained positive assortativity, but obtained negative one for other networks belonging to the same group. The details will be published elsewhere. Now we are trying to find the difference in the structure properties of these networks, which may be responsible for different sign of assortativity. [1] P-P Zhang, K. Chen et al., to appear on Physica A. [2] M. E. J. Newman, PRE 67, 026126 (2003).

Su, Bei-Bei; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

2006-03-01

200

Why clinicians do not implement integrated treatment for comorbid substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare providers working in addiction facilities do not often implement integrated treatment of comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while there is empirical evidence to do so. Objective This study aims to get insight into the views of clinicians with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in SUD patients. Method A qualitative research method was chosen. Fourteen treatment staff members of different wards of an addiction care facility were interviewed by an independent interviewer. Results Despite acknowledging adverse consequences of trauma exposure on SUD, severe underdiagnosis of PTSD was mentioned and treatment of PTSD during SUD treatment was not supported. Obstacles related to the underestimation of PTSD among SUD patients and to the perceptions of SUD clinicians concerning the treatment of comorbid SUD/PTSD were reported. Conclusions It is concluded that SUD facilities should train their clinicians to enable them to provide for integrated treatment of SUD/PTSD. PMID:24511368

Gielen, Nele; Krumeich, Anja; Havermans, Remco C.; Smeets, Feikje; Jansen, Anita

2014-01-01

201

Older Adults' Perceptions of Mobility: A Metasynthesis of Qualitative Studies.  

PubMed

Purpose of the Study: Optimal mobility is an important element of healthy aging. Yet, older adults' perceptions of mobility and mobility preservation are not well understood. The purposes of our study were to (a) identify studies that report older adults' perceptions of mobility, (b) conduct a standardized methodological quality assessment, and (c) conduct a metasynthesis of the identified studies. PMID:24637252

Goins, R Turner; Jones, Jacqueline; Schure, Marc; Rosenberg, Dori E; Phelan, Elizabeth A; Dodson, Sherry; Jones, Dina L

2014-03-17

202

Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships Among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and\\u000a relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were\\u000a conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified\\u000a 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a)

Terri N. SullivanElizabeth; Elizabeth H. Erwin; Sarah W. Helms; Saba W. Masho; Albert D. Farrell

2010-01-01

203

Asymptotic Scenarios for the Proton's Central Opacity: An Empirical Study  

E-print Network

We present a model-independent analysis of the experimental data on the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross-sections from $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Using a novel empirical parametrization for that ratio as a function of the energy and based on theoretical and empirical arguments, we investigate three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the black-disk (BD) limit or scenarios above and below that limit. Our analysis favors a scenario below the BD, with asymptotic ratio $X = 0.36 \\pm 0.08$.

Fagundes, D A; Silva, P V R G

2014-01-01

204

Asymptotic Scenarios for the Proton's Central Opacity: An Empirical Study  

E-print Network

We present a model-independent analysis of the experimental data on the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross-sections from $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Using a novel empirical parametrization for that ratio as a function of the energy and based on theoretical and empirical arguments, we investigate three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the black-disk (BD) limit or scenarios above and below that limit. Our analysis favors a scenario below the BD, with asymptotic ratio $X = 0.36 \\pm 0.08$.

D. A. Fagundes; M. J. Menon; P. V. R. G. Silva

2014-10-19

205

Recruitment to Intellectual Disability Research: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…

Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.

2013-01-01

206

An Empirical Study of Hoeffding Racing for Model Selection in k-Nearest Neighbor Classification  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Hoeffding Racing for Model Selection in k-Nearest Neighbor Classification University of Queensland, 4072, Australia {flora,marcusg}@itee.uq.edu.au Abstract. Racing algorithms have algorithms. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the Hoeffding racing algorithm for selecting

Gallagher, Marcus

207

INFO4990: Empirical Evaluation A case study in IR and NLP  

E-print Network

INFO4990: Empirical Evaluation A case study in IR and NLP James R. Curran School of Information in IR and NLP INFO4990 14/4/2008 #12;Motivation Metrics Methodology Mistakes 3 Have we solved our there are trade-offs to consider James Curran Empirical Evaluation: A Case study in IR and NLP INFO4990 14

Koprinska, Irena

208

Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review Tore Dyba *, Torgeir Dingsyr  

E-print Network

Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review Tore Dyba° *, Torgeir Dingsøyr form 22 January 2008; accepted 24 January 2008 Available online 2 February 2008 Abstract Agile software. A system- atic review of empirical studies of agile software development up to and including 2005

209

An empirical Internet traffic study J. Aracil, R. Edell, P. Varaiya  

E-print Network

Introduction This study is part of a growing body of empirical work on wide area Internet traffic. The mainAn empirical Internet traffic study J. Aracil, R. Edell, P. Varaiya Dept. Electrical Engineering diversity of use offers opportunities to reduce bandwidth by traffic shaping and shifting. Second

Varaiya, Pravin

210

Determinants of internet advertising effectiveness: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the structure of advertising effectiveness on the internet. It investigates empirically the importance of creative and media factors for banner effectiveness. Econometric modelling of actual data on banner ads demonstrates that creative factors such as banner size, animation, message length and logos, as well as media factors such as campaign length, number of host websites, use of

George Baltas

2003-01-01

211

Philosophy of science: an empirical study of teachers' views  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical survey of science teachers’ views about scientific knowledge from a philosophical?epistemological perspective was carried out by means of a questionnaire specially developed for the purpose. The themes investigated were views concerning the nature of scientific method, the criteria of demarcation of science from non?science, the nature of change in scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Individuals

Vasilios Koulaidis; Jon Ogborn

1989-01-01

212

An empirical study of smoothing techniques for language modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the most widely-used algorithms for smoothing models for language n -gram modeling. We then present an extensive empirical comparison of several of these smoothing techniques, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980); Katz (1987); Bell, Cleary and Witten (1990); Ney, Essen and Kneser (1994), and Kneser and Ney (1995). We investigate how factors such as training data

Stanley F. Chen; Joshua Goodman

1999-01-01

213

Prescription loyalty behavior of physicians: an empirical study in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to empirically identify the major factors that influence physician loyalty behavior in prescribing certain brands of drugs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Testable hypotheses were developed with respect to physician loyalty behavior regarding drug prescription practices, and a survey questionnaire was designed to capture the data from 71 physicians, as a convenience sample. The hypotheses were tested by

Kareem Abdul Waheed; Mohammad Jaleel; Mohammed Laeequddin

2011-01-01

214

An empirical study of context in object detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical evaluation of the role of context in a contemporary, challenging object detection task - the PASCAL VOC 2008. Previous experiments with con- text have mostly been done on home-grown datasets, often with non-standard baselines, making it difficult to isolate the contribution of contextual information. In this work, we present our analysis on a standard dataset,

Santosh Kumar Divvala; Derek Hoiem; James Hays; Alexei A. Efros; Martial Hebert

2009-01-01

215

Employer branding in IT\\/ITES units - an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers believe that Employer branding may be the most powerful tool a business can use to emotionally engage employees, maintain and retain the talented. It is essential to accurately measure whether the organization's values, systems, policies and behaviors work towards the objectives of attracting, motivating and retaining current and potential employees. This paper envisages examining empirically the Employer brand status

P. Vaijayanthi; K. A. Shreenivasan

2011-01-01

216

An Empirical Study of Global Software Development: Distance and Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global software development is rapidly becoming the norm for technology companies. Previous qualitative research suggests that multi-site development may increase development cycle time. We use both survey data and data from the source code change management system to model the extent of delay in a multi-site software development organization, and explore several possible mechanisms for this delay. We also measure

James D. Herbsleb; Audris Mockus; Thomas A. Finholt; Rebecca E. Grinter

2001-01-01

217

Heritage Learners of Mexican Descent in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study of Past and Present Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a qualitative interpretive study that explores the past and present experiences of heritage learners (HLs) of Mexican descent who were studying or had recently studied advanced Spanish in institutions of higher education. All of the participants had been exposed to Spanish in the home and began their studies in elementary or middle school…

Gignoux, Alicia

2009-01-01

218

Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study

Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

2011-01-01

219

Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

2014-01-01

220

Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. METHODS: The study was conducted during a

Marcello Tamburini; Laura Gangeri; Cinzia Brunelli; Paolo Boeri; Claudia Borreani; Marco Bosisio; Claude Fusco Karmann; Margherita Greco; Guido Miccinesi; Luciana Murru; Patrizia Trimigno

2003-01-01

221

A Qualitative Critique of Teacher Labor Market Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a case study methodology, the researchers attempt to discover the situational context of the teacher labor force in the southeast U.S. The study emphasizes significant variables in the present teacher labor market, including (1) recruitment; (2) mobility patterns; (3) desirable characteristics; (4) expectations, lifestyles, and attrition;…

Berry, Barnett; And Others

1985-01-01

222

Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon – particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion – are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured interviews with 23 women who had recently experienced an unintended pregnancy. The study participants were recruited using the purposive sampling method. Sampling started in March 2013 and continued until reaching data saturation, i.e. till August 2013. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection. MAXQDA 10.0 software was employed for managing the study data. Results: The study data analysis process yielded the formation of three main themes including negative effects of unintended pregnancy on daily life, fear of being stigmatized with violating social norms, and abortion panic, which in turn constituted the broader overarching theme of “threat supposition.” In other words, following an unintended pregnancy, the study participants had experienced different levels of fear and threat depending on their personal, family, and socio-cultural backgrounds. Conclusions: Women perceive unintended pregnancy as a challenging and threatening situation. An unintended pregnancy can threaten women's lives through social deprivations, growing instability, and putting both mother and baby at risk for physical and psychosocial problems. On the other hand, an unsafe illegal abortion could have potentially life-threatening complications. To cope with such a situation, women need strong social support. Healthcare providers can fulfill such women's need for support by developing pre-abortion counseling services and providing them with professional counseling. Also, strengthening women's support system by policy-makers is recommended.

Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

2015-01-01

223

Qualitative and quantitative studies of eosinophils in parasitic infections.  

PubMed

Th2 responses such as peripheral and tissue eosinophilia are characteristic features in the host animals infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and Trichinella spiralis. Th2 responses are characterized by a specific profile of cytokines and chemokines induced during the course of infection. In this chapter, we describe the methodology that is utilized in our laboratories to study the production of cytokine, chemokine, and antibodies related to the eosinophilia seen in mice infected with the parasites. Furthermore, protocols are described for the different methods used to study eosinophil functions in the blood and tissues of these experimental models of parasitic infections. PMID:24986619

Korenaga, Masataka; Bruschi, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

224

Obesity Prevention Opinions of School Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…

Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2010-01-01

225

Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

Johnson, Megan Patricia

2011-01-01

226

Factors Affecting Employment Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To examine factors that differentiated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) who returned to work from those who did not. Participants: Six employed persons with SCI matched with 6 unemployed persons with SCI on the basis of education, race, age, gender, time since injury, and level of function. Study Design: Semi-structured interviews 1 to 2 hr in length

Martha H. Chapin; Donald G. Kewman

2001-01-01

227

Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. METHODS: This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a

Louise N Burgoyne; Catherine Woods; Rosarie Coleman; Ivan J Perry

2008-01-01

228

A Qualitative Study of TAFE Students Exit from TAFE Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional researchers have undertaken many studies of student attrition in the past but mainly focusing on the quantitative dimensions. No doubt it is important for institutions to be aware of their attrition rates and how this may vary by demographic and other variables in order to develop strategies to minimise drop out rates and thereby reduce downward pressures on income

C. Buchanan; RAJ SHARMA

229

Adolescent boys with sickle cell disease: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickle cell disease is a recessively inherited blood disorder associated primarily with black communities within the UK. This study investigated the experiences of adolescent boys with this condition. Eight participants were interviewed and their responses analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The emergent themes were watchfulness, holding onto normality, and connecting and disengaging. This analysis illustrated connections between physical symptoms, emotional

Ruth Erskine

2012-01-01

230

Information Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although increasingly recognized as a future skills issue, the use of information in the workplace is a little studied area within library and information research. A substantial "pedagogic" literature of learning in the workplace exists, however, and this was critically reviewed to generate a repertoire of issues which could in turn be used to…

Crawford, John; Irving, Christine

2009-01-01

231

Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

2009-01-01

232

Online Faculty Perceptions on Effective Faculty Mentoring: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When higher education leaders give little thought or offer little mentoring to their faculty members, there is risk of driving faculty members from teaching online and of them having a poor experience in online teaching. Without mentoring support, faculty members may feel disconnected and unsupported. The purpose of the study was to examine the…

Williams, Teresa; Layne, Melissa; Ice, Phil

2014-01-01

233

Reasons for discharges against medical advice: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is limited information in the literature about reasons for discharges against medical advice (DAMA) as supplied by patients and providers. Information about the reasons for DAMA is necessary for identifying workable strategies to reduce the likelihood and health consequences of DAMA. The objective of this study is to identify the reasons for DAMA based on patient and multicategory provider

Eberechukwu Onukwugha; Elijah Saunders; C Daniel Mullins; Françoise G Pradel; Marni Zuckerman; Matthew R Weir

2010-01-01

234

Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

2011-01-01

235

Entrepreneurial Community College Presidents: An Exploratory Qualitative and Quantitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the entrepreneurial, nontraditional fundraising behaviors and activities of 23 community college presidents using interview and survey data. The institutional characteristics that facilitate entrepreneurial action and how presidents are raising these new revenues were explored. "Best practices" and implications for future…

Esters, Lorenzo L.; McPhail, Christine Johnson; Singh, Robert P.; Sygielski, John J.

2008-01-01

236

Barriers to adherence with glaucoma medications: a qualitative research study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeGlaucoma is initially asymptomatic, but untreated can result in progressive visual field loss and eventual blindness. With adequate therapy progression can be halted, but poor adherence with medical therapy is a significant issue requiring further research. The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of the obstacles to, and the motivations for, adherence with glaucoma medication

J Lacey; H Cate; D C Broadway

2009-01-01

237

A Qualitative Study of Resilient Latina/o College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted with 11 Latina/o college students in order to provide insight into how these students develop a sense of resilience. Five factors from J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed's (1994) concept of resiliency appeared to play an important role in these students' high academic achievement: high educational goals, support and…

Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Johnson, Michael B.; Fielding, Cheryl; Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Castro, Veronica; Vela, Luti

2010-01-01

238

Entrepreneurial Community College Presidents: An exploratory qualitative and quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the entrepreneurial, nontraditional fundraising behaviors and activities of 23 community college presidents using interview and survey data. The institutional characteristics that facilitate entrepreneurial action and how presidents are raising these new revenues were explored. “Best practices” and implications for future research and practice are provided. The results of this analysis revealed meaningful information that is beneficial for

Lorenzo L. Esters; Christine Johnson McPhail; Robert P. Singh; John J. “Ski” Sygielski

2008-01-01

239

The Qualitative Critique of Teacher Labor Market Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dynamics of the teacher labor market were examined, focusing upon the problems of which teachers leave the profession, why they leave, where they go, and what it would take to retain them as public school teachers. In-depth case studies were made of six universities and six school districts. Data were collected by interviews (n=180) with…

Berry, Barnett; And Others

240

A qualitative study of parent involvement in Macomb County, Michigan: A focus group approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the roles and activities in which parents were involved in schools, and the ways they wanted to be involved, and what they perceived schools could do to enhance parent involvement. ^ A nonexperimental qualitative research design was used for this study. Participants in the study included 99 parents of students in grades K–5 from one or two

Sharon Sue Hiller

1998-01-01

241

The Characteristics of Successful Family Physicians in Rural Nebraska: A Qualitative Study of Physician Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: In studying physician shortage issues, few studies have utilized individual interviews, allowing rural physicians to voice their own stories. Purpose: To explore rural physicians' unique characteristics affecting their decisions and satisfactions with practice in a rural area. Methods: A qualitative interview study with 11 Nebraska family…

Backer, Elisabeth L.; McIlvain, Helen E.; Paulman, Paul M.; Ramaekers, Ryan C.

2006-01-01

242

Adult Financial Literacy Education and Latina Learners: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study used a case study design to explore the teaching and learning that takes place in an adult Latino financial literacy education that was aimed specifically at Latina single mothers. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by a blend of critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives, as well…

Sprow, Karin Millard

2010-01-01

243

Price Information Patterns in Web Search Advertising: An Empirical Case Study on Accommodation Industry  

E-print Network

empirical findings shed new light on how to effectively manage price information in search advertisingPrice Information Patterns in Web Search Advertising: An Empirical Case Study on Accommodation--Unlike advertising in traditional media, web search advertising content can be easily customized with little cost

Pei, Jian

244

The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…

Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2010-01-01

245

Market Segmentation in Practice: Review of Empirical Studies, Methodological Assessment, and Agenda for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although segmentation decisions are critical for achieving differential advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace, the empirical investigation of how segmentation decisions are actually conducted by firms in business practice has not been a major focus of extant research. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is threefold: first, the identified empirical studies are assessed in terms of their methodological characteristics in

Eva K. Foedermayr; Adamantios Diamantopoulos

2008-01-01

246

Re-identifying register data by survey data: An empirical study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more empirical researchers from universities or research centres would like to use register data collected by statistical agencies or the social security system, because these data can be used for several empirical studies, e.g. the analysis of special groups or quantitative effects of economic policies. Most of the register data required have to be (factually) anonymised before they

Stefan Bender; Ruth Brand; Johann Bacher

247

Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n=25) in a diverse population of older adults with hypertension recruited from the Cohort Study of Medication Adherence in Older Adults (CoSMO). A structured guide was used to collect feedback on barriers to adherence and acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies. The final coding framework outlines factors at the individual, relationship, health care system, and environmental or policy level which affect adherence in older adults, including memory, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, side effects, social support, interaction with health care providers, and cost and convenience of medication filling. Patient responses highlighted the varied nature of barriers and the need for interventions which are both multi-faceted and tailored. PMID:25214707

Holt, Elizabeth W .; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie A.

2014-01-01

248

Empirical Study on Credibility of Electronic Word of Mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the popularity of internet, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has become a major information source for consumers' purchase behavior. The influence of eWOM depends on its credibility. Therefore, it is very important to research on the credibility of eWOM. By empirical research, it's found that the site trustworthiness, the sender's expertise and the receiver's disposition to trust have positive

Xiufang Cheng; Meihua Zhou

2010-01-01

249

Which Is the Best Multiclass SVM Method? An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiclass SVMs are usually implemented by combining sev- eral two-class SVMs. The one-versus-all method using winner-takes-all strategy and the one-versus-one method implemented by max-wins vot- ing are popularly used for this purpose. In this paper we give empirical evidence to show that these methods are inferior to another one-versus- one method: one that uses Platt's posterior probabilities together with the

Kai-Bo Duan; S. Sathiya Keerthi

2005-01-01

250

Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings. PMID:18373842

Burgoyne, Louise N; Woods, Catherine; Coleman, Rosarie; Perry, Ivan J

2008-01-01

251

A qualitative study of treatment burden among haemodialysis recipients.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the experience of renal patients undergoing dialysis treatment focusing on beliefs about their illness, prescribed treatment and the challenge of adherence. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the accounts of seven haemodialysis patients. Patients have a range of beliefs about their illness and their treatment consistent with the self-regulatory model of illness, that is, identity, cause, consequences, timeline and cure. Patients sometimes consciously did not act in accordance to advice when they considered an aspect of treatment less important or less easy to adhere to. Psychological factors like beliefs might play a role in non-adherence behaviour. PMID:23471760

Karamanidou, Christina; Weinman, John; Horne, Rob

2014-04-01

252

Qualitative study of women's experience after therapeutic massage  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertension has become a major problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. As it is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, even small reductions in the prevalence can have potentially large public health benefits. Among the complementary methods, massage provides an effective means to lower the blood pressure. If nurses perceive the experiences of hypertensive patients receiving massage, they can use massage more effectively in their care plan. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive phenomenological study. Deep interviews were conducted with nine prehypertensive women who received Swedish massage three times a week in a total of 10 sessions, with each session lasting 10-15 min. Then, the researcher conducted an interview using a ‘grand tour question (open ended question) and the participants were then encouraged to speak freely explaining their thoughts and feelings about the experience of massage therapy. Data analysis was done by Colaizzi's method. Validity and reliability were obtained through measures such as real value, applicability, continuity, and authenticity. Results: Women evaluated the massage therapy positively. The findings yielded six themes, including relaxation, sleeping better, reduction of anxiety and tension, reduction of fatigue, invigorating experience, improve connecting. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a body-centered intervention like massage can be valuable in a multidisciplinary approach to women with prehypertension. This method is easy to learn and relatively short (10-15 min) to administer as a suitable complement in nursing care for this group of patients. PMID:25183981

Garakyaraghi, Mohammad; Givi, Mahshid; Moeini, Mahin; Eshghinezhad, Ameneh

2014-01-01

253

Experiences of person-centred care - patients’ perceptions: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient care models have been implemented and documented worldwide. Many studies have focused on features that hinder and facilitate the shift to such models, including the implementation process, staff involvement, resistance to new models and cultural dimensions. However, few studies have identified the potential effects of such new care models from a patient perspective. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients did in fact perceive the intentions of partnership in the new care model 1 year after its implementation. Methods Sixteen participants were interviewed, selected from two wards in a medical department where a new care model had been implemented 1 year earlier. A directed deductive content analysis was selected. The aim of the directed approach to content analysis was to investigate to what extent the new care model had been implemented, using patients’ perspectives to describe the level of implementation. A coding framework was developed based on a theoretical paper that described the key features of the new care model. Results The implementation of person-centred care had clearly occurred to a large degree, even if some patients appeared not to have been exposed to the model at all. Aspects of the newly implemented care model were obvious; however, it was also clear that implementation was not complete. The analysis showed that patients felt listened to and that their own perception of the situation had been noted. Patients spontaneously expressed that they felt that the staff saw them as persons and did not solely focus on their disease. It was also stated that not every ailment or aspect of a patient’s illness needed to be addressed or resolved for open listening to be perceived as a positive experience. Conclusions The findings indicate that even though some patients were not interested in participating and playing an active role in their own care, this might relate to a lack of understanding on how to invite them to do so and to increase their confidence. To change healthcare from a paternalistic system to care where patients are seen as partners may require pedagogical skills. PMID:25309128

2014-01-01

254

What Instills Trust? A Qualitative Study of Phishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the highlights of a user study which gauges reactions to a variety of common "trust indicators" - such as logos, third party endorsements, and padlock icons - over a selection of authentic and phishing stimuli. In the course of the think-aloud protocol, participants revealed different sensitivities to email messages and web pages. Our principal result is the analysis of what makes phishing emails and web pages appear authentic. This is not only of interest from a pure scientific point of view, but can also guide the design of legitimate material to avoid unnecessary risks. A second result of ours are observations of what makes legitimate content appear dubious to consumers. This is a result with obvious applications to online advertising.

Jakobsson, Markus; Tsow, Alex; Shah, Ankur; Blevis, Eli; Lim, Youn-Kyung

255

Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

2012-01-01

256

Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

2012-01-01

257

Managing Depression Among Ethnic Communities: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Clinical care for depression in primary care negotiates a path between contrasting views of depression as a universal natural phenomenon and as a socially constructed category. This study explores the complexities of this work through a study of how family physicians experience working with different ethnic minority communities in recognizing, understanding, and caring for patients with depression. METHODS We undertook an analysis of in-depth interviews with 8 family physicians who had extensive experience in depression care in 3 refugee patient groups in metropolitan Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. RESULTS Although different cultural beliefs about depression were acknowledged, the physicians saw these beliefs as deeply rooted in the recent historical and social context of patients from these communities. Traumatic refugee experiences, dislocation, and isolation affected the whole of communities, as well as individuals. Physicians nevertheless often offered medication simply because of the impossibility of addressing structural issues. Interpreters were critical to the work of depression care, but their involvement highlighted that much of this clinical work lies beyond words. CONCLUSIONS The family physicians perceived working across cultural differences, working with biomedical and social models of depression, and working at both community and individual levels, not as a barrier to providing high-quality depression care, but rather as a central element of that care. Negotiating the phenomenon rather than diagnosing depression may be an important way that family physicians continue to work with multiple, contested views of emotional distress. Future observational research could more clearly characterize and measure the process of negotiation and explore its effect on outcomes. PMID:20458106

Furler, John; Kokanovic, Renata; Dowrick, Christopher; Newton, Danielle; Gunn, Jane; May, Carl

2010-01-01

258

Exploring Patient Values in Medical Decision Making: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient decisions are influenced by their personal values. However, there is a lack of clarity and attention on the concept of patient values in the clinical context despite clear emphasis on patient values in evidence-based medicine and shared decision making. The aim of the study was to explore the concept of patient values in the context of making decisions about insulin initiation among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings We conducted individual in-depth interviews with people with type 2 diabetes who were making decisions about insulin treatment. Participants were selected purposively to achieve maximum variation. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews which were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. We interviewed 21 participants between January 2011 and March 2012. The age range of participants was 28–67 years old. Our sample comprised 9 women and 12 men. Three main themes, ‘treatment-specific values’, ‘life goals and philosophies’, and ‘personal and social background’, emerged from the analysis. The patients reported a variety of insulin-specific values, which were negative and/or positive beliefs about insulin. They framed insulin according to their priorities and philosophies in life. Patients’ decisions were influenced by sociocultural (e.g. religious background) and personal backgrounds (e.g. family situations). Conclusions This study highlighted the need for expanding the current concept of patient values in medical decision making. Clinicians should address more than just values related to treatment options. Patient values should include patients’ priorities, life philosophy and their background. Current decision support tools, such as patient decision aids, should consider these new dimensions when clarifying patient values. PMID:24282518

Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

2013-01-01

259

Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports  

PubMed Central

Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

2014-01-01

260

A Cross-site Qualitative Study of Physician Order Entry  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the perceptions of diverse professionals involved in computerized physician order entry (POE) at sites where POE has been successfully implemented and to identify differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Design: A multidisciplinary team used observation, focus groups, and interviews with clinical, administrative, and information technology staff to gather data at three sites. Field notes and transcripts were coded using an inductive approach to identify patterns and themes in the data. Measurements: Patterns and themes concerning perceptions of POE were identified. Results: Four high-level themes were identified: (1) organizational issues such as collaboration, pride, culture, power, politics, and control; (2) clinical and professional issues involving adaptation to local practices, preferences, and policies; (3) technical/implementation issues, including usability, time, training and support; and (4) issues related to the organization of information and knowledge, such as system rigidity and integration. Relevant differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals include extent of collaboration, staff longevity, and organizational missions. Conclusion: An organizational culture characterized by collaboration and trust and an ongoing process that includes active clinician engagement in adaptation of the technology were important elements in successful implementation of physician order entry at the institutions that we studied. PMID:12595408

Ash, Joan S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Lavelle, Mary; Payne, Thomas H.; Massaro, Thomas A.; Frantz, Gerri L.; Lyman, Jason A.

2003-01-01

261

Stories about asexuality: a qualitative study on asexual women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore how asexual women experience their asexual identity, sexuality, and relationships. The authors recruited participants through the Asexuality Visibility and Education Network's website and posts on several health- and lifestyle-related websites. Interviewees were 9 women between 20 and 42 years of age. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The authors discuss 3 main themes that arose from the data: coming to an (a)sexual identity, experiencing physical intimacy and sexuality, and experiencing love and relationships. Participants described how they have always felt different and how they experienced their process of coming out. The authors found a great variation in the experience of (a) sex and physical intimacy and (b) love and relationships. Engaging in sexual behavior was mainly based on a willingness to comply with partner wishes. Whereas some longed for a relationship, aromantic asexual women did not. Some participants separated love from sex. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24512279

Van Houdenhove, Ellen; Gijs, Luk; T'Sjoen, Guy; Enzlin, Paul

2015-01-01

262

Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

2015-02-01

263

Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students. PMID:22090156

Magnier, K.; Wang, R.; Dale, V. H. M.; Murphy, R.; Hammond, R. A.; Mossop, L.; Freeman, S. L.; Anderson, C.; Pead, M. J.

2011-01-01

264

Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.  

PubMed

Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. PMID:25185106

Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

2014-12-13

265

Patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In Canada waiting lists for bariatric surgery are common, with wait times on average > 5 years. The meaning of waiting for bariatric surgery from the patients’ perspective must be understood if health care providers are to act as facilitators in promoting satisfaction with care and quality care outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery, the meaning and experience of waiting, the psychosocial and behavioral impact of waiting for treatment and identify health care provider and health system supportive measures that could potentially improve the waiting experience. Methods Twenty-one women and six men engaged in in-depth interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis between June 2011 and April 2012. The data were subjected to re-analysis to identify perceived health care provider and health system barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. Results Thematic analysis identified inequity as a barrier to accessing bariatric surgery. Three areas of perceived inequity were identified from participants’ accounts: socioeconomic inequity, regional inequity, and inequity related to waitlist prioritization. Although excited about their acceptance as candidates for surgery, the waiting period was described as stressful, anxiety provoking, and frustrating. Anger was expressed towards the health care system for the long waiting times. Participants identified the importance of health care provider and health system supports during the waiting period. Recommendations on how to improve the waiting experience included periodic updates from the surgeon’s office about their position on the wait list; a counselor who specializes in helping people going through this surgery, dietitian support and further information on what to expect after surgery, among others. Conclusion Patients’ perceptions of accessing and waiting for bariatric surgery are shaped by perceived and experienced socioeconomic, regional, and waitlist prioritization inequities. A system addressing these inequities must be developed. Waiting for surgery is inherent in publicly funded health care systems; however, ensuring equitable access to treatment should be a health system priority. Supports and resources are required to ensure the waiting experience is as positive as possible. PMID:24138728

2013-01-01

266

Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

Ruan, Lian J.

2011-01-01

267

Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study

Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

2011-01-01

268

Does breast cancer genetic counselling meet women's expectations? A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high demand exists in the United Kingdom for breast cancer genetic counselling. Due to the disease's high incidence, many women who received such counselling are eventually assessed as not being at high genetic risk. This study elicits the experiences and perceptions of such women, as little research has been conducted. A qualitative interview-based study was conducted in the north-east

Aileen M. Grant; Edwin R. van Teijlingen; Karen Forrest-Keenan; Nicola Torrance; Brenda J. Wilson; Neva E. Haites

2006-01-01

269

Female Superintendents: A Qualitative Study of the Journey to the Role of Superintendent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25…

Schmidt, Stacey M.

2011-01-01

270

Mexican "Curanderismo" as Ethnopsychotherapy: A Qualitative Study on Treatment Practices, Effectiveness, and Mechanisms of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of "curanderos," the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The patients had…

Zacharias, Steffi

2006-01-01

271

A Qualitative Study: Retention of First-Year Learners in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study focuses on retention of first-year learners by exploring three variables: academic support, social support, and coping strategies. The research method is grounded theory founded by Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967). The philosophical assumptions of the study are Constructivist and Advocacy/Participatory knowledge…

Homer, Gina M.

2013-01-01

272

Personal Television: A Qualitative Study of Mobile TV Users in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This describes a qualitative user study of mobile phone TV usage undertaken during September 2005 and centered on the real world Mobile TV usage of subscribers of the recently launched live service in Seoul, South Korea. Data collection and reporting methods were optimized to inform and inspire future Nokia product development. The study identified four primary use cases: at home;

Jan Chipchase; Cui Yanqing; Younghee Jung

273

Poverty of Opportunity Forcing Women Into Prostitution—A Qualitative Study in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim for this study was to explore the factors influencing women to initiate and continue as sex workers and to explore their perceptions about human immuno deficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and health seeking behavior. We conducted a qualitative study based on interviews with 20 purposively selected women selling sex. Content analysis of data

Mohsin Saeed Khan; Eva Johansson; Shakila Zaman; Magnus Unemo; Naveed I. Rahat; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

2010-01-01

274

Qualitative Life History Interview Methodology with Computer Assisted Analysis: Lessons Learned from the Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of Head Start teachers sought to discover their perception of the impact of their life experience upon their professional pedagogy. The study focused on long-term Head Start teachers (16 to 28 years) who began their association with the program as parents and lived and worked in the classroom. Lessons learned about the…

Jagielo, Linda M.

275

Why Iranian married women use withdrawal instead of oral contraceptives? A qualitative study from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Withdrawal as a method of birth control is still used in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore married women's perspectives and attitudes on withdrawal use instead of oral contraceptive (OC) in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. Participants were 50 married women, not currently pregnant, not desiring pregnancy and who had been using withdrawal

Parvin Rahnama; Alireza Hidarnia; Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi; Anoushiravan Kazemnejad; Deborah Oakley; Ali Montazeri

2010-01-01

276

Tales of Time, Terms, and Patient Information-Seeking Behavior—An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores patients' and physicians' perceptions of the use of medical terminology in patient–physician communication. Perceptions of time emerge as an overarching theme and the relationships between perceived time pressures and medical terms are analyzed. Data for this qualitative exploratory study were collected in 28 semistructured interviews with native and nonnative English-speaking physicians and patients. Interviews were recorded, transcribed

Maria R. Dahm

2012-01-01

277

Tales of Time, Terms, and Patient Information-Seeking Behavior—An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores patients' and physicians' perceptions of the use of medical terminology in patient–physician communication. Perceptions of time emerge as an overarching theme and the relationships between perceived time pressures and medical terms are analyzed. Data for this qualitative exploratory study were collected in 28 semistructured interviews with native and nonnative English-speaking physicians and patients. Interviews were recorded, transcribed

Maria R. Dahm

2011-01-01

278

Evidence-based Practice Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the strategies used to implement the evidence-based practices of supported employment and integrated\\u000a dual diagnosis treatment. Using qualitative research methods, the study uncovered eight strategies that contributed to successful\\u000a implementation in six sites.

Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Rob Whitley

2008-01-01

279

Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

2010-01-01

280

The Obstacles of Synergy in Schools: A Qualitative Study on Teamwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to determine the obstacles in creating effective teamwork and generate suggestions for overcoming these obstacles. The study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approaches and used purposive sampling. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 52 teachers who were working at a primary school in…

Toremen, Fatih; Karakus, Mehmet

2007-01-01

281

Perceptions of Women Laid off from Technology Positions: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of women in the information technology (IT) profession has fluctuated along with the growth of business. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions of women who had been laid off from IT positions during the economic downturn period between 2007 and 2010. The research study was designed to…

Johnston, Julie

2012-01-01

282

Experiences of refugees and asylum seekers in general practice: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been much debate regarding the refugee health situation in the UK. However most of the existing literature fails to take account of the opinions of refugees themselves. This study was established to determine the views of asylum seekers and refugees on their overall experiences in primary care and to suggest improvements to their care. METHODS: Qualitative study

Ravi Bhatia; Paul Wallace

2007-01-01

283

A Qualitative Examination of the Attitudes of Liberal Studies Markers towards Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Hong Kong, onscreen marking (OSM) is superseding paper-based marking (PBM) across the entire national examinations system. This paper describes a qualitative study of the attitudes of Liberal Studies markers towards OSM. This becomes a compulsory subject in Hong Kong's new senior secondary school curriculum to be first examined in 2012, with a…

Coniam, David

2011-01-01

284

Reflective visual journaling during art therapy and counselling internships: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative multiple case study explored four art therapy students’ and four counselling students’ responses to visual journaling during their internships. They maintained their journals throughout one 15?week academic semester, and were interviewed four times over the course of the study. Data consisted of transcribed interviews and photographs of participants’ journal imagery. Data analysis yielded three overarching patterns: The Internship

Sarah P. Deaver; Garrett McAuliffe

2009-01-01

285

A Profile of an Effective Teacher of English: A Qualitative Study from Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents and discusses a research study aimed at defining the profile of an effective Polish teacher of English. The study, which is qualitative in nature, has been conducted among English language teachers in Poland who are considered excellent in their professional environment. Their kinds of knowledge and their beliefs about the…

Werbinska, Dorota

2009-01-01

286

A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…

Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

2007-01-01

287

Changing Schools, Changing Counselors: A Qualitative Study of School Administrators' Conceptions of the School Counselor Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory methodology to assess the conceptions about the school counselor role held by 26 administrators employed in public elementary, middle, or high schools. The study was designed to build a deeper understanding of how school administrators conceptualized the school counselor role. Four distinctive role…

Amatea, Ellen S.; Clark, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

288

The Nature and Requirements of Work in University-Based Telehealth Units: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telehealth units are one of many university administrative units created to foster innovation in universities over the last 40 years. Despite the proliferation of such units, few organizational studies have examined the work undertaken inside of these units. This qualitative study used a sequential two-part research design to understand the…

Seale, Deborah E.

2013-01-01

289

Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls

Paula Denise Johnson

2004-01-01

290

A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

Mathis, Regina

2011-01-01

291

A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

2012-01-01

292

Caregiver Burden and Coping in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caregivers of people with severe mental disorders suffer from having a considerable burden as a result of their caregiving role. They develop different kinds of coping strategies to deal with this burden. There has been a lack of qualitative studies on caregiver burden and coping, especially from non-Western populations. The present paper reports findings of a longitudinal study of burden

K. K. Ganguly; R. K. Chadda; T. B. Singh

2010-01-01

293

Bullying/Victimization from a Family Perspective: A Qualitative Study of Secondary School Students' Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper uses a qualitative method in order to study the ways in which bullying is discursively organized among young adolescent students in relation to the family factors related to it. Only a few studies have linked aspects of parenting and family functioning to bullying through the use of students' discourses despite the fact that…

Bibou-Nakou, I.; Tsiantis, J.; Assimopoulos, H.; Chatzilambou, P.

2013-01-01

294

Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

2010-01-01

295

Indigenous Crisis Counseling in Taiwan: An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study of an Expert Therapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…

Kuo, Ben C. H.; Hsu, Wei-Su; Lai, Nien-Hwa

2011-01-01

296

What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

2011-01-01

297

Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

Henfield, Malik S.

2011-01-01

298

Changing Green Subjectivities in Outdoor and Environmental Education: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on a longitudinal qualitative study of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and disciplinary…

Preston, Lou

2012-01-01

299

Psychometric models of student conceptions in science: Reconciling qualitative studies and distractor-driven assessment instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We stand poised to marry the fruits of qualitative research on children's conceptions with the machinery of psychometrics. This merger allows us to build upon studies of limited groups of subjects to generalize to the larger population of learners. This is accomplished by reformulating multiple choice tests to reflect gains in understanding cognitive development. This study uses psychometric modeling to

Philip M. Sadler

1998-01-01

300

A qualitative natural history study of ME/CFS in the community.  

PubMed

In previous qualitative research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), researchers have focused on the experiences of patients with ME/CFS in tertiary care samples. This qualitative study examined the natural history of people with ME/CFS (n = 19) from a community-based sample. Findings highlighted multilayered themes involving the illness experience and the physical construction of ME/CFS. In addition, this study further illuminated unique subthemes regarding community response and treatment, which have implications for understanding the progression of ME/CFS as well as experiences of those within patient networks. There is a need for more longitudinal qualitative research on epidemiological samples of patients with ME/CFS. PMID:23445264

Anderson, Valerie R; Jason, Leonard A; Hlavaty, Laura E

2014-01-01

301

Feature Evaluation for Building Facade Images - AN Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

Yang, M. Y.; Förstner, W.; Chai, D.

2012-08-01

302

Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

2013-01-01

303

Technical Report ISERN-99-12 Empirical Studies of Object-Oriented Artifacts, Methods, and  

E-print Network

technologies (such as decentralised architecture, genericity, encapsulation, inheritance, client. Thévenod-Fosse5 1. Introduction Object-Oriented technologies are becoming pervasive in many software thorough evaluation. Empirical studies aim at investigating the performance of such technologies

Carleton University

304

Browsing through 3D Representations of Unstructured Picture Collections: an Empirical Study  

E-print Network

, immersive virtual reality, manipulation of 3D objects, picture browsing, photograph viewers, usabilityBrowsing through 3D Representations of Unstructured Picture Collections: an Empirical Study Olivier large picture collections which facilitates browsing through unstructured sets of icons or pictures

Boyer, Edmond

305

Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

2009-01-01

306

Interrogating the Generalizability of Portfolio Assessments of Beginning Teachers: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study is intended to illuminate factors that affect the generalizability of portfolio assessments of beginning teachers. By generalizability, we refer here to the extent to which the portfolio assessment supports generalizations from the particular evidence reflected in the portfolio to the conception of competent teaching…

Moss, Pamela A.; Sutherland, LeeAnn M.; Haniford, Laura; Miller, Renee; Johnson, David; Geist, Pamela K.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.; Star, Jon R.; Pecheone, Raymond L.

2004-01-01

307

Theory and Concepts in Qualitative Research: A Theory of Methodology in a Study of Directed Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of theory in qualitative work is discussed through an examination of the search for theory that arose in relation to a case study of educational change in an American school district. Theory is defined as an analytical, interpretive framework to help the researcher make sense of what is going on in the social setting. Certain…

Mills, Geoffrey E.

308

Patients' understanding of genetic susceptibility testing in mainstream medicine: qualitative study on thrombophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: UK and US policy initiatives have suggested that, in the future, patients and clinicians in mainstream medicine could use genetic information to prevent common illnesses. There are no studies on patients' experience and understanding of the process of testing for common genetic susceptibilities in mainstream medicine. METHODS: Qualitative interviews with 42 individuals who had undergone testing for a genetic

Paula M Saukko; Sian Ellard; Suzanne H Richards; Maggie H Shepherd; John L Campbell

2007-01-01

309

Qualitative Study of Transfer of Training of Student Employees in a Service Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that organizations spend $200 billion annually on their workforce training. The focus of this qualitative exploratory study was to use Baldwin and Ford’s transfer of training model to explore which elements in the model would be perceived as most relevant by student front-line employees for transfer of training, which requires the transfer of information from trainer to

Claudia Mariana Rodríguez; Susan Gregory

2005-01-01

310

Quantitative and qualitative study of acrocentric associations in 109 normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involving 109 normal subjects shows that the mean number of associations by cell seems to represent a biological constant which is not sex related and increases with age, especially after 33 years. From a qualitative point of view, the associations are not at random and their distribution varies from one individual to another. The tendency to associate is

J. F. Mattei; S. Ayme; M. G. Mattei; J. Gouvernet; F. Giraud

1976-01-01

311

In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Study of the Reasons Australian University Students Plagiarize  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ways in which universities and individual academics attempt to deter and respond to student plagiarism may be based on untested assumptions about particular or primary reasons for this behaviour. Using a series of group interviews, this qualitative study gathered the views of 56 Australian university students on the possible reasons for…

Devlin, Marcia; Gray, Kathleen

2007-01-01

312

A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety among Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…

Sloan, Tina Rye

2010-01-01

313

A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Students' Learning Outcomes during a Cooperative Education Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…

Krejci, Katherine T.

2010-01-01

314

A qualitative study of health-seeking behavior of Hepatitis B carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Asymptomatic Hepatitis virus (HBV) carriers are often followed up at primary and secondary care centers in Singapore. Compliance to disease monitoring is perceived to be a barrier in their management. The study used qualitative methods to determine the health-seeking behavior of HBV carriers. Understanding such behavior will enable the attending physicians to optimise their care and promote regular disease

N C Tan; S L Cheah; E K Teo

315

Self-Determination among Community College Students Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study investigated the self-determination of community college students diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Varying levels of self-determination were displayed within each of the five participants. However, despite the unique characteristics and experiences of the participants, five major and two minor themes related…

Szentmiklosi, Jillian M.

2009-01-01

316

THE CAHN-HILLIARD EQUATION WITH ELASTICITY FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATION AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES  

E-print Network

THE CAHN-HILLIARD EQUATION WITH ELASTICITY -- FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATION AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES HARALD GARCKE, MARTIN RUMPF, AND ULRICH WEIKARD ABSTRACT. We consider the Cahn­Hilliard equation of this paper to present a fast and reliable numerical method for the Cahn­ Hilliard equation with elasticity

Rumpf, Martin

317

Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how adolescents and their parents interact and talk about some of the key lifestyle behaviors that are associated with overweight and obesity, such as screen time (ST) and sugary drink (SD) consumption. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescents' and parents' perceptions, attitudes, and interactions in regards to these topics. METHODS: Using an exploratory approach,

Libby A Hattersley; Vanessa A Shrewsbury; Lesley A King; Sarah A Howlett; Louise L Hardy; Louise A Baur

2009-01-01

318

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

319

A Qualitative Case Study on the Effects of Online Grading Systems on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study explored perceptions of teachers and educational administrators regarding differences between online grading systems and traditional written grade books. The purpose was to gain knowledge of online grade books in relation to parental involvement in the educational process and student academic performance, when compared…

Edgerton, C. Mark, II

2013-01-01

320

Five Year Follow-up Evaluation of a Faculty Development Program: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative follow-up evaluation explored the long-term impact of a faculty development program on participants who were five years post program. This study focused on 12 faculty members who participated in the University of Missouri's New Faculty Teaching Scholars program. The nine month program focused on creating a culture of teaching…

Tennill, Marcia Marie

2011-01-01

321

The Social Dimension of Distance Learning by Interactive Television: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined instructors' and students' perceptions of social relationship in distance learning. Interview and observational data were collected and analyzed to generate theories. Convenient sampling was used. Factors influencing a sense of distance were analyzed. Findings revealed greater difficulty establishing a social…

Zhao, Liang

2011-01-01

322

Voices from immigrant youth: Perceptions of their involvement with the Canadian justice system. A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the thesis project “Voices from Immigrant Youth: Perceptions of their Involvement with the Canadian Justice System. A Qualitative Study” satisfies two purposes. First, it fulfills an academic requirement that I have to meet in order to obtain the Masters of Arts in Community Psychology, and, second, it explores an issue that was identifies as a social concern

Elba C. Martell

2002-01-01

323

School personnel’s perceptions of family-school communication: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family involvement contributes to student success, and family—school communication (FSC) is intended to promote parent involvement; however, little is known about the communication processes that enlist that involvement. There are unanswered questions about how elementary educators perceive, prepare for, and engage in communication with families. Using an ecological framework and qualitative design, this study explored educator perceptions of FSC at

Anne F. Farrell; Melissa A. Collier

2010-01-01

324

The impact of work on marriage in three cultures: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the impact of work on marriage across three cultures: London (UK), Hong Kong, and Beijing (China), via qualitative interviews. A total of 79 respondents were interviewed in the three cultures, and template analysis was used as the method of analysis. The results showed that although one-third to half of the respondents from each culture mentioned the

Sowan Wong; Robin Goodwin

2009-01-01

325

A qualitative study on commercial sex behaviors among male clients in Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were

Cui Yang; Carl A. Latkin; Peng Liu; Kenrad E. Nelson; Cunlin Wang; Rongsheng Luan

2010-01-01

326

A qualitative study of the lived experiences of young Chinese females in condom use negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a qualitative study of young Chinese females' lived experiences of condom use negotiations, this paper discusses how a gender and power perspective provides a new frame of reference in which to examine the shaping of young women's perception and decision-making regarding contraception. The recurrent themes of the narratives collected through individual interviews with 10 adolescent pregnant females living

Siu-ming To; Hau-lin Tam; Fung Chu

2012-01-01

327

Medical students' perceptions in relation to ethnicity and gender: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The British medical student population has undergone rapid diversification over the last decades. This study focuses on medical students' views about their experiences in relation to ethnicity and gender during their undergraduate training within the context of the hidden curriculum in one British medical school as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. METHOD: We

Heidi Lempp; Clive Seale

2006-01-01

328

Factors affecting self-referral to counselling services in the workplace: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that make employees use workplace counselling. Eleven employees

Chrysostomos Athanasiades; Allan Winthrop; Brendan Gough

2008-01-01

329

Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

Kim, Yeonsoo

2010-01-01

330

The Social-Sexual Voice of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…

Turner, George W.

2012-01-01

331

A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

2013-01-01

332

Exploring the depilation norm: a qualitative questionnaire study of women's body hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's body hair removal is highly normative across contemporary western cultures. Nevertheless, little is known about the production and maintenance of this norm. Drawing on qualitative survey data from 678 women in the UK, this study offers two explanations: First, hairlessness and hairiness are predominantly constructed as positive and negative alternatives, respectively. Consequently, the ‘options’ to depilate, or not, are

Merran Toerien; Sue Wilkinson

2004-01-01

333

Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London, regarding their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for adopting unhealthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking alcohol. Views

Aidan Kelly; Karen Ciclitira

2011-01-01

334

A Qualitative Study of Challenges Faced by International Doctoral Students in Counselor Education Supervision Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using consensual qualitative research methodology, this study examines the challenges doctoral-level international students encountered in counselor education programs, during supervisor training, specifically. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants and revealed a variety of difficulties. Despite the wide variability in…

Jang, Yoo Jin; Woo, Hongryun; Henfield, Malik S.

2014-01-01

335

Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

James, LaNora Marcell

2011-01-01

336

"I regretted the minute I pressed share": A Qualitative Study of Regrets on Facebook  

E-print Network

"I regretted the minute I pressed share": A Qualitative Study of Regrets on Facebook Yang Wang wang 569 Ameri- can Facebook users. Their regrets revolved around sensitive top- ics, content with strong the Facebook plat- form. Some reported incidents had serious repercussions, such as breaking up relationships

Sadeh, Norman M.

337

Kaiser Permanente's experience of implementing an electronic medical record: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine users' attitudes to implementation of an electronic medical record system in Kaiser Permanente Hawaii. Design Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews. Setting Four primary healthcare teams in four clinics, and four specialty departments in one hospital, on Oahu, Hawaii. Shortly before the interviews, Kaiser Permanente stopped implementation of the initial system in favour of a competing one.

J Tim Scott; Thomas G Rundall; Thomas M Vogt; John Hsu

2005-01-01

338

Autoethnographic Poems and Narrative Reflections: A Qualitative Study on the Death of a Companion Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the meaning of the death of a companion animal through autoethnographic poetry in conjunction with narrative reflections. This method expands the depth and scope of poetry in qualitative research by transforming expressive works into both the subject and product of inquiry.

Furman, Rich

2005-01-01

339

A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

2007-01-01

340

Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

2013-01-01

341

Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

2013-01-01

342

The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

2014-01-01

343

The Riacho Fundo water basin: a case study for qualitative modelling sustainable development  

E-print Network

The Riacho Fundo water basin: a case study for qualitative modelling sustainable development Paulo of sustainable development related problems. The models aim at supporting stakeholders to understand the systems presents a working plan for modelling relevant aspects of sustainability issues in the Riacho Fundo water

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

344

Studying across Race: A Conversation about the Place of Difference in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a dialog between colleagues from different races who struggle with the complexities of doing qualitative research with participants who come from backgrounds that do not match their own. Based on transcriptions of extensive audiotaped conversations, the article explores issues related to studying across difference. The discussion…

Barclay-McLaughlin, Gina; Hatch, J. Amos

2005-01-01

345

A Qualitative Case Study Exploring the Impact of Experienced Teachers' Stories on Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the impact of experienced teachers' stories on pre-service teachers. Specifically, it examines what stories pre-service teachers hear and remember, if/how those stories impact thoughts or actions, and what factors influence impact. Analyzing pre-service teachers' reactions to stories and utilizing their direct…

Smith, Kristi Johnson

2010-01-01

346

A Qualitative Study of Asian International Students' Attitudes toward African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was designed to gather information, using focus groups, about Asian international students' experiences with and attitudes toward African Americans, to identify the sources of these attitudes, and to discover methods that would address negative attitudes that Asian students might have towards African American students.…

Talbot, Donna M.; Geelhoed, Robyn J.; Ninggal, Mohd. Tajudin Hj.

1999-01-01

347

A qualitative study of the experience of parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent–toddler group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent–toddler group. Semi?structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three ‘superordinate themes’, each of which captures a certain aspect of the parents' experiences of attending the toddler

Maria Barros; Annabel Kitson; Nick Midgley

2008-01-01

348

What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and

Genevieve M Dwyer; Joy Higgs; Louise L Hardy; Louise A Baur

2008-01-01

349

An Overview of Identifying a Community College English Department's Beliefs about Writing Instruction: A Qualitative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative multimethod study identified the beliefs about writing instruction held by seven full-time English instructors at Central Arizona College Signal Peak Campus. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and surveys. Research questions examined how faculty members viewed themselves as writing teachers, what curriculum…

Ross, Jeff; Dereshiwsky, Mary

350

Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

2010-01-01

351

Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

Johnson, Marcia L.

2013-01-01

352

The lived experiences of a male survivor of intimate partner violence: a qualitative case study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative case study, analyzed using Colaizzi's (1978) method, was to gain a holistic understanding of the lived-experience of a male victim of intimate partner violence and the real-life context in which the violence emerged. PMID:22667001

Nayback-Beebe, Ann Marie; Yoder, Linda H

2012-01-01

353

Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples in Open Adoption Arrangements: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…

Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

2011-01-01

354

A qualitative study exploring how mothers manage their teenage children's diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that an unhealthy diet is a risk factor for the development of a range of chronic conditions, including obesity, cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Dietary habits formed in childhood persist into adulthood. Previous research on dietary habits has focused on families with young children. This qualitative study extends the literature by exploring how mothers manage their teenage

Katarzyna Chapman; Jane Ogden

2009-01-01

355

Experiences of Preschoolers with Severe Disabilities in an Inclusive Early Education Setting: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the social experiences of preschoolers with severe disabilities in an inclusive early education setting. Teachers, paraprofessionals, and peers were interviewed, and the children and adults were observed in daily routines of the preschool. Findings showed that social experiences with adults were…

Hanline, Mary Francis; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.

2012-01-01

356

Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

2011-01-01

357

Finding Self: A Qualitative Study of Transgender, Transitioning, and Adulterated Silicone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…

Wallace, Phyllis M.

2010-01-01

358

Learning from Tutorials: A Qualitative Study of Approaches to Learning and Perceptions of Tutorial Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the…

Herrmann, Kim Jesper

2014-01-01

359

Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

2012-01-01

360

Experience of Career-Related Discrimination for Female-to-Male Transgender Persons: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, the authors examined the experience of discrimination and its relationship to the career development trajectory of 9 female-to-male transgender persons. Participants were between 21 and 48 years old and had a variety of vocational experiences. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone and analyzed…

Dispenza, Franco; Watson, Laurel B.; Chung, Y. Barry; Brack, Greg

2012-01-01

361

When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

362

Qualitative study of interpretation of reassurance among patients attending rheumatology clinics: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine commonly used methods of reassurance by clinicians and explore their effect on patients. Design Qualitative study of tape recordings of in›depth, semistructured interviews with patients before and after consultation and of their consultations with doctors. Setting NHS specialist rheumatology clinics in two large British cities. Participants 35 patients selected by consultant rheumatologists from general practitioner referral letters

Jenny L Donovan; David R Blake

2000-01-01

363

Doula Support and Attitudes of Intrapartum Nurses: A Qualitative Study from the Patient's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the roles of the intrapartum nurse and professional doula differ markedly, they serve women best if their roles complement each other. For doulas and nurses to work well together in order to facilitate a positive birth experience for the patient, they would logically need to develop a relationship based on mutual respect. The purpose of this pilot qualitative study

Karla Papagni; Ellen Buckner

2006-01-01

364

Identifying Strategies for Native American Student Success in Community Colleges: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…

Baxter, Paula Jean

2009-01-01

365

Sexual Minority Youth Perspectives on the School Environment and Suicide Risk Interventions: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…

Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

366

A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate themes", each…

Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

2008-01-01

367

A Qualitative Study of Resilience Factors of Bosnian Refugee Women Resettled in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports findings from a qualitative investigation of seven Bosnian refugee women's coping strategies as they resettled in two cities of the Southeastern United States over five years. It focuses on their personal experiences as refugees and the factors that contributed to their resilience. Their personal narratives highlight the importance of family as well as extended family, spirituality expressed

Marie-Antoinette Sossou; Carlton D. Craig; Heather Ogren; Michelle Schnak

2008-01-01

368

Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

Focht-New, Ginny

2012-01-01

369

A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety Among Preservice Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant difference (p.05) between pretest and posttest mathematics anxiety levels, indicating a decrease in

Tina Rye Sloan

2010-01-01

370

The Role and Functionality of Emotions in Feedback at University: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the role and functionality of emotions in feedback. In-depth interview data from students and lecturers at an Australian university are analysed using cognitive appraisal and prototype theory. Results suggest that students experience a range of positive and negative emotions in feedback contexts…

Rowe, Anna D.; Fitness, Julie; Wood, Leigh N.

2014-01-01

371

A Qualitative Case Study of Expert Special Educators Effectively Negotiating Their Job Demands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study explored how three expert secondary special education teachers in Hawaii constructed their perceived roles and successfully negotiated their job demands. There is a strong connection between role problems and special education teachers leaving the profession. The special education teacher shortage has a direct impact on…

Ortogero, Shawna P.

2013-01-01

372

A Qualitative Study of Southern Baptist Mothers' and Their Daughters' Attitudes toward Sexuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study of 14 Southern Baptist mother-daughter dyads uses grounded theory to explore the attitudes these mothers and daughters hold toward sexuality, religiosity, and spirituality, in addition to how they communicate with each other about these topics. Themes that emerge from the data include abstinence before marriage, lack of…

Matyastik Baier, Margaret E.; Wampler, Karen S.

2008-01-01

373

Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

Rath, Jean

2008-01-01

374

Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the impact on teenage pregnancy of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the United Kingdom.Design Systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis of controlled trials on interventions for early parenthood and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views on

Angela Harden; Ginny Brunton; Adam Fletcher; Ann Oakley

2009-01-01

375

Tracing "Friendsickness" during the First Year of College through Journal Writing: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to consider "friendsickness" as experienced by 96 entering college students. As defined here, "friendsickness" is a challenge new students experience when they leave their established network of friends and begin college. Journal entries written by new students in first-year seminars were examined and…

Ishler, Jennifer L. Crissman

2004-01-01

376

Factors Affecting Self-Referral to Counselling Services in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that…

Athanasiades, Chrysostomos; Winthrop, Allan; Gough, Brendan

2008-01-01

377

Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

Ras, Gerard J. M.

2011-01-01

378

A Qualitative Ethnographic Study of African American Leadership in Higher Education Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…

Glenn, Scott

2010-01-01

379

Study on Situational Influences Perceived in Nursing Discipline on Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of “choosing the field,” “unfavorable environmental factors,” “negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health,” “positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health”, “needs,” “attractiveness (aesthetics),” and “coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline.” Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

2013-01-01

380

Re-focusing the ethical discourse on personalized medicine: a qualitative interview study with stakeholders in the German healthcare system  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, personalized medicine (PM) has become a highly regarded line of development in medicine. Yet, it is still a relatively new field. As a consequence, the discussion of its future developments, in particular of its ethical implications, in most cases can only be anticipative. Such anticipative discussions, however, pose several challenges. Nevertheless, they play a crucial role for shaping PM’s further developments. Therefore, it is vital to understand how the ethical discourse on PM is conducted, i.e. on what – empirical and normative – assumptions ethical arguments are based regarding PM’s current and future developments. Methods To gather this information, we conducted a qualitative interview study with stakeholders in the German health care system. Our purposive sample included 17 representatives of basic research, clinical research, health economics, regulatory authorities, reimbursement institutions, pharmaceutical industry, patient organizations, as well as clinicians and legal experts involved in PM developments or policy making. We used an interview guide with open-ended questions and analyzed transcriptions of the interviews by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The respondents addressed a multitude of concerns in the context of research on as well as application of personalized preventive and therapeutic measures both on the individual and on the societal level. Interestingly, regarding future developments of PM the ethical evaluation seemed to follow the rule: the less likely its application, the more problematic a PM measure is assessed. The more likely its application, on the other hand, the less problematic it is evaluated. Conclusions The results of our study suggest re-focusing the ethical discourse on PM in Germany towards a constructive ethical monitoring which ensures to include only, nevertheless all of the actual and/or potential concerns that are ethically relevant in order to allow balancing them against the actual and potential ethically relevant benefits of PM measures. To render this possible, we propose a strategy for evaluating ethical concerns in the context of PM. PMID:23705623

2013-01-01

381

The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited\\u000a but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both\\u000a music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants took part in one of four\\u000a experimental conditions (14 participants in

Jenny Spenwyn; Doug J. K. Barrett; Mark D. Griffiths

2010-01-01

382

Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

2012-01-01

383

Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed\\/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. METHODS: Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which

Kathryn A Vickers; Kate B Jolly; Sheila M Greenfield

2006-01-01

384

A qualitative study about immigrant workers’ perceptions of their working conditions in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Spain has recently become an inward migration country. Little is known about the occupational health of immigrant workers. This study aimed to explore the perceptions that immigrant workers in Spain had of their working conditions.Methods:Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study. Criterion sampling. Data collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews, with a topic guide. One

E Q Ahonen; V Porthé; M L Vázquez; A M García; M J López-Jacob; C Ruiz-Frutos; E Ronda-Pérez; J Benach; F G Benavides

2009-01-01

385

Impact of HIV\\/AIDS on Mothers in Southern India: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions and needs of mothers living with HIV to gain greater insights into\\u000a the challenges they face in relation to their health seeking behavior, fears around disclosure, and issues related to stigma\\u000a and discrimination. This qualitative study utilized focus groups consisting of a sample of 60 HIV-infected mothers recruited\\u000a from a

Beena Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Soumya Swaminathan

2009-01-01

386

Equine-Facilitated Learning for Youths with Severe Emotional Disorders: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the effects of an alternative therapeutic learning method on\\u000a youths with severe emotional disorders (SED). The youths participated in a nine-week equine-facilitated learning program.\\u000a Very little research exists investigating the effectiveness of utilizing horses in the therapeutic learning process. The present\\u000a study encompasses three years of research on a unique program hypothesized to

Carrie A. Ewing; Pamelyn M. MacDonald; Megan Taylor; Mark J. Bowers

2007-01-01

387

Enhancing social networks: a qualitative study of health and social care practice in UK mental health services.  

PubMed

People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. PMID:25441461

Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

2015-03-01

388

Evaluation of Evaluation Studies Using Qualitative Research Methods in the Social Work Literature (1990-2003): Evidence that Constitutes a Wake-Up Call  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines the quality of evaluation studies using qualitative research methods in the social work literature in terms of a number of criteria commonly adopted in the field of qualitative research. Method: Using qualitative and evaluation as search terms, relevant qualitative evaluation studies from 1990 to 2003 indexed by…

Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tang, Vera M. Y.; Han, X. Y.

2005-01-01

389

Nurses leading care in custody suite environments: a qualitative study from Scotland.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the qualitative findings of a recent multimethod study exploring the impact of nurses assuming leadership roles in delivering primary health care to detainees within police custody suites in Scotland. The full multimethod study was conducted within a framework of realistic evaluation with key findings indicating that the nurse-led model of service delivery offers positive outcomes for all key stakeholders. Findings from the qualitative component of the study showed that the quality of clinical care for detainees improved, policing concerns for detainee safety were mitigated, and forensic medical examiners were able to expand their specialist roles. Key supporting mechanisms in achieving these outcomes included generating collaborative practices, enacting clinical leadership, and providing a forensic nursing educational program to empower nurses to generate service provision and grow professional autonomy. PMID:24158100

Hurley, John; Linsley, Paul; Elvins, Martin; Jones, Martyn

2013-01-01

390

Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS) is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props) and those that hinder (burdens) behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological), social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis) and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative) hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600) PMID:18616797

Penn, Linda; Moffatt, Suzanne M; White, Martin

2008-01-01

391

Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

2014-01-01

392

Burn Survivors' Experience of Core Outcomes during Return to Life: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Burn is one of the main and common health problems that face the victims with significant challenges in their lives. The main purpose of caring and rehabilitating these people is returning them to their previous life situation. Thus, the present study was conducted with the purpose of determining the experience of burn survivors with regard to returning to life in order to be able to obtain new concepts of acceptable implications in the present cultural and religious context. Methods: The present study is a qualitative study that was conducted using qualitative content analysis and in-depth unstructured interviews with 15 burn survivors in 2012 and 2013 in Tabriz. Results: During the process of qualitative analysis, the content of the category "balance", as the core essence of the experience of participants, was extracted according to three sub-categories: a- the physical integration (physiological stability, saving the affected limb), b-connecting to the life stream (self-care, getting accustomed, normalization), and c- return to the existence (sense of inner satisfaction and excellence). Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the physical, psychological and social scales introduced by other studies. Also proposed the concept "return to the existence", that can be measured by the emergence of a sense of inner satisfaction and excellence in the individual, as one of the key and determinant scales in returning the victims of burn to life. PMID:25717453

Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Lotfi, Mojgan; Salehi, Feridoon

2014-01-01

393

The Meaning of Collaboration, from the Perspective of Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Interdisciplinary collaboration among nurses is a complex and multifaceted process, an essential element in nursing, which is crucial to maintain an efficient, safe, and viable medical setting. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of concept of collaboration through conducting a qualitative research approach. Method. The present study is qualitatively conducted in a content analysis approach. The data collection process included 18 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses during 2012-2013 in educational medical centers of west and northwest of Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and finally analyzed using a qualitative content analysis with a conventional method. Result. Categories obtained from analysis of the data to explain the meaning of collaboration consist of (i) prerequisites of collaboration, (ii) actualization of collaboration, and (iii) achievement of a common goal. Conclusion. The results of the present study ended in the discovery of meaning of collaboration that confirm results of other related studies, hence clarifying and disambiguating the concept under study. These results also contribute to the development of collaboration theories and the relevant measurement tools. PMID:25587572

Zamanzadeh, V.; Irajpour, A.; Valizadeh, L.; Shohani, M.

2014-01-01

394

ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

PubMed Central

A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

2011-01-01

395

What Is the Process By Which People Make a Purchase on the Internet?: A Qualitative Case Study  

E-print Network

What Is the Process By Which People Make a Purchase on the Internet?: A Qualitative Case Study purpose for conducting this qualitative case study is to better understand the process by which people make a decision to purchase on the Internet. From reviewing current literature, potential factors could

396

Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

2008-01-01

397

A Review and Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To review and synthesize findings across qualitative studies on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Methods Articles were systematically reviewed and analyzed within a meta-analytic framework. Analyses included a multi-perspective (e.g., individual, physician, familial) examination of ME/CFS, as well as a comparative analysis of ME/CFS versus other chronic conditions. Results Thirty-four (34) qualitative studies on ME/CFS were identified and included. Findings include three substantive thematic areas that focus on studies concerning: (1) experiences of people with ME/CFS, (2) experiences of physicians, and (3) themes that intersect both of these groups. For patients, illness development influenced identity, reductions in functioning, and coping. Physician-specific themes described lack of awareness about the illness and recommended improvement in medical education. Themes that intersected expressed issues with diagnosis which creates tensions and fuels the stigmatization of ME/CFS. Conclusions Findings indicate multilayered, context-specific experiences and ways in which both people with ME/CFS, as well as the people involved in their lives, such as family or the medical community, understand their illness. Future qualitative studies should coalesce the various facets of the ME/CFS experience, the network members of people with ME/CFS, and the sociocultural environment through which the illness is understood. Practice implications Health care professionals can gain unique insight from patient experiences, allowing for more accurate diagnoses and treatment recommendations. PMID:21571484

Anderson, Valerie R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Hlavaty, Laura; Porter, Nicole; Cudia, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

398

Iranian nurses’ perception of essential competences in disaster response: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters, natural and man-made, are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events. Nurses are one of the most significant groups within Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and longer term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This paper presented the results of a study aimed to explore the context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was performed in 2012 in Iran. Interviews were conducted with 35 nurses. The sampling of participants was purposeful and continued until data saturation was achieved. Themes were identified using inductive qualitative content analysis. Trustworthiness of the study was supported considering auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. Findings: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes included 1-management competences, 2- ethical and legal competences, 3-team working, 4-personal competences, and specific technical competences that presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of nursing competences required for Iranian nurses in disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disaster. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in the nursing care. PMID:25250347

Bahrami, Masoud; Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Aein, Fereshteh

2014-01-01

399

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Proximal Goal Setting of Two Introductory Modeling Instruction Physics Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proximal goal setting has been strongly linked to self-efficacy and often occurs in successful problem solving. A qualitative study, using both observations and interviews, investigated the problem-solving processes and the self-efficacy of two students enrolled in an introductory physics course that implemented Modeling Instruction at Florida International University. We found that the problem solving process could be divided into two main phases: the goal setting process and the self-efficacy feedback loop. Further, from the qualitative data, the goal setting process could not be isolated from its impact on the self-efficacy of the students. This relationship between the goal setting strategies within the problem-solving process and self-efficacy may be linked to the retention of students in physics. We present results of the study and its possible link to student retention.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

2009-11-01

400

Women's perceptions of homebirths in two rural medical districts in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts. PMID:21276252

2011-01-01

401

A qualitative study of parental modeling and social support for physical activity in underserved adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in under- served (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) par- ticipated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed and coded by independent raters. Inter-rater reliabilities indicated adequate

Marcie S. Wright; Dawn K. Wilson; Sarah Griffin; Alexandra Evans

2008-01-01

402

Improving a Web Usability Inspection Technique Using Qualitative and Quantitative Data from an Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a checklist-based usability inspection technique (WDP - Web Design Perspectives-Based Usability Evaluation) specific for Web applications' usability evaluation and we are following an experimentation-based methodology to support its development and improvement. This paper describes an observational study conducted, aimed at eliciting how inspectors apply the WDP technique. We discuss the quantitative and qualitative results of the result

Tayana Conte; V. Vaz; J. Massolar; E. Mendes; Guilherme Horta Travassos

2009-01-01

403

Patients' and Practitioners' Views of Knee Osteoarthritis and Its Management: A Qualitative Interview Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo identify the views of patients and care providers regarding the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to reveal potential obstacles to improving health care strategies.MethodsWe performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews of a stratified sample of 81 patients (59 women) and 29 practitioners (8 women, 11 general practitioners [GPs], 6 rheumatologists, 4 orthopedic surgeons, and 8 [4

Sophie Alami; Isabelle Boutron; Dominique Desjeux; Monique Hirschhorn; Gwendoline Meric; François Rannou; Serge Poiraudeau; Ulrich Thiem

2011-01-01

404

Qualitative Study of Suicidality and Help-Seeking Behaviors in African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explores adolescents’ perceptions of help-seeking behaviors in the context of a hypothetical suicide\\u000a crisis. Cauce and colleague’s (2002, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 44–55) model was used to examine help-seeking behaviors in 3 domains: problem recognition, decision to seek help, and selection\\u000a of helpers. Forty-two church-going African American adolescents participated in 1 of 6 focus

Sherry Davis Molock; Crystal Barksdale; Samantha Matlin; Rupa Puri; Nicole Cammack; Marisa Spann

2007-01-01

405

Prevention of type 2 diabetes in British Bangladeshis: qualitative study of community, religious, and professional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand lay beliefs and attitudes, religious teachings, and professional perceptions in relation to diabetes prevention in the Bangladeshi community.Design Qualitative study (focus groups and semistructured interviews).Setting Tower Hamlets, a socioeconomically deprived London borough, United Kingdom.Participants Bangladeshi people without diabetes (phase 1), religious leaders and Islamic scholars (phase 2), and health professionals (phase 3).Methods 17 focus groups were run

Clare Grace; Reha Begum; Syed Subhani; Peter Kopelman; Trisha Greenhalgh

2008-01-01

406

Inhibitors and enablers of physical activity in multiethnic hypertensive patients: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular physical activity (PA) can reduce blood pressure, but hypertensive patients in ethnic minority populations are often inactive. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore inhibitors and enablers of PA from the perspective of hypertensive Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and White-Dutch patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In-depth individual interviews with 46 patients were analysed for thematic content, using Maxqda software.

E J A J Beune; J A Haafkens; C Agyemang; P J E Bindels; EJAJ Beune

2010-01-01

407

Receptionists' experiences of occupational violence in general practice: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The significance of occupational violence in general practice is well established, but research has focused almost exclusively on the experiences of GPs. Only limited research has examined the role of general practice receptionists despite their acknowledged vulnerability to violent patient behaviour. No qualitative research has explored this problem. Aim To explore the experiences of general practice receptionists regarding occupational violence and the effects of violence on their psychological and emotional wellbeing and on their work satisfaction and performance. Design of study Qualitative study. Setting Constituent practices of an Australian network of research general practices. Practices were located in a range of socioeconomic settings. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice receptionists. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to thematic analysis employing a process of constant comparison in which data collection and analysis were cumulative and concurrent. Qualitative written responses from a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study performed concurrently with the qualitative study were similarly analysed. Results Nineteen interviews were conducted and 12 written responses were received. Violence was found to be a common, sometimes pervasive, experience of many receptionists. Verbal abuse, both ‘across the counter’ and telephone abuse, was the most prominent form of violence, although other violence, including assault and threats with guns, was reported. Experiences of violence could have marked emotional and psychological effects and could adversely affect job satisfaction, performance, and commitment. Conclusion It is apparent that occupational violence is a whole-of-practice problem and strategies for GP and staff safety will need to take a whole-of-practice approach. PMID:22751233

Magin, Parker; Joyce, Terry; Adams, Jon; Goode, Susan; Cotter, Georgina

2009-01-01

408

The role of the “champion” in infection prevention: results from a multisite qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Although 20% or more of healthcare-associated infections can be prevented, many hospitals have not implemented practices known to reduce infections. We explored the types and numbers of champions who lead efforts to implement best practices to prevent hospital-acquired infection in US hospitals.Methods:Qualitative analyses were conducted within a multisite, sequential mixed methods study of infection prevention practices in Veteran Affairs and

L J Damschroder; J Banaszak-Holl; C P Kowalski; J Forman; S Saint; S L Krein

2009-01-01

409

Making decisions for people with dementia who lack capacity: qualitative study of family carers in UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify common difficult decisions made by family carers on behalf of people with dementia, and facilitators of and barriers to such decisions, in order to produce information for family carers about overcoming barriers.Design Qualitative study to delineate decision areas through focus groups and complexity of decision making in individual interviews.Setting Community settings in London.Participants 43 family carers of

Gill Livingston; Gerard Leavey; Monica Manela; Deborah Livingston; Greta Rait; Elizabeth Sampson; Shilpa Bavishi; Khodayar Shahriyarmolki; Claudia Cooper

2010-01-01

410

Identity experience among progressive gay Muslims in North America: A qualitative study within Al?Fatiha  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study aims to document the identity experience of progressive gay Muslim men in a North American context. Six in?depth interviews, supplemented with participant observation, were conducted of gay Muslim men who attended an international conference for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) Muslims. For progressive gay Muslims such as these, a Muslim identity appears three?dimensional (religious, ethno?cultural,

Omar Minwalla; B. R. Simon Rosser; Jamie Feldman; Christine Varga

2005-01-01

411

Physician Practices in Response to Intimate Partner Violence in Southern India: Insights from a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care providers in India are often the only institutional contact for women experiencing intimate partner violence, a pervasive public health problem with adverse health outcomes. This qualitative study was among the first to examine Indian primary care physicians' intimate partner violence practices. Between July 2007 and January 2008, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians serving low-to-middle income women

Karuna Sridharan Chibber; Suneeta Krishnan; Meredith Minkler

2011-01-01

412

Transitions to palliative care in acute hospitals in England: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo explore how transitions to a palliative care approach are perceived to be managed in acute hospital settings in England.DesignQualitative study.SettingSecondary or primary care settings in two contrasting areas of England.Participants58 health professionals involved in the provision of palliative care in secondary or primary care.ResultsParticipants identified that a structured transition to a palliative care approach of the type advocated in

Merryn Gott; Christine Ingleton; Michael I Bennett; Clare Gardiner

2011-01-01

413

Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia.Design Qualitative interview study.Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia.Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers.Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the

Tim Rhodes; Milena Simi?; Sladjana Baroš; Lucy Platt; Bojan Žiki?

2008-01-01

414

Qualitative interview study of communication between parents and children about maternal breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine parents' communication with their children about the diagnosis and initial treatment of breast cancer in the mother.Design: Qualitative interview study within cross sectional cohort.Setting: Two breast cancer treatment centres.Participants: 32 women with stage I or stage II breast cancer with a total of 56 school aged children.Main outcome measures: Semistructured interview regarding timing and extent of communication

Jacqueline Barnes; Leanda Kroll; Olive Burke; Joanna Lee; Alison Jones; Alan Stein

2000-01-01

415

Empirical studies on informal patient payments for health care services: a systematic and critical review of research methods and instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Empirical evidence demonstrates that informal patient payments are an important feature of many health care systems. However, the study of these payments is a challenging task because of their potentially illegal and sensitive nature. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review and analysis of key methodological difficulties in measuring informal patient payments. Methods The systematic review was based on the following eligibility criteria: English language publications that reported on empirical studies measuring informal patient payments. There were no limitations with regard to the year of publication. The content of the publications was analysed qualitatively and the results were organised in the form of tables. Data sources were Econlit, Econpapers, Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX. Results Informal payments for health care services are most often investigated in studies involving patients or the general public, but providers and officials are also sample units in some studies. The majority of the studies apply a single mode of data collection that involves either face-to-face interviews or group discussions. One of the main methodological difficulties reported in the publication concerns the inability of some respondents to distinguish between official and unofficial payments. Another complication is associated with the refusal of some respondents to answer questions on informal patient payments. We do not exclude the possibility that we have missed studies that reported in non-English language journals as well as very recent studies that are not yet published. Conclusions Given the recent evidence from research on survey methods, a self-administrated questionnaire during a face-to-face interview could be a suitable mode of collecting sensitive data, such as data on informal patient payments. PMID:20849658

2010-01-01

416

Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Among Three Ethnic Subgroups of US Blacks: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently associated with one of the highest burdens of morbidity and mortality among American men and women. Racial/ethnic disparities are well documented and the subject of intense research and intervention. Our understanding of disparities related to awareness and perceptions about causes, risk, factors, and screening for CRC among subgroups of blacks in the United States is limited. This may be in part because grouping. US-born blacks and foreign-born blacks as one homogeneous group obscures possible within-group differences. This study aimed to explore the cultural perceptions of CRC among 3 ethnic subgroups of blacks: African Americans (US born), foreign-born blacks from English-speaking Caribbean countries, and Haitian-born blacks. The study was informed by a community-based participatory research approach, using a cross-sectional mixed qualitative and quantitative methods design. A total of 62 individuals from the 3 ethnic subgroups participated in semistructured, in-depth qualitative and structured quantitative interviews. Qualitative findings revealed no stark differences among the 3 ethnic subgroups in their overall perceptions of cancer as well as their attitudes related to barriers, motivation, and resources for CRC screening. However, there were subtle differences in perceptions of curability, preventive practices, and preferred sources of information among the three ethnic subgroups of US blacks. The study has important implications for the design of educational materials and targeted interventions for diverse groups of US blacks. PMID:22046844

Gwede, Clement K.; Jean-Francois, Emmanuel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Tarver, Will L.; Thomas, Kamilah B.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.

2014-01-01

417

Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

Stanwick, Peter A.

2010-01-01

418

Adequacy, Accuracy, Scalability, and Uncertainty of Architecturebased Software Reliability: Lessons Learned from Large Empirical Case Studies  

E-print Network

: Lessons Learned from Large Empirical Case Studies Katerina Goseva­Popstojanova, Margaret Hamill, and Xuan on applying architecture­based software reliability models on a large scale case study allowed us to test how. In this paper we first present an additional case study which con- firms our earlier findings. Then, we present

Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

419

Producing and Interpreting Debug Texts An Empirical Study of Distributed, Parallel Debugging  

E-print Network

preliminary findings from an ethnographic study of distributed, parallel debugging in an open source software ten months ethnographic studies in the Gentoo OSS community. The Gentoo community develops, maintainsProducing and Interpreting Debug Texts An Empirical Study of Distributed, Parallel Debugging

420

Recruiting palliative patients for a large qualitative study: some ethical considerations and staff dilemmas.  

PubMed

This article reports on the processes of staff members in referring patients to a study that explored the experience of palliative patients, family members, and health professionals with the implementation of a family meeting model as an instrument of spiritual care. The reported qualitative study was undertaken in two large metropolitan Australian hospitals. Criteria other than those set by the study protocol were employed by staff members referring patients. These included subjective opinions of who was suitable to refer and perceptions of patients' attitudes to religion or spirituality. Such practices raise ethical issues and may compromise studies that have received ethics approval. PMID:20451149

Tan, Heather; Wilson, Anne; Olver, Ian; Barton, Christopher

2010-01-01

421

How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2007-01-01

422

An Empirical Review of Internet Addiction Outcome Studies in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…

Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.

2012-01-01

423

Using ERP and WfM Systems for Implementing Business Processes: An Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software systems mainly considered from enterprises for dealing with a business process automation belong to the following two categories: Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. The wider diffusion of ERP systems tends to favourite this solution, but there are several limitations of most ERP systems for automating business processes. This paper reports an empirical study aiming at comparing the ability of implementing business processes of ERP systems and WfMSs. Two different case studies have been considered in the empirical study. It evaluates and analyses the correctness and completeness of the process models implemented by using ERP and WfM systems.

Aversano, Lerina; Tortorella, Maria

424

Disclosure of child sexual abuse by adolescents: a qualitative in-depth study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure. PMID:22821848

Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

2012-11-01

425

Crafts and Generative Expression: A Qualitative Study of the Meaning of Creativity in Women Who Make Jewelry in Midlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine beliefs about creative activity and its psychological and spiritual benefits among middle-aged women who make jewelry, using qualitative measures. Twenty-nine female participants aged 31 to 64 answered questions about the effects of jewelry making on their lives. Qualitative responses provided…

Adams-Price, Carolyn E.; Steinman, Bernard A.

2007-01-01

426

Lean manufacturing in continuous process industry: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean manufacturing is a production strategy for organizational effectiveness focusing on waste reduction and improving productivity through application of various tools. This paper attempts to find out the reasons for sparse adoption of the concept in Indian manufacturing organisations through a cross-sectional survey study. The study highlights knowledge and understanding levels of Indian managers about the concept of lean manufacturing,

S S Mahapatra; S R Mohanty

2007-01-01

427

Academic Probation: An Empirical Study of Private University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…

Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque

2014-01-01

428

Online Behavior in Virtual Space: An Empirical Study on Helping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies have acknowledged that helping behavior has many potential benefits, little research has aimed at understanding which factors would possibly enhance helping behaviors among team members in CSCL environment. Accordingly, this study was intended to identify underlying factors leading learners to collaborate in virtual CSCL…

Hsu, Jung-Lung; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Jui-Jung

2011-01-01

429

Arbitration by the Numbers: The State of Empirical Research on International Commercial Arbitration  

E-print Network

This article provides an overview of the state of empirical research on international commercial arbitration, focusing on quantitative rather than qualitative studies. It begins by discussing sources of data on international commercial arbitration...

Drahozal, Christopher R.

2006-07-01

430

Why people use social networking sites: An empirical study integrating network externalities and motivation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-developing social networking sites (SNS) have become the major media by which people develop their personal network online in recent years. To explore factors affecting user’s joining SNS, this study applies network externalities and motivation theory to explain why people continue to join SNS. This study used an online questionnaire to conduct empirical research, and collected and analyzed data of

Kuan-Yu Lin; Hsi-Peng Lu

2011-01-01

431

How does Technology Influence Online Music Access and Use? A Taxonomy of Empirical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the literature, a taxonomy of empirical studies that investigate online music systems is discussed in this paper. The studies presented discuss a number of related issues such as music sharing, security technologies like digital rights management (DRM), and changing business models. Research into online music systems is inherently cross disciplinary, and two main groups (industry\\/users) are identified to

Jenine Beekhuyzen; Liisa von Hellens

432

Measuring the Business Impact of E-Learning: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study fills a gap in the current HRD [human resource development] literature of return on investment (ROI) analysis of technology-based learning interventions. Using a Type IV control group method as defined by Wang (2002), the study empirically analyzed and measured the learning effectiveness and the business impact of an e-learning system…

Wang, Greg; Von Der Linn, Robert; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris; Sceiford, Erin

2003-01-01

433

Why Hong Kong Internet Users Do Not Shop Online - An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research papers on consumer behaviour of Internet non-shoppers in Hong Kong have been lacking. This empirical study by on -line questionnaire and focus group interview is an attempt to explore further into the key aspects in this subject area. The focus of this study is on understanding what are the barriers against Internet shopping in Hong Kong, and what

Douglas Hui

434

Effects of e-service quality on loyalty intention: an empirical study in online auction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to draw on expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) to explore e-service quality and the factors influencing an individual's loyalty intention towards online auctions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors conducted an empirical study and data were collected from a total of 619 bidders in online auctions. A structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to assess

Chia-Hui Yen; Hsi-Peng Lu

2008-01-01

435

Adapting Linux for Mobile Platforms: An Empirical Study of Android Foutse Khomh, Hao Yuan, Ying Zou  

E-print Network

Adapting Linux for Mobile Platforms: An Empirical Study of Android Foutse Khomh, Hao Yuan, Ying Zou.e., Android). The Android mobile operating system has become one of the most popular adaptations of the Linux kernel with approximately 60 millions new mobile devices running Android each year. Despite many studies

Zou, Ying

436

Meaning as a mission: A review of empirical studies on appraisals of war and peacekeeping experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to review the scientific literature on making sense of war and peacekeeping experiences, and it includes an analysis of empirical studies that examine appraisals of military deployment experiences among veterans. Veterans reported more positive than negative effects in the studies of this review. Furthermore, construing positive meaning from war and peacekeeping experiences, especially related

Michaela L. Schok; Rolf J. Kleber; Martin Elands; Jos M. P. Weerts

2008-01-01

437

Men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation: a systematic review of qualitative studies 2000-2013.  

PubMed

This paper aims to report on a systematic review of qualitative studies on men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. Nine databases were systematically searched to identify qualitative papers published between 2000 and 2013. Papers were selected by pre-defined inclusion criteria and subsequently critically appraised. Key themes were extracted and synthesised. Fifteen papers were selected and represented. Four central themes were identified in the analytical process: 'changed life perspective', 'the masculinity factor', 'a desire to get back to normal' and 'the meaning of work'. Six peripheral themes were identified: 'the meaning of context', 'music', 'physical training', 'religion', 'humour' and 'the unmentionable'. The themes were synthesised into an integrative model representing men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. We conclude that existing qualitative literature offers insight into men's reflections on cancer rehabilitation and highlights the interrelationship between men's reflections on their changed life perspective, masculinity, orientation towards a normal life and getting back to work. Further research-based knowledge is needed to explore (1) the underlying causes and patterns of the men's needs, preferences and choices in rehabilitation; and (2) the health professional perspective on male cancer rehabilitation. PMID:24118299

Handberg, C; Nielsen, C V; Lomborg, K

2014-03-01

438

Comparative approaches from empirical to mechanistic simulation modelling in Land Evaluation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Land Evaluation (LE) comprise the evaluation procedures to asses the attitudes of the land to a generic or specific use (e.g. biomass production). From local to regional and national scale the approach to the land use planning should requires a deep knowledge of the processes that drive the functioning of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. According to the classical approaches the assessment of attitudes is the result of a qualitative comparison between the land/soil physical properties and the land use requirements. These approaches have a quick and inexpensive applicability; however, they are based on empirical and qualitative models with a basic knowledge structure specifically built for a specific landscape and for the specific object of the evaluation (e.g. crop). The outcome from this situation is the huge difficulties in the spatial extrapolation of the LE results and the rigidity of the system. Modern techniques instead, rely on the application of mechanistic and quantitative simulation modelling that allow a dynamic characterisation of the interrelated physical and chemical processes taking place in the soil landscape. Moreover, the insertion of physical based rules in the LE procedure may make it less difficult in terms of both extending spatially the results and changing the object (e.g. crop species, nitrate dynamics, etc.) of the evaluation. On the other side these modern approaches require high quality and quantity of input data that cause a significant increase in costs. In this scenario nowadays the LE expert is asked to choose the best LE methodology considering costs, complexity of the procedure and benefits in handling a specific land evaluation. In this work we performed a forage maize land suitability study by comparing 9 different methods having increasing complexity and costs. The study area, of about 2000 ha, is located in North Italy in the Lodi plain (Po valley). The range of the 9 employed methods ranged from standard LE approaches to the extensive use of simulation modelling (SWAP and CropSyst), using as data input pre-existing soil information (soil map 1:50000) and also hydraulic properties measured as well estimated by PTF. The comparison between the different methods was based on both cost and predictive ability of each of the methods. The latter was evaluated by comparison to the estimate of forage maize biomass obtained by using locally tested remote sensing measurements. Statistical indexes like correlation, relative variance and ANOVA test were applied. As expected, higher method complexity corresponds to higher quality/quantity of input parameters and as consequence higher costs. Generally, results show that more complex methods gave better results in terms of their predictive ability and those operating on measurements gave better performance than those operating on PTF. Moreover, the best predictive results were obtained abandoning the support of the soil mapping units, incrementing dramatically the number of sampling and analysis and applying the simulation modelling on real benchmark soils rather than averaging more soils observations. Keywords: Land Evaluation, simulation modelling, CropSyst, SWAP, NDVI.

Manna, P.; Basile, A.; Bonfante, A.; Terribile, F.

2009-04-01

439

Adolescent perspectives on social support received in the aftermath of sexual abuse: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The extent and quality of social support provided to young survivors of sexual abuse (SA) have only rarely been examined. This qualitative study aimed to investigate adolescent perspectives on social support received in the aftermath of SA. A total of 26 sexually victimized adolescents (15-18 years old) participated in a qualitative face-to-face, in-depth interview that focused on perceived social support. Qualitative content analysis was conducted as per Mayring (2008) using the qualitative data analysis program ATLAS.ti. In addition, quantitative correlational analyses were conducted to identify characteristics of SA and their associations with perceived social support. Although participants perceived parental support as the most necessary type of support, they were much more satisfied with support from peers. In particular, adolescents stated that they wished they had received more emotional support from their parents in order to better cope with the abuse. About half of participants reported having received counseling, and counseling was seen as very helpful in dealing with the consequences of SA. Only a few adolescents mentioned their school as a source of support. Intra-familial abuse, younger victim age at the time of abuse, an adult perpetrator, and severe abuse were all negatively associated with satisfaction with perceived support. Our results suggest that support for young survivors of SA needs to be improved. Prevention of SA needs particular focus on improving parental reactions to SA, facilitating access to professional support, and raising teacher awareness of the importance of their role in the provision of support for sexually victimized children. PMID:24469339

Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

2014-04-01

440

Website Service Quality in Ireland: An Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that service quality is a critical determinant of website success, studies show that consumers frequently view the service quality delivered through websites as unsatisfactory. This paper outlines a study that investigated the dimensions of website service excellence valued by Irish customers of a small-to-medium enterprise specialising in gifts. The E-S-QUAL measurement instrument was applied to the customers who purchase products online from this retailer, in order to determine their purchasing patterns and the dimensions of e-service quality that they value. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of the instrument in determining gaps in e-service quality. The findings will be of benefit both to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute towards the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction in Irish online transactions.

Connolly, Regina

441

College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

2008-01-01

442

An Empirical Study of Graduate Student Mobility Underpinning Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of international student mobility has had a profound effect on policy decision-making in the higher education system of essentially every country; however, the statistical data on this subject are insufficient, especially for graduate students. The purposes of this study are to substantiate the state of international mobility among…

Furukawa, Takao; Shirakawa, Nobuyuki; Okuwada, Kumi

2013-01-01

443

Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between creativity and tolerance of ambiguity. Participants were parents and their adolescent children. Three measures of creativity were used: a divergent thinking task, a story-writing task and self-evaluation of creative attitudes and behavior. Participants completed two self-report measures of tolerance of…

Zenasni, Franck; Besancon, Maud; Lubart, Todd

2008-01-01

444

The Depth and Breadth of Google Scholar: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this investigation are tests for Google Scholar publication

Chris Neuhaus; Ellen Neuhaus; Alan Asher; Clint Wrede

2006-01-01

445

Doing Theodicy: An Empirical Study of a Women's Prayer Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a weekly women's prayer group in a small northern English town discusses how participants resolve tensions which may arise from unanswered prayer. The most important mechanism in that process is the informal ‘chatting’ which precedes the period of formal prayer. The author concludes that women actively conduct a ‘ritual of theodicy’ to rescue their worldview from chaos.

Abby Day

2005-01-01

446

What Makes Knowledge Sharing in Organizations Tick? An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study1 aims to understand the social and organizational factors that influence knowledge sharing. A model of knowledge management and knowledge sharing was developed inspired by the work of Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998). Data on demographics and various social capital measures were collected from a sample of members of a tertiary educational institution in Singapore in 2003. Reward & recognition,

Yue Wah CHAY; Thomas MENKHOFF; Benjamin LOH; Hans-Dieter EVERS

2010-01-01

447

An empirical study on sea water quality prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the problem of predicting future values for a number of water quality variables, based on measurements from under-water sensors. It performs both exploratory and automatic analysis of the collected data with a variety of linear and nonlinear modeling methods. The paper investigates issues, such as the ability to predict future values for a varying number of days

Evaggelos V. Hatzikos; Grigorios Tsoumakas; George Tzanis; Nick Bassiliades; Ioannis P. Vlahavas

2008-01-01

448

THOTH'S BENEDICTION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE INTENSIVE SMALL FIRMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rohan and I had been exchanging e-mails daily for about a fortnight. The case study that Rohan had done for me had obviously got him excited. He had interviewed a firm in Pune at my request; and I myself had done two at Delhi. The similarities and differences were making us both analyze the situation from varied angles; however, we

Kshitij Chandra Jha; Sudhir K. Jain

449

An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

2012-01-01

450

Fairness Perceptions and Organizational Misbehavior: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employees evaluate the fairness or justice of their workplace: Does one get what one deserves at work? Organizational scholars consider perceived workplace fairness to be a relevant factor in predicting and explaining organizational misbehavior. For instance, Treviño and Weaver found in their study that the more employees perceive that their organization is just, the less they perceive their colleagues to

Annelies De Schrijver; Karlien Delbeke; Jeroen Maesschalck; Stefaan Pleysier

2010-01-01

451

Who will buy electric cars? An empirical study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study forecasts the market potential of electric vehicles by looking at 14 categories of vehicle. It weighs the individual priorities against social preferences and a selection process is used to analyse priorities and barriers to allow individuals considered potential electric vehicle buyers to be identified.

Theo Lieven; Silke Mühlmeier; Sven Henkel; Johann F. Waller

2011-01-01

452

Children's comprehension of electronic books: On empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effect of the electronic medium on comprehension and reading speed, a study of user interaction with electronic books was carried out comparing children reading an electronic book with children reading the same text in two different printed versions. The children were aged 9–11 years and were matched according to both gender and reading ability. The

Sally Maynard; Cliff McKnight

2001-01-01

453

Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

2014-01-01

454

Accepting an Early Retirement Bonus: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study applies a pension acceptance model to acceptance of an early retirement pension bonus. Probabilities of acceptance range from .18 to .33. It also simulates acceptance behavior without the bonus, with probabilities of acceptance ranging from .11 to .30. (Author/CH)

Hogarth, Jeanne M.

1988-01-01

455

Similarity Attraction in Learning Contexts: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests a process model of learning in which trainer and trainee traits are simultaneously considered as endogenous variables of learning outcomes. The article builds on a social view of training and similarity-attraction paradigms. In this context, the authors hypothesize that trainer-trainee similarity in personality (agreeableness)…

Varela, Otmar E.; Cater, John James, III; Michel, Norbert

2011-01-01

456

An empirical study of complexity metrics in Cobol programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity has been used as an important means for exploiting codes to predict or improve program quality and to measure the impact of maintenance costs. Many of the complexity metrics have been known to measure a similar construct of program codes. In revealing the underlying construct of 13 complexity metrics, this study divides the 368 Cobol programs into four classes

Ho-won Jung; Marjan Pivka; Jong-yoon Kim

2000-01-01

457

IT Entrepreneurial Intention among College Students: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the…

Chen, Liqiang

2013-01-01

458

Research Compensation and Lottery: An Online Empirical Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recruiting participants for a research project can be challenging. Incentives, particularly monetary incentives, have been shown to increase response rates. Offering a monetary incentive for participation in a research study can become very costly for the investigators. For this reason some researchers, including graduate students involved in…

Zangeneh, Masood; Barmaki, Reza; Gibson-Wood, Hilary; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Romeo, Rosemary; Bottoms, Jennifer

2008-01-01

459

An Empirical Study of Reporting Practices Concerning Measurement Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the current research practice concerning reporting measurement validity evidence based on a sample of 696 research reports listed in the American Psychological Association's Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Only 55% of the reports included any type of validity evidence. This was a substantially lower…

Hogan, Thomas P.; Agnello, Jessica

2004-01-01

460

Empirical Study on College Students' Debugging Abilities in Computer Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students' debugging abilities plays a major role in their computer programming. Some researchers report that debugging work represents about 25-50% of the cost of a large software project, and an even greater proportion of an individual programmer's task. This paper studied the college students' debugging abilities in computer programming by designing an experiment, providing experimental materials, designing an experimental

Du Chuntao

2009-01-01

461

A Qualitative Study of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural Households in Southeastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

The HIV/AIDS pandemic threatens economic, social, and environmental sustainability throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring interrelationships between HIV/AIDS, labor availability, agricultural productivity, household resources, food consumption, and health status in rural southeastern Uganda. Respondents reported an increase in widow-and-orphan-headed households; labor shortages due to illness and caretaking; degradation of household resources from health-related expenses; loss of land tenure and assets following deaths, especially for widows and orphans; and changes in agricultural practices and productivity. Our study highlights a potential downward spiral of livelihood degradation for vulnerable households and suggests targeted interventions to improve sustainability. PMID:19742210

Parker, Dawn C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Komwa, Maction K.

2009-01-01

462

A qualitative study of the impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural households in Southeastern Uganda.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS pandemic threatens economic, social, and environmental sustainability throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring interrelationships between HIV/AIDS, labor availability, agricultural productivity, household resources, food consumption, and health status in rural southeastern Uganda. Respondents reported an increase in widow-and-orphan-headed households; labor shortages due to illness and caretaking; degradation of household resources from health-related expenses; loss of land tenure and assets following deaths, especially for widows and orphans; and changes in agricultural practices and productivity. Our study highlights a potential downward spiral of livelihood degradation for vulnerable households and suggests targeted interventions to improve sustainability. PMID:19742210

Parker, Dawn C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Komwa, Maction K

2009-08-01

463

Posttraumatic distress and growth: an empirical study of police officers.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the experience of posttraumatic growth, among police officers following traumatic incidents. Additionally, research examining the relationship between posttraumatic distress (e.g., posttraumatic symptoms) and posttraumatic growth among various populations has been inconsistent. Consistent with the need to gain enhanced understanding in the area of posttraumatic growth, this study investigated the relation between posttraumatic distress (using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised) and posttraumatic growth (using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) among 183 police officers. Results of Pearson Correlations showed that posttraumatic distress was significantly and positively related to the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory full-scale and all sub-scale scores. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being involved in a duty-related shooting was the most significant predictor of posttraumatic growth. Implications for mental health providers are discussed. PMID:20405765

Chopko, Brian A

2010-01-01

464

An Empirical Study on Software Engineering Knowledge\\/Experience Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with characterization of software engineering knowledge and experience packages (EP) in the user perspective.\\u000a It presents the first iteration of an evidence-based study. Results are presented from surveys conducted with many practitioners\\u000a about the available experience bases, and on literature, to improve our understanding about the state of the practice and\\u000a art for EP. Additionally, the

Pasquale Ardimento; Marta Cimitile

2008-01-01

465

Individualism-CollectivismAn Empirical Study of a Conceptual Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individualism-collectivism emerges from the literature as a high-order concept, explaining cross-cultural differences over a wide range of situations, with collectivists more inclined than individualists to provide for others. The present study challenges this conceptualization. Not only the readiness to support others (input) but also the expectation to receive support (output) has to be taken into account. Subjects in Hong Kong,

Yvonne A. Fjneman; Madde E. Willemsen; Ype H. Poortinga; Fatos G. Erelcin; James Georgas; C. Harry Hui; Kwok Leung; Roy S. Malpass

1996-01-01

466

The Make-or-Buy Decision: Lessons from Empirical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “transaction cost” theory of the firm introduced by Coase (1937) has become a standard framework for the study of institutional\\u000a arrangements. The Coasian framework helps explain not only the existence of the firm, but also its size and scope. Why, in\\u000a Coase’s (1937, pp. 393–94) words, “does the entrepreneur not organize one less transaction or one more?” Some firms

Peter G. Klein

467

Towards Desistance: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This article presents the initial theoretical underpinnings for a fresh prospective study of desistance, focused on 20-year-old recidivists. It is argued that significant crime-free gaps appropriately form part of the subject matter of desistance. An interactive theoretical framework is presented, involving ‘programmed potential’, ‘social context’ (structures, culture, situations) and ‘agency’. It is argued that agency, while rightly attracting increasing

Anthony Bottoms; Joanna Shapland; Andrew Costello; Deborah Holmes; Grant Muir

2004-01-01

468

Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

2014-01-01

469

Experiences of health care providers with integrated HIV and reproductive health services in Kenya: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is broad consensus on the value of integration of HIV services and reproductive health services in regions of the world with generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics and high reproductive morbidity. Integration is thought to increase access to and uptake of health services; and improves their efficiency and cost-effectiveness through better use of available resources. However, there is still very limited empirical literature on health service providers and how they experience and operationalize integration. This qualitative study was conducted among frontline health workers to explore provider experiences with integration in order to ascertain their significance to the performance of integrated health facilities. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 frontline clinical officers, registered nurses, and enrolled nurses in Kitui district (Eastern province) and Thika and Nyeri districts (Central province) in Kenya. The study was conducted in health facilities providing integrated HIV and reproductive health services (post-natal care and family planning). All interviews were conducted in English, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results Providers reported delivering services in provider-level and unit-level integration, as well as a combination of both. Provider experiences of actual integration were mixed. At personal level, providers valued skills enhancement, more variety and challenge in their work, better job satisfaction through increased client-satisfaction. However, they also felt that their salaries were poor, they faced increased occupational stress from: increased workload, treating very sick/poor clients, and less quality time with clients. At operational level, providers reported increased service uptake, increased willingness among clients to take an HIV test, and reduced loss of clients. But the majority also reported infrastructural and logistic deficiencies (insufficient physical room space, equipment, drugs and other medical supplies), as well as increased workload, waiting times, contact session times and low staffing levels. Conclusions The success of integration primarily depends on the performance of service providers which, in turn, depends on a whole range of facilitative organisational factors. The central Ministry of Health should create a coherent policy environment, spearhead strategic planning and ensure availability of resources for implementation at lower levels of the health system. Health facility staffing norms, technical support, cost-sharing policies, clinical reporting procedures, salary and incentive schemes, clinical supply chains, and resourcing of health facility physical space upgrades, all need attention. Yet, despite these system challenges, this study has shown that integration can have a positive motivating effect on staff and can lead to better sharing of workload - these are important opportunities that deserve to be built on. PMID:23311431

2013-01-01

470

Recruiting ethnic minority participants to a clinical trial: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the motives and experiences of different ethnic groups participating in a randomised double blind placebo-controlled trial of montelukast in preschool wheeze, and to assess parents’ or guardians’ understanding of trial procedures and their implications, including the collection of genetic material. Design Qualitative interviews with parents or guardians. Setting Interviews occurred in the homes of London children recruited to a national multicentre clinical trial following primary and secondary care attendance with wheeze. Participants 42 parents (20 of Bangladeshi origin, 10 white UK, 12 other ethnicities) of preschool children enrolled in a clinical trial. Results Bangladeshi families were relatively reluctant to participate in the qualitative study, despite strong engagement with the parent study. Anxiety related to wheezing was a common primary motive for trial enrolment. Parents viewed the trial as a route to improved treatment. Verbal delivery of trial information appeared more effective than study literature, especially for Bangladeshi families, with low parental literacy and high levels of trust in medical professionals potential contributors to this effect. All ethnic groups expressed a low understanding and/or retention of essential study concepts such as randomisation and genetic testing. Conclusions Bangladeshi families are particularly motivated to participate in clinical trials despite variable comprehension of study concepts. This motivation is more strongly contingent on strong researcher-subject rapport than on the quality of study literature. Trial teams seeking to recruit from South Asian populations should emphasise face-to-face verbal explanation of trial concepts and procedures and consider modified trial literature. PMID:23572193

MacNeill, Virginia; Nwokoro, Chinedu; Griffiths, Chris; Grigg, Jonathan; Seale, Clive

2013-01-01

471

Ontogeny of dreaming: a review of empirical studies.  

PubMed

The examination of children's sleep-related mental experiences presents many significant challenges for researchers investigating the developmental trajectories of human dreaming. In contrast to the well-explored developmental patterns of human sleep, data from dream research are strikingly divergent with highly ambiguous results and conclusions, even though there is plenty of indirect evidence suggesting parallel patterns of development between neural maturation and dreaming. Thus results from studies of children's dreaming are of essential importance not only to enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming but to also add to our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive and emotional development. This review summarizes research results related to the ontogeny of dreaming: we critically reconsider the field, systematically compare the findings based on different methodologies, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of methods, arguing in favor of methodological pluralism. Since most contradictory results emerge in connection with descriptive as well as content related characteristics of young children's dreams, we emphasize the importance of carefully selected dream collection methods. In contrast nightmare-related studies yield surprisingly convergent results, thus providing strong basis for inferences about the connections between dreaming and cognitive emotional functioning. Potential directions for dream research are discussed, aiming to explore the as yet unraveled correlations between the maturation of neural organization, sleep architecture and dreaming patterns. PMID:24629827

Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Bódizs, Róbert

2014-10-01

472

A Qualitative Assessment of Internal Factors for Tattooing among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study utilized, qualitative methodology, appraising internal factors used by students regarding tattoo decision-making. Twenty-four students, in two qualitative research waves of data collection, provided in-depth interviews about their personal constructs regarding choosing to tattoo. Results showed evidence of intrinsic…

Tse, Luke M.; Firmin, Michael W.; Angelini, Tammy; Foster, Janna

2012-01-01

473

Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

2012-01-01

474

006 op: methodological limitations and advances in studying culture and mental health: significance of qualitative approaches.  

PubMed

Social Epidemiology has had a long standing position in health research and covers distribution and determinants of health-related states in defined populations. The domain investigates patterns and causality, revealing health inequalities which aim to prevent and control health related issues. Understandably this field of research has advanced biological fields in exploring the relevance of social, cultural, environmental and economic factors that also play a fundamental role in ill health which is crucially ignored in biological standpoints. However, the dynamic of current societies is continuously changing and for example some areas in the UK are distinctively culturally diverse. By using my study of exploring reasons behind low reported rates of mental illness within the Gujarati community in Leicester I will argue that Social Epidemiology is limiting as method of studying in particular ethnic groups and mental health. This presentation will firstly, address the current problems with epidemiological studies in this area such as ecological fallacy, cultural stereotypes and validity of official statistics. Secondly, I will argue that qualitative research and sociological approaches are progressive for studying mental health. With reference to interview data I will outline a few current cultural complexities such as religion, language and changing traditions faced by both first and second generation migrants. Finally, I will conclude by proposing to progress mental health provision for ethnic groups there is much to be learnt about the intrinsic relationship culture has on mental health. Both qualitative methods and sociological approaches accommodate this required necessity. Having recognised the significance qualitative research has in health, we are faced with the problem of incorporating this in the universal province of the medical model of health which indeed is tricky and perhaps not one that is welcomed by all. PMID:25869715

Patel, R

2015-01-01

475

An empirical study of flight control software reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a laboratory experiment in flight control software reliability are reported. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of a pitch axis control law for a PA28 aircraft with over 14 million pitch commands with varying levels of additive input and feedback noise. The testing which uses the method of n-version programming for error detection surfaced four software faults in one implementation of the control law. The small number of detected faults precluded the conduct of the error burst analyses. The pitch axis problem provides data for use in constructing a model in the prediction of the reliability of software in systems with feedback. The study is undertaken to find means to perform reliability evaluations of flight control software.

Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

1986-01-01

476

Imaging skin pathologies with polarized light: Empirical and theoretical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of polarized light imaging can facilitate the determination of skin cancer borders before a Mohs surgery procedure. Linearly polarized light that illuminates the skin is backscattered by superficial layers where cancer often arises and is randomized by the collagen fibers. The superficially backscattered light can be distinguished from the diffused reflected light using a detector analyzer that is sequentially oriented parallel and perpendicular to the source polarization. A polarized image pol = parallel - perpendicular / parallel + perpendicular is generated. This image has a higher contrast to the superficial skin layers than simple total reflectance images. Pilot clinical trials were conducted with a small hand-held device for the accumulation of a library of lesions to establish the efficacy of polarized light imaging in vivo. It was found that melanoma exhibits a high contrast to polarized light imaging as well as basal and sclerosing cell carcinoma. Mechanisms of polarized light scattering from different tissues and tissue phantoms were studied in vitro. Parameters such as depth of depolarization (DOD), retardance, and birefringence were studied in theory and experimentally. Polarized light traveling through different tissues (skin, muscle, and liver) depolarized after a few hundred microns. Highly birefringent materials such as skin (DOD = 300 mum 696nm) and muscle (DOD = 370 mum 696nm) depolarized light faster than less birefringent materials such as liver (DOD = 700 mum 696nm). Light depolarization can also be attributed to scattering. Three Monte Carlo programs for modeling polarized light transfer into scattering media were implemented to evaluate these mechanisms. Simulations conducted with the Monte Carlo programs showed that small diameter spheres have different mechanisms of depolarization than larger ones. The models also showed that the anisotropy parameter g strongly influences the depolarization mechanism. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

477

Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.

Johnson, Paula Denise

478

An Empirical Study of Different Approaches for Protein Classification  

PubMed Central

Many domains would benefit from reliable and efficient systems for automatic protein classification. An area of particular interest in recent studies on automatic protein classification is the exploration of new methods for extracting features from a protein that work well for specific problems. These methods, however, are not generalizable and have proven useful in only a few domains. Our goal is to evaluate several feature extraction approaches for representing proteins by testing them across multiple datasets. Different types of protein representations are evaluated: those starting from the position specific scoring matrix of the proteins (PSSM), those derived from the amino-acid sequence, two matrix representations, and features taken from the 3D tertiary structure of the protein. We also test new variants of proteins descriptors. We develop our system experimentally by comparing and combining different descriptors taken from the protein representations. Each descriptor is used to train a separate support vector machine (SVM), and the results are combined by sum rule. Some stand-alone descriptors work well on some datasets but not on others. Through fusion, the different descriptors provide a performance that works well across all tested datasets, in some cases performing better than the state-of-the-art. PMID:25028675

Nanni, Loris

2014-01-01

479

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01

480

A qualitative study of the design process: the effects of a microcomputing system on beginning design students  

E-print Network

A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE DESIGN PROCESS: THE EFFECTS OF A MICRO COMPUTING SYSTEM ON BEGINNING DESIGN STUDENTS A Thesis by GAYLE YVONNE AYERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASSAM University in pardal fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE DESIGN PROCESS: THE ~S OF A MICRO COMPUTING SYSTEM ON BEGINNING DESIGN STUDENTS A Thesis by GAYLE YVONNE AYERS Approved...

Ayers, Gayle Yvonne

1992-01-01

481

A qualitative study comparing the instruction on vectors between a physics course and a trigonometry course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study method to investigate the instruction in a trigonometry course and a physics course based on a different methodology and set of assumptions about student learning and the nature of mathematics than traditionally used when investigating students' difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge. Transfer theory examined within a positivist or post-positivist paradigm is often used to investigate students' issue applying their knowledge; in contrast, this qualitative case-study is positioned using constructionism as an epistemology to understand and describe mathematical practices concerning vectors in a trigonometry and a physics course. Instructor interviews, observations of course lectures, and textbooks served as the qualitative data for in-depth study and comparison, and Saussure's (1959) concept of signifier and signified provided a lens for examining the data during analysis. Multiple recursions of within-case comparisons and across-case comparison were analyzed for differences in what the instructors and textbooks explicitly stated and later performed as their practices. While the trigonometry and physics instruction differed slightly, the two main differences occurred in the nature and use of vectors in the physics course. First, the "what" that is signified in notation and diagrams differs between contextualized and context-free situations, and second, physics instruction taught vectors very similar to trigonometry instruction when teaching the mathematics for doing physics, but once instruction focused on physics, the manner in which vector notation and diagrams are used differed from what is explicitly stated during mathematics instruction.

James, Wendy Michelle

482

Disengaged: a qualitative study of communication and collaboration between physicians and other professions on general internal medicine wards  

PubMed Central

Background Poor interprofessional communication in hospital is deemed to cause significant patient harm. Although recognition of this issue is growing, protocols are being implemented to solve this problem without empirical research on the interprofessional communication interactions that directly underpin patient care. We report here the first large qualitative study of directly-observed talk amongst professions in general internal medicine wards, describing the content and usual conversation partners, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms by which current patterns of interprofessional communications may impact on patient care. Methods Qualitative study with 155 hours of data-collection, including observation and one-on-one shadowing, ethnographic and semi-structured interviews with physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals in the General Internal Medicine (GIM) wards of two urban teaching hospitals in Canada. Data were coded and analysed thematically with a focus on collaborative interactions between health professionals in both interprofessional and intraprofesional contexts. Results Physicians in GIM wards communicated with other professions mainly in structured rounds. Physicians’ communications were terse, consisting of reports, requests for information, or patient-related orders. Non-physician observations were often overlooked and interprofessional discussion was rare. Intraprofessional interactions among allied health professions, and between nursing, as well as interprofessional interactions between nursing and allied health were frequent and deliberative in character, but very few such discussions involved physicians, whose deliberative interactions were almost entirely with other physicians. Conclusion Without interprofessional problem identification and discussion, physician decisions take place in isolation. While this might be suited to protocol-driven care for patients whose conditions were simple and courses predictable, it may fail complex patients in GIM who often need tailored, interprofessional decisions on their care. Interpersonal communication training to increase interprofessional deliberation may improve efficiency, patient-centredness and outcomes of care in hospitals. Also, electronic communications tools which reduce cognitive burden and facilitate the sharing of clinical observations and orders could help physicians to engage more in non-medical deliberation. Such interventions should take into account real-world power differentials between physicians and other health professions. PMID:24274052

2013-01-01

483

Empirical study herd behavior of corporation financing in China’s listed firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are so many factors effecting the financing decision of the listed firm. Using the result of behavior finance research about herd behavior in stock market, this paper firstly constructs the herd behavior index of the financing decision of the listed firm, and then studies herd behavior of corporation financing in Chinapsilas listed firms empirically with the methods of panel

Huang Bing-yi; Li Hui-hong

2008-01-01

484

Results from an Empirical Study of School Principals' Decisions about Disclosure of HIV Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school principals' decisions about disclosure of school age children's confidential medical information was empirically studied. Participants included a stratified sample of 339 elementary school principals from the seven largest school districts in Florida. Each participant received one of six vignettes describing a student with HIV,…

Chenneville, Tiffany

2007-01-01

485

Transfer From Offline Trust to Key Online Perceptions: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has provided little evidence that trust in an offline bank can encourage adoption of the bank's online business. Yet, more and more brick-and-mortar banks and other businesses are investing in online Web sites that supposedly ldquoleveragerdquo positive consumer impressions of their offline business. The main purpose of this study is to test empirically whether or not trust in an

Kun Chang Lee; Inwon Kang; D. Harrison McKnight

2007-01-01

486

Empirical Studies on Software Notices to Inform Policy Makers and Usability Designers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the usability of End User License Agreements (EULAs) of popular consumer programs. Results from an empirical evaluation of 50 popular programs show the lack of accessibility and readability of notices. Our data from a recent study with 64 users involved in installation tasks confirms the public perception that notice to and consent by the user is not achieved.

Grossklags, Jens; Good, Nathan

487

An Empirical Study Comparing the Effect of Feedback, Training and Executive Coaching on Leadership Behavior Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the phenomenal growth of executive coaching in recent years, there has been little empirical research on its effectiveness. Executive coaching is typically delivered with 360 degree feedback and training. This study tests whether there are significant differences in leadership behavior change for participants who: received feedback alone;…

Saling, Nona

2005-01-01

488

Gaining Access with Social Engineering: An Empirical Study of the Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, research on information security has expanded from its purely technological orientation into striving to understand and explain the role of human behavior in security breaches. However, an area that has been lacking theory-grounded empirical study is in social engineering attacks. While there exists an extensive body of anecdotal literature, factors that account for attack success remains largely speculative. To

Michael Workman

2007-01-01

489

Inappropriate Pooling of Wealthy and Poor Countries in Empirical FDI Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of whether less-developed countries' (LDCs') experiences with foreign direct investment (FDI) systematically different from those of developed countries (DCs). We do this by examining three types of empirical FDI studies that typically do not distinguish between LDCs and DCs in their analysis. First, we find that the underlying factors that determine the location of FDI

Bruce A. Blonigen; MIAO GRACE WANG

2004-01-01

490

Can Graphology Predict Occupational Success? Two Empirical Studies and Some Methodological Ruminations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two empirical studies for testing the validity of graphological predictions are reported. In the first, the graphologists rated bank employees on several job relevant traits, based on handwritten biographies. The scripts were also rated on the same traits by a clinical psychologist with no knowledge of graphology. The criterion was the ratings on the same traits by the employees' supervisors.

Gershon Ben-Shakhar; Maya Bar-Hillel; Yoram Bilu; Edor Ben-Abba; Anat Flug

1986-01-01

491

What can the Social Sciences Contribute to the Study of Rtics? Theoretical, Empirical and Substantive Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to establish that the social sciences have an important contribution to make to the study of ethics. The discussion is framed around three questions: (i) what theoretical work can the social sciences contribute to the understanding of ethics? (ii) what empirical work can the social sciences contribute to the understanding of ethics? And (iii) how does this

Erica Haimes

2002-01-01

492

Failure probability of external wall tiling systems : An empirical study of weathering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Tile finishes are very commonly used in external walls of buildings. However, the ageing process of the tile system is very seldom studied, which makes maintenance scheduling on external wall finishes impossible. The paper aims to contend that weathering exposure is one of the main accelerators of delamination. This paper seeks to test empirically the effects of orientation

C. Y. Yiu; S. M. Lo; Daniel C. W. Ho

2006-01-01

493

Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: Empirical Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning--analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of…

Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2007-01-01

494

An Empirical Study to Evaluate the Location of Advertisement Panels by Using a Mobile Marketing Tool  

E-print Network

a mobile business environment, AIS could be used for advertising, support, delivery of digital commoditiesAn Empirical Study to Evaluate the Location of Advertisement Panels by Using a Mobile Marketing The efficiency of marketing campaigns is a precondition for business success. This paper discusses how Bluetooth

Maron, Markus

495

Empirical Studies on Collaboration in Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration in software development is a complex is- sue that has been examined by various researchers over the last decade. This paper presents a systematic literature re- view of pertinent literature on empirical studies on collabo- rative software development. We found that a lot of progress has been achieved in the field of global or distributed de- velopment. While there

Christoph Treude; Margaret-Anne Storey; Jens Weber

2009-01-01

496

An empirical study of the behavior of programs in a paging environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports initial results from an empirical study directed at the measurement of program operating behavior in those multiprogramming systems in which programs are organized into fixed length pages. The data collected from the interpretive execution of a number of paged programs is used to describe the frequency of page faults; i.e. the frequency of those instants at which

L. C. Varian; E. G. Coffman

1967-01-01

497

University-Industry Collaboration, Knowledge Management and Enterprise Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study is concerned with university-industry collaboration from a knowledge management perspective. The authors introduce the concepts of "enterprise-level core elements" to define the principle status of an enterprise during university-industry collaboration, and "network embeddedness" as an indication of the closeness of the…

Chen, Jin; Wei, Shiyang

2008-01-01

498