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1

Qualitative Methods in Empirical Studies of Software Engineering  

E-print Network

of research. Along with new research questions, new research methods are needed to study nontechnical aspects of software engineering. In many other disciplines, qualitative research methods have been developed]. Qualitative research methods were designed, mostly by educational researchers and other social scientists [19

2

The Politics of Race in Two Languages: An Empirical Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon critical analyses of participant observations of classrooms, school documents, and in-depth interviews with teachers, administrators, and school-district supervisors conducted from 1999 to 2002, this qualitative study employs a post-structuralist framework to probe one US public elementary school's quest to realize educational equity…

Juarez, Brenda G.

2008-01-01

3

Qualitative Studies in HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…

1999

4

The prediction problem Empirical studies  

E-print Network

The prediction problem Empirical studies Details and summary Conditional prediction intervals 2009 Peter McCullagh, V. Vovk, I. Nouretdinov, D. Devetyarov and A. Gammerman #12;The prediction problem Empirical studies Details and summary Outline 1 The prediction problem Linear regression model

McCullagh, Peter

5

Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups

Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh; Shamsaddin Niknami; Eesa Mohammadi; Ali Montazeri; Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Fazlollah Ahmadi; Shahrzad Hejazi Bazargan

2009-01-01

6

Search strategies for identifying qualitative studies in CINAHL.  

PubMed

Nurses, allied health professionals, clinicians, and researchers increasingly use online access to evidence in the course of patient care or when conducting reviews on a particular topic. Qualitative research has an important role in evidence-based health care. Online searching for qualitative studies can be difficult, however, resulting in the need to develop search filters. The objective of this study was to develop optimal search strategies to retrieve qualitative studies in CINAHL for the 2000 publishing year. The authors conducted an analytic survey comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from CINAHL for candidate search terms and combinations. Combinations of search terms reached peak sensitivities of 98.9% and peak specificities of 99.5%. Combining search terms optimized both sensitivity and specificity at 94.2%. Empirically derived search strategies combining indexing terms and textwords can achieve high sensitivity and high specificity for retrieving qualitative studies from CINAHL. PMID:17478652

Wilczynski, Nancy L; Marks, Susan; Haynes, R Brian

2007-05-01

7

Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

2009-01-01

8

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative

Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

2012-01-01

9

Qualitative Case Study Research in Business Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

O'Connor, Bridget N.

2002-01-01

10

Qualitative Research and the Study of Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the introduction of qualitative research methods into the study of leadership may improve this area of research by facilitating the introduction of a wider range of contextual variables into the investigation of leadership styles. It is also contended that such variables have the advantage of being grounded in people's experiences and are therefore more accesible to

Alan Bryman; Michael Bresnen; Alan Beardsworth; Teresa Keil

1988-01-01

11

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial. PMID:24913438

2014-01-01

12

A metasynthesis of qualitative breastfeeding studies.  

PubMed

To date, exclusive breastfeeding rates worldwide remain modest despite multiple breastfeeding initiatives. Much breastfeeding research has been conducted, but to facilitate greater understanding, cumulative knowledge development is required. The author used Noblit and Hare's (1988) method to synthesize 15 qualitative breastfeeding studies. Synthesized studies revealed that breastfeeding is an "engrossing, personal journey," which is very physical and requires maternal commitment, adaptation, and support from multiple sources. Breastfeeding was also shown to have significant personal impact on mothers and to require time for resolution on discontinuing. These findings suggest that health care practitioners can provide the most meaningful breastfeeding support by acknowledging each mother's individual breastfeeding capacity, goals, comfort level with her own body, support network, tolerance of breastfeeding difficulties, and willingness to make the life adaptations that breastfeeding requires. An individually tailored breastfeeding plan is suggested to facilitate both a satisfactory maternal breastfeeding experience and to maximize breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. PMID:16504899

Nelson, Antonia M

2006-01-01

13

Empirical and theoretical studies in EU lobbying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume offers an analysis of large N empirical studies of interest groups in Europe. It calls for a shift from exploratory or descriptive interest studies to more confirmatory theory testing. Recognizing the continued European economic integration, globalization and the changing role of the state, we observed significant adaptations in interest mobilization and strategic behaviour. The various papers assess the

David Coen

2007-01-01

14

Empirical study of hybrid zone movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid zones are ‘natural laboratories’ for studying the origin, maintenance and demise of species. Theory predicts that hybrid zones can move in space and time, with significant consequences for both evolutionary and conservation biology, though such movement is often perceived as rare. Here, a review of empirical studies of moving hybrid zones in animals and plants shows 23 examples with

R J A Buggs; RJA Buggs

2007-01-01

15

Response to written feedback of clinical data within a longitudinal study: a qualitative study exploring the ethical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a growing ethical imperative to feedback research results to participants but there remains a striking lack of empirical research on how people respond to individualised feedback. We sought to explore longitudinal study participants' response to receiving individual written feedback of weight-related and blood results, and to consider the balance of harms against benefits. METHODS: A qualitative study

Karen Lorimer; Cindy M Gray; Kate Hunt; Sally Wyke; Annie Anderson; Michaela Benzeval

2011-01-01

16

Democracy and trade: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical discussion on globalization has suggested that there are linkages between democracy and trade, although the direction of influence is less certain. Formal empirical studies remain scarce, and have often focused on the ques- tion of whether democratic regimes influence trade policy, as opposed to the actual relationship between democracy and trade. This paper seeks to answer the question,

Jessica Henson Decker; Jamus Jerome Lim

2008-01-01

17

An empirical study of dynamic graph algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of this paper are both of theoretical and of experimental nature. Fromthe experimental point of view, we conduct an empirical study on some dynamic connectivityalgorithms which where developed recently. In particular, the following implementationswere tested and compared with simple algorithms: simple sparsification by Eppstein etal. and the recent randomized algorithm by Henzinger and King. In our experiments, weconsidered

David Albertst; Giuseppe Cattaneo; Giuseppe F. Italiano

1996-01-01

18

Developing optimal search strategies for retrieving qualitative studies in PsycINFO.  

PubMed

Researchers and practitioners have problems retrieving qualitative studies. Search strategies that can easily and effectively retrieve these studies from large databases such as PsycINFO are therefore important. To determine if search strategies can identify qualitative studies, 64 journals published in 2000 were hand searched using explicit methodological criteria to identify qualitative studies. The authors tested multiple search strategies using 4,985 potential search terms in PsycINFO (Ovid Technologies) and compared the results with the hand search data to calculate retrieval effectiveness. A total of 125 qualitative studies were identified. Single-term and multiple-term strategies had sensitivities (maximizing retrieval of qualitative studies) up to 94.4% and specificities (minimizing retrieval of nonqualitative studies and reports) up to 98.6% with ranges of precision and accuracy. Search strategies included terms that were variations of interview, qualitative, themes, and experience. Formal indexing terms performed poorly. Empirically derived search strategies combining textwords can effectively, but not perfectly, retrieve qualitative studies from PsycINFO. PMID:17102065

McKibbon, K Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

2006-12-01

19

Investigating recovery from stroke: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

A recent randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of specialist nurses providing information, advice and support to caregivers and patients at home during the first year after a stroke. Reported here are the results of a complementary study which used qualitative methods to examine the experience of patients and caregivers during the year of recovery after a stroke. We used semi-structured interviews with a purposively selected sample of 30 patients and 15 caregivers at the end of a randomized controlled trial (13-16 months post-stroke). Patients and caregivers provided vivid descriptions of the recovery process. Recovery was perceived in terms of the degree of congruence patients identified between their lives before, and after, stroke. Patients therefore had individual and personal yardsticks for measuring their recovery. In conclusion, further research and interventions must consider the diverse, complex, dynamic and highly personal character of stroke recovery. Traditional outcome measures are too simplistic to capture patients' and caregivers' experiences. There do not appear to be single or simple solutions to the problems of facilitating psycho-social adjustment. PMID:11261130

Dowswell, G; Lawler, J; Dowswell, T; Young, J; Forster, A; Hearn, J

2000-07-01

20

Democracy and trade: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical discussion on globalization has suggested that there are linkages between democracy and trade, although the\\u000a direction of influence is less certain. Formal empirical studies remain scarce, and have often focused on the question of\\u000a whether democratic regimes influence trade policy, as opposed to the actual relationship between democracy and trade. This\\u000a paper seeks to answer the question, “Do

Jessica Henson Decker; Jamus Jerome Lim

2009-01-01

21

Peer Assessment in Problem-Based Learning: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer assessment provides a powerful avenue for students to receive feedback on their learning. Although student perceptions of peer assessment have been studied extensively in higher education, little qualitative research has been undertaken with medical students in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. A qualitative study of students' attitudes…

Papinczak, Tracey; Young, Louise; Groves, Michele

2007-01-01

22

Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

Ells, Carolyn

2011-01-01

23

Chinese Construction of Adolescent Development Outcome: Themes Discerned in a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are well-known theories of adolescent development in the West, there is a notable lack of theory and empirical support for understanding the outcome of Chinese adolescent development. This paper examines the cultural themes that account for Chinese–Canadian parents’ and adolescent’s construction of adolescent development outcome. A qualitative study approach was used to explore the experiences and views of

Ching-man Lam

2005-01-01

24

Empirical Studies in Discourse Marilyn A. Walker  

E-print Network

a collection of papers illustrating recent approaches to empirical research in discourse generation under investigation (Cohen, 1995; Sparck-Jones and Galliers, 1996; Walker, 1996).1 The role of empirical readers will recognize as a variation of Cohen's EMPIRICAL GENERALIZATION STRATEGY (Cohen, 1995, p.6): 1

Moore, Johanna D.

25

Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

2009-01-01

26

Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. Methods Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants were 28 male motorcyclists who never used a safety helmet during rides, and 4 male police officers. All transcripts, codes and categories were read for several times to exhaust identifiable major themes. During this process data were reduced from text to codes and themes. Results Five major themes emerged from the data analyses, including themes related to the following: (1) circumventing or dodging police officers; (2) simulating a helmet wearing behavior; (3) accepting the probability of receiving a ticket; (4) taking advantage of the police neglect and carelessness; and (5) using a cheap or convenient helmet. Conclusion Our findings suggest certain levels of reckless driving among the participating motorcyclists in this study. They also point to a system of law enforcement that operates haphazardly and fails to consistently penalize those who deviate from it. Further studies are needed to investigate how "risks" are perceived and relate to "reactions", and how a 'culture of masculinity' may encourage risk tolerance and a disposition toward lawlessness and carelessness among male motorcyclists. Also, there is a need for the development and implementation of multidimensional interventions that would offer socio-culturally sensitive educational and motivational messages to the motorcyclists and the in-service traffic-enforcement officers in Iran. PMID:19843325

Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Bazargan, Shahrzad Hejazi

2009-01-01

27

Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Studies.  

E-print Network

??abstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship… (more)

A.J. van Stel (André)

2005-01-01

28

Participants' Perspectives of Training Experiences: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

E-print Network

of participants in organization-sponsored training. A general qualitative methodology was utilized in this study. Then, through a social constructivism lens, the researcher looked closely at the interactions described in the trainees? experiences in order...

Mathis, Robin S.

2010-07-14

29

Agile Customer Engagement: a Longitudinal Qualitative Case Study  

E-print Network

Agile Customer Engagement: a Longitudinal Qualitative Case Study Geir Kjetil Hanssen SINTEF ICT S Customer Engagement, Agile Process, Stakeholder Management, Process Transition. 1. INTRODUCTION Software characteristics of traditional approaches, agile methodologies suggest a different approach, emphasizing close

30

An empirical study of software design practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

1986-01-01

31

Generalisations from a qualitative South African information systems case study Generalisations from a qualitative South African information systems  

E-print Network

qualitative research by examining a community- based information systems design case study, set in South theoretical and practical, from qualitative research can be made, and that much valuable contribution refection and analysis of qualitative IS research should be encouraged. The paper is accordingly structured

Sahay, Sundeep

32

Improving Transition: a Qualitative Study Examining the Attitudes of Young People with Chronic Illness Transferring to Adult Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transition is a process that attends to the medical, psychosocial and educational needs of young people as they transfer to adult-orientated care. With a growing population of adolescents surviving with chronic illness well into adulthood, it is remarkable that empirical research has paid little attention to transition. This qualitative study examined the attitudes of young people with chronic illness who

Corina Soanes; Stephen Timmons

2004-01-01

33

Transition mixing study empirical model report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

1988-01-01

34

Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.

Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.

1996-01-01

35

An empirical study of dynamic graph algorithms  

SciTech Connect

We conduct an empirical study on some dynamic graph algorithms which where developed recently. The following implementations were tested and compared with simple algorithms: dynamic connectivity, and dynamic minimum 1 spanning tree based on sparsification by Eppstein et al.; dynamic connectivity based on a very recent paper by Henzinger and King. In our experiments, we considered both random and non-random inputs. Moreover, we present a simplified variant of the algorithm by Henzinger and King, which for random inputs was always faster than the original implementation. Indeed, this variant was among the fastest implementations for random inputs. For non-random inputs, sparsification was the fastest algorithm for small sequences of updates; for medium and large sequences of updates, the original algorithm by Henzinger and King was faster. Perhaps one of the main practical results of this paper is that our implementations of the sophisticated dynamic graph algorithms were faster than simpler algorithms for most practical values of the graph parameters, and competitive with simpler algorithms even in case of very small graphs (say graphs with less than a dozen vertices and edges). From the theoretical point of view, we analyze the average case running time of sparsification and prove that the logarithmic overhead for simple sparsification vanishes for dynamic random graphs.

Alberts, D. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Cattaneo, G. [Universita di Salerno (Italy); Italiano, G.F. [Universita Ca Forscari di Venezia (Italy)

1996-12-31

36

Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

2014-01-01

37

Where Do College Drinkers Draw the Line?: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…

Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

2014-01-01

38

Community College Dissertations—2004: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article utilized a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 214 dissertations listed by title only in Volume 31 of the Community College Journal of Research and Practice (CCJRP). Complete abstracts for these dissertations from 2004–2005 were obtained via Proquest Digital Database. The following was the overarching research question for this study: What can we learn from the examination

Timothy Gray Davies; Ellyn Dickmann; Clifford P. Harbour; James H. Banning

2011-01-01

39

PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

2004-01-01

40

Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the…

Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

2012-01-01

41

A Qualitative Study of Parental Resistance to Girls' Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons for parental resistance to girls' schooling. The study was conducted in Ordu, Giresun, Gumushane, and Sinop provinces of Turkey where school enrollment rates for girls were among the lowest in the Black Sea Region. The results showed that obstacles for female education varied and…

Alat, Zeynep; Alat, Kazim

2011-01-01

42

A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed. PMID:24010560

Matteo, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

43

A qualitative study of animation programming in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scratch is the latest iteration in a series of animation tools aimed at teaching programming skills. Scratch, in particular, aims not only to teach technical skills, but also skills related to collaboration and code reuse. In order to assess the strengths and weaknesses of Scratch relative to these goals, we have performed an empirical field study of Scratch animations and

Aniket Dahotre; Yan Zhang; Christopher Scaffidi

2010-01-01

44

A Qualitative Self-Study of Retinitis Pigmentosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a retinal degenerative disease causing progressive blindness. Most research on RP is biomedical, and mostly from an observer perspective, therefore poorly reflecting the lived experience of having RP. Accordingly, the researcher conducted a retrospective qualitative self-study, to analyze reflections on his own…

Fourie, Robert James

2007-01-01

45

Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.

Mabel LS Lie; Stephen C Robson; Carl R May

2008-01-01

46

A "Fresh Start" for a "Failing School"? A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines "Fresh Start," a New Labour flagship initiative to raise education "standards" in a radical and innovative way. Drawing on a qualitative study of a comprehensive school in England, I argue that the initiative added to the problems faced by the "failing school" and promoted rather traditional ways of raising "standards" due to…

Araujo, Marta

2009-01-01

47

Language Minority Experience: A Qualitative Study of Seven Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates language minority experiences of 7 heritage bilinguals via ethnographic interviewing and analytic induction. Themes are identified after qualitative clustering and contrasting of the data. Results are presented for all levels of participant-reported linguistic proficiency and researcher-inferred bilingual identity.…

Orlov, Leonid Y.; Ting, Siu-Man Raymond; Tyler, Richard E.

2009-01-01

48

College Housing Dissertations: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations that were published in the U.S. during the past 5 years that related to collegiate housing. The dissertations were examined using a bounded qualitative meta-analysis approach. Each dissertation was examined using three questions: What were the methods/attributes of the research? What were the…

Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda

2011-01-01

49

Australian Adult Consumers' Beliefs about Plant Foods: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory qualitative study examined consumers' perceived barriers and benefits of plant food (fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds) consumption and views on the promotion of these foods. Ten focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Groups consisted of employees of various workplaces, community group members,…

Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David

2005-01-01

50

Understanding help seeking behaviour among male offenders: qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the factors that influence help seeking for mental distress by offenders. Design Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with prisoners before and after release. Setting One category B local prison in southern England. Participants 35 male offenders aged 18-52, a quarter of whom had been flagged as being at risk of self harm. Results Most respondents reported

Amanda Howerton; Richard Byng; John Campbell; David Hess; Christabel Owens; Peter Aitken

2007-01-01

51

Resident Physicians' Perspectives on Effective Outpatient Teaching: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through…

Kisiel, John B.; Bundrick, John B.; Beckman, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

52

Interdisciplinary Hospice Team Processes and Multidimensional Pain: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews

Michele Dugan Day

2012-01-01

53

Transition Experiences of Community College Transfer Students: A Qualitative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study sought to determine what academic and social difficulties are encountered by community college transfer students in adjusting to their transfer institutions. Data was collected from interviews with 12 students who transferred from Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) to the University of Virginia (UVA) in the fall of…

Harrison, Patricia Lynne

54

Metaphoric Stories in Supervision of Internship: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a qualitative study that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…

Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas

2010-01-01

55

Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2010-01-01

56

Understanding practice management: a qualitative study in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports a qualitative study of practice managers’ roles and responsibilities in eight practices in the Grampian region of Scotland. Observes wide variations in the roles and responsibilities of managers associated with the size and fundholding status of the practice. Notes that larger practices had better developed management structures allowing the managers to delegate tasks and undertake a more proactive planning

Marlene Westland; Jeremy Grimshaw; Jim Maitland; Maureen Campbell; Edna Ledingham; Ellie Mcleod

1996-01-01

57

An Empirical Study of Infrasonic Propagation  

SciTech Connect

Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.

J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer

1999-10-01

58

Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499

Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2011-01-01

59

JOURNAL SUBMISSION 1 Empirical Studies in Information Visualization  

E-print Network

JOURNAL SUBMISSION 1 Empirical Studies in Information Visualization: Seven Scenarios Heidi Lam based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

A review of empirical studies of verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews empirical research which has been directly influenced by Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Despite the importance of this subject matter, the book has generated relatively little empirical research. Most studies have focused on Skinner's mand and tact relations while research focused on the other elementary verbal operants has been limited. However, the results of empirical research that exist support Skinner's analysis of the distinction between elementary verbal operants and his distinction between the speaker's and listener's repertoires. Further, research suggests that language training programs may not be successful if they do not provide explicit training of each elementary verbal operant and independent training of speaker's and listener's repertoires. PMID:22477586

Oah, She-zeen; Dickinson, Alyce M.

1989-01-01

61

Empirical study on human acupuncture point network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

2007-03-01

62

Responsibility and burden from the perspective of seniors’ family caregivers: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the experience of seniors’ family caregivers with regarding the responsibility, burden and support needs during caregiving in Shanghai, China. Materials and methods: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative design was used and a semi-structure interview was conducted. A convenience sample of 11 participants in two community service centers in Shanghai was recruited. Data saturation guided the size of the sample. The Colaizzi method of empirical phenomenology was used for interviewing and analyzing data obtained from 11 caregivers. Results: Three major themes were found: It is a hard work; It is my responsibility; Social support is not enough. Conclusion: The findings of the study are practical and helpful for health care providers to develop appropriate caregiver support services, to balance the responsibility and burden of caregivers, and to consider the factors influencing the utility of support services. PMID:25126186

Zeng, Li; Zhu, Xiaoping; Meng, Xianmei; Mao, Yafen; Wu, Qian; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Lanshu

2014-01-01

63

Perceptions of police: an empirical study of Chinese college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine Chinese college students' perceptions of police. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using survey data collected from over 400 college students in two cities, the study empirically analyzes the global and specific perceptions of police among Chinese college students and factors that accounted for the variation in Chinese college students' evaluations of police. The study incorporates a

Yuning Wu; Ivan Y. Sun

2010-01-01

64

An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

65

Iranian patient's expectations about coronary angiography: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Coronary angiography is recognized as the gold test for diagnosis of coronary artery diseases. Based on the literature review, little is known about patients’ expectations about this procedure. Understanding the patient's expectations is an important way to achieve patient-centered care. The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of Iranian patients undergoing coronary angiography. Materials and Methods: This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was carried out between 2011 and 2012 in three hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, with a purposive sample of 15 patients (7 men and 8 women, about 28-70 years of age). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to explore the patients’ expectations. Interview data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The interviews revealed that the participants had four main categories of expectations about coronary angiography. The patient's expectations were those from angiography, from the treatment team, and the need for preparation of angiography, education, and training. Conclusions: In general, the results of this study revealed a new insight into the expectations of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patient education and preparation should include information addressing the expectations. Moreover, an appropriate care program based on the patients’ expectations can promote the quality of care and satisfaction of patients. PMID:23983751

Kalyani, Majid N.; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Iman, Mohammad T.

2013-01-01

66

Revitalising suffering multinational brands: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study explores factors influencing the revitalisation of a multinational brand that is perceived negatively by local consumers because of various reasons such as past poor quality or negative publicity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study conceptualises brand revitalisation as a second order construct, arguing that brand revitalisation is comprised of improved brand image, brand associations, and brand attitudes. Innovative

Melanie Andrews; Daekwan Kim

2007-01-01

67

Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants’ context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. Methods and analysis We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare professionals’ forums. This research was approved by relevant local ethics committees. PMID:24486678

Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

2014-01-01

68

Kurdish women's preference for mode of birth: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Choosing between a normal delivery and Caesarean section is a matter of critical importance for a pregnant woman. The third trimester is the time for her to think about methods of delivery. The study aims to gain insight into Kurdish pregnant women's birth preference and their perception of factors influencing this choice. In this qualitative study, 22 pregnant Kurdish women were interviewed during the third trimester of their pregnancies. The setting for the study included three public health-care centres of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, a centre of the Kurdistan province at the western part of Iran. Study participants were recruited from maternity units of health-care centres. A purposive sample was used initially and then theoretical sampling was used towards the end of the data analysis. Sample size was not predetermined but was determined when interviewing reached saturation, that is, when no new data emerged about categories. The sample size was restricted to 22, as no new data were generated after the 20th interview. The criteria required for inclusion in the study were being Kurdish women, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, no physical disability, no history of Caesarean section and interest in the study. A qualitative design was chosen, as it is particularly suited to studying complex phenomena or processes that are less understood. This study revealed that of the 22 participants, 18 preferred vaginal delivery and only four preferred Caesarean section. The reasons for choosing the vaginal delivery method were grouped into four categories: safety of baby, fear, previous experience and social support. This finding does not support the rate of Caesarean section among Kurdish women in Sanandaj. It might reflect the effect of other factors such as social, institutional, professional and quality of care on women's choice for delivery method. PMID:24889003

Shahoei, Roonak; Rezaei, Masomeh; Ranaei, Fariba; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh

2014-06-01

69

The Healing Nature of Mandalas: Empirical Study of Active Imagination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandalas in therapy were first used by Carl Jung, who found that the act of drawing mandalas had a calming and healing effect on patients while at the same time facilitating psychic integration. There are no reported empirical studies of the healing impact of mandalas on mental health. However, James Pennebaker has studied the efficacy of written expression regarding traumatic

Patti Henderson; Nathan Mascaro; David Rosen; Tiffany Skillern

70

Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

Kimball, Miles A.

2013-01-01

71

An Empirical Study on Quantitative Modeling of Adversary's Knowledge  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study on Quantitative Modeling of Adversary's Knowledge Kui Xua , Danfeng (Daphne of quantitatively modeling the threat of personal data leakage. We describe a systematic approach for computing and a new experimental framework for evaluation. Researchers have studied new knowledge an adversary may

Ryder, Barbara G.

72

An Empirical Study of Industrial Requirements Engineering Process  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Industrial Requirements Engineering Process Assessment and Improvement IAN study in industry of requirements engineering process maturity assessment and improvement. Our aims were to evaluate a requirements engineering process maturity model and to assess if improvements in requirements

Sommerville, Ian

73

An Empirical Microeconomic Study of the Entrepreneur  

E-print Network

Entrepreneurs are an important segment of the economy, particularly in terms of economic development (Baumol, et al. 2007). However, the study of entrepreneurs and how they create firms is still an open question (Venkataraman ...

Leonard, John Mark

2007-12-03

74

LSP and Interlanguage: Some Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interlanguage studies in second language acquisition and language for speciic purposes (LSP), though developed independently, often use the same data and could benefit from mutual interaction. Related issues for future research are presented. Contents of articles in this issue are reviewed. (Author/LMO)

Selinker, Larry; Douglas, Dan

1987-01-01

75

Patents and Innovation: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent would the rate of development and introduction of inventions decline in the absence of patent protection? To what extent do firms make use of the patent system, and what differences exist among firms and industries and over time in the propensity to patent? These questions are in need of much more study. This paper, which reports the

Edwin Mansfield

1986-01-01

76

An Empirical Study of Delta Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Delta algorithms compress data by encoding one file in terms of another. This type of compression is useful in a number of situations: storing multiple versions of data, distributing updates, storing backups, transmitting video sequences, and others. This paper studies the performance parameters of several delta algorithms, using a benchmark of over 1300 pairs of files taken from two

James J. Hunt; Kiem-phong Vo; Walter F. Tichy

1996-01-01

77

Instruction for Web Searching: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of problems that users have with Web searching focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated three instructional methods (instruction by example, conceptual models without illustrations, and conceptual models with illustrations) to determine differences in knowledge acquisition related to three types of knowledge (declarative,…

Colaric, Susan M.

2003-01-01

78

An Empirical Study of Formal Procedure Specification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programing a computer is a problem-solving activity which can be categorized as formal procedure specification. The reported study focuses on the incidence and severity of errors committed by novice programers during the development and "debugging" of computer programs. (Author/BW)

Bell, D. A.

1978-01-01

79

Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy. PMID:24512619

Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

2014-01-01

80

Empirical and Phenomenological Studies of Embodied Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The first grand wave of twentieth century cognitive science and philosophy of mind sought and still seeks to show how, contra\\u000a Cartesian dualism, cognition is materialized in the brain. A new wave is rising from this, though, one that studies cognition\\u000a not merely as “embrained” (Damasio 2000, 118; Collins 2000) but as embodied in a much stronger sense, as inseparable

David Morris

81

Incorporating Music into the Social Studies Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Secondary Social Studies Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a six-month qualitative study, this article examines how four secondary Social Studies teachers made meaning of music, and how those perspectives informed their pedagogical choices regarding music in their classrooms. Specifically, this article analyzes three ways the teachers talked about, viewed and incorporated music in their…

Mangram, Jeffery A.; Weber, Rachel L.

2012-01-01

82

Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

Giardina, Irene

2008-01-01

83

Participants' recommendations for the ideal grief group: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Based on the results from the qualitative part of the study "Grief Groups in Norway" conducted in 2009-2011, this article focuses on grief group participants' recommendations for good or ideal grief groups. Participants have insightful observations about grief groups and how they can be improved, and taking their point of view seriously is one important way of ensuring that users of such group get an optimal experience from joining such groups. Using their experiences to adjust the structure and function of the groups, one can allow for practical solutions for organizations that have difficulties starting up grief support groups, for example, in areas where the population density is low. A major finding in this study was that grief group participants stressed the importance of thorough information before and at the start of grief groups. This concerned information about the aim, structure, organization, and possible effects and limitations of group participation. PMID:24416876

Dyregrov, Kari; Dyregrov, Atle; Johnsen, Iren

2013-01-01

84

An empirical study of Chinese language networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese is spoken by the largest number of people in the world, and it is regarded as one of the most important languages. In this paper, we explore the statistical properties of Chinese language networks (CLNs) within the framework of complex network theory. Based on one of the largest Chinese corpora, i.e. People’s Daily Corpus, we construct two networks (CLN1 and CLN2) from two different respects, with Chinese words as nodes. In CLN1, a link between two nodes exists if they appear next to each other in at least one sentence; in CLN2, a link represents that two nodes appear simultaneously in a sentence. We show that both networks exhibit small-world effect, scale-free structure, hierarchical organization and disassortative mixing. These results indicate that in many topological aspects Chinese language shapes complex networks with organizing principles similar to other previously studied language systems, which shows that different languages may have some common characteristics in their evolution processes. We believe that our research may shed some new light into the Chinese language and find some potentially significant implications.

Zhou, Shuigeng; Hu, Guobiao; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong

2008-05-01

85

Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many observations of the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization phenomena, have been successfully described by simple many-particle models. For ethical reasons, however, there is a serious lack of experimental data regarding crowd panic. Therefore, we have analyzed video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006. They reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and “turbulent” flows, which question many previous simulation models. While the transition from laminar to stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is responsible for sudden eruptions of pressure release comparable to earthquakes, which cause sudden displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In particular, they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H.

Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein

2007-04-01

86

Dynamics of crowd disasters: an empirical study.  

PubMed

Many observations of the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization phenomena, have been successfully described by simple many-particle models. For ethical reasons, however, there is a serious lack of experimental data regarding crowd panic. Therefore, we have analyzed video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006. They reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and "turbulent" flows, which question many previous simulation models. While the transition from laminar to stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is responsible for sudden eruptions of pressure release comparable to earthquakes, which cause sudden displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In particular, they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H. PMID:17500963

Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein

2007-04-01

87

Empirical Study on the Healing Nature of Mandalas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandalas were first used in therapy by Carl Jung, who found that the act of drawing mandalas had a calming effect on patients while at the same time facilitating psychic integration. There is a scarcity of controlled empirical studies of the healing impact of mandalas on mental health. Based on the efficacy of James Pennebaker's written disclosure paradigm in promoting

Patti Henderson; David Rosen; Nathan Mascaro

2007-01-01

88

An empirical study on Open Source Selection Strategies in the  

E-print Network

An empirical study on Open Source Selection Strategies in the Norwegian software industry TDT4520 at Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Computer and Information Science Autumn Franch2 and Jingyue Li1 1 Norwegian University of Science and Technology 2 Universitat Politécnica de

89

Empirical Studies of Animation-embedded Hypermedia Algorithm Visualizations  

E-print Network

1 Empirical Studies of Animation-embedded Hypermedia Algorithm Visualizations Steven Hansen, Daniel Schrimpsher, N. Hari Narayanan and Mary Hegarty Technical Report CSE98-06 November 4, 1998 Visual Information of Animation-embedded Hypermedia Algorithm Visualizations Steven Hansen, N. Hari Narayanan, and Daniel

90

Continued Use of a Chinese Online Portal: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…

Shih, Hung-Pin

2008-01-01

91

Empirical Studies of End-User Information Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An empirical investigation of information retrieval using the MEDLINE database was carried out to study user behavior, performance and to investigate the reasons for suboptimal searches. Subjects were two groups of final year medical students (novice and expert users of the search system). Findings indicate that just one factor can cause poor…

Sutcliffe, A. G.; Ennis, M.; Watkinson, S. J.

2000-01-01

92

An Empirical Study of an Online Travel Purchase Intention Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically tests a structural model of factors affecting consumers' online purchase intentions for travel products. The findings indicate that information quality, service quality, and system quality are valid measurements to evaluate the quality of travel-oriented website designs. In terms of travelers' perceptions, convenience, value, and merchandise options are three effective measurements of travelers' attitudes toward purchasing travel products

Ivan Wen

2012-01-01

93

An Empirical Study of Fortran Programs for Parallelizing Compilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

n this paper, we report some results from an empirical study on program charac- f d teristics that are important to parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area o ata dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are also examined.

Zhiyu Shen; Zhiyuan Li; Pen-chung Yew

1990-01-01

94

Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

2009-01-01

95

Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…

Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

2011-01-01

96

Evaluating Code Clone Genealogies at Release Level: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code clone genealogies show how clone groups evolve with the evolution of the associated software system, and thus could provide important insights on the maintenance implications of clones. In this paper, we provide an in-depth empirical study for evaluating clone genealogies in evolving open source systems at the release level. We develop a clone genealogy extractor, examine 17 open source

Ripon K. Saha; Muhammad Asaduzzaman; Minhaz F. Zibran; Chanchal K. Roy; Kevin A. Schneider

2010-01-01

97

Consumer acceptance of mobile payments: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence intended to compare consumer acceptance of mobile payment systems use in comparison to other traditional online payment systems such as PayPal and conventional Credit Card methods. The study used attributes from the literature that were reported as success attributes for online payment systems. The scales used to measure these attributes were adapted for experimental simulation.

A. Thair; Luo Suhuai; Peter Summons

2010-01-01

98

Strategies for Improving Participation in Diabetes Education. A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. Methods We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. Results The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. Conclusions First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no risk for harmful consequences or if they already have sufficient knowledge on diabetes. PMID:24733428

Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

2014-01-01

99

Coparenting in kinship Families With Incarcerated Mothers: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

The number of incarcerated mothers has risen steadily in the past 20 years, with a majority of the mothers’ children being cared for by relatives, usually the maternal grandmother (Smith, Krisman, Strozier, & Marley, 2004). This article examines the unique coparenting relationship of grandmothers and mothers through qualitative individual interviews with a sample of 24 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 6, and 24 grandmothers raising their children. The study revealed many different variants of healthy coparenting alliances, achieved against often huge odds. Much variation was also discovered in dyads where coparenting alliances were not as successful. Implications for practice include performing structural family assessments, enhancing jail education programs, and offering extended coparenting treatment after discharge. PMID:21720495

Strozier, Anne L.; Armstrong, Mary; Skuza, Stella; Cecil, Dawn; McHale, James

2011-01-01

100

Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting psychosocial health problem issues. Qualitative content analysis was used for interpreting the data. The analysis resulted in one overarching theme: having to do one's duty and being afraid of doing wrong; and three subthemes: uncertainty related to one's own ability, concerns related to future consequences, and strategies to handle the documentation. School nurses relying on their intuition and using a structured documentation model may increase the opportunities for a reliable documentation. To further develop their professional skills with regular, clinical supervision can be of great importance. This in turn may increase contributions to research and development for the benefit of schoolchildren's psychosocial health. PMID:25061093

Clausson, Eva K; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

2014-07-24

101

Motives for entering nursing in Iran: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Context: Choosing a career is an important decision for each individual, which is affected by many different factors. The process of entering nursing, as one of the pivotal healthcare discipline, certainly affects quality of care, and retention of nurses in the profession. Aims: Exploring factors affecting the students’ decision to enter nursing. Setting and Design: This qualitative content analysis was carried at the school of Nursing and Midwifery of Tehran University of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: The semi structured interview method was used to conduct this qualitative study on 11 nursing freshmen in 2010. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analyzed them using the conventional content analysis approach. Results: Four main categories, reflecting the factors affecting the participants’ decision to enter nursing emerged in this study: Capabilities of the profession, coercion, having an interest in the medical and allied health fields, and receiving positive feedbacks. The participants had tried to gather information about nursing through different sources, including nurses and other health care professionals, counselors and Internet, which almost all the time, yielded to no useful information and sometimes with negative feedback. Conclusions: Findings revealed that, unlike other countries, few participants had entered nursing with a real interest in helping and caring for others, and other factors such as having an interest in the medical and allied health fields, coercion, and good employment opportunities were the most important motives. Students’ lack of knowledge about the profession deserves special attention. Nursing managers’ should try to introduce the reality of nursing to the public and as a result, attract more competent students to the profession. PMID:23983730

Tayebi, Zahra; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza; Shahbazi, Shirin

2013-01-01

102

Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

2008-01-01

103

Relapse Model among Iranian Drug Users: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Relapse is a common problem in drug user’s rehabilitation program and reported in all over the country. An in-depth study on patients’ experiences can be used for exploring the relapse process among drug users. Therefore, this study suggests a model for relapse process among Iranian drug users. Methods: In this qualitative study with grounded theory approach, 22 participants with rich information about the phenomenon under the study were selected using purposive, snowball and theoretical sampling methods. After obtaining the informed consent, data were collected based on face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews. All interviews were analyzed in three stages of axial, selective and open coding methods. Results: Nine main categories emerged, including avoiding of drugs, concerns about being accepted, family atmosphere, social conditions, mental challenge, self-management, self-deception, use and remorse and a main category, feeling of loss as the core variable. Mental challenge has two subcategories, evoking pleasure and craving. Relapse model is a dynamic and systematic process including from cycles of drug avoidance to remorse with a core variable as feeling of loss. Conclusion:  Relapse process is a dynamic and systematic process that needs an effective control. Determining a relapse model as a clear process could be helpful in clinical sessions. Results of this research have depicted relapse process among Iranian drugs user by conceptual model. PMID:25553329

Jalali, Amir; Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid

2015-01-01

104

A Qualitative Study of the Work Environments of Mexican Nurses  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that seek to measure nursing work environments will most likely apply in Mexico and other Latin American or middle-income countries. Instruments designed to measure the work environment of nurses in these countries may prove relevant in those contexts, but require careful adaptation and systematic translations to ensure it. PMID:22386989

Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian

2012-01-01

105

Older adults' perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. PMID:24302685

Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E

2014-06-01

106

Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi’s seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done. Results: The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy). Conclusion: Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy. PMID:25114669

Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

2014-01-01

107

Rehabilitation Needs of People with Cerebral Palsy: a qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders regarding the development of movement and posture, which causes limitations in activity. In fact, it is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occur during brain development in fetus or infant. CP disorders may accompany by speech, auditory, visual abnormality, seizure, learning disorder, mental retardation and etc. Due to the variation in disorders and ultimately the needs that are made in the wake of the diseases, understanding the needs of these patients is essential. Methods: This research was a qualitative study, with phenomenology method and sampling was purposeful. The participants were 17 cerebral palsy people (6 female and 11 male, with aged 15 to 43). Data were collected by deep interview with open-end questions and analyzed by collaizi method. Results: During the interview sessions, notes and ideas were classified and assorted, so that, the rehabilitation needs of people with CP were understood according to the statements of participants. The results of this study were placed in four domains, 3 themes and 22 subthemes. The domains included social, emotional needs, economic, and therapeutic needs. Conclusion: The requirements studies in this research were particularly introduced by patients with CP. People in the society, who might have contact with these patients, are responsible to help them to overcome their problems and disabilities. PMID:25250261

sharifi, Azam; Kamali, Mohammad; Chabok, Ali

2014-01-01

108

Post-stroke fatigue: qualitative study of three focus groups.  

PubMed

Fatigue affects many persons after cerebrovascular accident, particularly those with mild stroke. A qualitative methodology using focus groups with 19 community-living post-stroke survivors was utilized to explore the occupational impact of fatigue as communicated by the participants. Although self-report of a small sample of the United States' post-stroke population will have limitations in generalizability, this study identifies specific health-related quality of life issues that can occur with post-stroke fatigue. The participants felt unprepared for the fatigue phenomenon and struggled to adapt, with fatigue having a debilitating influence upon daily occupational performance and roles, including social participation, return to work, driving, reading and sleeping. The participants indicated that exercise (such as walking and water aerobics) and use of assistive technology were helpful strategies in reducing fatigue. The occupational performance and role impact identified by participants in this study can inform the design of effective occupational therapy interventions and further quantitative study of persons with post-stroke fatigue. PMID:19787634

Flinn, Nancy A; Stube, Jan E

2010-06-01

109

Relapse Experience in Iranian Opiate Users: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: To understand the relapse process, it is required to notice the clients learned behaviors and environmental contexts. We aimed to explore and describe relapse experiences of Iranian drug users. Methods: This is a grounded theory study and twenty two participants were selected using purposive sampling, snowball and theoretical sampling. After obtaining written informed consent, data gathering was done by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. According to Strauss and Corbin three phases of open coding, axial coding and selection coding were done for qualitative analysis and continuous comparison. During the research period Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to be reassured of the accuracy and rigor of the study findings. Results: The main categories of this study were craving and conflict, family stress and psychological indicators of relapse that emerged in three phases including recovery, tension and pre-relapse. High anxiety, withdrawal, rationalization and lying were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: Family reactions and social conditions play a key role in relapse. Relapse process is an active and multidimensional event in which the clients experience a psychosocial status continuum from recovery to relapse. Most psychological problems are seen in the tension phase. PMID:25349849

Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid; Jalali, Amir

2014-01-01

110

Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies  

PubMed Central

Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. PMID:25379256

Roesler, Christian

2013-01-01

111

Clinical trial participants’ experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446

Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

2014-01-01

112

A Qualitative Study of Postpartum Mothers’ Intention to Smoke  

PubMed Central

Background Many women stop smoking during pregnancy. Factors associated with relapse are known, but no intervention prevents the return to smoking among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine why women return to smoking after prolonged abstinence during pregnancy by examining mothers’ intention to smoke at the time of delivery and the perceptions that shape their intention. Methods We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during their postpartum hospital stay with 24 women who stopped smoking while pregnant. We asked participants whether they intended to resume smoking after pregnancy and why. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory-based qualitative methods to identify themes. Results Participants ranged in age from 18 to 36 years, and 63 percent were white. Three themes emerged from the interviews with the mothers: 1) they did not intend to return to smoking but doubted whether they would be able to maintain abstinence; 2) they believed that it would be possible to protect their newborns from the harms of cigarette smoke; and 3) they felt that they had control over their smoking and did not need help to maintain abstinence after pregnancy. Conclusions Although most participants did not intend to resume smoking, their intentions may be stymied by their perceptions about second-hand smoke and by their overestimation of their control over smoking. Further study should quantify these barriers and determine their evolution over the first year after pregnancy with the goal of informing more successful, targeted interventions. (BIRTH 39:1 March 2012) PMID:22369607

Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Nguyen, Stephanie N.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R.

2011-01-01

113

A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087

Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara

2005-01-01

114

Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.  

PubMed

Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil. PMID:19004421

Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

2008-09-01

115

Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Qualitative study of women's experiences.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with alternative treatments for symptoms attributed to menopause. DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative study. SETTING: Personal interviews and focus groups were conducted in private rooms at the Toronto Hospital; telephone interviews were conducted at mutually convenient times. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen perimenopausal women with a mean age of 52.6 +/- 2.6 years who were experiencing symptoms attributed to menopause and were using alternative therapies participated in the study. METHOD: Women using alternative therapies for menopausal symptoms were recruited via posted notices and were screened over the telephone. Data were collected during semistructured personal interviews, telephone interviews, and a focus group. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and mailed to participants for verification. Recruitment continued until theme saturation was reached. MAIN FINDINGS: Because of their "natural" origin, the women perceived alternative treatments to be safe and considered them somewhat effective. Factors influencing use of alternative therapies included personal control over health, confidence in advice from nonphysicians, perceived pressure from physicians to use hormone replacement therapy, and physicians' disinterest and frequently negative attitudes toward alternatives. CONCLUSION: Personal control was a central issue. Helping women during their menopausal years feel they have some control over their health, including their informed choice of treatments, might help them to trust their physicians more and to feel more confident in their ultimate treatment decisions, which might include improvements in health behaviour. PMID:9640521

Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

1998-01-01

116

Patients' unvoiced agendas in general practice consultations: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate patients' agendas before consultation and to assess which aspects of agendas are voiced in the consultation and the effects of unvoiced agendas on outcomes. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in south east England and the West Midlands. Participants 35 patients consulting 20 general practitioners in appointment and emergency surgeries. Results Patients' agendas are complex and multifarious. Only four of 35 patients voiced all their agendas in consultation. Agenda items most commonly voiced were symptoms and requests for diagnoses and prescriptions. The most common unvoiced agenda items were: worries about possible diagnosis and what the future holds; patients' ideas about what is wrong; side effects; not wanting a prescription; and information relating to social context. Agenda items that were not raised in the consultation often led to specific problem outcomes (for example, major misunderstandings), unwanted prescriptions, non-use of prescriptions, and non-adherence to treatment. In all of the 14 consultations with problem outcomes at least one of the problems was related to an unvoiced agenda item. Conclusion Patients have many needs and when these are not voiced they can not be addressed. Some of the poor outcomes in the case studies were related to unvoiced agenda items. This suggests that when patients and their needs are more fully articulated in the consultation better health care may be effected. Steps should be taken in both daily clinical practice and research to encourage the voicing of patients' agendas. PMID:10797036

Barry, Christine A; Bradley, Colin P; Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barber, Nick

2000-01-01

117

The recent explicit use of theory in empirical studies on acculturation of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine empirical studies published on child acculturation in terms of use of theory. Based on a computerised database search, 31 empirical studies published in the last five years were found and examined. Findings of this study indicated that 74% of the empirical studies employed theory explicitly. Common theories utilised explicitly in the studies

Burhanettin Keskin

2012-01-01

118

Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early breastfeeding experience, be able to identify and claim a reliable support system supportive of breastfeeding, and gain through their experience, a belief in their own agency and competency as mothers. PMID:23020833

2012-01-01

119

Misunderstandings in prescribing decisions in general practice: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify and describe misunderstandings between patients and doctors associated with prescribing decisions in general practice. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in the West Midlands and south east England. Participants 20 general practitioners and 35 consulting patients. Main outcome measures Misunderstandings between patients and doctors that have potential or actual adverse consequences for taking medicine. Results 14 categories of misunderstanding were identified relating to patient information unknown to the doctor, doctor information unknown to the patient, conflicting information, disagreement about attribution of side effects, failure of communication about doctor's decision, and relationship factors. All the misunderstandings were associated with lack of patients' participation in the consultation in terms of the voicing of expectations and preferences or the voicing of responses to doctors' decisions and actions. They were all associated with potential or actual adverse outcomes such as non-adherence to treatment. Many were based on inaccurate guesses and assumptions. In particular doctors seemed unaware of the relevance of patients' ideas about medicines for successful prescribing. Conclusions Patients' participation in the consultation and the adverse consequences of lack of participation are important. The authors are developing an educational intervention that builds on these findings. PMID:10678863

Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barry, Christine A; Barber, Nick; Bradley, Colin P

2000-01-01

120

Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain. PMID:22424384

Dugan Day, Michele

2012-01-01

121

Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote timely antenatal care for all women. PMID:24935100

2014-01-01

122

Informal hospice caregiver pain management concerns: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Informal, unpaid, family caregivers provide much hospice care in the United States. These caregivers suffer physically, psychologically, emotionally, and socially from the burden of caring. The most often identified area of caregiver burden is the management of end-of-life pain. However, little empirical evidence exists of effective interventions to help caregivers manage end-of-life pain, and issues surrounding caregiver pain management remain vague and undefined. Understanding these concerns will inform the design of effective caregiver interventions. Aim The purpose of this study was to describe and organize caregiver pain management challenges faced by home hospice caregivers of cancer patients. Design A content analysis of secondary data, namely, recordings of caregiver interviews, was conducted to describe pain management issues. These interviews were part of a larger clinical trial. Setting/participants Multiple sessions with 29 informal caregivers, of patients dying of cancer, were audio-recorded. Subjects were purposively selected from two hospice programs in the Northwestern United States. Caregivers of noncancer patients were excluded from the study sample. Results A framework of six major themes with subordinate subthemes was developed through a literature review and peer review. The framework was used to organize the content of 87 caregiver interviews. The six major themes identified in the analysis included Caregiver-Centric Issues, Caregiver Medication Skills and Knowledge Issues, End-of-Life Symptom Knowledge Issues, Communication and Teamwork Issues, Organizational Skill Issues, and Patient-Centric Issues. Conclusion This analysis clearly articulated and classified caregiver issues surrounding pain management. Future hospice research may benefit from the use of this analysis and framework in the development of tools to alleviate this major cause of caregiver burden. PMID:23612959

Kelley, Marjorie; Demiris, George; Nguyen, Huong; Oliver, Debra P; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

2014-01-01

123

Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

2009-01-01

124

Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

2012-01-01

125

Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people. PMID:24245830

2013-01-01

126

A qualitative study of action plans for asthma  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the perspectives of patients with asthma on the use of an action plan and the implementation of this plan during an asthma attack that culminated in a visit to an emergency department. Design Qualitative study. Setting Tertiary teaching hospital, suburban hospital, and rural hospital. Participants 62 patients aged 18 to 69 years who presented to an emergency department with asthma over a two month period. Results 29 participants described having action plans given to them by their doctors. Most patients with action plans reinterpreted their plan from the perspective of their own experiences with asthma. 33 patients did not have an action plan, the most common reason being that they had not been given one by their doctor. Some occupational groups were significantly less likely to have been given an action plan by their doctor than others. Most patients with an action plan found them useful for management of their asthma. Conclusions Action plans were viewed positively by patients. Participants modified their prescribed plan according to their experience of asthma. To facilitate the implementation of a prescribed action plan, doctors need to acknowledge and include the patient's personal experience of their disease. What is already known on this topicAction plans for the self management of asthma are standard and have been shown to improve patient outcomes and to protect against death from asthma when provided in written formFactors that enable patients with asthma to implement an action plan and their perspectives on the use of such plans have not been explored in an individual contextWhat this study addsMost patients with action plans found them usefulMost patients modified their plans according to their perceptions of severity and likely disease outcomeClinicians must engage with a patient's experience of asthma to facilitate the use of an action plan PMID:11976240

Douglass, Jo; Aroni, Rosalie; Goeman, Dianne; Stewart, Kay; Sawyer, Susan; Thien, Frank; Abramson, Michael

2002-01-01

127

Qualitative Study Comparing the Instruction on Vectors Between a Physics Course and a Trigonometry Course.  

E-print Network

??Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study… (more)

James, Wendy

2013-01-01

128

Butterfly Project Report An Empirical Study ofMessage-Passing Overhead  

E-print Network

Butterfly Project Report 17 An Empirical Study ofMessage-Passing Overhead Michael L. Scott and Alan Empirical Study of Message.Passing Overhead Michael L. Scott Alan L. COl[ University of Rochester Computer

Scott, Michael L.

129

Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1) the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2) organizational structure; (3) hospital management style; (4) the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5) individual characteristics; (6) mutual understanding and interaction; and (7) the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively. PMID:19302706

Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza

2009-01-01

130

A qualitative study of women's views on medical confidentiality  

PubMed Central

Context: The need to reinvigorate medical confidentiality protections is recognised as an important objective in building patient trust necessary for successful health outcomes. Little is known about patient understanding and expectations from medical confidentiality. Objective: To identify and describe patient views of medical confidentiality and to assess provisionally the range of these views. Design: Qualitative study using indepth, open ended face-to-face interviews. Setting: Southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, USA. Participants: A total of 85 women interviewed at two clinical sites and three community/research centres. Main outcome measures: Subjects' understanding of medical confidentiality, beliefs about the handling of confidential information and concerns influencing disclosure of information to doctors. Results: The subjects defined medical confidentiality as the expectation that something done or said would be kept "private" but differed on what information was confidential and the basis and methods for protecting information. Some considered all medical information as confidential and thought confidentiality protections functioned to limit its circulation to medical uses and reimbursement needs. Others defined only sensitive or potentially stigmatising information as confidential. Many of these also defined medical confidentiality as a strict limit prohibiting information release, although some noted that specific permission or urgent need could override this limit. Conclusions: Patients share a basic understanding of confidentiality as protection of information, but some might have expectations that are likely not met by current practice nor anticipated by doctors. Doctors should recognise that patients might have their own medical confidentiality models. They should address divergences from current practice and provide support to those who face emotional or practical obstacles to self-revelation. PMID:16131550

Jenkins, G; Merz, J; Sankar, P

2005-01-01

131

Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context. PMID:21878101

2011-01-01

132

General practitioners’ experiences of patients’ complaints: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine how general practitioners experience patients’ complaints. Setting General practices in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham health authority. Participants Representative sample of 30 general practitioners who had had complaints made against them under either the old or new complaints system. Design Qualitative study with detailed interviews. Results Participants described their experiences of patients’ complaints in three stages: initial impact, conflict, and resolution. The first stage described being out of control, feelings of shock and panic, and a sense of indignation towards patients generally. The second stage described the many conflicts generated by the complaint: emotional conflicts such as feelings of anger, depression, and even suicide, conflicts around aspects of professional identity including doubts about clinical competence, conflicts with family and colleagues, and conflicts arising from the management of the complaint. The third stage described a sense of resolution. For many this meant practising defensively, for others it meant planning to leave general practice, and for a minority no resolution was achieved. Not all participants, however, reported such a negative experience. Some described how they had become immune to complaints, and a small minority described the complaint as a learning experience. Conclusion The initial impact stage and conflict stage may be necessary aspects of the experience that general practitioners endure when they have a complaint made against them. Support structures should, however, be in place to help general practitioners through these stages. Key messagesPatients’ complaints against general practitioners are increasingNegative experiences of a complaint were shock, being out of control, depression, suicide, doubts about clinical competence, conflicts with family and colleagues, defensive practice, and a decision to leave general practiceA minority of participants expressed immunity towards complaints and a small minority saw complaints as a learning experience PMID:10364121

Jain, Ashok; Ogden, Jane

1999-01-01

133

Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs), it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study. PMID:25415820

Abbasi Moghadam, Mohammad Ali; Fayaz Bakhsh, Ahmad

2014-01-01

134

Lesbian women's experiences with health care: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitative study based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite. PMID:19958064

Bjorkman, Mari; Malterud, Kirsti

2009-01-01

135

A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

Snyder, Catherine

2012-01-01

136

Family therapy sessions with refugee families; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the armed conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s many families escaped to other countries. The main goal of this study was to explore in more detail the complexity of various family members’ experiences and perceptions from their life before the war, during the war and the escape, and during their new life in Sweden. There is insufficient knowledge of refugee families’ perceptions, experiences and needs, and especially of the complexity of family perspectives and family systems. This study focused on three families from Bosnia and Herzegovina who came to Sweden and were granted permanent residence permits. The families had at least one child between 5 and 12 years old. Method Family therapy sessions were videotaped and verbatim transcriptions were made. Nine family therapy sessions were analysed using a qualitative method with directed content analysis. Results Three main categories and ten subcategories were found - 1. Everyday life at home, with two subcategories: The family, Work and School/preschool; 2. The influence of war on everyday life, with three subcategories: The war, The escape, Reflections; 3. The new life, with five subcategories: Employment, Health, Relatives and friends, Limited future, Transition to the new life. Conclusions Health care and social welfare professionals need to find out what kind of lives refugee families have lived before coming to a new country, in order to determine individual needs of support. In this study the families had lived ordinary lives in their country of origin, and after experiencing a war situation they escaped to a new country and started a new life. They had thoughts of a limited future but also hopes of getting jobs and taking care of themselves and their families. When analysing each person’s point of view one must seek an all-embracing picture of a family and its complexity to tie together the family narrative. To offer refugee families meetings with family-oriented professionals to provide the opportunity to create a family narrative is recommended for the health and social welfare sector. Using this knowledge by emphasizing the salutogenic perspectives facilitates support to refugee families and individuals. This kind of support can help refugee families to adapt to a new system of society and recapture a sense of coherence, including all three components that lead to coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. More studies are needed to further investigate the thoughts, experiences and needs of various refugee families and how refugee receiving societies can give the most effective support. PMID:23537380

2013-01-01

137

The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical’s equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program’s functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education. PMID:25610819

Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

2014-01-01

138

Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

Matthews, Sarah H.

2012-01-01

139

CAPACITY INVESTMENT UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE US CEMENT INDUSTRY, 19942006*  

E-print Network

CAPACITY INVESTMENT UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE US CEMENT INDUSTRY Demand Uncertainty. An Empirical Study of the US Cement Industry, 19942006* JeanPierre Ponssard of the theory literature on this topic in an empirical study of the US cement industry between 1994

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Socioeconomic variations in responses to chest pain: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore and explain socioeconomic variations in perceptions of and behavioural responses to chest pain. Design Qualitative interviews. Setting Community based study in Glasgow, Scotland. Participants 30 respondents (15 men and 15 women) from a socioeconomically deprived area of Glasgow and 30 respondents (15 men and 15 women) from an affluent area of Glasgow. Outcome measures Participants' reports of their perceptions of and actions in response to chest pain. Results Residents of the deprived area reported greater perceived vulnerability to heart disease, stemming from greater exposure to heart disease in family members and greater identification with high risk groups and stereotypes of cardiac patients. This greater perceived vulnerability was not associated with more frequent reporting of presenting to a general practitioner. People from the deprived area reported greater exposure to ill health, which allowed them to normalise their chest pain, led to confusion with other conditions, and gave rise to a belief that they were overusing medical services. These factors were associated with a reported tendency not to present with chest pain. Anxiety about presenting among respondents in the deprived area was heightened by self blame and fear that they would be chastised by their general practitioner for their risk behaviours. Conclusions Important socioeconomic variations in responses to chest pain may contribute to the known inequities in uptake of secondary cardiology services. Primary care professionals and health promoters should be aware of the ways in which perceptions of symptoms and illness behaviour are shaped by social and cultural factors. What is already known on this topicSocioeconomic variations in rates of angiography and revascularisation existAmong socioeconomically deprived patients with a diagnosis of angina, barriers to accessing services include fear, denial, low expectations, and diagnostic confusionWhat this study addsPerceived vulnerability to heart disease is associated with socioeconomic deprivation and is underpinned by positive family history and identification with high risk groups and stereotypesGreater perceived vulnerability to heart disease does not lead to reported presentation in deprived patientsIllness behaviour is influenced by normalisation of chest pain, comorbidity, and poor experience and low expectations of health care, which are more prominent in deprived patients PMID:12039824

Richards, Helen Mary; Reid, Margaret Elspeth; Watt, Graham Charles Murray

2002-01-01

141

Cardiovascular medicine at face value: a qualitative pilot study on clinical axiology  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they have to make them. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reconsider clinical ethics and Value-Based Medicine. This study proposes a qualitative analysis of the values and the virtues of healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital in order to establish how the former impact upon the medical and ethical decisions made by the latter. Results We point out the need for strengthening the roles of healthcare personnel as educators and guidance counselors in order to meet the ends of medicine, as well as the need for an ethical discernment that is compatible with our results, namely, that the ethical values developed by healthcare professionals stem from their life history as well as their professional education. Conclusion We establish the kind of actions, communication skills and empathy that are required to build a stronger patient-healthcare professional relationship, which at the same time improves prognosis, treatment efficiency and therapeutic adhesion. PMID:23531271

2013-01-01

142

Identifying nurses' rewards: a qualitative categorization study in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature) and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher than their younger and more junior colleagues. Conclusion When trying to establish an efficient reward system for nurses, hospital managers should not concentrate on the financial reward possibilities alone. They also ought to consider non-financial and psychological rewards (in combination with financial rewards), since nurses value these as well and they may lead to a more personalized reward system. PMID:16824227

De Gieter, Sara; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland; Caers, Ralf; Du Bois, Cindy; Jegers, Marc

2006-01-01

143

Prototype selection for nearest neighbor classification: taxonomy and empirical study.  

PubMed

The nearest neighbor classifier is one of the most used and well-known techniques for performing recognition tasks. It has also demonstrated itself to be one of the most useful algorithms in data mining in spite of its simplicity. However, the nearest neighbor classifier suffers from several drawbacks such as high storage requirements, low efficiency in classification response, and low noise tolerance. These weaknesses have been the subject of study for many researchers and many solutions have been proposed. Among them, one of the most promising solutions consists of reducing the data used for establishing a classification rule (training data) by means of selecting relevant prototypes. Many prototype selection methods exist in the literature and the research in this area is still advancing. Different properties could be observed in the definition of them, but no formal categorization has been established yet. This paper provides a survey of the prototype selection methods proposed in the literature from a theoretical and empirical point of view. Considering a theoretical point of view, we propose a taxonomy based on the main characteristics presented in prototype selection and we analyze their advantages and drawbacks. Empirically, we conduct an experimental study involving different sizes of data sets for measuring their performance in terms of accuracy, reduction capabilities, and runtime. The results obtained by all the methods studied have been verified by nonparametric statistical tests. Several remarks, guidelines, and recommendations are made for the use of prototype selection for nearest neighbor classification. PMID:21768651

García, Salvador; Derrac, Joaquín; Cano, José Ramón; Herrera, Francisco

2012-03-01

144

Developing optimal search strategies for retrieving clinically relevant qualitative studies in EMBASE.  

PubMed

Qualitative researchers address many issues relevant to patient health care. Their studies appear in an array of journals, making literature searching difficult. Large databases such as EMBASE provide a means of retrieving qualitative research, but these studies represent only a minuscule fraction of published articles, making electronic retrieval problematic. Little work has been done on developing search strategies for the detection of qualitative studies. The objective of this study was to develop optimal search strategies to retrieve qualitative studies in EMBASE for the 2000 publishing year. The authors conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. Search strategies reached peak sensitivities at 94.2% and peak specificities of 99.7%. Combining search terms to optimize the combination of sensitivity and specificity resulted in values over 89% for both. The authors identified search strategies with high performance for retrieving qualitative studies in EMBASE. PMID:16317183

Walters, Leslie A; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

2006-01-01

145

The Student Affair Organizational Dissertation: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations over the past five years that focused on student affairs organizational issues. A bounded qualitative meta-study was used and the methods, theories, and findings of the dissertations were examined. A variety of research methods were used including quantitative, qualitative and mixed designs.…

Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda

2009-01-01

146

Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: the necessity to develop a specific guideline  

PubMed Central

Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers’ role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers’ potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged. PMID:25512833

Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

147

Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

2012-01-01

148

Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for partici- pation and non-participation in sport and physi- cal activity. The review covers peer reviewed and gray literature

Steven Allender; Gill Cowburn; Charlie Foster

2006-01-01

149

ORIGINAL ARTICLE If the condom fits, wear it: a qualitative study of young  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE If the condom fits, wear it: a qualitative study of young African-American men R.2003.008227 Objective: To extend the current knowledge base pertaining to condom failure among young African- American men by assessing their experiences with male condom use. Methods: Qualitative

150

Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

Murakami, Yusuke

2013-01-01

151

The Beach Study: An Empirical Analysis of the Distribution of Coastal Property Values  

E-print Network

165 The Beach Study: An Empirical Analysis of the Distribution of Coastal Property Values empirical evidence suggests that coastal properties, and particularly those proximate to a beach, have empirical evidence suggests that coastal properties, and particularly those proximate to a beach, have

Omiecinski, Curtis

152

Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students’ study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies\\u000a used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study\\u000a at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period from\\u000a November 2007 to December 2008. We

Hanan M. F. Al Kadri; Mohamed S. Al-Moamary; Margaret Elzubair; Mohi Eldien Magzoub; Abdulrahman AlMutairi; Christopher Roberts; Cees van der Vleuten

2011-01-01

153

Children's views of accident risks and prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To examine children's accounts of injury risks and opportunities for prevention. Setting—Schools, youth clubs, and a holiday activity scheme in the south east of England. Methods—Sixteen focus groups were held with 7–11 year old children. Transcripts of the discussions were analysed using qualitative methods. Results—Children were knowledgeable about injury risks and how to reduce them. They also saw injury prevention as primarily their own responsibility. However, they were also sophisticated in their criticisms of generalised prevention advice, and evaluated safety messages in the light of local environmental and social knowledge. Personal experience was more often reported as a reason for risk reduction than formal prevention advice. Risks for injury were not isolated from other risks faced. Conclusions—Effective educational interventions aimed at changing children's risk behaviour should build more on children's own competence and knowledge of their local environment, and stress the need to manage risks rather than avoid dangers. PMID:9595326

Green, J.; Hart, L.

1998-01-01

154

Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations - An Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.

Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled

155

Tomography by iterative convolution - Empirical study and application to interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm for computer tomography has been developed that is applicable to reconstruction from data having incomplete projections because an opaque object blocks some of the probing radiation as it passes through the object field. The algorithm is based on iteration between the object domain and the projection (Radon transform) domain. Reconstructions are computed during each iteration by the well-known convolution method. Although it is demonstrated that this algorithm does not converge, an empirically justified criterion for terminating the iteration when the most accurate estimate has been computed is presented. The algorithm has been studied by using it to reconstruct several different object fields with several different opaque regions. It also has been used to reconstruct aerodynamic density fields from interferometric data recorded in wind tunnel tests.

Vest, C. M.; Prikryl, I.

1984-01-01

156

An Empirical Study of a CS 1 Studio Experience 1 Running head: An Empirical Study of a CS 1 Studio Experience  

E-print Network

education. Keywords: computer-mediated communication; cooperative/collaborative learning; evaluation of CAL systems; teaching/learning strategies; post-secondary education. #12;An Empirical Study of a CS 1 Studio on empirically evaluating the pedagogical effectiveness of the technology. Focusing on a significant subset

Hundhausen, Chris

157

Differential Weighting: A Survey of Methods and Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on a priori and empirical weighting of test items and test-item options is reviewed. While multiple regression is the best known technique for deriving fixed empirical weights for component variables (such as tests and test items), other methods allow one to derive weights which equalize the effective weights of the component…

Stanley, Julian C.; Wang, Marilyn D.

158

The physician’s role and empathy – a qualitative study of third year medical students  

PubMed Central

Background Empathy is important in ensuring the quality of the patient-physician relationship. Several studies have concluded that empathy declines during medical training, especially during the third year. However, there is little empirical research on what may influence a medical student’s empathy. In addition, studies of empathy in medicine have generally been dominated by quantitative approaches, primarily self-assessment questionnaires. This is a paradox given the complexity and importance of empathy. In this paper we explore medical students’ opinions of what may foster or inhibit empathy during medical school, with a particular emphasis on how empathy is influenced by the initiation into the physician’s role. Methods We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with 11 third year medical students. Content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interviews. Results Five aspects of the the physician’s role and the students’ role acquisition emerged when the students were asked to describe what may influence their empathy: 1) Becoming and being a professional, 2) Rules concerning emotions and care, 3) Emotional control, 4) The primary importance of biomedical knowledge, and 5) Cynicism as a coping strategy. Conclusion This study suggest that the described inhibitors of empathy may originate in the hidden curriculum and reinforce each other, creating a greater distance between the physician and the patient, and possibly resulting in decreased empathy. Mastering biomedical knowledge is an important part of the students’ ideals of the physician’s role, and sometimes objective and distanced ideals may suppress empathy and the students’ own emotions. PMID:25108627

2014-01-01

159

Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study  

SciTech Connect

The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

2010-06-01

160

Lessons learned on benchmarking from the international human reliability analysis empirical study.  

SciTech Connect

The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to 'translate' the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

Lois, Erasmia (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Forester, John Alan; Dang, Vinh N. (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland); Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Bye, Andreas (OECD Halden Reactor Project, Halden, Norway)

2010-04-01

161

An Empirical Study of Student Willingness to Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…

Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci

2012-01-01

162

On the same team? a qualitative study of female sportswriters' attitudes on covering women's athletics  

E-print Network

ON THE SAME TEAM? A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF FEMALE SPORTSWRITERS’ ATTITUDES ON COVERING WOMEN’S ATHLETICS A Dissertation by BRYAN CHRISTOPHER BUTLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Kinesiology ON THE SAME TEAM? A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF FEMALE SPORTSWRITERS’ ATTITUDES ON COVERING WOMEN’S ATHLETICS A Dissertation by BRYAN CHRISTOPHER BUTLER Submitted to the Office...

Butler, Bryan Christopher

2008-10-10

163

Facing the diagnosis of myocardial infarction: A qualitative study.  

PubMed

Background: Patient experience is increasingly recognized as one of the three pillars of quality in health care, alongside clinical effectiveness and patient safety. However, little attention has been paid to the patients' experience from the point of view of health care delivery. Objective: To explore the initial experience of patients facing a new diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Thirty semi-structured, individual interviews were performed. The Grounded Theory method was used. Atlas.ti qualitative data analysis software facilitated the analysis. Results: Three patterns of MI diagnosis experience were found: a close encounter with death, severe pain, and 'silent' MI. Newly-diagnosed MI patients who experienced a close encounter with death expected that, after necessary life-saving measures, their physician would not force immediate conversation, but leave them alone, simply to take pleasure in being alive. Newly-diagnosed MI patients who did not experience a close encounter with death expected that their physician would provide not only medical care but also immediate emotional support and opportunities to discuss in their own words their ideas, thoughts, concerns and fears. Six factors facilitated patients coping with a new diagnosis of MI: stay in hospital, completion of diagnostic tests, trust in physicians, the patient's previous expectation that he/she could have a heart attack, the patient's personality, and the need for solitude. Conclusion: Physicians should be aware that different patterns of patient experience when facing MI could indicate patients' differing needs for immediate emotional support and communication. PMID:24874789

Petri?ek, Goranka; Buljan, Josip; Prljevi?, Gordana; Owens, Patricia; Vrci?-Keglevi?, Mladenka

2014-05-30

164

Qualitative study of influences on food store choice  

PubMed Central

Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

2012-01-01

165

Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

1998-01-01

166

Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about social learning in animals. The last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.

BENNETT G. GALEF JR. and KEVIN N. LALAND (;)

2005-06-01

167

Empirical study of crowd behavior during a real mass event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of crowd behavior is essential for the safe organization of mass events. However, precise quantitative empirical data are insufficient due to the lack of mass event scenarios suitable for observation. In this paper, crowd behavior during a mass event in which many people go through a door and then pass a bridge is studied by a new method based on a flow field visualization algorithm widely used in fluid experiments. Two important movement phases, laminar flow on a bridge and stop-and-go waves in a bottleneck area, are investigated. The results show that the velocity profile on the bridge is similar to that of fully developed laminar flow in a pipe. Quantitative analysis of the stop-and-go wave in the bottleneck area shows that the dominant fluctuation frequencies are mainly below 0.1 Hz and the peak frequency is around 0.05 Hz the wave propagation speed is about - 0.69 m s-1. The absolute decrease in speed as the wave propagates is also indicated. By a combination of shock wave theory and a fundamental diagram, an analytical model of a shock wave in a crowd is established to theoretically investigate the stop-and-go wave, and the model can be used to explain the measurement results. This study provides a new method and fundamental data for understanding crowd behavior. The results are also expected to be useful for the design of crowd management strategies during mass events.

Zhang, X. L.; Weng, W. G.; Yuan, H. Y.

2012-08-01

168

Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

2013-01-01

169

Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ?65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ?65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines, policy should be better translated into high vaccination rates through evidence-based implementation approaches. PMID:25490542

Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

2014-01-01

170

Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

2001-01-01

171

Empirical simulation studies in operations management: context, trends, and research opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates, published simulation studies in operations management (OM) that are empirically based. The results of the study are based on an exhaustive search of twenty leading operations management journals over the period from 1970 to 2000. Approximately, 600 published simulation studies in operations management were identified, but only 85 of these were subsequently identified as being empirical in

Scott M. Shafer; Timothy L. Smunt

2004-01-01

172

Imbalanced learning for pattern recognition: an empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imbalanced learning problem (learning from imbalanced data) presents a significant new challenge to the pattern recognition and machine learning society because in most instances real-world data is imbalanced. When considering military applications, the imbalanced learning problem becomes much more critical because such skewed distributions normally carry the most interesting and critical information. This critical information is necessary to support the decision-making process in battlefield scenarios, such as anomaly or intrusion detection. The fundamental issue with imbalanced learning is the ability of imbalanced data to compromise the performance of standard learning algorithms, which assume balanced class distributions or equal misclassification penalty costs. Therefore, when presented with complex imbalanced data sets these algorithms may not be able to properly represent the distributive characteristics of the data. In this paper we present an empirical study of several popular imbalanced learning algorithms on an army relevant data set. Specifically we will conduct various experiments with SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique), ADASYN (Adaptive Synthetic Sampling), SMOTEBoost (Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling in Boosting), and AdaCost (Misclassification Cost-Sensitive Boosting method) schemes. Detailed experimental settings and simulation results are presented in this work, and a brief discussion of future research opportunities/challenges is also presented.

He, Haibo; Chen, Sheng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi; Quoraishee, Shafik

2010-10-01

173

Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study  

PubMed Central

Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

2013-01-01

174

Employees' Perceptions of Cycle Commuting: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…

van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

2011-01-01

175

Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

2014-01-01

176

Teacher classroom management communication: A qualitative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the effectiveness of using Albert Scheflen's context analysis as a descriptive framework for the analysis of teacher classroom management communication. The case study focusses upon the orientations, movements, or “positions”; that teachers use in managing classroom interaction in an alternative high school class. Four positional sequences are described. The Scheflen methodology is shown to provide data for

William Foster Owen

1984-01-01

177

Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study

Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

2011-01-01

178

African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

2012-01-01

179

A Qualitative Study of Subject Recruitment for Familial Cancer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Familial epidemiological studies of cancer raise familiar ethical issues relating to informed consent and recruitment of participants. When the family is the unit of study, however, additional complexity arises. Educating and recruiting participants must be tailored to the relatives', as well as the proband's needs. An understanding of the prospective participants' concerns will aid the development of strategies for

Nancy Kreiger; Fredrick Ashbury; Michelle Cotterchio; Jeannette Macey

2001-01-01

180

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

181

A Qualitative Study of Student Responses to Body Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study conducted studying focus groups to determine whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Outcomes discussed surround the following themes that emerged from the data. (1) body painting as a fun learning activity, (2) body painting promoting retention of knowledge, (3) factors contributing to the memorability of body painting, (4) removal from comfort zone, and (5) the impact of body painting on students' future clinical practice.

Gabrielle Finn (Durham University)

2009-11-16

182

Asymptotic Scenarios for the Proton's Central Opacity: An Empirical Study  

E-print Network

We present a model-independent analysis of the experimental data on the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross-sections from $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Using a novel empirical parametrization for that ratio as a function of the energy and based on theoretical and empirical arguments, we investigate three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the black-disk (BD) limit or scenarios above and below that limit. Our analysis favors a scenario below the BD, with asymptotic ratio $X = 0.36 \\pm 0.08$.

D. A. Fagundes; M. J. Menon; P. V. R. G. Silva

2014-10-19

183

An Empirical Study of the Effect of Agent Competence on User Performance and , John Stasko1  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of the Effect of Agent Competence on User Performance and Perception Jun Xiao1.gatech.edu Abstract We studied the role of the competence of an interface agent that helped users to learn and use Interfaces ­ Evaluation/methodology Keywords Embodied conversational agents, interface agents, empirical

Stasko, John T.

184

Programming Ability: Do we know it when we see it? An Empirical Study of Peer Evaluation  

E-print Network

1 Programming Ability: Do we know it when we see it? An Empirical Study of Peer Evaluation Jeffrey-205-348-6363 oslin002@crimson.ua.edu #12;1 Programming Ability: Do we know it when we see it? An Empirical Study practitioner community; our impression is that much more care goes into selection of programmers than, say

Carver, Jeffrey C.

185

Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review Tore Dyba *, Torgeir Dingsyr  

E-print Network

Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review Tore Dyba° *, Torgeir Dingsøyr form 22 January 2008; accepted 24 January 2008 Available online 2 February 2008 Abstract Agile software. A system- atic review of empirical studies of agile software development up to and including 2005

186

An Empirical Study of API Usability Marco Piccioni, Carlo A. Furia, and Bertrand Meyer  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of API Usability Marco Piccioni, Carlo A. Furia, and Bertrand Meyer ETH Zurich Interfaces (APIs). Usability is therefore a funda- mental goal of API design, but rigorous empirical studies of API usability are still relatively uncommon. In this paper, we present the design of an API usability

Meyer, Bertrand

187

Information Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although increasingly recognized as a future skills issue, the use of information in the workplace is a little studied area within library and information research. A substantial "pedagogic" literature of learning in the workplace exists, however, and this was critically reviewed to generate a repertoire of issues which could in turn be used to…

Crawford, John; Irving, Christine

2009-01-01

188

Obesity Prevention Opinions of School Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…

Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2010-01-01

189

Teaching in Virtual Worlds: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the speed at which Second Life has been adopted by universities and schools to teach courses, little educational research and theory addresses this multiplayer online "world." This case study explored undergraduate university instructors' teaching methods and tools within a virtual environment. It also considered whether instructors are…

Kramer, Steven H.

2010-01-01

190

Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study

Birgitta Marklund; Bodil Wilde-Larsson; Staffan Ahlstedt; Gun Nordström

2007-01-01

191

Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

2009-01-01

192

A Qualitative Study of the Process of Facilitated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used participant observation and interviews to evaluate the use of facilitated communication with two sixth-grade students with cognitive disabilities. Results indicated that facilitators provided a unique combination of support, tailored to individualized needs and including physical support, decision making, and negotiating of meaning…

Sabin, Laural A.; Donnellan, Anne M.

1993-01-01

193

Violent Death: A Qualitative Study of Israeli and Palestinian Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to report on how the unexpected and violent death of a civilian family member in Israel and Palestine affected family functioning 3–5 years after the incident. The narrative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the Israeli and Palestinian families on how the death was perceived, on coping strategies, an on how it influenced

Douglas A. Abbott

2009-01-01

194

Negotiating ‘depression’ in primary care: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatry has provided primary care physicians with tools for recognising and labelling mild, moderate or severe ‘depression’. General practitioners (GPs) in the UK have been guided to manage depression within primary care and to prescribe anti-depressants as a first-line treatment. The present study aimed to examine how GPs would construct ‘depression’ when asked to talk about those anomalous patients for

Susan McPherson; David Armstrong

2009-01-01

195

Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The participants used problem-focused (problem solving, spending leisure time, confrontation) and

Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami; Forough Rafii; Seyede Fatemeh H. Oskouie

2010-01-01

196

An empirical study of smoothing techniques for language modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the most widely-used algorithms for smoothing models for language n -gram modeling. We then present an extensive empirical comparison of several of these smoothing techniques, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980); Katz (1987); Bell, Cleary and Witten (1990); Ney, Essen and Kneser (1994), and Kneser and Ney (1995). We investigate how factors such as training data

Stanley F. Chen; Joshua Goodman

1999-01-01

197

Codependency: An Empirical Study from a Systemic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

To empirically investigate the construct validity of codependency, differences between young adults on a measure of codependency on theoretically relevant variables were examined. Compared with individuals who scored low on codependency, those who obtained high scores reported significantly more family of origin difficulties and parental mental health problems, problematic intimate relationships including relationships with chemically dependent partners, and personal psychological

James Cullen; Alan Carr

1999-01-01

198

Psychological Problems Derived from Mastectomy: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Advances in treatment of breast cancer have not avoided using mastectomy in all cases, and when this happens, we are dealing with a woman who is suffering from psychological problems. In order to study this issue we have carried out a research with the collaboration of The Andalusian Association of Women with Mastectomies (AMAMA) in Seville, which provided us with a sample of 46 mastectomized women. The objective of this study is to analyze in depth the psychological reaction of women to mastectomy through its different stages from diagnosis to surgical treatment. We chose a cualitative method so as to explore the subjective components of psicologycal respons. As a result, we found in studied women: (a) The “fracture” of the “corporal imaginary” related to the disappearance of a valuable organ, linked to the feeling of loss of personal attractiveness, low self-esteem and avoidance of social relationships. (b) The problem with “femininity” has been linked to the issue of “desirability”, something innate in the “feminine position”. (c) Many of them keep in mind the idea of mutilation, as a “hole” which is impossible to integrate. (d) Finally, we demonstrate how certain features of personality made them especially vulnerable to the explained phenomena. PMID:22312492

Arroyo, José Manuel García; López, María Luisa Domínguez

2011-01-01

199

Bizarre Delusions: A Qualitative Study on Indian Schizophrenia Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Delusions are an important symptom for the diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) in both the commonly used international classificatory systems - the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV - American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and the International Classification of Diseases, X (ICD X - World Health Organization, 1992). Of special significance are “bizarre delusions” the presence of which is alone sufficient for a diagnosis of SZ in DSM IV. In an attempt to find out the frequency, criteria for classification, and other clinical aspects of bizarre delusions and justification of their importance in the diagnostic system, this retrospective study was conducted. Methodology: Records of 1952 Indian patients affected with SZ, recruited for various research projects at one center were included in this study. All had a diagnosis of DSM IV SZ; all symptoms of SZ from the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies were asked regardless of the presence of specific symptoms - like bizarre delusions - sufficient for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of bizarre delusions was 2.56%. Five themes, identified on analyzing their contents are described. Main themes were unnatural, bodily sensation, change in identity, sexual, and religious. Conclusions: These themes were culture based, but definitely out of context, excessive or extremely odd. Moreover, the rarity of bizarre delusions makes it difficult to include them as a sole criterion for diagnosis. PMID:24249929

De, Sreeja; Bhatia, Triptish; Thomas, Pramod; Chakraborty, Satabdi; Prasad, Shiv; Nagpal, Rajesh; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Deshpande, Smita N.

2013-01-01

200

Nursing students' expectations regarding effective clinical education: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe the expectations of Bachelor of Science nursing students regarding what constitutes an effective clinical education. In this study, a semistructured interview process was utilized with 17 nursing students studying in sophomore, junior and senior years in training units of hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Data analysis led to identification of three main themes: (i) appropriate communication and interaction between instructors and students; (ii) incorporation of both theory and practice in clinical education, with two subthemes, one being the presence of the instructor as a factor for reducing the gap between theory and practice and the other being evaluation based on appropriate criteria; and (iii) having specialized instructors, with a specific emphasis on the instructor's knowledge and motivation as important factors in learning. The findings reveal the significant role of mentors in providing effective educational and clinical experiences. Therefore, mentors must strive to develop their knowledge and clinical behaviours according to students' needs in clinical settings. PMID:25289734

Esmaeili, Maryam; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Salsali, Mahvash; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

2014-10-01

201

Experiences of person-centred care - patients’ perceptions: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient care models have been implemented and documented worldwide. Many studies have focused on features that hinder and facilitate the shift to such models, including the implementation process, staff involvement, resistance to new models and cultural dimensions. However, few studies have identified the potential effects of such new care models from a patient perspective. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients did in fact perceive the intentions of partnership in the new care model 1 year after its implementation. Methods Sixteen participants were interviewed, selected from two wards in a medical department where a new care model had been implemented 1 year earlier. A directed deductive content analysis was selected. The aim of the directed approach to content analysis was to investigate to what extent the new care model had been implemented, using patients’ perspectives to describe the level of implementation. A coding framework was developed based on a theoretical paper that described the key features of the new care model. Results The implementation of person-centred care had clearly occurred to a large degree, even if some patients appeared not to have been exposed to the model at all. Aspects of the newly implemented care model were obvious; however, it was also clear that implementation was not complete. The analysis showed that patients felt listened to and that their own perception of the situation had been noted. Patients spontaneously expressed that they felt that the staff saw them as persons and did not solely focus on their disease. It was also stated that not every ailment or aspect of a patient’s illness needed to be addressed or resolved for open listening to be perceived as a positive experience. Conclusions The findings indicate that even though some patients were not interested in participating and playing an active role in their own care, this might relate to a lack of understanding on how to invite them to do so and to increase their confidence. To change healthcare from a paternalistic system to care where patients are seen as partners may require pedagogical skills. PMID:25309128

2014-01-01

202

Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.  

PubMed

Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. PMID:25185106

Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

2014-12-13

203

A qualitative study of breast cancer self-help groups.  

PubMed

This study reports on the experience of women in four community breast cancer self-help groups in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women, asking them about benefits and limitations of their group involvement, and about their perspectives on group processes and structures. Overall, participants reported their group involvement to be extremely helpful for navigating the short and long-term impact of breast cancer. Emotional support benefits included connecting with other breast cancer survivors, feeling understood and sharing experiences, providing hope, and sharing healing laughter. Informational and practical support benefits included sharing of important information and learning how to get what you want. Even where there were concerns about limitations or tensions of group experience, these occurred against a backdrop of appreciation and commitment. From the discussion of group processes and structures, a number of issues were identified as problematic. Most notable were how to deal with deaths of group members and how to balance the group's primary purpose of providing mutual support with secondary goals of dealing with group business and engaging in meaningful advocacy. PMID:9451747

Gray, R; Fitch, M; Davis, C; Phillips, C

1997-12-01

204

Qualitative study of evidence based leaflets in maternity care  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of evidence based leaflets on informed choice in maternity services. Design Non-participant observation of 886 antenatal consultations. 383 in depth interviews with women using maternity services and health professionals providing antenatal care. Setting Women's homes; antenatal and ultrasound clinics in 13 maternity units in Wales. Participants Childbearing women and health professionals who provide antenatal care. Intervention Provision of 10 pairs of Informed Choice leaflets for service users and staff and a training session in their use. Main outcome measures Participants' views and commonly observed responses during consultations and interviews. Results Health professionals were positive about the leaflets and their potential to assist women in making informed choices, but competing demands within the clinical environment undermined their effective use. Time pressures limited discussion, and choice was often not available in practice. A widespread belief that technological intervention would be viewed positively in the event of litigation reinforced notions of “right” and “wrong” choices rather than “informed” choices. Hierarchical power structures resulted in obstetricians defining the norms of clinical practice and hence which choices were possible. Women's trust in health professionals ensured their compliance with professionally defined choices, and only rarely were they observed asking questions or making alternative requests. Midwives rarely discussed the contents of the leaflets or distinguished them from other literature related to pregnancy. The visibility and potential of the leaflets as evidence based decision aids was thus greatly reduced. Conclusions The way in which the leaflets were disseminated affected promotion of informed choice in maternity care. The culture into which the leaflets were introduced supported existing normative patterns of care and this ensured informed compliance rather than informed choice. What is already known on this topicInformed Choice leaflets are widely used in maternity care but little is known about their ability to influence informed choice and decision makingHigh quality information is essential for promoting informed choice but is insufficient by itselfWhat this study addsTime constraints and other pressures on health professionals resulted in a lack of discussion of the content of the leafletsFear of litigation, power hierarchies, and the technological imperative in maternity care limited the choices availableHealth professionals promoted normative practices rather than choice, and as women valued their opinions this led to the promotion of informed compliance rather than informed choice PMID:11895821

Stapleton, Helen; Kirkham, Mavis; Thomas, Gwenan

2002-01-01

205

Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study

Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

2011-01-01

206

Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

Ruan, Lian J.

2011-01-01

207

Mexican "Curanderismo" as Ethnopsychotherapy: A Qualitative Study on Treatment Practices, Effectiveness, and Mechanisms of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of "curanderos," the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The patients had…

Zacharias, Steffi

2006-01-01

208

Female Superintendents: A Qualitative Study of the Journey to the Role of Superintendent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25…

Schmidt, Stacey M.

2011-01-01

209

A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…

Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

2007-01-01

210

Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

Henfield, Malik S.

2011-01-01

211

What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

2011-01-01

212

An Exploration of Registered Nurses' Intentions to Leave the Profession: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of female registered nurses who have intentions to leave the profession with particular attention to the influence of gender. The theoretical framework of feminist poststructuralism informed this study, which emphasizes the role of discourse and power relations in the…

Lutter, Stacy Lynn

2011-01-01

213

The Nature and Requirements of Work in University-Based Telehealth Units: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telehealth units are one of many university administrative units created to foster innovation in universities over the last 40 years. Despite the proliferation of such units, few organizational studies have examined the work undertaken inside of these units. This qualitative study used a sequential two-part research design to understand the…

Seale, Deborah E.

2013-01-01

214

Exploring Dynamics of Abusive Lesbian Relationships: Preliminary Analysis of a Multisite, Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results from a multisite, qualitative study on violence in lesbian relationships. A framework for conducting community-based, empowerment research that draws on theories of community psychology, feminism, and postmodernism is presented. The study was designed to understand the dynamics of abusive lesbian relationships and social service providers' responses to the abuse. Results from 80 in-depth interviews with

Janice L. Ristock

2003-01-01

215

Experience of Being Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual at an Australian Medical School: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six undergraduate students were interviewed in a qualitative study about their experiences as gay, lesbian or bisexual students studying Medicine. Informants, who were identified by snowball sampling, spoke about their experiences both freely and in response to a series of prompt questions derived from previous research. The transcribed interviews…

Chur-Hansen, Anna

2004-01-01

216

Mexican Curanderismo as Ethnopsychotherapy: A qualitative study on treatment practices, effectiveness, and mechanisms of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of curanderos, the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The patients had a number of psychiatric disorders, including panic and dependency syndrome

Steffi Zacharias

2006-01-01

217

Changing Green Subjectivities in Outdoor and Environmental Education: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on a longitudinal qualitative study of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and disciplinary…

Preston, Lou

2012-01-01

218

A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

2007-01-01

219

A Profile of an Effective Teacher of English: A Qualitative Study from Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents and discusses a research study aimed at defining the profile of an effective Polish teacher of English. The study, which is qualitative in nature, has been conducted among English language teachers in Poland who are considered excellent in their professional environment. Their kinds of knowledge and their beliefs about the…

Werbinska, Dorota

2009-01-01

220

Evidence-based Practice Implementation Strategies: Results of a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the strategies used to implement the evidence-based practices of supported employment and integrated\\u000a dual diagnosis treatment. Using qualitative research methods, the study uncovered eight strategies that contributed to successful\\u000a implementation in six sites.

Charles A. Rapp; Diane Etzel-Wise; Doug Marty; Melinda Coffman; Linda Carlson; Dianne Asher; Jennifer Callaghan; Rob Whitley

2008-01-01

221

Indigenous Crisis Counseling in Taiwan: An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study of an Expert Therapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…

Kuo, Ben C. H.; Hsu, Wei-Su; Lai, Nien-Hwa

2011-01-01

222

Smoking and quitting: a qualitative study with community-living psychiatric clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a study investigating the smoking behaviours of a community-based psychiatric population. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, the four diagnostic categories of schizophrenia, bi-polar affective disorder, depression, and personality disorder were studied (24 interviews in total) in order to identify similarities and differences in smoking behaviours and perceptions of links between illness and cigarette

Sharon J. Lawn; Rene G. Pols; James G. Barber

2002-01-01

223

Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a qualitative and quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients have difficulty following a long-term treatment regimen. Efforts to improve treatment outcomes require better understanding of adherence as a complex behavioral issue and of the particular barriers to and facilitators of patient adherence. METHODS: This study was carried out in Jiangsu Province of China with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. For the quantitative study, 780 sputum-smear

Weiguo Xu; Wei Lu; Yang Zhou; Limei Zhu; Hongbing Shen; Jianming Wang

2009-01-01

224

Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

2010-01-01

225

A Qualitative Study of Coping in Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant body of research exists that explores the stressors of raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are fewer studies, however, that examine specific effective coping strategies of mothers of children with an ASD. This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of effective coping strategies for their parenting…

Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Burroughs, Tajhma; Wright, Jamie; Lemanczyk, Theresa; Darragh, Amy Rowntree

2010-01-01

226

A Qualitative Inquiry of Career Exploration in Highly Implemented Career and Technical Education Programs of Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores career counseling and guidance services as provided to students engaged in career and technical education programs at three sites in the United States. The sites, consisting of high schools and community colleges, were part of the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's 5-year studies of…

Stipanovic, Natalie; Stringfield, Sam

2013-01-01

227

The Impact of Prompted Narrative Writing during Internship on Reflective Practice: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…

Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.

2008-01-01

228

Those Who Were Born Poor: A Qualitative Study of Philippine Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated the psychological experience of poverty among 2 groups of Filipinos who were interviewed about the effects of being raised poor, 12 who became rich, and 13 who remained poor. Using constructivist and critical theories as research paradigms and grounded theory as methodology, the results of the study illustrated…

Tuason, Ma. Teresa G.

2008-01-01

229

Sustaining Programs of School, Family, and Community Partnerships: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study of Two Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws from 4 years of qualitative case study data to describe how programmatic and district factors interacted to affect reform sustainability in two school districts--one urban and the other suburban. These districts have been implementing a reform developed by the National Network of Partnership Schools (NNPS) for over a decade. NNPS…

Sanders, Mavis G.

2012-01-01

230

The Experience of Perinatal Care at a Birthing Center: A Qualitative Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive pilot study was to describe women's experiences of care and satisfaction at a freestanding birth center. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with seven women who had given birth within 12 months of participant selection. Using qualitative content analysis, three themes emerged: (1) Empowerment, (2) Sense of Motherhood, and (3) Establishing and Strengthening Relationships. Data revealed that women value caring providers, that caring providers may affect positive outcomes, and that those outcomes may lead to a satisfactory experience. PMID:19436419

Pewitt, Amber T.

2008-01-01

231

Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

2013-01-01

232

Barriers to acceptance and adherence of antiretroviral therapy in urban Zambian women: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa contains over 60% of the world's HIV infections and Zambia is among the most severely affected countries in the region. As antiretroviral programs have been rapidly expanding, the long-term success of these programs depends on a good understanding of the behavioral determinants of acceptance and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The study used qualitative methods to gain local

Laura K. Murray; Katherine Semrau; Ellen McCurley; Donald M. Thea; Nancy Scott; Mwiya Mwiya; Chipepo Kankasa; Judith Bass; Paul Bolton

2009-01-01

233

The Self-Worth, Physical and Social Activities of Graduate Students: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore graduate students' perspectives of how graduate school affected their participation in physical and social activities and their self worth. Seven focus groups (n = 47) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Finances and quality of interactions were among the main social…

Longfield, Amanda; Romas, Joanne; Irwin, Jennifer D.

2006-01-01

234

The Role of Spirituality in Christian School Leadership: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and Newton (2001) and Creswell's (1998) method of…

Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve

2005-01-01

235

Identifying Strategies for Native American Student Success in Community Colleges: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…

Baxter, Paula Jean

2009-01-01

236

A Qualitative Study of Challenges Faced by International Doctoral Students in Counselor Education Supervision Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using consensual qualitative research methodology, this study examines the challenges doctoral-level international students encountered in counselor education programs, during supervisor training, specifically. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants and revealed a variety of difficulties. Despite the wide variability in…

Jang, Yoo Jin; Woo, Hongryun; Henfield, Malik S.

2014-01-01

237

Perceptions on hypertension among migrants in Delhi, India: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The developing countries are experiencing epidemiological transition and hypertension has emerged as a major threat to health in these countries. Understanding people's perceptions is important for any prevention and control activities and lay explanatory models (EMs) provide an opportunity to gain insights into the people's perceptions. This qualitative study is taken up with an objective of understanding EMs of

Yadlapalli S Kusuma

2009-01-01

238

Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

James, LaNora Marcell

2011-01-01

239

A Qualitative Case Study of Cultural Competency among Advanced Placement Teachers in Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of cultural competency, its application, and impact on K-12 learning have not received much attention in the literature. Teachers need to understand the connection between culture and pedagogy when teaching minority and underrepresented students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine whether the skill sets in…

Hayes, Monica G.

2010-01-01

240

Time Management, Passion, and Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Highly Research Productive Counseling Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

2013-01-01

241

Understanding the Experiences of Latina/o Students: A Qualitative Study for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study with nine Latina/o college students was conducted to determine their experiences with their high school teachers. After careful data analysis, the following themes emerged: (a) some Latina/o students receive high expectations and others receive low expectations, (b) low expectations for non-AP students exist, and (c) some…

Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.

2010-01-01

242

Experience of Career-Related Discrimination for Female-to-Male Transgender Persons: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, the authors examined the experience of discrimination and its relationship to the career development trajectory of 9 female-to-male transgender persons. Participants were between 21 and 48 years old and had a variety of vocational experiences. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone and analyzed…

Dispenza, Franco; Watson, Laurel B.; Chung, Y. Barry; Brack, Greg

2012-01-01

243

An Examination of Oregon Writing Project Teachers: A Qualitative Study of Professional Development Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the influence of the 2011 Oregon Writing Project (OWP) Summer Institute (SI) on the professional development of six teachers in the following ways: 1. The development of case descriptions of teachers' personal and professional backgrounds relevant to their teaching of writing. 2. An examination of the effects…

Obery, Angela D.

2012-01-01

244

A Qualitative Case Study Illustrating the Benefits of Discussion Roles in Online Asynchronous Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research describes a qualitative, naturalistic case study of a situation-specific, in-depth exploration of the use of ten student discussion roles in and adult education, online asynchronous discussions. Discussion roles were designed in order to enable students to respond better and create deeper and more meaning-filled threaded discussions,…

Hancock, Cheryl J.

2012-01-01

245

STEM Education Related Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article utilizes a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 101 dissertation abstracts found by searching the ProQuest Dissertation and Theses[TM] digital database for dissertations abstracts from 1990 through 2010 using the search terms education, science, technology, engineer, and STEM/SMET. Professional search librarians…

Banning, James; Folkestad, James E.

2012-01-01

246

Combining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social interactions  

E-print Network

appropriate methods of evaluation that let Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science 3 September 2002 #12 on the individual rather than on the social perspective. Therefore, we are now completing the evaluation methodCombining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social

Boyer, Edmond

247

A Qualitative Case Study: Student Perceptions of "Voice" in the IEP Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this single community qualitative case study was to determine how the voice of the student was present in the IEP process, documentation paperwork, and curricular and diagnostic decisions, among a group of seven students, grades 9 through 12, placed in a self-contained program for students with emotional disabilities in a suburban…

Kaczkowski, Melissa

2013-01-01

248

A Qualitative Study To Determine How Art Therapy May Benefit Women With Addictions Who Have Relapsed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical dependency addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Addiction interferes with an individual’s physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual development. This qualitative study focused on women who have relapsed from previous attempts at sobriety and investigated how art may allow for deeper personal exploration and emotional expression. Each participant was given the opportunity

Cherry A. Hagens

2011-01-01

249

Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

2009-01-01

250

Young people's perceptions of traffic injury risks, prevention and enforcement measures: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate young people's perceptions, in Barcelona, Spain, about the evolution, magnitude, causes and determinants of traffic crashes, to describe their opinions on road safety regulations, and to explore their suggestions and proposals.Interviews were conducted with 43 key informants and 12 focus groups involving 98 participants. Discussion guides were designed to get insight

Pilar Ramos; Elia Díez; Katherine Pérez; Alicia Rodriguez-Martos; M. Teresa Brugal; Joan R. Villalbí

2008-01-01

251

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

252

Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

2011-01-01

253

When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

254

Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

Kim, Yeonsoo

2010-01-01

255

Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

Rath, Jean

2008-01-01

256

Multimorbidity, service organization and clinical decision making in primary care: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Primary care professionals often manage patients with multiple long-term health conditions, but managing multimorbidity is challenging given time and resource constraints and interactions between conditions. OBJECTIVE: To explore GP and nurse perceptions of multimorbidity and the influence on service organization and clinical decision making. METHODS: A qualitative interview study with primary care professionals in practices in Greater Manchester, U.K.

P. Bower; W. Macdonald; E. Harkness; L. Gask; T. Kendrick; J. M. Valderas; C. Dickens; T. Blakeman; B. S. Sibbald

2011-01-01

257

A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety among Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…

Sloan, Tina Rye

2010-01-01

258

Rural hospital interdisciplinary team members’ experience of undergraduate nursing preceptorship: A qualitative descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural hospital preceptorships offer Canadian undergraduate nursing students the opportunity to work with interdisciplinary teams. In a qualitative descriptive study, rural hospital interdisciplinary team members’ experience of preceptorship was explored. Five focus groups and eight individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with professionals from nursing, medicine, social work, respiratory, recreational, occupational therapy, records keeping, dietary, pharmacy, hospital administration, and laboratory

Monique Sedgwick

2011-01-01

259

Stakeholders' Views of Service Quality in Community Pharmacy: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the views of a range of stakeholders regarding the effectiveness of service quality as a differentiating position for community pharmacy. Using qualitative methodology, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders of the retail pharmacy market, including community pharmacists. It was found that current service levels were perceived to be variable, with a strong level of concern

Lesley White; Christopher Clark

2010-01-01

260

African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

Maples, Inga D.

2013-01-01

261

Investigation of Inquiry-Based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science…

Weiland, Sunny Minelli

2012-01-01

262

A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

2007-01-01

263

Experiences of Preschoolers with Severe Disabilities in an Inclusive Early Education Setting: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the social experiences of preschoolers with severe disabilities in an inclusive early education setting. Teachers, paraprofessionals, and peers were interviewed, and the children and adults were observed in daily routines of the preschool. Findings showed that social experiences with adults were…

Hanline, Mary Francis; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.

2012-01-01

264

Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

2013-01-01

265

When the viewer goes to prison: learning fact from watching fiction. A qualitative cultivation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that effects of television fiction on the perception of reality are coding errors occurring when viewers remember what they saw without remembering the validity of the source. A qualitative study of 33 prison inmates discussing their first entry into the prison system shows that when experiences which previously were of secondary importance suddenly and acutely become of

Jan Van den Bulck; Heidi Vandebosch

2003-01-01

266

Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

Ras, Gerard J. M.

2011-01-01

267

A Qualitative Study of Self Advocacy and Guardianship: Views from New Hampshire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research case study includes a brief overview of the status and development of self-advocacy in New Hampshire, describes the state's guardianship program, and highlights areas of concern to people with disabilities. Self-advocacy is described as having three primary components: (1) enabling people with developmental disabilities…

Racino, Julie Ann

268

Teachers' Views on Values Education: A Qualitative Study in Sweden and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to examine Swedish and Turkish teachers' perspectives on values education. Qualitative interviews with 52 teachers were conducted and analyzed. Values education was mostly about compliance with societal values and norms. The learning goals or values in values education were mainly on how to treat others and on…

Thornberg, Robert; Og uz, Ebru

2013-01-01

269

On Being Jewish: A Qualitative Study of Identity among British Jews in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a qualitative study of Jewish identity in emerging adults between ages 18 and 27, drawn from across the mainstream British Jewish community. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviews covered three main areas, focusing on the participants' developmental history…

Sinclair, Jennifer; Milner, David

2005-01-01

270

The Riacho Fundo water basin: a case study for qualitative modelling sustainable development  

E-print Network

The Riacho Fundo water basin: a case study for qualitative modelling sustainable development Paulo. Introduction As a concept, sustainable development expresses complex interactions between biological, chemical the interactions between nature and society to support a global sustainable development. Salles et al. (2005

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

271

Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples in Open Adoption Arrangements: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…

Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

2011-01-01

272

Qualitative study of interpretation of reassurance among patients attending rheumatology clinics: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine commonly used methods of reassurance by clinicians and explore their effect on patients. Design Qualitative study of tape recordings of in›depth, semistructured interviews with patients before and after consultation and of their consultations with doctors. Setting NHS specialist rheumatology clinics in two large British cities. Participants 35 patients selected by consultant rheumatologists from general practitioner referral letters

Jenny L Donovan; David R Blake

2000-01-01

273

Stories of Six Successful African American Males High School Students: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…

Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra

2014-01-01

274

A Qualitative Ethnographic Study of African American Leadership in Higher Education Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative ethnographic study involved exploring the educational, background, and professional experiences of senior-level African American administrators in higher education. The following research question guided the exploration of the experiences and perceptions of African American administrators in higher education from the Mid-Atlantic…

Glenn, Scott

2010-01-01

275

The Disaster Continues: A Qualitative Study on the Experiences of Displaced Hurricane Katrina Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster survivors have not only experienced a tragedy, but they may also have been simultaneously displaced to places usually unfamiliar to them. What does being displaced mean in terms of survivors' experiences? This qualitative study explored, through in-depth interviews, the experiences of nine displaced Hurricane Katrina (HK) survivors. Using critical theory as a framework, our intent was to describe the

Ma. Teresa G. Tuason; C. Dominik Güss; Lynne Carroll

2012-01-01

276

A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

2012-01-01

277

Implementation of case studies in undergraduate didactic nursing courses: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of unfolding scenario-based case studies in the didactic classroom is associated with learner-centered education. The utilization of learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies, removes the focus from the instructor and instead places it on the student. Learner-centered pedagogies are believed to improve students’ levels of cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine how nurse educators are implementing the pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The goal was to examine, document, report, and, ultimately, implement the strategies. Methods Purposeful sampling was utilized in this qualitative, multisite-designed study. For each of the four participants, three separate site visits were completed. Observations and post-observational interviews took place at each site visit. Transcribed data from interviews, observations, and course documents were imported into the computer program Nvivo8. Repetitive comparative analysis was utilized to complete the data coding process. Results The guiding research question of this study sought to investigate the implementation strategies of case studies in didactic nursing courses. The implementation of case studies by the participants reflected two primary patterns: Formal Implementation (FI) and Informal Implementation (II) of case studies. The FI of case studies was further divided into two subcategories: Formal Implementation of case studies used Inside the Classroom setting (FIIC) and Formal Implementation of cases studies used Outside of the Classroom (FIOC). Conclusion Results of this investigation have led to an increased understanding of implementation strategies of unfolding scenario-based case studies in undergraduate nursing didactic courses. Data collected were rich in the description of specific methodologies for utilization of case studies and may serve as a resource for faculty in development of creative strategies to enhance the didactic classroom experience. PMID:23826925

2013-01-01

278

An Empirical Study of Object Protocols in the Nels E. Beckman, Duri Kim, and Jonathan Aldrich  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Object Protocols in the Wild Nels E. Beckman, Duri Kim, and Jonathan Aldrich Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA {nbeckman,aldrich}@cs.cmu.edu, duri.kim@alumni.cmu.edu Abstract

Aldrich, Jonathan

279

An Empirical Study of Long Lived Bugs Ripon K. Saha Sarfraz Khurshid Dewayne E. Perry  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Long Lived Bugs Ripon K. Saha Sarfraz Khurshid Dewayne E. Perry Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of Texas at Austin, USA ripon@utexas.edu, khurshid

Perry, Dewayne E.

280

Re-focusing the ethical discourse on personalized medicine: a qualitative interview study with stakeholders in the German healthcare system  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, personalized medicine (PM) has become a highly regarded line of development in medicine. Yet, it is still a relatively new field. As a consequence, the discussion of its future developments, in particular of its ethical implications, in most cases can only be anticipative. Such anticipative discussions, however, pose several challenges. Nevertheless, they play a crucial role for shaping PM’s further developments. Therefore, it is vital to understand how the ethical discourse on PM is conducted, i.e. on what – empirical and normative – assumptions ethical arguments are based regarding PM’s current and future developments. Methods To gather this information, we conducted a qualitative interview study with stakeholders in the German health care system. Our purposive sample included 17 representatives of basic research, clinical research, health economics, regulatory authorities, reimbursement institutions, pharmaceutical industry, patient organizations, as well as clinicians and legal experts involved in PM developments or policy making. We used an interview guide with open-ended questions and analyzed transcriptions of the interviews by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The respondents addressed a multitude of concerns in the context of research on as well as application of personalized preventive and therapeutic measures both on the individual and on the societal level. Interestingly, regarding future developments of PM the ethical evaluation seemed to follow the rule: the less likely its application, the more problematic a PM measure is assessed. The more likely its application, on the other hand, the less problematic it is evaluated. Conclusions The results of our study suggest re-focusing the ethical discourse on PM in Germany towards a constructive ethical monitoring which ensures to include only, nevertheless all of the actual and/or potential concerns that are ethically relevant in order to allow balancing them against the actual and potential ethically relevant benefits of PM measures. To render this possible, we propose a strategy for evaluating ethical concerns in the context of PM. PMID:23705623

2013-01-01

281

Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed\\/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. METHODS: Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which

Kathryn A Vickers; Kate B Jolly; Sheila M Greenfield

2006-01-01

282

Enhancing social networks: a qualitative study of health and social care practice in UK mental health services.  

PubMed

People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. PMID:25441461

Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

2015-03-01

283

Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the impact on teenage pregnancy of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the United Kingdom. Design Systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis of controlled trials on interventions for early parenthood and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views on early parenthood of young people living in the UK. Data sources 12 electronic bibliographic databases, five key journals, reference lists of relevant studies, study authors, and experts in the field. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies and abstracted data. Results Ten controlled trials and five qualitative studies were included. Controlled trials evaluated either early childhood interventions or youth development programmes. The overall pooled effect size showed that teenage pregnancy rates were 39% lower among individuals receiving an intervention than in those receiving standard practice or no intervention (relative risk 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.77). Three main themes associated with early parenthood emerged from the qualitative studies: dislike of school; poor material circumstances and unhappy childhood; and low expectations for the future. Comparison of these factors related to teenage pregnancy with the content of the programmes used in the controlled trials indicated that both early childhood interventions and youth development programmes are appropriate strategies for reducing unintended teenage pregnancies. The programmes aim to promote engagement with school through learning support, ameliorate unhappy childhood through guidance and social support, and raise aspirations through career development and work experience. However, none of these approaches directly tackles all the societal, community, and family level factors that influence young people’s routes to early parenthood. Conclusions A small but reliable evidence base supports the effectiveness and appropriateness of early childhood interventions and youth development programmes for reducing unintended teenage pregnancy. Combining the findings from both controlled trials and qualitative studies provides a strong evidence base for informing effective public policy. PMID:19910400

2009-01-01

284

The Meaning of Collaboration, from the Perspective of Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Interdisciplinary collaboration among nurses is a complex and multifaceted process, an essential element in nursing, which is crucial to maintain an efficient, safe, and viable medical setting. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of concept of collaboration through conducting a qualitative research approach. Method. The present study is qualitatively conducted in a content analysis approach. The data collection process included 18 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses during 2012-2013 in educational medical centers of west and northwest of Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and finally analyzed using a qualitative content analysis with a conventional method. Result. Categories obtained from analysis of the data to explain the meaning of collaboration consist of (i) prerequisites of collaboration, (ii) actualization of collaboration, and (iii) achievement of a common goal. Conclusion. The results of the present study ended in the discovery of meaning of collaboration that confirm results of other related studies, hence clarifying and disambiguating the concept under study. These results also contribute to the development of collaboration theories and the relevant measurement tools. PMID:25587572

Zamanzadeh, V.; Irajpour, A.; Valizadeh, L.; Shohani, M.

2014-01-01

285

Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

2014-01-01

286

Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. METHODS: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local

David C Taylor-Robinson; Beth Milton; Ffion Lloyd-Williams; Martin O'Flaherty; Simon Capewell

2008-01-01

287

Iranian nurses’ perception of essential competences in disaster response: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters, natural and man-made, are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events. Nurses are one of the most significant groups within Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and longer term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This paper presented the results of a study aimed to explore the context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was performed in 2012 in Iran. Interviews were conducted with 35 nurses. The sampling of participants was purposeful and continued until data saturation was achieved. Themes were identified using inductive qualitative content analysis. Trustworthiness of the study was supported considering auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. Findings: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes included 1-management competences, 2- ethical and legal competences, 3-team working, 4-personal competences, and specific technical competences that presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of nursing competences required for Iranian nurses in disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disaster. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in the nursing care. PMID:25250347

Bahrami, Masoud; Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Aein, Fereshteh

2014-01-01

288

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Proximal Goal Setting of Two Introductory Modeling Instruction Physics Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Proximal goal setting has been strongly linked to self-efficacy and often occurs in successful problem solving. A qualitative study, using both observations and interviews, investigated the problem-solving processes and the self-efficacy of two students enrolled in an introductory physics course that implemented Modeling Instruction at Florida International University. We found that the problem solving process could be divided into two main phases: the goal setting process and the self-efficacy feedback loop. Further, from the qualitative data, the goal setting process could not be isolated from its impact on the self-efficacy of the students. This relationship between the goal setting strategies within the problem-solving process and self-efficacy may be linked to the retention of students in physics. We present results of the study and its possible link to student retention.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

2010-01-19

289

Women's perceptions of homebirths in two rural medical districts in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts. PMID:21276252

2011-01-01

290

Evidence-based medicine in primary care: qualitative study of family physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The objectives of this study were: a) to examine physician attitudes to and experience of the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in primary care; b) to investigate the influence of patient preferences on clinical decision-making; and c) to explore the role of intuition in family practice. Method: Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews of 15 family physicians purposively selected from

C Shawn Tracy; Guilherme Coelho Dantas; Ross EG Upshur

2003-01-01

291

Putting a Human Face on Crimes: A Qualitative Study on Restorative Justice Processes for Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restorative justice conferences including Victim Offender Mediation (VOM) are rapidly increasing. Due to a lack of participants’\\u000a accounts on their experiences, gaining knowledge on how restorative justice works from their perspective is critical, especially\\u000a to further development of justice policy and practice. In this exploratory qualitative study we interviewed 37 participants\\u000a in a VOM operating in a mid-sized Midwestern city

Jung Jin Choi; Diane L. Green; Michael J. Gilbert

292

Physician Practices in Response to Intimate Partner Violence in Southern India: Insights from a Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care providers in India are often the only institutional contact for women experiencing intimate partner violence, a pervasive public health problem with adverse health outcomes. This qualitative study was among the first to examine Indian primary care physicians' intimate partner violence practices. Between July 2007 and January 2008, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians serving low-to-middle income women

Karuna Sridharan Chibber; Suneeta Krishnan; Meredith Minkler

2011-01-01

293

Sexual Partner Concurrency of Urban Male and Female STD Clinic Patients: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partner concurrency (i.e., overlapping sexual partnerships) facilitates the spread of STDs, including HIV. The present study\\u000a explored the context of and motivations for partner concurrency among patients recruited from an urban STD clinic. Eight focus\\u000a groups were conducted with 59 patients (47% women; 77% African American). Qualitative analyses revealed five motivational\\u000a themes related to the occurrence of concurrent partnerships for

Theresa E. Senn; Lori A. J. Scott-Sheldon; Derek X. Seward; Ednita M. Wright; Michael P. Carey

2011-01-01

294

Communication about Children's Clinical Trials as Observed and Experienced: Qualitative Study of Parents and Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecruiting children to clinical trials is perceived to be challenging. To identify ways to optimise recruitment and its conduct, we compared how parents and practitioners described their experiences of recruitment to clinical trials.Methods and FindingsThis qualitative study ran alongside four children's clinical trials in 11 UK research sites. It compared analyses of semi-structured interviews with analyses of audio-recordings of practitioner-family

Valerie Shilling; Paula R. Williamson; Helen Hickey; Emma Sowden; Michael W. Beresford; Rosalind L. Smyth; Bridget Young

2011-01-01

295

The health needs of ex-prisoners, implications for successful resettlement: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ex-prisoner population is an under-researched, socially excluded group, whose broad health needs are seldom assessed and often unmet. This qualitative study aims to identify the broad health needs of ex-prisoners living in an urban borough in the North West of England. We interviewed 27 ex-prisoners and 14 of the service providers who work with them, from all the resettlement

Jilla Burgess-Allen; Michele Langlois; Paula Whittaker

2006-01-01

296

Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved.Design: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews.Setting: Australian gynaecology clinics.Subjects: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist.Main outcome measures: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs.Results: Most

Anne M Kavanagh; Dorothy H Broom

1997-01-01

297

Patients' and Practitioners' Views of Knee Osteoarthritis and Its Management: A Qualitative Interview Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo identify the views of patients and care providers regarding the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to reveal potential obstacles to improving health care strategies.MethodsWe performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews of a stratified sample of 81 patients (59 women) and 29 practitioners (8 women, 11 general practitioners [GPs], 6 rheumatologists, 4 orthopedic surgeons, and 8 [4

Sophie Alami; Isabelle Boutron; Dominique Desjeux; Monique Hirschhorn; Gwendoline Meric; François Rannou; Serge Poiraudeau; Ulrich Thiem

2011-01-01

298

Challenges in chronic illness management: a qualitative study of Australian pharmacists’ perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore pharmacists’ views on managing patients with chronic illness; to understand the incentives and barriers they perceive\\u000a and the solutions they propose to overcome these barriers. Setting Hospital pharmacists, with experience in managing people with chronic illnesses, working in western Sydney, Australia, were\\u000a interviewed during June and July 2008. Method A qualitative study involving group and individual interviews

Elin C. LehnbomJo-anne; Jo-anne E. Brien

2010-01-01

299

The Use of NUDIST, a Computerized Analytical Tool, to Support Qualitative Information Systems Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept

Anne Rouse; Martin Dick

1994-01-01

300

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH  

E-print Network

1 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH What is Considered `Scientific Knowledge documents, observations and transcripts Basic Features of Qualitative Research (2) Research procedures'? Importance of methodology Need for empirical data Procedures and protocols in research Competing sources

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

301

Empirical studies on informal patient payments for health care services: a systematic and critical review of research methods and instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Empirical evidence demonstrates that informal patient payments are an important feature of many health care systems. However, the study of these payments is a challenging task because of their potentially illegal and sensitive nature. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review and analysis of key methodological difficulties in measuring informal patient payments. Methods The systematic review was based on the following eligibility criteria: English language publications that reported on empirical studies measuring informal patient payments. There were no limitations with regard to the year of publication. The content of the publications was analysed qualitatively and the results were organised in the form of tables. Data sources were Econlit, Econpapers, Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX. Results Informal payments for health care services are most often investigated in studies involving patients or the general public, but providers and officials are also sample units in some studies. The majority of the studies apply a single mode of data collection that involves either face-to-face interviews or group discussions. One of the main methodological difficulties reported in the publication concerns the inability of some respondents to distinguish between official and unofficial payments. Another complication is associated with the refusal of some respondents to answer questions on informal patient payments. We do not exclude the possibility that we have missed studies that reported in non-English language journals as well as very recent studies that are not yet published. Conclusions Given the recent evidence from research on survey methods, a self-administrated questionnaire during a face-to-face interview could be a suitable mode of collecting sensitive data, such as data on informal patient payments. PMID:20849658

2010-01-01

302

Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

Stanwick, Peter A.

2010-01-01

303

Adequacy, Accuracy, Scalability, and Uncertainty of Architecturebased Software Reliability: Lessons Learned from Large Empirical Case Studies  

E-print Network

: Lessons Learned from Large Empirical Case Studies Katerina Goseva­Popstojanova, Margaret Hamill, and Xuan on applying architecture­based software reliability models on a large scale case study allowed us to test how. In this paper we first present an additional case study which con- firms our earlier findings. Then, we present

Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

304

Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.

Krasner, Herb

1988-01-01

305

Men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation: a systematic review of qualitative studies 2000-2013.  

PubMed

This paper aims to report on a systematic review of qualitative studies on men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. Nine databases were systematically searched to identify qualitative papers published between 2000 and 2013. Papers were selected by pre-defined inclusion criteria and subsequently critically appraised. Key themes were extracted and synthesised. Fifteen papers were selected and represented. Four central themes were identified in the analytical process: 'changed life perspective', 'the masculinity factor', 'a desire to get back to normal' and 'the meaning of work'. Six peripheral themes were identified: 'the meaning of context', 'music', 'physical training', 'religion', 'humour' and 'the unmentionable'. The themes were synthesised into an integrative model representing men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. We conclude that existing qualitative literature offers insight into men's reflections on cancer rehabilitation and highlights the interrelationship between men's reflections on their changed life perspective, masculinity, orientation towards a normal life and getting back to work. Further research-based knowledge is needed to explore (1) the underlying causes and patterns of the men's needs, preferences and choices in rehabilitation; and (2) the health professional perspective on male cancer rehabilitation. PMID:24118299

Handberg, C; Nielsen, C V; Lomborg, K

2014-03-01

306

Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60?min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

2013-01-01

307

Extension trial of qigong for fibromyalgia: a quantitative and qualitative study.  

PubMed

This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60?min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

Sawynok, Jana; Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

2013-01-01

308

Academic Probation: An Empirical Study of Private University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…

Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque

2014-01-01

309

Multivariate analysis of neuronal interactions in the generalized partial least squares framework: simulations and empirical studies  

E-print Network

data set and more time for model identification analysis). Using both Monte Carlo simulations. We performed parametric modeling studies of a blocked-design experiment under various conditions components in the 10-epoch block design motor fMRI experiment. Overall, studies of synthetic and empirical

310

Measuring the Business Impact of E-Learning: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study fills a gap in the current HRD [human resource development] literature of return on investment (ROI) analysis of technology-based learning interventions. Using a Type IV control group method as defined by Wang (2002), the study empirically analyzed and measured the learning effectiveness and the business impact of an e-learning system…

Wang, Greg; Von Der Linn, Robert; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris; Sceiford, Erin

2003-01-01

311

The effects of neuroticism on pair programming: an empirical study in the higher education context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an empirical study that investigates the effects of the personality trait of neuroticism on the academic performance of students who practiced pair programming during one academic semester. The experiment was conducted at The University of Auckland involving 270 first year undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory programming course. In this study, we hypothesized that neuroticism or

Norsaremah Salleh; Emilia Mendes; John C. Grundy

2010-01-01

312

Why Hong Kong Internet Users Do Not Shop Online - An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research papers on consumer behaviour of Internet non-shoppers in Hong Kong have been lacking. This empirical study by on -line questionnaire and focus group interview is an attempt to explore further into the key aspects in this subject area. The focus of this study is on understanding what are the barriers against Internet shopping in Hong Kong, and what

Douglas Hui

313

An empirical study of round and block norms for modelling actual distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, we look at two families of distance predicting functions, the ?kp? norm family and the block norm family, that can be used for modelling actual distances. To compare the distance-predicting accuracy of the two families, an empirical study is conducted. Two types of regions, which are large geographic regions and urban centres, are used in the study.

John Hugh Walker

1991-01-01

314

The exploitation of an international firm's relational capabilities: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on an international firm's relational capabilities that mediate to effectively facilitate organizational collaborations. We assess how the influence that arises from an international firm's cooperative strategies including market futures, trust and business network may affect the exploitation of the firm's relational capabilities and its impact on performance, using survey data from 320 firms. This study empirically tests

Yanni Yan; Sophie Hua Zhang; Fue Zeng

2010-01-01

315

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over EthernetConnected Networks  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over Ethernet­Connected Networks Ryan G. Lane multicast using the standard UDP interface. We evaluate the performance of the protocols over Ethernet­connected networks, study the impact of some special features of the Ethernet on the performance of the protocols

Yuan, Xin

316

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over EthernetConnected Networks  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over Ethernet­Connected Networks Ryan G. Lane evaluate the performance of the protocols over Ethernet­connected networks, study the impact of architectural features of the Ethernet on the per- formance of the protocols, and investigate the methods

Yuan, Xin

317

Preliminary Results from an Empirical Study on the Growth of Open Source and Commercial Software Products  

E-print Network

Preliminary Results from an Empirical Study on the Growth of Open Source and Commercial Software Technologies, Ltd. Suite 200, 6715-8th Street NE Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2E 7H7 1-403-295-4859 jpaulson study of the growth and evolution of three open source and three commercial software projects

Eberlein, Armin

318

Interactivity in the Wild An Empirical Study of 'Interactivity' as Understood in Organizational Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactivity remains a central and yet notoriously difficult notion in studies of computer- mediated communication. Compared to most previous research, which has taken theoreti- cal and deductive routes, this article explores interactivity empirically and inductively with particular reference to collaboration within organizations. The study relied on a theoretical sample of interview respondents - designers of web applications as well as

KLAUS BRUHN JENSEN

319

An Empirical Study to Evaluate the Location of Advertisement Panels by Using a Mobile Marketing Tool  

E-print Network

intelligence systems. In section 3 we define terms relevant to mobile marketing and we provide a studyAn Empirical Study to Evaluate the Location of Advertisement Panels by Using a Mobile Marketing Tool Markus Maron, Sebastian Magnus, and Kevin Read Artificial Intelligence Research Group University

Maron, Markus

320

Empirical Studies of Competitive Spinning for A SharedMemory Multiprocessor  

E-print Network

Empirical Studies of Competitive Spinning for A Shared­Memory Multiprocessor Anna R. Karlin \\Lambda spin until the lock is free, or spin for a while and then block. This may avoid context­switch overhead, but processor cycles may be wasted in unpro­ ductive spinning. This paper studies seven strategies

Anderson, Richard

321

Measurement of business environment characteristics in the US technical textile industry: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business environment has long been identified as an important contingency in the operations management literature. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to the empirical measurement of its characteristics. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid instrument for measuring business environment characteristics (BEC) in the context of operations management. The study proposes a conceptual model based on one

Ting Chi

2009-01-01

322

An Empirical Study of Variations in COTS-based Software Development Processes in the Norwegian IT  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Variations in COTS-based Software Development Processes in the Norwegian {vigdis}@simula.no Abstract. More and more software projects use Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. Although previous studies have proposed specific COTS- based development processes, there are few

323

An empirical study of the determinants of revenues and marketing expenditures in the motion picture industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical study of the determinants of a motion picture's financial success. Among the many factors which are included in this study, we find that quality and marketing expenditures are important determinants. Film ratings, production cost, and the presence of star performers are only important determinants when marketing is not included. We find that marketing expenditures are

Jay Prag; James Casavant

1994-01-01

324

The Impact of Terrorism Across Industries: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses scoring matching techniques and event study analysis to elucidate the impact of terrorism across different economic sectors. Using the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a case study, we differentiate between Israeli companies that belong to the defence, security or anti-terrorism related industries and other companies. The findings show that whereas terrorism has a significant negative impact on non defence-related

Claude Berrebi; Esteban F Klor

2005-01-01

325

Examining the practice of generalist expertise: a qualitative study identifying constraints and solutions  

PubMed Central

Objectives Provision of person-centred generalist care is a core component of quality primary care systems. The World Health Organisation believes that a lack of generalist primary care is contributing to inefficiency, ineffectiveness and inequity in healthcare. In UK primary care, General Practitioners (GPs) are the largest group of practising generalists. Yet GPs fulfil multiple roles and the pressures of delivering these roles along with wider contextual changes create real challenges to generalist practice. Our study aimed to explore GP perceptions of enablers and constraints for expert generalist care, in order to identify what is needed to ensure health systems are designed to support the generalist role. Design Qualitative study in General Practice. Setting UK primary care. Main outcome measures A qualitative study – interviews, surveys and focus groups with GPs and GP trainees. Data collection and analysis was informed by Normalisation Process Theory. Design and setting Qualitative study in General Practice. We conducted interviews, surveys and focus groups with GPs and GP trainees based mainly, but not exclusively, in the UK. Data collection and analysis were informed by Normalization Process Theory. Participants UK based GPs (interview and surveys); European GP trainees (focus groups). Results Our findings highlight key gaps in current training and service design which may limit development and implementation of expert generalist practice (EGP). These include the lack of a consistent and universal understanding of the distinct expertise of EGP, competing priorities inhibiting the delivery of EGP, lack of the consistent development of skills in interpretive practice and a lack of resources for monitoring EGP. Conclusions We describe four areas for change: Translating EGP, Priority setting for EGP, Trusting EGP and Identifying the impact of EGP. We outline proposals for work needed in each area to help enhance the expert generalist role. PMID:24475347

Reeve, Joanne; Dowrick, Christopher F; Freeman, George K; Gunn, Jane; Mair, Frances; May, Carl; Mercer, Stewart; Palmer, Victoria; Howe, Amanda; Irving, Greg; Shiner, Alice; Watson, Jessica

2013-01-01

326

An empirical taxonomy for quality management systems: a study of the Hong Kong electronics industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the existence of different patterns of quality management systems (QMS) and the relationship between such patterns and organizational performance by conducting a quantitative and qualitative study of 225 international and local firms in the electronics industry in Hong Kong. A cluster analysis of the survey data results in the identification of four patterns of QMS, which are

A. C. L Yeung; L. Y Chan; T. S Lee

2003-01-01

327

A Qualitative Assessment of Internal Factors for Tattooing among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study utilized, qualitative methodology, appraising internal factors used by students regarding tattoo decision-making. Twenty-four students, in two qualitative research waves of data collection, provided in-depth interviews about their personal constructs regarding choosing to tattoo. Results showed evidence of intrinsic…

Tse, Luke M.; Firmin, Michael W.; Angelini, Tammy; Foster, Janna

2012-01-01

328

Trend extraction using empirical mode decomposition and statistical empirical mode decomposition: Case study: Kuala Lumpur stock market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two nonparametric methods for prediction and modeling of financial time series signals are proposed. The proposed techniques are designed to handle non-stationary and non-linearity behave and to extract meaningful signals for reliable prediction. Due to Fourier Transform (FT), the methods select significant decomposed signals that will be employed for signal prediction. The proposed techniques developed by coupling Holt-winter method with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and it is Extending the scope of empirical mode decomposition by smoothing (SEMD). To show performance of proposed techniques, we analyze daily closed price of Kuala Lumpur stock market index.

Jaber, Abobaker M.

2014-12-01

329

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN PANIC DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Panic disorder is present in 2.9% of females and 1.3% of males in the Mexican urban population; about two thirds of these pa- tients have an associated depressive disorder. Genetics and psy- chosocial factors are intertwined in the etiology of this disorder. There are several studies related to the role of defense mecha- nisms in the pathogenesis of psychiatric

Enrique Chávez-León; María del Carmen; Lara Muñoz; Martha Patricia; Ontiveros Uribe

2006-01-01

330

College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

2008-01-01

331

Individual Differences in Information Seeking: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides preliminary results from a study of mediated information retrieval at the University of Sheffield (United Kingdom) based on data from 121 information seekers who requested mediated searches. Focuses on results related to the relationship between participants' gender, cognitive styles, and information seeking behaviors. (Contains 21…

Ford, Nigel; Wilson, Tom; Ellis, David; Foster, Allen; Spink, Amanda

2000-01-01

332

Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

Toker, Boran

2011-01-01

333

The Depth and Breadth of Google Scholar: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this…

Neuhaus, Chris; Neuhaus, Ellen; Asher, Alan; Wrede, Clint

2006-01-01

334

An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

2012-01-01

335

The Influence of Textbooks on Teaching Strategies: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigating the influence of textbooks on teaching strategies in 13 schools compared teaching strategies of 14 secondary teachers using University of Chicago School Mathematics Project secondary mathematics textbooks to those of 14 teachers using other textbooks. Results indicate that textbooks convey pedagogical messages and provide…

Fan, Lianghuo; Kaeley, Gurcharn S.

2000-01-01

336

Planning nervousness in a demand supply network: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Planning processes along a demand supply network in an environment characterized by rapid market fluctuations and product changes are studied. The relationship between demand planning and the bullwhip effect is investigated by comparing planning accuracy in different demand supply network echelons and locating where there is most nervousness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The current demand supply planning process flow was

Riikka Kaipia; Hille Korhonen; Helena Hartiala

2006-01-01

337

Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

2014-01-01

338

School Facilities Equity in California: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an equity study, focusing on the crowdedness and adequacy of California's public school facilities. Facilities data are from a 1988 state survey and include information about building space, age of facilities, air conditioning, and construction type. The research focuses on two equity principles: horizontal equity and facilities…

Lowe, Davison Duane

339

Responsibility and Collaboration Empirical Studies of Corporate Social Responsibility in  

E-print Network

. Keywords: business ethics, case study research, collaboration, corporate responsibility, dialogue, food Collection 31! 2.2.3! Data Analysis 34! 2.3! Research-informed Teaching Material 37! 2.4! Research Ethics 38 is to act as a market place and make a profit, in a space where demand meets supply. However, extending

340

An Empirical Study of Bugs in Machine Learning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many machine learning systems that include various data mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing code and libraries have being used in real world applications. Search engines, internet advertising systems, product recommendation systems are sample users of these algorithm intensive code and libraries. Machine learning code and toolkits have also been used in many recent studies on software mining and

Ferdian Thung; Shaowei Wang; David LO; Lingxiao JIANG

2012-01-01

341

Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

2005-01-01

342

Are Hopeful Employees More Creative? An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied how employees' hope explains their creativity at work, both directly and through the mediation of happiness. One hundred and twenty-five individuals reported their hope and happiness, their supervisors having reported their creativity. Factor analyses suggested two hope factors (waypower; composite hope) and three creativity dimensions (novel ideas; creative ideas; ideas championing). The main findings were the following: (a)

Arménio Rego; Fernanda Machado; Susana Leal; Miguel Pina E. Cunha

2009-01-01

343

The Empirical Study of Terrorism: Social and Legal Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science research on terrorism has grown rapidly in recent years, aided by social and legal studies. In this review, we examine research on the causes of terrorism and the effectiveness of strategies for countering it. We define terrorism as the threatened or actual use of illegal force directed against civilian targets by nonstate actors in order to attain a

Gary LaFree; Gary Ackerman

2009-01-01

344

Desired Competencies of Employees on International Agricultural Development Projects as Indicated by Project Managers: A Qualitative Study  

E-print Network

DESIRED COMPETENCIES OF EMPLOYEES ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AS INDICATED BY PROJECT MANAGERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY A Thesis by M?RANDA RUTH SANDLIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... of Employees on International Agricultural Development Projects as Indicated by Project Managers: A Qualitative Study Copyright 2010 M?Randa Ruth Sandlin DESIRED COMPETENCIES OF EMPLOYEES ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AS INDICATED...

Sandlin, M'Randa Ruth

2011-08-08

345

Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

Mojalli, Mohammad; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Khosravan, Shahla; Mohammadpure, Ali

2014-01-01

346

Barriers to working with sexual assault survivors: a qualitative study of rape crisis center workers.  

PubMed

To better understand barriers service providers may face when advocating for survivors, a study using grounded theory and qualitative, semistructured interviews was conducted of rape victim advocates (N= 25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Broader societal attitudes framed and were reflected in institutional responses to victims and in barriers faced by advocates working with survivors. Organizational barriers noted by advocates related to resources, environmental factors, professionalization, and racism. Staff burnout was a major barrier affecting advocates' ability to help survivors. Finally, the most salient direct service barrier was secondary victimization by criminal justice and medical or mental health systems. PMID:17420518

Ullman, Sarah E; Townsend, Stephanie M

2007-04-01

347

Social disclosure about lymphoedema symptoms: A qualitative study among Japanese breast cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Disclosing illness-related problems is the first step in help-seeking. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Japanese breast cancer (BC) survivors' decision-making about disclosure of lymphoedema symptoms to people in their social networks. A total of ten women participated in group discussions in Japan. A dual analytic approach, thematic analysis and conceptual analysis, was applied to the transcripts. Two themes (perceived responsibility of social roles within the family and unsupportive reactions to BC from others) affected participants' decision-making. Support programs for Japanese BC survivors who feel unable to disclose lymphoedema symptoms to family members are suggested. PMID:25482185

Tsuchiya, Miyako; Horn, Sandra; Ingham, Roger

2014-12-01

348

Drop-in access to specialist services for eating disorders: a qualitative study of patient experiences.  

PubMed

Lack of patient motivation and dropout are common problems in the treatment of eating disorders. The present study explored patient experiences with open access to specialist eating disorder services through a drop-in program aiming to enable early identification of eating disorders, address motivational problems, and strengthen the therapeutic alliance. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to explore the experiences of 11 individuals attending the program. Results suggest that drop-in access may strengthen the therapeutic alliance, motivate engagement in treatment, and reduce dropout. Strengths and weaknesses of the program are discussed and the need for more systematic research is elaborated. PMID:24809992

Clinton, David; Almlöf, Linn; Lindström, Sofia; Manneberg, Moa; Vestin, Lena

2014-01-01

349

Defining Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of International Experts’ Views on Surgical Trainee Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Decision making is a key competency of surgeons; however, how best to assess decisions and decision makers is not clearly\\u000a established. The aim of the present study was to identify criteria that inform judgments about surgical trainees’ decision-making\\u000a skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A qualitative free text web-based survey was distributed to recognized international experts in Surgery, Medical Education,\\u000a and Cognitive Research. Half the

Sarah C. Rennie; Andre M. van Rij; Chrystal Jaye; Katherine H. Hall

2011-01-01

350

Doula Support and Attitudes of Intrapartum Nurses: A Qualitative Study from the Patient's Perspective  

PubMed Central

Although the roles of the intrapartum nurse and professional doula differ markedly, they serve women best if their roles complement each other. For doulas and nurses to work well together in order to facilitate a positive birth experience for the patient, they would logically need to develop a relationship based on mutual respect. The purpose of this pilot qualitative study was to examine the level of acceptance shown by intrapartum nurses for doula support, as perceived by the parturient woman. Implications for further research are addressed. PMID:17322940

Papagni, Karla; Buckner, Ellen

2006-01-01

351

Exploring Smokers' Knowledge and Expectations Toward Nicotine Vaccination: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

Knowledge and expectations toward smoking cessation therapies may influence effectiveness. Nicotine vaccination is a novel and promising new therapy for smoking cessation. This qualitative study explored smokers' knowledge and expectations toward nicotine vaccination as well as varenicline and counseling for smoking cessation. We conducted focus group discussions and interviews in 25 smokers at Maastricht University, the Netherlands, in 2010. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants had serious misconceptions about the purpose of nicotine vaccination, particularly the belief that nicotine vaccines reduce craving. Expectations toward counseling were highest. These results underline misconceptions smokers can have about cessation therapies. PMID:23924241

Hoogsteder, Philippe; van Merrebach, Martijn; Otters, Marjanneke; van Schayck, Onno; Kotz, Daniel

2013-08-01

352

A Formulative and Empirical Study of Black Families. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study on the black family was based on the position that black culture in the U.S. is the result of a special admixture of the continuation of an African world-view or cultural perspective which operates within the perspective of an Anglo-American world-view. Because this research is guided by this position, it is viewed as a…

Nobles, Wade; And Others

353

Empirical Study of MacroBIM and Conceptual Estimation  

E-print Network

BIM is effective in providing the conceptual cost estimate with the limited data available. 3. In comparison to traditional estimating process, the process of Macro Building Information Modeling or MacroBIM is effective in reducing the labor hours 4... the feasibility study, by the designer to evaluate possible design alternatives and by the contractors for bidding and budgeting? (Karshenas 1984). Conceptual Estimation is a powerful tool in the AEC industry so as to gain an insight of the cost of project...

Gajbhiye, Anand Dhanraj

2011-08-08

354

Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

2014-01-01

355

Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and nicotine use: a qualitative study of patient perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of comorbid substance use disorders, and cigarette smoking has a particularly high prevalence in this population. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether this tobacco use is an attempt at “self-medication” or due to behavioral disinhibition. There is a surprising lack of qualitative studies that investigate the subjective perceptions of adults with ADHD regarding cigarette smoking. The present study was designed to fill this gap in the literature. Methods We recruited twelve adult patients with ADHD and comorbid tobacco use from our ADHD consultation service, an outpatient facility of the Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital. Subjects were interviewed using qualitative methodology, and Mayring's qualitative content analysis was used to evaluate findings. Results We identified two explanatory models linking ADHD and tobacco use: smoking as an attempt at self-medication and “smoking as a social behavior”. On one hand, subjects considered tobacco a therapeutic aid, reporting positive effects on “inner tension” and cognitive function, and noted possible antidepressant properties as well. On the other hand, subjects considered smoking to enhance social functioning and to have a positive impact on interpersonal relationships. The majority believed that stimulant medications offered only a transient decrease in patterns of tobacco use because their ability to reduce nicotine cravings wore off quickly. Others believed that stimulants had no effect or even reinforced cigarette use. Conclusions Participants had different views about the link between cigarette smoking and ADHD. While the majority thought of nicotine as a sort of therapy, viewing smoking as a way to self-medicate symptoms of ADHD, motivations for nicotine use were also related to self-image, desire to belong to a peer-group, and a drive to undermine perceived social norms. Ultimately, these findings can be used by clinicians to improve treatment alliance and collaboration. PMID:24885526

2014-01-01

356

[Qualitative study of the acceptance and the requirements of a clinical skills lab at a university of veterinary medicine].  

PubMed

In the education of veterinary medicine undergraduate students are taught theoretical knowledge and practical clinical skills in order to become practically trained professionals. A possibility to teach practical skills is a center for clinical skills ("Clinical Skills Lab"). Students can train skills and gain experience through frequent repetitions of exercises. To respect animal welfare and introduce alternative methods to animal testing simulators and models are used in such a skills lab. In the current study the demands for a center for clinical skills and its equipment should be identified. The hypothesis should be proven, that students and teachers of veterinary medicine are highly motivated to enhance the education in practical skills. Focus group interviews were conducted with students, veterinarians (private practitioners), lecturers of veterinary medicine and experts for simulation of clinical skills. Needs and requirements of students participating in skills lab classes were identified.The interviews were conducted in individual or in group interviews. Many opinions, topics and needs were expressed, from which great benefit for the development of the skills lab can be drawn. The hypothesis that a skills lab is supported by all participants had to be rejected. Especially students were afraid of this new lab, because no former experience existed. In the interviews many needs and requirements were raised. However, they could easily be summarized to formulate an accurate list of requirements for the Clinical Skills Lab. A Skills Lab planned taking into consideration the results of this qualitative study will have a positive impact on veterinary medical education and teaching. According to empirical values of experts from other Skills Labs a widespread acceptance by the users can be expected on a long-term basis. PMID:24693652

Rösch, Tanja; Schaper, Elisabeth; Tipold, Andrea; Fischer, Martin R; Ehlers, Jan P

2014-01-01

357

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 289 Qualitative Simulation*  

E-print Network

is the study of qualitative causal models [3-20, 24, 25]. Research on qualitative causal models differs fromARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 289 Qualitative Simulation* Benjamin Kuipers Department of Computer Qualitative simulation is a key inference process in qualitative causal reasoning. However, the precise

Kuipers, Benjamin

358

Imaging skin pathologies with polarized light: Empirical and theoretical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of polarized light imaging can facilitate the determination of skin cancer borders before a Mohs surgery procedure. Linearly polarized light that illuminates the skin is backscattered by superficial layers where cancer often arises and is randomized by the collagen fibers. The superficially backscattered light can be distinguished from the diffused reflected light using a detector analyzer that is sequentially oriented parallel and perpendicular to the source polarization. A polarized image pol = parallel - perpendicular / parallel + perpendicular is generated. This image has a higher contrast to the superficial skin layers than simple total reflectance images. Pilot clinical trials were conducted with a small hand-held device for the accumulation of a library of lesions to establish the efficacy of polarized light imaging in vivo. It was found that melanoma exhibits a high contrast to polarized light imaging as well as basal and sclerosing cell carcinoma. Mechanisms of polarized light scattering from different tissues and tissue phantoms were studied in vitro. Parameters such as depth of depolarization (DOD), retardance, and birefringence were studied in theory and experimentally. Polarized light traveling through different tissues (skin, muscle, and liver) depolarized after a few hundred microns. Highly birefringent materials such as skin (DOD = 300 mum 696nm) and muscle (DOD = 370 mum 696nm) depolarized light faster than less birefringent materials such as liver (DOD = 700 mum 696nm). Light depolarization can also be attributed to scattering. Three Monte Carlo programs for modeling polarized light transfer into scattering media were implemented to evaluate these mechanisms. Simulations conducted with the Monte Carlo programs showed that small diameter spheres have different mechanisms of depolarization than larger ones. The models also showed that the anisotropy parameter g strongly influences the depolarization mechanism. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

359

A qualitative pilot study of food insecurity among Maasai women in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Food insecurity is an ongoing threat in rural sub-Saharan Africa and is complicated by cultural practices, the rise of chronic conditions such as HIV and land use availability. In order to develop a successful food security intervention program, it is important to be informed of the realities and needs of the target population. The purpose of this study was to pilot a qualitative method to understand food insecurity based on the lived experience of women of the Maasai population in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Tanzania. Methods Short semi-structured qualitative interviews with 4 Maasai women. Results Food insecurity was present in the Maasai community: the participants revealed that they did not always have access to safe and nutritious food that met the needs of themselves and their families. Themes that emerged from the data fell into three categories: Current practices (food sources, planning for enough, food preparation, and food preservation), food Insecurity (lack of food, emotions, coping strategies, and possible solutions), and division (co-wives, food distribution, and community relationships). Conclusion This pilot study suggested the presence of food insecurity in the Maasai community. Larger sample studies are needed to clarify the extent and severity of food insecurity among this population. Having a detailed understanding of the various aspects of the food insecurity lived experience could inform a targeted intervention program. PMID:23077702

Fenton, Carol; Hatfield, Jennifer; McIntyre, Lynn

2012-01-01

360

Disabled women?s maternal and newborn health care in rural Nepal: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective there is little evidence about disabled women?s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women?s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318

Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora

2014-01-01

361

Experiences of hospitalization in patients with multiple sclerosis: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis experience hospitalization several times in their lives. Certainly, providing efficient and high-quality care by healthcare professionals is not possible unless the experiences of patients’ hospitalization are taken into consideration. This qualitative study was aimed to identify experiences of patients with multiple sclerosis in their hospitalization. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis method was used to conduct this study. The study participants were 25 patients with multiple sclerosis, who were chosen by purposeful sampling. Data were collected through non-structured interviews. Results: The analysis resulted in the emergence of 4 themes and 11 subthemes. The main themes were: Religiosity, emotional reactions, seeking support, and feeling of being in a cage. Conclusions: Awareness of families and healthcare providers of the reactions of patients with multiple sclerosis to hospitalization will help them to deal effectively with patients and to improve relationships with them. However, by understanding the patients’ experiences, the practitioners gain expertise and can join in the patients’ health journey in a therapeutic way during the hospitalization period. In addition, the findings can serve to create a framework for developing nursing care processes including informational and supporting programs for multiple sclerosis patients during hospitalization while taking into consideration patients’ needs and cultural backgrounds. PMID:24949063

Ghafari, Somayeh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Norouzi, Kian; Mohamadi, Eisa

2014-01-01

362

Qualitative task analysis to enhance sports characterization: a surfing case study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports' structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals' behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities' characterization through the observation, surfer's opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave's components and constraints and the surfboards' qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

2014-09-29

363

Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men  

PubMed Central

Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583

Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Lozano, María del Río; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María del Mar García

2013-01-01

364

Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

2014-01-01

365

Patients' Perception of Comfort Facilitators During Hemodialysis Procedure: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The patients receiving hemodialysis spend a lot of their lifetime in the hemodialysis departments, which is an unpleasant experience. Therefore, some interventions are necessary to relieve this experience. Objectives: The current study aimed to explore the hemodialysis patients' perceptions of comfort facilitators during the hemodialysis procedure. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted by a qualitative content analysis approach. Twenty four patients receiving hemodialysis participated in this study by purposive sampling. The sampling was over when the data saturation occurred. The semi-structured interviews were applied as the main data gathering tool. The data analysis was conducted by conventional qualitative content analysis in eight phases. Results: Three themes emerged: The presence of competent nurses, the delightful presence of the others, and coping with comfort obstacles. Each theme consisted of some categories. Conclusions: It seems that to achieve the patients' comfort during the hemodialysis procedure, the health care teams, hospitals in charge and the patients themselves have to do their best to provide the patients' comfort. PMID:25237587

Borzou, Seyed Reza; Anosheh, Monireh; Mohammadi, Esa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

2014-01-01

366

From Faculty Development to the Classroom: A Qualitative Study of How Nurse Educators Turn Faculty Development into Action  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the transfer of learning by uncovering how various factors supported the integration of knowledge and skills gleaned from the Faculty Development: Integrated ...

Rock, Kim Zuschek

2012-05-31

367

An Empirical Study of Different Approaches for Protein Classification  

PubMed Central

Many domains would benefit from reliable and efficient systems for automatic protein classification. An area of particular interest in recent studies on automatic protein classification is the exploration of new methods for extracting features from a protein that work well for specific problems. These methods, however, are not generalizable and have proven useful in only a few domains. Our goal is to evaluate several feature extraction approaches for representing proteins by testing them across multiple datasets. Different types of protein representations are evaluated: those starting from the position specific scoring matrix of the proteins (PSSM), those derived from the amino-acid sequence, two matrix representations, and features taken from the 3D tertiary structure of the protein. We also test new variants of proteins descriptors. We develop our system experimentally by comparing and combining different descriptors taken from the protein representations. Each descriptor is used to train a separate support vector machine (SVM), and the results are combined by sum rule. Some stand-alone descriptors work well on some datasets but not on others. Through fusion, the different descriptors provide a performance that works well across all tested datasets, in some cases performing better than the state-of-the-art. PMID:25028675

Nanni, Loris

2014-01-01

368

An empirical study of modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to validate the feasibility of modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy using animal experiments. The glottic area before and after surgery of 6 excised canine larynges and 10 canine larynges in vivo were compared to observe whether the glottic area following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy is adequate for breathing. Significant differences were observed between the glottic areas of the excised larynges in the initial state and following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy with the cartilage closed. However, no significant differences were observed between the glottic areas of the excised larynx in the initial state and following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy with the cartilage open. The glottic area of the larynges in vivo in the initial state and following right chordectomy via laryngofissure were not observed to be significantly different. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between the glottic areas of the larynges in vivo in the initial state and following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy. In conclusion, modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy is a feasible and efficacious means of eradicating early and selected invasive carcinomas of the larynx, which is supported by animal experiments. PMID:23407890

XU, HONGMING; DONG, PIN; SUN, ZHENFENG; XIE, JIN

2013-01-01

369

Nitrogen fixation in the Baltic proper: an empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for primary production in the eutrophic Baltic proper has been under debate. Based on only a limited number of actual measurements, nitrogen fixation has been assumed to be the only significant internal nitrogen source. It is then assumed that about one fifth of the net nitrogen load to the Baltic proper comes from nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. An alternative or additional source is utilisation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). In the present study, we hypothesise that nitrogen fixation is the only internal source for inorganic nitrogen. This was done in order to investigate its potential to maintain net primary production during summer. If inorganic nitrogen is depleted after the spring bloom and if inorganic phosphorus still remains in significant concentrations, then a continuous decrease in phosphorus may be coupled to the net nitrogen fixation rate by cyanobacteria. The estimated phosphorus consumption is adjusted for external and internal inputs. An estimate of the assumed net annual nitrogen fixation based on the proper Redfield ratio in the surface layer down to the seasonal thermocline is calculated for a number of monitoring stations in the Baltic proper. Typical values of nitrogen fixation are in the range 10-130 ?mol m -3 day -1. A simple integration over the Baltic proper gives an internal load in the range 30-260×10 3 ton N year -1. Another result is an east-west gradient in fixation rate that may reflect the nitrogen load.

Rahm, L.; Jönsson, A.; Wulff, F.

2000-07-01

370

An empirical study on the college graduates' career development.  

PubMed

Employment relations in Japan becomes flexible and uncertain in recent years. Career-related terms were widely introduced to Japan. Recent Japanese studies on career argued the responsibility of career development between the organization and individuals. This article discusses the determination of occupational choice and latter career development based on the interviews of Takasaki City University of Economics (TCUE) alumni. First, their ideals of vocational life before entering the labour market as well as their latter modification and development are examined. Second, their motivation for getting the first job is looked into. Finally, the ownership of individual career in Japanese firms is discussed by clarifying the way the interviewees become directors or leaders. The results show people engaged in a sole company have unclear career visions, but have stronger eagerness for being an ordinary salaried worker than others. Whatever one's dream is, getting a job for now would be a favourable attitude toward career development. The ownership of an employee's career still dominated by the organization could be confirmed. PMID:19227197

Wang, Kuo-Lin

2008-12-01

371

Domestic Violence Against Women in Kosovo: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences.  

PubMed

Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence. PMID:24923893

Kelmendi, Kaltrina

2015-02-01

372

An Empirical Study of Orphan DNS Servers in the Internet Andrew J. Kalafut  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Orphan DNS Servers in the Internet Andrew J. Kalafut School of Computing@cs.indiana.edu ABSTRACT An orphan DNS server is a DNS server which has an ad- dress record in the DNS, even though the domain in which it resides has no DNS records itself and hence does not ex- ist. For example, the DNS

Gupta, Minaxi

373

Startup valuation by venture capitalists: an empirical study Tarek Miloud*, Arild Aspelund and Mathieu Cabrol  

E-print Network

Startup valuation by venture capitalists: an empirical study Tarek Miloud*, Arild Aspelund, France (Received 2 March 2011; final version received 14 February 2012) How to value a new venture whether venture capitalists' valuation of a new venture can be explained by factors identified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Towards a better understanding of software evolution: An empirical study on open source software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software evolution is a fact of life. Over the past thirty years, researchers have proposed hypotheses on how soft- ware changes, and provided evidence that both supports and refutes these hypotheses. To paint a clearer image of the software evolution process, we performed an empirical study on long spans in the lifetime of seven open source projects. Our analysis covers

Guowu Xie; Jianbo Chen; Iulian Neamtiu

2009-01-01

375

An Empirical Study on Statistical Properties of GSM Telephone Call Arrivals  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study on Statistical Properties of GSM Telephone Call Arrivals Stefano Bregni, Senior and terminated call arrivals in sets of real GSM tele- phone traffic data (TIM, Italy), emphasizing results in planning and performance evaluation of cellular networks. Index Terms GSM, modified Allan variance

Bregni, Stefano

376

An empirical study with simulated ADL tasks using a vision-guided assistive robot arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an empirical study with healthy subjects with simulated ADL tasks using UCF-ARM - a 6-DOF assistive robot that is visually guided through a calibrated stereo camera system fitted in the gripper of Exact Dynamics' Manus ARM. The goal of the research is to reduce time to task completion and cognitive burden for users interacting with

Dae-Jin Kim; Ryan Lovelett; Aman Behal

2009-01-01

377

Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: Empirical Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning--analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of…

Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2007-01-01

378

Effect of Imprecision in Probabilities on Bayesian Network Models: An Empirical Study  

E-print Network

Effect of Imprecision in Probabilities on Bayesian Network Models: An Empirical Study Agnieszka Oni While most knowledge engineers believe that the quality of results obtained from Bayesian networks support. Our work on a Bayesian network model for diagnosis of liver disorders, Hepar II, presented us

Druzdzel, Marek J.

379

Multifactor models for capital asset pricing in a fuzzy environment with empirical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, fuzzy possibility regression theory is incorporated into the multi-factor model for asset pricing and three possibility multi-factor models corresponding to three different possibility distributions are obtained. Three theorems are proposed to describe the relationship between coefficients with possibility distribution and the possibility linear function. Further empirical studies are conducted to test the models.

Jianhua Zeng; K. K. Lai; Shouyang Wang

2005-01-01

380

Factors Influencing New and Repeated Buyers' Intention to Shop Online in China: A Comparatively Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifying and studying new and repeated online buyers and finding out the differences is quite important for enterprises that sell goods online to formulate market strategies. This paper investigates and compares the factors that influence new and repeated Chinese buyers' intention to shop online by empirical method. The result shows that personal information security, usefulness, convenience, trade reliability and shopping

Chang Ya-ping; Zhu Dong-hong

2007-01-01

381

The uses of personal networked digital imaging: an empirical study of cameraphone photos and sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in networked digital imaging promise to substantially affect the near-universal experience of personal photography. Designing technology for image capture and sharing requires an understanding of how people use photos as well as how they adapt emerging technology to their photographic practices, and vice versa. In this paper, we report on an empirical study of the uses made of a

Nancy A. Van House; Marc Davis; Morgan Ames; Megan Finn; Vijay Viswanathan

2005-01-01

382

An Empirical Study of the Stable Marriage Problem with Ties and Incomplete Lists  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of the Stable Marriage Problem with Ties and Incomplete Lists Ian Philip Gent marriage problem with ties and incomplete lists. We do this in the form of a constraint programming preference lists contain ties and are incomplete (SMTI) the problem of determining if there is a stable

St Andrews, University of

383

An Empirical Study of the Stable Marriage Problem with Ties and Incomplete Lists 1  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of the Stable Marriage Problem with Ties and Incomplete Lists 1 Ian Philip Gent, the stable marriage problem with ties and incomplete lists. We do this in the form of a constraint preference lists contain ties and are incomplete (SMTI) the problem of determining if there is a stable

St Andrews, University of

384

Transfer From Offline Trust to Key Online Perceptions: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has provided little evidence that trust in an offline bank can encourage adoption of the bank's online business. Yet, more and more brick-and-mortar banks and other businesses are investing in online Web sites that supposedly ldquoleveragerdquo positive consumer impressions of their offline business. The main purpose of this study is to test empirically whether or not trust in an

Kun Chang Lee; Inwon Kang; D. Harrison McKnight

2007-01-01

385

An empirical study on the performance of factorial design based crossover on parametrical problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, empirical studies have shown that factorial design based crossover can outperform standard crossover on parametrical problems. However, up to now, no conclusion has been reached as to what kind of landscape factorial design based crossover outperforms standard crossover on. In this paper, we have tested the performance of a factorial design based crossover operator embedded in a

K. Y. Chan; M. E. Aydin; T. C. Fogarty

2004-01-01

386

Current Clinical Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Review of Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews all empirical studies on clinically-based smoking cessation interventions that were reported in "Psychological Abstracts" between January 1982 and March 1990. Interventions are categorized as either physiological or psychological in orientation and are further grouped according to specific treatment type: acupuncture,…

Marcellino, Robert Leonard, Jr.

387

Empire Express: Case Study of a New York State Resource Sharing Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a case study of Empire Express, a resource sharing network among the libraries of the State University of New York (SUNY) University Centers at Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook, along with Syracuse University. The network involves an expedited interlibrary loan service, in which requests and documents are transmitted via Ariel and books are delivered by UPS,

Suzanne Irving; Karen Senglup

1997-01-01

388

Empire Express: Case Study of a New York State Resource Sharing Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of Empire Express, a resource sharing network among the libraries of the State University of New York (SUNY) University Centers at Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook, along with Syracuse University. The network involves an expedited interlibrary loan service. (Author/LRW)

Irving, Suzanne; Senglup, Karen

1997-01-01

389

An Empirical Study of Web Interface Design on Small Display Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an empirical study that explores the problem of finding a highly-efficient, user-friendly interface design method on small display devices. We compared three models using our PDA interface simulator: presentation optimization method, semantic conversion method, and zooming method. A controlled experiment has been carried out to identify the pros and cons of each method. The results show that

Mei Kang Qiu; Kang Zhang; Maolin Huang

2004-01-01

390

Unemployment duration and the duration of entitlement to unemployment benefits: an empirical study for Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of the expected duration of unemployment benefits on the individual probability of leaving unemployment. The theory predicts that the probability of leaving unemployment will increase near the time of the expected exhaustion of unemployment insurance. Still a limited number of empirical studies is available for European countries. The data used

ELENA G. F. STANCANELLI

1999-01-01

391

Characterizing and predicting which bugs get fixed: an empirical study of Microsoft Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an empirical study to characterize factors that af- fect which bugs get fixed in Windows Vista and Windows 7, focus- ing on factors related to bug report edits and relationships between people involved in handling the bug. We found that bugs reported by people with better reputations were more likely to get fixed, as were bugs handled by

Philip J. Guo; Thomas Zimmermann; Nachiappan Nagappan; Brendan Murphy

2010-01-01

392

INCOMPLETE CONTRACT THEORY AND CONTRACTS BETWEEN FIRMS: A PRELIMINARY EMPIRICAL STUDY  

E-print Network

INCOMPLETE CONTRACT THEORY AND CONTRACTS BETWEEN FIRMS: A PRELIMINARY EMPIRICAL STUDY by Bruce R. Lyons CCR Working Paper CCR 01-1 Abstract The theory of incomplete contracts has been much developed out some of the testable assumptions and predictions of incomplete contract theory with respect

Feigon, Brooke

393

Does debt affect profitability? An empirical study of French trade sector  

E-print Network

Does debt affect profitability? An empirical study of French trade sector Mazen KEBEWAR* mazen on profitability of companies. We analyze a sample of an unbalanced panel of 2325 unlisted French companies), we show that the debt affects negatively the profitability, not only linearly, but also, in a non

Boyer, Edmond

394

What Should Developers Be Aware Of? An Empirical Study on the Directives of API Documentation  

E-print Network

What Should Developers Be Aware Of? An Empirical Study on the Directives of API Documentation (API) are exposed to developers in order to reuse soft- ware libraries. API directives are natural-language statements in API documentation that make developers aware of constraints and guidelines related to the usage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

An empirical study of industrial requirements engineering process assessment and improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an empirical study in industry of requirements engineering process maturity assessment and improvement. Our aims were to evaluate a requirements engineering process maturity model and to assess if improvements in requirements engineering process maturity lead to business improvements. We first briefly describe the process maturity model that we used and modifications to this model to accommodate process

Ian Sommerville; Jane Ransom

2005-01-01

396

An Empirical Study of Seniors Perceptions of Mobile Phones as Memory Aids  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Seniors Perceptions of Mobile Phones as Memory Aids Michael MASSIMI a and Ronald M. BAECKER a, b a Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto b Knowledge Media Design Institute, University of Toronto Abstract. . To determine desired properties of new mobile phone

Toronto, University of

397

Results from an Empirical Study of School Principals' Decisions about Disclosure of HIV Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school principals' decisions about disclosure of school age children's confidential medical information was empirically studied. Participants included a stratified sample of 339 elementary school principals from the seven largest school districts in Florida. Each participant received one of six vignettes describing a student with HIV,…

Chenneville, Tiffany

2007-01-01

398

Large Group Interventions: An Empirical Field Study of Their Composition, Process, and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large group interventions are an important method of organization change. The large group intervention literature is largely descriptive and normative and contains a number of case studies that describe the process and some immediate outcomes. There is a large void with respect to empirical investigation. This research tested fundamental hypotheses related to large group composition, process, and outcomes in a

Christopher G. Worley; Susan A. Mohrman; Jennifer A. Nevitt

2011-01-01

399

Is Sustainability Possible? A Review and Commentary on Empirical Studies of Program Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important final step in the life cycles of programs and their evaluation involves assessing new programs' or innovations' sustainability. This review and synthesis of 19 empirical studies of the sustainability of American and Canadian health-related programs examines the extent of sustainability achieved and summarizes factors contributing to…

Scheirer, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

400

Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the use of a narrative inductive method of

Kip Jones

2004-01-01

401

[The experience and coping of primary coronary intervention: a review of qualitative studies].  

PubMed

Over the years, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been established as a superior emergency treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in comparison to intravenous thrombolysis. This literature review is based on four qualitative studies and describes how patients with STEMI experience the acute phase of myocardial infarction with immediate PCI and how it affects their early recovery phase. Qualitative analysis in this study followed Noblit and Hare's method of metasynthesis. The results ascertained a correlation between the seriousness of the diagnosis and the quickness of treatment. PCI offers patients immediate pain relief. The patients' trust in the professionalism of the medical team becomes apparent through their passive participation during treatment. Although patients experience a quick recovery after PCI, they lack adequate information to completely understand their diagnosis of myocardial infarction. The patients feel having been cured by PCI, but continue to fear another myocardial infarction. The patients try to establish a new life routine, but report a lack of continuity in their healthcare provision. The results indicate that after PCI patients experience recurring changes of their perspective regarding their illness and well-being. Therefore, a comprehensive, sustained, and more patient-oriented approach regarding treatment in the early recovery phase is recommended. PMID:22987469

Mentrup, S; Schnepp, W

2012-10-01

402

Patients' and physicians' perceptions and experience of hypercholesterolaemia: a qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of patients' and physicians' perceptions and experience of hypercholesterolaemia will help to improve cardiovascular disease prevention and aid the development of appropriate educational strategies. AIM: To identify perceptions, experience, educational needs, and barriers to learning in hypercholesterolaemic patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN OF STUDY: A qualitative study involving interviews with 27 hypercholesterolaemic outpatients and 21 physicians. SETTING: 21 centres in Paris, Bordeaux and Lille. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted by a sociologist with the aid of two interview guides focusing on hypercholesterolaemia. Interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed, and qualitative analysis was performed to identify emerging themes. RESULTS: Six main themes emerged: understanding hypercholesterolaemia--a 'virtual' disease; understanding cardiovascular risk--a vague concept; lifestyle measures; long-term effects of medication; medical language difficulties; and patients' expectations and needs. Patients and physicians disagreed over the terms used to describe hypercholesterolaemia and cardiovascular risk, and the complexities of medical language. In contrast, patients and physicians agreed on the difficulties associated with implementing lifestyle changes and adhering to long-term treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in perception and experience between physicians and patients indicate that physician-patient communication is sub-optimal and highlights the need to improve educational material for cardiovascular disease prevention. This analysis helps to identify appropriate educational objectives and methods for patients at risk of cardiovascular disease, and develop a structured educational programme. PMID:14702904

Durack-Bown, Isabelle; Giral, Philippe; d'Ivernois, Jean-François; Bazin, Cecile; Chadarevian, Rita; Benkritly, Asri; Bruckert, Eric

2003-01-01

403

Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups  

PubMed Central

Background In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. Methods In total, eight online focus groups (n?=?60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0–4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents’ decisions to refuse vaccination. Results Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child’s body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Conclusion Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory. PMID:24341406

2013-01-01

404

Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students  

PubMed Central

Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men’s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men’s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20–30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Thematic analysis approach was used to extract data. NVIVO v8 qualitative software was used for data management. Results From the data collected several concepts emerged that reflected the meanings of masculinity from the participants’ view points. These meanings were associated with a combination of traditional and non-traditional norms that generally benefit men who behave according to culturally dominant role expectations. These included: “Having a good body shape”, “being respected”, “having success with women”, “being a family man”, and “having financial independence”. Socio-cultural factors, such as family environment, religion, public media and popular life style patterns helped to shape and reinforce the meanings of masculinities among university men. Conclusions This study revealed that the university context provided a particular culture for construction and reinforcement of the meanings of masculinities, which should be considered by the educators to help in development of healthy masculinities. PMID:24215138

2013-01-01

405

Identifying challenges for effective evaluation in nursing education: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Although nursing education in Iran has a positive trend in growth; it is still facing with multifaceted challenges. This study aims to explore the challenges for effective evaluation of nursing education perceived by academic managers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was performed by using 21 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The main challenges could be categorized under 3 themes, each included 3 subthemes: managerial issues (inefficacy of management, inadequacy of policies and strategies, ineffective evaluation planning); administrative issues (inefficient and affected evaluators, inappropriate implementation, and inefficacy of approaches and tools); and structural issues (inappropriate culture, clinical education complexity, lack of alumni follow-up system). Conclusions: The results emphasize the need for educational evaluation development in nursing, including systematic and regular educational evaluation planning focusing on efficient feedback system and regard to excellence models. The comprehensive educational evaluation requires participation, involvement, and collaboration among the Nursing Board, Nursing ministerial office, faculties of nursing, and Nursing Organization. Thus, it is necessary to better designate current educational evaluation systems, policies, approaches, methods, and procedures. PMID:23798935

Khodaveisi, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Bikmoradi, Ali

2012-01-01

406

Child and Parent Perceptions of Monitoring in Chronic Illness Management: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background The management of a childhood chronic illness can be challenging because it can involve frequent and complex treatment tasks that must be carried out on a daily basis. Parental monitoring of the treatment regimen and child disclosure of health-related information may impact effective illness management but are not well understood. Methods The present study utilized qualitative methods to examine parental monitoring-related behaviors, youth disclosure of health-related information, and both perceptions about, and reactions to, these behaviors in a sample of youth diagnosed with a chronic illness (e.g. asthma, diabetes and cystic fibrosis) and parents of youth with one of these illnesses. Results Parents solicited information from youth verbally, observed symptoms, reminded youth about treatments, and tracked indicators of treatment adherence (e.g., dose counters; glucose meters). Youth reactions varied from acceptance to irritation. Youth behaviors included withholding information and freely disclosing spontaneously and in response to requests. Conclusions Findings derived from this qualitative methodology demonstrate convergence with findings from quantitative studies on this topic, add to the literature related to parental monitoring of chronic illness management, and suggest several avenues for future research. PMID:20533917

Hafetz, Jessica; Miller, Victoria A.

2010-01-01

407

Practices and Challenges of Growth Monitoring and Promotion in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The use of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has become widespread. It is a potential contributor towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals of halving hunger and reducing child mortality by two-thirds within 2015. Yet, GMP appears to be a prerequisite for good child health but several studies have shown that there is a discrepancy between the purpose and the practice of GMP. The high prevalence of malnutrition in many developing countries seems to confirm this fact. A descriptive qualitative study was carried out from April to September 2011. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted amongst mothers and health workers. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis technique, with the support of ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. The results suggest that most mothers were aware of the need for regular weight monitoring while health workers also seemed to be well-aware and to practise GMP according to the international guidelines. However, there was a deficit in maternal knowledge with regard to child-feeding and a lack of basic resources to keep and/or to buy healthful and nutritionally-rich food. Furthermore, the role of the husband was not always supportive of proper child-feeding. In general, GMP is unlikely to succeed if mothers lack awareness of proper child-feeding practices, and if they are not supported by their husbands. PMID:25395907

Moser, Albine; Blanco, Roman; Spigt, Mark; Dinant, Geert Jan

2014-01-01

408

Public perceptions of cancer: a qualitative study of the balance of positive and negative beliefs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cancer's insidious onset and potentially devastating outcomes have made it one of the most feared diseases of the 20th century. However, advances in early diagnosis and treatment mean that death rates are declining, and there are more than 30 million cancer survivors worldwide. This might be expected to result in more sanguine attitudes to the disease. The present study used a qualitative methodology to provide an in-depth exploration of attitudes to cancer and describes the balance of negative and positive perspectives. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis. Setting A university in London, UK. Participants 30 participants (23–73?years), never themselves diagnosed with cancer. Results Accounts of cancer consistently incorporated negative and positive views. In almost all respondents, the first response identified fear, trauma or death. However, this was followed—sometimes within the same sentence—by acknowledgement that improvements in treatment mean that many patients can survive cancer and may even resume a normal life. Some respondents spontaneously reflected on the contradictions, describing their first response as a ‘gut feeling’ and the second as a more rational appraisal—albeit one they struggled to believe. Others switched perspective without apparent awareness. Conclusions People appear to be ‘in two minds’ about cancer. A rapid, intuitive sense of dread and imminent death coexists with a deliberative, rational recognition that cancer can be a manageable, or even curable, disease. Recognising cancer's public image could help in the design of effective cancer control messages. PMID:25011992

Robb, Kathryn A; Simon, Alice E; Miles, Anne; Wardle, Jane

2014-01-01

409

Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma) require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services. PMID:23095311

2012-01-01

410

Living from Day to Day – Qualitative Study on Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how far identity and self-image disturbances are features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with a total of 50 adolescents with BPD and 50 controls, with a median age of 16 (SD 1.1; range 13 to 18) years. Data was analysed using a qualitative methodology, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Thematic statements representative of adolescents’ lived experience were extracted from the interviews. Results: Four main themes representing the day-to-day experiences of adolescents with BPD were identified: emotional experiences characterised by the feelings of fear, sadness and pessimism; interpersonal relationships characterised by the feelings of solitude and hostility from others; a conformist self-image characterised by a feeling of normality and difficulty in projecting into time; and, a structuring of discourse characterised by discontinuity in the perception of experiences. Conclusion: This qualitative study suggests that the day-to-day experiences of adolescents with borderline personality disorder is centred on the experience of the present. Discontinuity in self-image, alongside marked dysphoric manifestations, leads to distress and hinders compliance with care. These issues are highly relevant in psychotherapy and could lead to more effective treatment of the disorder in adolescents. PMID:24223047

Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Speranza, Mario; Taïeb, Olivier; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Corcos, Maurice; Révah-Levy, Anne

2013-01-01

411

Asian Students' Voices: An Empirical Study of Asian Students' Learning Experiences at a New Zealand University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…

Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng

2008-01-01

412

STEM Education Related Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article utilizes a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 101 dissertation abstracts found by searching the ProQuest Dissertation and Theses™ digital database for dissertations abstracts from 1990 through 2010 using the search terms education, science, technology, engineer, and STEM/SMET. Professional search librarians established the search criteria used to establish the database. The overarching research question for this study was: What can we learn from the examination of doctoral dissertations abstracts that focus on the STEM education found from 1990 through 2010? The study's findings provide an overview of doctoral research related to STEM education and the discussion section focuses on quality of abstracts, questions regarding the use of the pipeline metaphor, and location of instructional innovation.

Banning, James; Folkestad, James E.

2012-12-01

413

Music as a method of coping with cancer: A qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions: A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method. PMID:23805166

Ahmadi, Fereshteh

2013-01-01

414

A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

2014-01-01

415

Use or Non-Use of Gerontechnology—A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

This study employed a qualitative approach to explore the attitudes and experiences of older people towards using gerontechnology, and to determine the underlying reasons that might account for their use and non-use of gerontechnology. Four focus group discussions and 26 individual interviews were undertaken. Qualitative data were analyzed using NVivo software and were categorized using coding and grounded theory techniques. The result indicated that old people in Hong Kong had an overall positive attitude toward technology. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to enhanced convenience and advanced features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with health risks and social problems arising from using technology (e.g., social isolation and addiction). Usage of technology is driven by outcome expectations and social influences, and supported by facilitators, whereas non-use of gerontechnology relates to the personal (e.g., health and functional capacities), technological (e.g., cost and complexity), and environmental barriers experienced. Use of gerontechnology is a synthesis of person, technology, and environment. To encourage non-users to adopt technology, there is a need to remove barriers at personal, technological, and environmental levels. PMID:24084674

Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi-shou

2013-01-01

416

Health beliefs and folk models of diabetes in British Bangladeshis: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the experience of diabetes in British Bangladeshis, since successful management of diabetes requires attention not just to observable behaviour but to the underlying attitudes and belief systems which drive that behaviour. Design: Qualitative study of subjects’ experience of diabetes using narratives, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and pile sorting exercises. A new qualitative method, the structured vignette, was developed for validating researchers’ understanding of primary level culture. Subjects: 40 British Bangladeshi patients with diabetes, and 10 non-Bangladeshi controls, recruited from primary care. Result: Several constructs were detected in relation to body image, cause and nature of diabetes, food classification, and knowledge of complications. In some areas, the similarities between Bangladeshi and non-Bangladeshi subjects were as striking as their differences. There was little evidence of a fatalistic or deterministic attitude to prognosis, and most informants seemed highly motivated to alter their diet and comply with treatment. Structural and material barriers to behaviour change were at least as important as “cultural” ones. Conclusion: Bangladeshi culture is neither seamless nor static, but some widely held beliefs and behaviours have been identified. Some of these have a potentially beneficial effect on health and should be used as the starting point for culturally sensitive diabetes education. PMID:9550958

Greenhalgh, Trisha; Helman, Cecil; Chowdhury, A Mu’min

1998-01-01

417

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within a 2-week period in all units (n = 53) in nursing homes located in New York City. Narrative reconstructions were created for each event based on information from residents and staff who were involved as well as other sources. The event reconstructions were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common features of RRA events. Results: Analysis of the 122 event reconstructions identified 13 major forms of RRA, grouped under five themes. The resulting framework demonstrated the heterogeneity of types of RRA, the importance of considering personal, environmental, and triggering factors, and the potential emotional and physical harm to residents. Implications: These results suggest the need for person-centered and environmental interventions to reduce RRA, as well as for further research on the topic. PMID:22048811

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

418

Long-term psychological consequences of symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Design Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Participants Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72?years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60?months (median=26?months, mean=24?months). Intervention Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Conclusions Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae. PMID:24694625

Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul

2014-01-01

419

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder – A qualitative study on patients’ experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is the first-line treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, not all of them achieve remission on a longterm basis. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) represents a new 8-week group therapy program whose effectiveness has been demonstrated in various mental disorders, but has not yet been applied to patients with OCD. The present pilot study aimed to qualitatively assess the subjective experiences of patients with OCD who participated in MBCT. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 patients suffering from OCD directly after 8 sessions of a weekly MBCT group program. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results Participants valued the treatment as helpful in dealing with their OCD and OCD-related problems. Two thirds of the patients reported a decline in OCD symptoms. Benefits included an increased ability to let unpleasant emotions surface and to live more consciously in the present. However, participants also discussed several problems. Conclusion The data provide preliminary evidence that patients with OCD find aspects of the current MBCT protocol acceptable and beneficial. The authors suggest to further explore MBCT as a complementary treatment strategy for OCD. PMID:23114260

2012-01-01

420

The bodily self: a qualitative study of abnormal bodily phenomena in persons with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Subtle anomalies of bodily experience have for long been described as relevant features of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, however such disturbing and alienating experiences are usually neglected in routine clinical examination. The overarching aim of this qualitative study is to offer an experience-close mapping of abnormal bodily phenomena (ABP) in patients with schizophrenia that might assist clinical examination and inform the development of dedicated assessment tools. We followed a stepwise methodology: first, data from n=550 clinical interviews were analyzed adopting consensual qualitative research (CQR) inductive method in order to identify relevant clusters of ABP. Then, ABP profiled in schizophrenia patients (n=301) were contrasted with ABP identified in patients affected by major depression (n=56). 70% of the interviewees in the schizophrenia sample reported anomalies of lived corporeality, that could be condensed in the following categories: Dynamization, Morbid objectivation, Dysmorphic-like phenomena and Pain-like phenomena. Those appeared to be reducible to two core features that were not paralleled in the affective disorder sample: dynamization (e.g. ongoing bodily feelings of disintegration/violation) and thingness/mechanization (e.g. one's body experienced as a object-like mechanism). We suggest that dynamization and thingness/mechanization might be considered schizophrenia-specific experiential phenotypes that can contribute to early differential diagnosis of somatic complaints in mental health help-seekers. PMID:25110342

Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Blasi, Stefano; Mancini, Milena; Presenza, Simona; Raballo, Andrea; Cutting, John

2014-10-01

421

Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design  

PubMed Central

Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed written consent. Informants can withdraw at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, peer review journals, one PhD thesis and through public presentations to people outside the scientific community. PMID:25079924

Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

2014-01-01

422

Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Although the use of qualitative case study research has increased during the past decade, researchers have primarily reported on their findings, with less attention given to methods. When methods were described, they followed the principles of Yin; researchers paid less attention to the equally important work of Stake. When Stake's methods were acknowledged, researchers frequently used them along with Yin's. Concurrent application of their methods did not take into account differences in the philosophies of these two case study researchers. Yin's research is postpositivist whereas Stake's is constructivist. Thus, the philosophical assumptions they used to guide their work were different. In this article we describe how we used Stake's approach to explore the implementation of a falls-prevention best-practice guideline. We focus on our decisions and their congruence with Stake's recommendations, embed our decisions within the context of researching this phenomenon, describe rationale for our decisions, and present lessons learned. PMID:23925405

Boblin, Sheryl L; Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Robertson, Kim

2013-09-01

423

Thematic Analysis of Iranian Female Adolescents’ Perceptions About HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate common opinions and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Iranian teenager girls. Methods: This Qualitative study (face-to-face interviews with tape recording) was conducted among fifty female teenager school students in Urmia-Iran. Results: The thematic analysis indicated the main information sources for HIV/AIDS among teenage girls to be their mother and teachers. The participants had little concern about the dissemination of HIV/AIDS in Iran. Using a common syringe is mentioned as the main risk factor for HIV transmission. There were some misconceptions about the at-risk group among teenage girls. Conclusions: Considering the misconceptions among the teenage girls, their beliefs should be reformed and reorganized in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV. The best practice is training life skills in the school level. PMID:23671782

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; FayyazJahani, Farshid; Ahmadnezhad, Somayyeh; Karamyyar, Mohammad; BazarganHejazi, Shahrzad

2013-01-01

424

Poverty of opportunity forcing women into prostitution--a qualitative study in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Our aim for this study was to explore the factors influencing women to initiate and continue as sex workers and to explore their perceptions about human immuno deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and health seeking behavior. We conducted a qualitative study based on interviews with 20 purposively selected women selling sex. Content analysis of data resulted in identification of one main theme: "Poverty of opportunity forcing women into prostitution." The identified driving forces behind women resorting to sell sex were poverty, materialism, and the desire to move up in society. They continued to sell sex due to poverty of opportunity and influencing social factors. PMID:20390659

Khan, Mohsin Saeed; Johansson, Eva; Zaman, Shakila; Unemo, Magnus; Rahat, Naveed I; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

2010-04-01

425

Facilitators and barriers influencing patient safety in Swedish hospitals: a qualitative study of nurses’ perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Sweden has undertaken many national, regional, and local initiatives to improve patient safety since the mid-2000s, but solid evidence of effectiveness for many solutions is often lacking. Nurses play a vital role in patient safety, constituting 71% of the workforce in Swedish health care. This interview study aimed to explore perceived facilitators and barriers influencing patient safety among nurses involved in the direct provision of care. Considering the importance of nurses with regard to patient safety, this knowledge could facilitate the development and implementation of better solutions. Methods A qualitative study with semi-structured individual interviews was carried out. The study population consisted of 12 registered nurses at general hospitals in Sweden. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The nurses identified 22 factors that influenced patient safety within seven categories: ‘patient factors’, ‘individual staff factors’, ‘team factors’, ‘task and technology factors’, ‘work environment factors’, ‘organizational and management factors’, and ‘institutional context factors’. Twelve of the 22 factors functioned as both facilitators and barriers, six factors were perceived only as barriers, and four only as facilitators. There were no specific patterns showing that barriers or facilitators were more common in any category. Conclusion A broad range of factors are important for patient safety according to registered nurses working in general hospitals in Sweden. The nurses identified facilitators and barriers to improved patient safety at multiple system levels, indicating that complex multifaceted initiatives are required to address patient safety issues. This study encourages further research to achieve a more explicit understanding of the problems and solutions to patient safety. PMID:25132805

2014-01-01

426

Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts. PMID:19405977

Small, Will; Fast, Danya; Krusi, Andrea; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

2009-01-01

427

Long-range dependence in IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN traffic: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recent studies on network traffic have demonstrated the presence of long-range dependence in local-area and wide-area network traffic. The paper empirically studies the long-range dependence properties in IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN traffic. Specifically, traffic traces in IEEE 802.11b wireless LANs are statistically analyzed, with emphasis on testing for the presence, source and degree of long-range dependence. Several different wireless

Carlos Oliveira; Jaime Bae Kim; Tatsuya Suda

2003-01-01

428

Industry–University Interactions in a Peripheral European Region: An Empirical Study of Valencian Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

García-Aracil A. and Fernándezde Lucio I. Industry–university interactions in a peripheral European region: an empirical study of Valencian firms, Regional Studies. In this paper the interactions among industry and academic staff in the Mediterranean Spanish Region of Valencia are analysed. The information comes from the manufacturing firm survey about industry–university (I-U) collaboration carried out in 2001 by the Valencian administration.

Adela García-Aracil; Ignacio Fernández De Lucio

2008-01-01

429

Primary healthcare in transition – a qualitative study of how managers perceived a system change  

PubMed Central

Background Primary healthcare in Sweden has undergone widespread reforms in recent years, including freedom of choice regarding provider, freedom of establishment and increased privatisation. The key aims of the reforms were to strengthen the role of the patient and improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The aim of this study was to explore how managers at publicly owned primary healthcare centres perceived the transition of the primary healthcare system and the impact it has had on their work. Methods In this qualitative study, 24 managers of publicly owned primary healthcare centres in the metropolitan region of Gothenburg were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed using content analysis inspired by Silverman. Results The analysis revealed two core themes: The transition is perceived as a rapid change, enforced mainly through financial incentives and Prioritisation conflicts arise between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment. The transition has produced powerful and rapid effects that were considered to be both positive and negative. While the new financial incentives were seen as a driving force and a tool for change, they also became a stress factor due to uncertainty, competition with other primary healthcare centres and negative feelings associated with staff cutbacks. The shift in power towards the patient improved access and service but also led to more patients with unreasonable demands. Managers found it difficult to prioritise correctly between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment and they were concerned about potentially negative effects on less empowered patients, e.g. multi-morbid patients. Managers also experienced shortcomings in their change management skills. Conclusions This qualitative study shows the complexity of the system change and describes the different effects and perceptions of the transition from a manager’s perspective. This suggests a need for improved follow-up and control in order to monitor and govern system changes and ensure development towards a more effective and sustainable primary healthcare system. PMID:24090138

2013-01-01

430

Treatment seeking behaviour in southern Chinese elders with chronic orofacial pain: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic orofacial pain (OFP) is common in general adult populations worldwide. High levels of psychological distress and impaired coping abilities are common among Western people with chronic OFP but limited information was found in southern Chinese people. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of community dwelling elderly people with chronic OFP symptoms and their treatment seeking behaviour in Hong Kong. Methods An exploratory qualitative interview study was conducted. Elderly people experiencing chronic OFP symptoms were invited to take part in an individual semi-structured interview. A total of 25 semi-structured interviews were performed for 25 participants. Results Pertinent issues relating to the treatment seeking behaviour emerged from the interviews, many of which were inter-related and overlapping. They were organized into three major themes: (i) Impact of chronic OFP on daily life; (ii) Personal knowledge and feeling of chronic OFP; (iii) Management of chronic OFP. The participants were found to have the intention to seek professional treatment, but there were barriers which discouraged them continuing to seek professional treatment. They also received complementary treatment for chronic OFP, such as acupuncture, massage and “chi kung”. Moreover, a wide range self-management techniques were also mentioned. On the other hand, those who did not seek professional treatment for the chronic OFP claimed that they had accepted or adapted to the pain as part of their lives. Conclusions This qualitative study observed that elderly people affected by chronic OFP symptoms in Hong Kong sought many different ways to manage their pain including traditional and complementary approaches. The role of the dentist in dealing with chronic OFP is unclear. Multiple barriers exist to accessing care for chronic OFP. The findings may be used to inform future chronic OFP management strategies in Hong Kong. PMID:24460663

2014-01-01

431

Exploring the usefulness of comprehensive care plans for children with medical complexity (CMC): a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The Medical Home model recommends that Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) receive a medical care plan, outlining the child’s major medical issues and care needs to assist with care coordination. While care plans are a primary component of effective care coordination, the creation and maintenance of care plans is time, labor, and cost intensive, and the desired content of the care plan has not been studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the usefulness and desired content of comprehensive care plans by exploring the perceptions of parents and health care providers (HCPs) of children with medical complexity (CMC). Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. HCPs (n = 15) and parents (n = 15) of CMC who had all used a comprehensive care plan were recruited from a tertiary pediatric academic health sciences center. Themes were identified through grounded theory analysis of interview and focus group data. Results A multi-dimensional model of perceived care plan usefulness emerged. The model highlights three integral aspects of the care plan: care plan characteristics, activating factors and perceived outcomes of using a care plan. Care plans were perceived as a useful tool that centralized and focused the care of the child. Care plans were reported to flatten the hierarchical relationship between HCPs and parents, resulting in enhanced reciprocal information exchange and strengthened relationships. Participants expressed that a standardized template that is family-centered and includes content relevant to both the medical and social needs of the child is beneficial when integrated into overall care planning and delivery for CMC. Conclusions Care plans are perceived to be a useful tool to both health care providers and parents of CMC. These findings inform the utility and development of a comprehensive care plan template as well as a model of how and when to best utilize care plans within family-centered models of care. PMID:23331710

2013-01-01

432

Walking the walk? Community participation in HIA A qualitative interview study  

SciTech Connect

Although community participation is seen as central to the practice of health impact assessment (HIA), effective engagement of local people is notoriously difficult to achieve and risks being tokenistic. This qualitative study, set in a deprived estate in northwest England, examined how community participation in the proposed HIA of a Regeneration Masterplan would be affected by the attitudes and experiences of key stakeholders. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders drawn from officials, representatives and local residents linked to the regeneration programme. The results suggest that there may be a large gap between professional rhetoric and the reality of community participation, and that barriers to community participation in HIA may be substantial and institutionalised. If these barriers are to be overcome, it is essential to acknowledge the existence of this rhetoric-reality gap and to address the training and resource needs of both professionals and community members.

Kearney, Matthew

2004-02-01

433

Occupational Exposure to HIV Among Health Care Providers: A Qualitative Study in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

With the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreading, health care providers (HCPs) in China are facing a growing risk of occupational exposure to and infection with HIV. There is a need to describe occupational exposure cases and compliance with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines among HCPs. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 HCPs in Yunnan Province, China. Information about occupational exposures the HCPs and their co-workers experienced was collected and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Most occupational exposure accidents happened during emergencies, when HCPs did not have time to consider self-protection. Exposure to HIV caused exposed HCPs severe adverse psychological pressure, such as stress and anxiety. Compliance with PEP guidelines among participants was poor; barriers to better compliance were identified. This study underscored the importance of institutional support in promoting compliance with PEP guidelines among exposed providers. Further training and emphasis on universal precautions and PEP guidelines may reduce the risk of occupational infections. PMID:17641135

Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Wu, Sheng; Jia, Manhong

2009-01-01

434

A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

2002-05-01

435

Clients' experiences of a community based lifestyle modification program: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients' experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists' capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist's capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification. PMID:20054457

Chan, Ruth S M; Lok, Kris Y W; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

2009-10-01

436

Qualitative study of humanization-based nursing education focused on role modeling by instructors.  

PubMed

This study explored the perspectives and experiences of Iranian nursing students and nursing instructors about role modeling. Using a purposeful sampling strategy, 22 nursing students and seven nursing instructors were recruited from five nursing schools in Tehran. Three focus-group discussions and two individual semi-structured interviews with nursing students, and seven semi-structured interviews with nursing instructors, were conducted to gather data. A qualitative content analysis approach was utilized and three main themes emerged during data analysis: "attempt to promote emotional development,"attempt to promote spiritual development," and "attempt to promote intellectual development." It was concluded that understanding the factors influencing role modeling will be helpful for developing strategies to integrate role modeling into nursing education so as to promote the quality of nursing education in Iran. PMID:22994698

Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid; Ahmadizadeh, Mohammad Javad

2012-09-21

437

The role of nurse support within an Internet-delivered weight management intervention: A qualitative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored patients' experiences of nurse support for an Internet-delivered weight management intervention. Eighteen patients who had received either basic or regular nurse support (three or seven contacts, respectively) for the Internet intervention were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings suggest that more regular support for Internet interventions may have the potential to inhibit the development of autonomous motivation for weight loss, which might lead to problems in sustaining losses after support ends. Further research is now needed to confirm whether motivation is influenced by frequency of nurse support in Internet interventions in order to inform the development of optimal support which promotes sustained weight loss. PMID:25438990

Renouf, Sarah; Bradbury, Katherine; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

2014-12-01

438

Experience of sexuality after breast cancer: a qualitative study with women in rehabilitation1  

PubMed Central

Objective to comprehend the psychosocial and cultural repercussions of breast cancer and its treatment on the sexuality of women. Method this is a qualitative study grounded in the Sexual Scripts Theory with the participation of 23 women who were interviewed and participated in focus groups discussion. Results each category was related to a level of the sexual scripts. At the cultural scenario level a discourse on sexuality that includes definitions of sexual attractiveness and sexuality was highlighted. The interpersonal scripts level focused on the communication regarding sexuality established with the partner and with healthcare professionals category; and at the subjectivity scripts level the reports of improvement, deterioration and no change in the sexual life after cancer were analyzed. Conclusion the experience of cancer involves cultural, relational, and subjective aspects that affect the sexual life, therefore, healthcare professionals should be aware of them to improve integral healthcare. PMID:25029051

Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Santos, Daniela Barsotti; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Giami, Alain

2014-01-01

439

Elder abuse and barriers to help seeking in Chennai, India: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study attempts to understand why older persons abused by their family members in India do not seek help. In-depth interviews over three visits were conducted with six adults aged 65 years and above who had been physically abused by their sons/daughters-in-law. The interviews were transcribed and themes identified using a thematic analysis method. The barriers preventing a person from seeking help were service-related (accessibility, lack of trust); religious (Karma); family (deleterious effects on family, family members' responses to help seeking); and individual (socioeconomic dependency, self-blame). The unique findings that surfaced were fear of losing one's identity by losing one's family, attributing abuse to past sins, and concern over not attaining salvation if one's sons did not perform funeral rites. The authors propose a checklist to explore and assess the barriers to seeking help. Recommendations for geroprofessionals in overcoming barriers include implementing outreach programs and changing the misconceptions regarding Karma. PMID:24313798

Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Natarajan, Aravindhan; Mohanty, Jayashree

2014-01-01

440

A Qualitative Study on Classroom Management and Classroom Discipline Problems, Reasons, and Solutions: A Case of Information Technologies Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate classroom management and discipline problems that Information Technology teachers have faced, and to reveal underlying reasons and possible solutions of these problems by considering the views of parents, teachers, and administrator. This study was designed as qualitative study. Subjects of this study

Erdogan, Mehmet; Kursun, Engin; Sisman, Gulcin Tan; Saltan, Fatih; Gok, Ali; Yildiz, Ismail

2010-01-01

441

The Orthopaedic Trauma Patient Experience: A Qualitative Case Study of Orthopaedic Trauma Patients in Uganda  

PubMed Central

The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with injuries have increased by 34% from 1990 to 2010, making it the 10th leading cause of disability worldwide, with most of the burden affecting low-income countries. Although disability from injuries is often preventable, limited access to essential surgical services contributes to these increasing DALY rates. Similar to many other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), Uganda is plagued by a growing volume of traumatic injuries. The aim of this study is to explore the orthopaedic trauma patient's experience in accessing medical care in Uganda and what affects the injury might have on the socioeconomic status for the patient and their dependents. We also evaluate the factors that impact an individual's ability to access an appropriate treatment facility for their traumatic injury. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients 18 year of age or older admitted with a fractured tibia or femur at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. As limited literature exists on the socioeconomic impacts of disability from trauma, we designed a descriptive qualitative case study, using thematic analysis, to extract unique information for which little has been previously been documented. This methodology is subject to less bias than other qualitative methods as it imposes fewer preconceptions. Data analysis of the patient interviews (n?=?35) produced over one hundred codes, nine sub-themes and three overarching themes. The three overarching categories revealed by the data were: 1) the importance of social supports; 2) the impact of and on economic resources; and 3) navigating the healthcare system. Limited resources to fund the treatment of orthopaedic trauma patients in Uganda leads to reliance of patients on their friends, family, and hospital connections, and a tremendous economic burden that falls on the patient and their dependents. PMID:25360815

O'Hara, Nathan N.; Mugarura, Rodney; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Bouchard, Maryse

2014-01-01

442

Unmarried women’s ways of facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka – a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background In Sri Lanka, motherhood within marriage is highly valued. Sex out of wedlock is socially unacceptable and can create serious public health problems such as illegal abortions, suicide and infanticide, and single motherhood as a result of premarital sex is considered shameful. The way unmarried women facing single motherhood reflect on and make use of their agency in their social environments characterised by limited social and financial support has consequences for the health and well-being of both themselves and their children. The aim of this study was to explore and describe how unmarried women facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka handle their situation. Methods This qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 28 unmarried pregnant women or single mothers. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis and the results related to the conceptual framework of social navigation. Results The women facing single motherhood expressed awareness of having trespassed norms of sexuality through self-blame, victimhood and obedience, and by considering or attempting suicide. They demonstrated willingness to take responsibility for becoming pregnant before marriage by giving the child up for adoption, bringing up the child themselves, claiming a father for their child, refraining from marriage in the future, permanently leave their home environment, and taking up employment. Throughout the interviews, the women expressed fear of shame, and striving for familial and societal acceptance and financial survival. Conclusions A social environment highly condemning of unmarried motherhood hindered these women from making strategic choices on how to handle their situation. However, to achieve acceptance and survival, the women tactically navigated norms of femininity, strong family dependence, a limited work market, and different sources of support. Limited access to resources restricted the women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights, including their ability to make acceptable and healthy choices for themselves and their children. PMID:23388103

2013-01-01

443

Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. Aim To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Design of study Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Setting Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Method Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5–2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Results Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the ‘baby’; and pain and bleeding. Conclusions Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and problems from the women's point of view. Competence and caring from professionals are especially important. PMID:16536960

Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

2006-01-01

444

Patients' and Practitioners' Views of Knee Osteoarthritis and Its Management: A Qualitative Interview Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the views of patients and care providers regarding the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to reveal potential obstacles to improving health care strategies. Methods We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews of a stratified sample of 81 patients (59 women) and 29 practitioners (8 women, 11 general practitioners [GPs], 6 rheumatologists, 4 orthopedic surgeons, and 8 [4 GPs] delivering alternative medicine). Results Two main domains of patient views were identified: one about the patient–physician relationship and the other about treatments. Patients feel that their complaints are not taken seriously. They also feel that practitioners act as technicians, paying more attention to the knee than to the individual, and they consider that not enough time is spent on information and counseling. They have negative perceptions of drugs and a feeling of medical uncertainty about OA, which leads to less compliance with treatment and a switch to alternative medicine. Patients believe that knee OA is an inevitable illness associated with age, that not much can be done to modify its evolution, that treatments are of little help, and that practitioners have not much to propose. They express unrealistic fears about the impact of knee OA on daily and social life. Practitioners' views differ from those of patients. Physicians emphasize the difficulty in elaborating treatment strategies and the need for a tool to help in treatment choice. Conclusions This qualitative study suggests several ways to improve the patient–practitioner relationship and the efficacy of treatment strategies, by increasing their acceptability and compliance. Providing adapted and formalized information to patients, adopting more global assessment and therapeutic approaches, and dealing more accurately with patients' paradoxal representation of drug therapy are main factors of improvement that should be addressed. PMID:21573185

Alami, Sophie; Boutron, Isabelle; Desjeux, Dominique; Hirschhorn, Monique; Meric, Gwendoline; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge

2011-01-01

445

Qualitative study about the ways teachers react to feedback from resident evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, one of the main interventions that are widely expected to contribute to teachers’ professional development is confronting teachers with feedback from resident evaluations of their teaching performance. Receiving feedback, however, is a double edged sword. Teachers see themselves confronted with information about themselves and are, at the same time, expected to be role models in the way they respond to feedback. Knowledge about the teachers’ responses could be not only of benefit for their professional development, but also for supporting their role modeling. Therefore, research about professional development should include the way teachers respond to feedback. Method We designed a qualitative study with semi-structured individual conversations about feedback reports, gained from resident evaluations. Two researchers carried out a systematic analysis using qualitative research software. The analysis focused on what happened in the conversations and structured the data in three main themes: conversation process, acceptance and coping strategies. Results The result section describes the conversation patterns and atmosphere. Teachers accepted their results calmly, stating that, although they recognised some points of interest, they could not meet with every standard. Most used coping strategies were explaining the results from their personal beliefs about good teaching and attributing poor results to external factors and good results to themselves. However, some teachers admitted that they had poor results because of the fact that they were not “sharp enough” in their resident group, implying that they did not do their best. Conclusions Our study not only confirms that the effects of feedback depend first and foremost on the recipient but also enlightens the meaning and role of acceptance and being a role model. We think that the results justify the conclusion that teachers who are responsible for the day release programmes in the three departments tend to respond to the evaluation results just like human beings do and, at the time of the conversation, are initially not aware of the fact that they are role models in the way they respond to feedback. PMID:23866849

2013-01-01

446

Problems and challenges of nursing students’ clinical evaluation: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to explore the views of nursing trainers and students about nursing students’ clinical evaluation problems and drawbacks in Shiraz Nursing and Midwifery School. Materials and Methods: A qualitative exploratory approach was used in this study at Shiraz Nursing and Midwifery School in 2012. A purposeful sample of 8 nursing instructors and 40 nursing students was interviewed and the data on their opinions about the problems of the clinical evaluation were collected through semi-structured deep interviews. Initially, four open-ended questions, which were related to the clinical evaluation status, problems, were used to stimulate discussions in the interview sessions. Content analysis was employed in order to analyze the transcribed data. The recorded interviews were initially transcribed, read, and reread on a number of occasions to get an overall feeling of what the participants were saying. Each line or incident was described, and then a code, which reflected the essence of the participants’ comments, was given. Results: The codes were compared for similarity and differences, merged together, and categorized. Finally, five themes emerged: In appropriate clinical evaluation method, problems of clinical evaluation Process, problems related to clinical instructors, unsuitable programming of clinical education, and organizational shortcomings. Conclusion: Besides focusing on upgrading the current clinical evaluation forms, nursing trainers should improve their knowledge about a complete and comprehensive clinical evaluation. They should also apply other appropriate and objective clinical evaluation methods and tools, and perform a formative and summative clinical evaluation. Also, workload adjustment of the nursing trainers needs revision. Therefore, despite using traditional and sometimes limited evaluation methods for assessing nursing students, a co mprehensive and appropriate evaluation of nursing students’ clinical competencies seems necessary. PMID:24554959

Rafiee, Ghazanfar; Moattari, Marzieh; Nikbakht, Alireza N; Kojuri, Javad; Mousavinasab, Masoud

2014-01-01

447

Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas of Iran. Methods: The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method (Graneheim approach). Twenty people from the earthquake-stricken areas and seven qualified experts were selected via purposeful sampling .Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes from August 2013 to January 2014. Data collection continued to the point of data saturation (no new information was provided by interviewees). Data saturation supported the sample size. Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis principles. Results: “Social uncertainty and confusion” was the most prominent challenge of return to the normal life after earthquake, which was categorized into six concepts of social vulnerability, lack of comprehensive rehabilitation plan, incomplete reconstruction, ignorance of local social capital, waste of assets, and psychological problems. Conclusions: Findings showed that social uncertainty and confusion occurs as a result of negligence of some important social aspects in process of returning to the normal life. This issue, in turn, can greatly interrupt the normal developmental processes. Understanding the challenges of life recovery after disasters will help policy makers consider social rehabilitation as a key factor in facilitation of return to normal life process after earthquakes. Keywords: Disaster; earthquake; social rehabilitation; social uncertainty.

Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

2014-01-01

448

Norwegian nursing and medical students’ perception of interprofessional teamwork: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students’ understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students’ perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. Methods The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). Results The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students’ professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. Conclusions This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit “huddles,” or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students’ assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies. PMID:25124090

2014-01-01

449

Instructor's Corner: Tips for Publishing and Reviewing Qualitative Studies in Applied Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Instructor's Corner" describes a step forward on the journey to write, review, and publish high-quality qualitative research manuscripts. This article examines two existing perspectives on generating high-quality qualitative manuscripts and then compares and contrasts the different elements of each. First, an overview of Rocco's (2010) eight…

Storberg-Walker, Julia

2012-01-01

450

Analyzing qualitative data with computer software.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide health services researchers with an overview of the qualitative data analysis process and the role of software within it; to provide a principled approach to choosing among software packages to support qualitative data analysis; to alert researchers to the potential benefits and limitations of such software; and to provide an overview of the developments to be expected in the field in the near future. DATA SOURCES, STUDY DESIGN, METHODS: This article does not include reports of empirical research. CONCLUSIONS: Software for qualitative data analysis can benefit the researcher in terms of speed, consistency, rigor, and access to analytic methods not available by hand. Software, however, is not a replacement for methodological training. PMID:10591282

Weitzman, E A

1999-01-01

451

Men's experience with sexual dysfunction post-rectal cancer treatment: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

In an effort to address reports from men that their sex life is worse after treatment for rectal cancer, this qualitative study was designed to better understand their experience with sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer treatment, thus providing information on the adaptation of a psycho-educational sexual health intervention for male rectal cancer survivors and simultaneously investigating barriers and promoters that would influence their participation in a psycho-educational sexual health intervention. Thirteen male rectal cancer survivors who were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for rectal cancer participated (median time post-treatment was 6.4 years). Six survivors participated in individual semi-structured phone interviews, and seven others took part in focus groups. We performed standard procedures of qualitative thematic text analysis, which involved independent review of interview and focus group transcripts by several analysts followed by consensus meetings to identify key themes. Participants reported bowel dysfunction (N = 13, or 100%) and erectile dysfunction (N = 12, or 92%) as chief complaints. The participants thought a psychoeducational sexual health intervention post-surgery would be helpful because it would provide educational information regarding the etiology of their problems and treatments to improve their sexual health (N = 8, or 62%). Most participants' primary concern immediately after treatment was surviving their disease; improving sexual functioning seemed to become more important over time. Barriers to potentially participating in a psycho-educational sexual health intervention included geographical distance from MSKCC (N = 3, or 3/13) and the risk of embarrassment when discussing sexual issues (N = 5, or 5/13). Men reported that a psycho-educational sexual health intervention would be helpful to improve their sexual functioning post-treatment. Discussion of bowel issues and logistical concerns gave information on the psycho-educational sexual health intervention. PMID:23821133

Ball, Melinda; Nelson, Christian J; Shuk, Elyse; Starr, Tatiana D; Temple, Larissa; Jandorf, Lina; Schover, Leslie; Mulhall, John P; Woo, Heidi; Jennings, Sabrina; DuHamel, Katherine

2013-09-01

452

Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

2014-01-01

453

National targets, process transformation and local consequences in an NHS emergency department (ED): a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In the attempt to reduce waiting times in emergency departments, various national health services have used benchmarking and the optimisation of patient flows. The aim of this study was to examine staff attitudes and experience of providing emergency care following the introduction of a 4 hour wait target, focusing on clinical, organisational and spatial issues. Methods A qualitative research design was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 clinical, managerial and administrative staff members working in an inner-city emergency department. A thematic analysis method was employed and NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis software was used to code and manage the emerging themes. Results The wait target came to regulate the individual and collective timescales of healthcare work. It has compartmentalised the previous unitary network of emergency department clinicians and their workspace. It has also speeded up clinical performance and patient throughput. It has disturbed professional hierarchies and facilitated the development of new professional roles. A new clinical information system complemented these reconfigurations by supporting advanced patient tracking, better awareness of time, and continuous, real-time management of emergency department staff. The interviewees had concerns that this target-oriented way of working forces them to have a less personal relationship with their patients. Conclusions The imposition of a wait-target in response to a perceived “crisis” of patients’ dissatisfaction led to the development of a new and sophisticated way of working in the emergency department, but with deep and unintended consequences. We show that there is a dynamic interrelation of the social and the technical in the complex environment of the ED. While the 4 hour wait target raised the profile of the emergency department in the hospital, the added pressure on clinicians has caused some concerns over the future of their relationships with their patients and colleagues. To improve the sustainability of such sudden changes in policy direction, it is important to address clinicians’ experience and satisfaction. PMID:24927819

2014-01-01

454

What the Heck is a “Nodule”? A Qualitative Study of Veterans with Pulmonary Nodules  

PubMed Central

Rationale Every year, hundreds of thousands of patients are diagnosed with incidentally-detected pulmonary nodules and if lung cancer screening is widely implemented, thousands more will be identified. The psychosocial outcomes associated with incidental nodule detection in general practice settings are virtually unknown. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients with incidentally diagnosed pulmonary nodules. Methods& Measurements We conducted qualitative interviews of 19 Veterans with incidentally-detected pulmonary nodules. We used qualitative description for the analysis, focusing on patients’ information exchange and other communication behaviors with their clinicians. Main Results The patients were cared for by primary care clinicians and had small nodules that were unlikely to be malignant. Patients did not understand the term “nodule” although they knew it was related to cancer. They also did not understand the followup plan and most were unable to obtain better information from their clinician or other sources. Most patients experienced distress because of the nodule that was usually mild although sometimes severe. This distress was sometimes mitigated by patients’ confidence in their clinician. Most patients wanted more and better information about their nodule. Conclusions Veterans from one hospital have little understanding of what nodules are, the likelihood of malignancy, and the follow-up plan. Their reaction to this knowledge deficit is variable and is likely related to preferred communication behaviors with their clinician. Evaluating communication in other settings is important to confirm these findings and refine mechanisms to improve patient-centered care for those with incidentally-detected pulmonary nodules. PMID:23952851

Slatore, Christopher G.; Press, Nancy; Au, David H.; Curtis, J. Randall; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Ganzini, Linda

2013-01-01

455

An empirical study of round and block norms for modelling actual distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, we look at two families of distance predicting functions, the $\\\\ell\\\\sb{\\\\rm k,p,\\\\theta}$ norm family and the block norm family, that can be used for modelling actual distances.^ To compare the distance-predicting accuracy of the two families, an empirical study is conducted. Two types of regions, which are large geographic regions and urban centres, are used in the

John Hugh Walker

1991-01-01

456

What Should Developers Be Aware Of? An Empirical Study on the Directives of API Documentation  

E-print Network

Application Programming Interfaces (API) are exposed to developers in order to reuse software libraries. API directives are natural-language statements in API documentation that make developers aware of constraints and guidelines related to the usage of an API. This paper presents the design and the results of an empirical study on the directives of API documentation of object-oriented libraries. Its main contribution is to propose and extensively discuss a taxonomy of 23 kinds of API directives.

Monperrus, Martin; Tekes, Elif; Mezini, Mira

2012-01-01

457

African American Male Elementary Teachers' Perceptions on Factors That Influence Their Retention and Attrition: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe and explore American male elementary teachers' perceptions on factors that contribute to decisions to remain in or exit the teaching field, specifically elementary education. Ten African American male elementary teachers participated in the study. The theory from this study was the…

Walker, Lemanski Chante'

2012-01-01

458

Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC) has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further. PMID:22312195

Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette; Hjelde, Karin Harsløf; Sundby, Johanne

2012-01-01

459

The simulated hospital environment: a qualitative study applying space industry techniques.  

PubMed

Patterned after the integrated simulation approach utilized in the space industry, we report results of an innovative simulation in nursing, a 96-hour continuous simulated hospital environment. Training objectives for our study emphasized the integrative and critical thinking skills needed by new graduate nurses. The purpose of this study was to determine the process for development and the experience of participating in a simulated hospital environment. We sought to (a) translate space industry-integrated simulation techniques into development of a simulated hospital environment and (b) determine the experience of participating in an integrated simulation experience among undergraduate (UG) and graduate nursing students and nursing faculty. We used a qualitative mixed-methods design. Data were collected from participant focus groups, debriefing sessions, research team field notes, and electronic health record documentation. The sample, 72 student focus group participants, consisted of 12 baccalaureate-level soon-to-graduate students and 60 graduate nurse practitioner students as patient actors and providers. Important themes emerged from the project. We were able to design a simulated hospital environment that was true to life. Notably, student knowledge-practice gap was a major theme of the study, consistent with studies of employer concerns of new graduate nurses. PMID:25601242

Ayers, Constance J; Binder, Brenda K; Lyon, Karen C; Montgomery, Diane; Koci, Anne; Foster, William A

2015-01-01

460

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. PMID:23959758

Lillehagen, Ida; Vøllestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

2013-01-01

461

What do patients think about HIV mass screening in France? A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2009, HIV mass screening of the 15–70-year-old general population in low-risk situations has been recommended in France. This, not yet implemented, untargeted screening would be cost-effective with a positive impact on public health. No previous studies had interrogated primary care patients about it. This study aimed at exploring perceptions of patients attending general practitioner’s on HIV mass screening and at identifying barriers to its implementation. Methods We conducted a qualitative study through semi-structured individual interviews. Participants were recruited according to age, gender and location of their physician’s practice. Data analysis was based on triangulation by two researchers. Results Twenty-four interviews were necessary to obtain data saturation. HIV transmission was mostly associated with sexual intercourse; main barriers stemming from the screening were related to sexuality, often seen as questioning spouse’s faithfulness. It could interfere with religiosity, implying an upsetting perception of sexuality among the elderly. Patients’ beliefs and perceptions regarding HIV/AIDS, the fear to be screened and difficulties to talk about sexuality were other barriers. Conclusion To our knowledge, no studies had previously interrogated primary care patients about barriers to HIV mass screening in France. Although relevance of this untargeted screening is debated in France, our results could be helpful to a better understanding of patients’ attitudes toward this and to an outstanding contribution to reduce the number of new cases of HIV contamination. PMID:23721289

2013-01-01

462

Ethical principles and the rationing of health care: a qualitative study in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Researching sensitive topics, such as the rationing of treatments and denial of care, raises a number of ethical and methodological problems. Aim To describe the methods and findings from a number of focus group discussions that examined how GPs apply ethical principles when allocating scarce resources. Design of study A small-scale qualitative study involving purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Setting Twenty-four GPs from two contrasting areas of London: one relatively affluent and one relatively deprived. Method Initial interviews asked GPs to identify key resource allocation issues. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified. A number of case studies, each illustrative of an ethical issue related to rationing, were written up in the form of vignettes. In focus group discussions, GPs were given a number of these vignettes to debate. Results With respect to the ethical basis for decision making, the findings from this part of the study emphasised the role of social and psychological factors, the influence of the quality of the relationship between GPs and patients and confusion among GPs about their role in decision making. Conclusion The use of vignettes developed from prior interviews with GPs creates a non-threatening environment to discuss sensitive or controversial issues. The acceptance by GPs of general moral principles does not entail clarity of coherence of the application of these principles in practice. PMID:16105371

Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Feder, Gene; Griffiths, Chris; Jones, Ian Rees

2005-01-01

463

Preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model: a qualitative study from Thailand.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored the clinical nursing leadership competency perspectives of Thai nurses working in a university hospital. To collect data, in-depth interviews were undertaken with 23 nurse administrators, and focus groups were used with 31 registered nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis, and theory development was guided by the Iceberg model. Nurses' clinical leadership competencies emerged, comprising hidden characteristics and surface characteristics. The hidden characteristics composed three elements: motive (respect from the nursing and healthcare team and being secure in life), self-concept (representing positive attitudes and values), and traits (personal qualities necessary for leadership). The surface characteristics comprised specific knowledge of nurse leaders about clinical leadership, management and nursing informatics, and clinical skills, such as coordination, effective communication, problem solving, and clinical decision-making. The study findings help nursing to gain greater knowledge of the essence of clinical nursing leadership competencies, a matter critical for theory development in leadership. This study's results later led to the instigation of a training program for registered nurse leaders at the study site, and the formation of a preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model. PMID:22122346

Supamanee, Treeyaphan; Krairiksh, Marisa; Singhakhumfu, Laddawan; Turale, Sue

2011-12-01

464

Arabic-speaking migrants’ experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. Method A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Results Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter’s task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter’s dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter’s qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. Conclusion The study showed that the personal qualities of a good interpreter not only cover language ability but also origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views. Thus, there is need to develop strategies for personalized healthcare in order to avoid inappropriate communication, to satisfy the preferences of the person in need of interpreters and improve the impact of interpretation on the quality of healthcare. PMID:24934755

2014-01-01

465

How do surgeons decide to refer patients for adjuvant cancer treatment? Protocol for a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer are commonly diagnosed cancers in Canada. Patients diagnosed with early-stage non-small cell lung, breast, or colorectal cancer represent potentially curable populations. For these patients, surgery is the primary mode of treatment, with (neo)adjuvant therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy) recommended according to disease stage. Data from our research in Nova Scotia, as well as others’, demonstrate that a substantial proportion of non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer patients, for whom practice guidelines recommend (neo)adjuvant therapy, are not referred for an oncologist consultation. Conversely, surveillance data and clinical experience suggest that breast cancer patients have much higher referral rates. Since surgery is the primary treatment, the surgeon plays a major role in referring patients to oncologists. Thus, an improved understanding of how surgeons make decisions related to oncology services is important to developing strategies to optimize referral rates. Few studies have examined decision making for (neo)adjuvant therapy from the perspective of the cancer surgeon. This study will use qualitative methods to examine decision-making processes related to referral to oncology services for individuals diagnosed with potentially curable non-small cell lung, breast, or colorectal cancer. Methods A qualitative study will be conducted, guided by the principles of grounded theory. The study design is informed by our ongoing research, as well as a model of access to health services. The method of data collection will be in-depth, semi structured interviews. We will attempt to recruit all lung, breast, and/or colorectal cancer surgeons in Nova Scotia (n???42), with the aim of interviewing a minimum of 34 surgeons. Interviews will be audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data will be collected and analyzed concurrently, with two investigators independently coding and analyzing the data. Analysis will involve an inductive, grounded approach using constant comparative analysis. Discussion The primary outcomes will be (1) identification of the patient, surgeon, institutional, and health-system factors that influence surgeons’ decisions to refer non-small cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancer patients to oncology services when consideration for (neo)adjuvant therapy is recommended and (2) identification of potential strategies that could optimize referral to oncology for appropriate individuals. PMID:23098262

2012-01-01

466

Empirical Bayes Correction for the Winner's Curse in Genetic Association Studies  

PubMed Central

We consider an Empirical Bayes method to correct for the Winner's Curse phenomenon in genome-wide association studies. Our method utilizes the collective distribution of all odds ratios (ORs) to determine the appropriate correction for a particular single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We can show that this approach is squared error optimal provided that this collective distribution is accurately estimated in its tails. To improve the performance when correcting the OR estimates for the most highly associated SNPs, we develop a second estimator that adaptively combines the Empirical Bayes estimator with a previously considered Conditional Likelihood estimator. The applications of these methods to both simulated and real data suggest improved performance in reducing selection bias. PMID:23012258

Ferguson, John P.; Cho, Judy H.; Yang, Can; Zhao, Hongyu

2013-01-01

467

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 62, 105-125 (2005). INTERFACE CHANGES CAUSING ACCIDENTS. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF  

E-print Network

ACCIDENTS. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF NEGATIVE TRANSFER Denis BESNARD School of Computing Science University-known solution procedures into new problems. For this reason, changes in work environments can cause accidents support the hypothesis according to which errors (and possible subsequent accidents) due to changes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

468

Spousal support as experienced by people with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

About 30% of people with multiple sclerosis require some form of supportive assistance at home, and 80% of that assistance is usually provided by spouses or partners. So, the explanation and understanding of patients' experiences of support received from their spouses enable spouses and healthcare professionals to reform their actions toward positive support. This study aimed to explore the experiences of people with multiple sclerosis regarding support from their spouses. A qualitative content analysis method was used to conduct this study. The study participants were 25 patients with multiple sclerosis who were chosen through purposeful sampling from multiple sclerosis associations of Isfahan and Tehran (Iran). Data were collected through nonstructured interviews from September 2011 to August 2012. Four themes and nine subthemes emerged through data analysis. The main themes were play a supportive role, establish a friendly and comfortable relationship, help patient to fight the disease, and help to maintain and to improve patients' functional ability. The results could help in improving the quality of spouses' support in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, it could aid in determining the educational needs of patients as supported persons and spouses as supporters. The results could lead to increased knowledge of healthcare experts about the issue of how Iranian people with multiple sclerosis are being supported by their wives/husbands. Furthermore, it would help them to design caring models to promote successful supporting strategies for patients. PMID:25188687

Ghafari, Somayeh; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Norouzi, Kian; Mohamadi, Eisa

2014-10-01

469

Iranian Women’s Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Methods: Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. Results: During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. “Neglect or covert violence” and “overt violence” were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Conclusion: Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women?s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women. PMID:25649136

Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

2014-01-01

470

Perspectives of Older Persons on Bathing and Bathing Disability: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Bathing is an important and potentially challenging self-care activity, and disability in bathing is associated with several adverse consequences. Little is known about older persons’ experiences with and perspectives on bathing. Objectives To understand the bathing experiences, attitudes, and preferences of older persons in order to inform the development of effective patient-centered interventions. Design Qualitative Study using the Grounded Theory framework. Participants Twenty-three community-living persons, age ? 78 years, identified from the Precipitating Events Project (PEP). Approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participant’s home. Results Three themes emerged: 1) the importance and personal significance of bathing to older persons, 2) variability in attitudes, preferences, and sources of bathing assistance, and 3) older persons’ anticipation of and responses to bathing disability. Discussion The bathing experiences described by study participants underscore the personal significance of bathing and the need to account for attitudes and preferences when designing bathing interventions. Quantitative disability assessments may not capture the bathing modifications made by older persons in anticipation of disability and may result in missed opportunities for early intervention. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of targeted, patient-centered interventions that can subsequently be tested in clinical trials. PMID:20158554

Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Gill, Thomas M.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Fried, Terri R.

2009-01-01

471

Experiences of Academic Members About their Professional Challenges: a Content Analysis Qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: University faculty members of different disciplines in any country, by giving better quality services, will further accelerate the development of their respective countries. This study aims to explore the experiences of faculty members about their professional challenges. Aim: In this qualitative study, which was conducted in 2013, fifteen faculty members in the departments of clinical and basic sciences of Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences in northern Iran were chosen for semi-structured in-depth interviews by purposive sampling method. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and content analysis was performed. Results: After immersion and data analysis, three main themes were emerged including: “Imbalances in academic members’ tasks in different areas”, “Weakness of evaluation and promotion system” and “Failure to provide the infrastructure educational facilities”. The main themes and sub-themes are explained by the help of participants’ direct quotations. Conclusions: This study suggested that it is better to take effective measures to improve the faculty members’ situation and therefore increase their efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. PMID:24825939

Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Danesh, Mahmonier

2014-01-01

472

Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1) sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2) Impacts of RA, and 3) Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA. PMID:20950461

2010-01-01

473

Hand use at home and in clinical settings by children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand the physical, attitudinal, and assistive characteristics of the home and the therapeutic settings that enable and/or hinder hand use by children with spastic hemiparesis CP. A qualitative study with 7 children with CP, their caregivers, and therapists was conducted. Children were observed at home and in their therapeutic settings to understand the supports and barriers from these environments regarding their use of the affected hand. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with caregivers and t