Note: This page contains sample records for the topic qualitative empirical studies from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Empirical Phenomenology An Approach for Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. This approach builds upon the phenomenology of philosopher Edmund Husserl and sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their more theoretical insights can be used in an empirical approach. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and interested in safeguarding the subjective

Patrik Aspers

2

The politics of race in two languages: an empirical qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon critical analyses of participant observations of classrooms, school documents, and in?depth interviews with teachers, administrators, and school?district supervisors conducted from 1999 to 2002, this qualitative study employs a post?structuralist framework to probe one US public elementary school’s quest to realize educational equity through dual language education. Focused on exploring the ways that students’ racial identities influenced teachers’ pedagogies,

Brenda G. Juárez

2008-01-01

3

An Examination of Qualitative Empirical Studies at the AHRD from 1999-2003: Research Purpose, Research Questions, and Inquiry Literature Cited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the nature of qualitative empirical studies published in the AHRD proceedings from 1999-2003 and discusses findings on research purpose, research question(s), and inquiry literature cited. (Contains 4 tables.)

Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.; McCarley, Howard; Ianinska, Silvana; Bernier, Judith D.

2006-01-01

4

The relevance of marketing activities in the Swiss prescription drugs market : Two empirical qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the most relevant marketing factors and examine existing theories and to provide guidance for planning future studies. Since drug markets are very complex, this paper will focus on a particular market\\/country to reduce some of this complexity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A serial research study is undertaken to examine the essential marketing

Michael Stros; Juerg Hari; John Marriott

2009-01-01

5

Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

Mills, Rilla Dean

6

Qualitative Case Study Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents guidelines for conducting qualitative case studies. Yin's case study process is elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated and explained. It is expected that following the guidelines presented in ...

S. Baskarada

2013-01-01

7

An empirical model of athlete decisions to use performance?enhancing drugs: qualitative evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of athlete decisions to use performance?enhancing substance and method (PESM) lack an empirical base. In this paper, the validity of the content (variables thought to influence use) and process (how the variables come together) of these models is assessed. Reporting the second qualitative stage of a broader choice modelling study, n = 20 interviews (conducted from August 2007 to

Jason Mazanov; Twan Huybers

2010-01-01

8

The occurrence of adverse drug reactions reported for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in the pediatric population: a qualitative review of empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Background To review empirical studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported to be associated with the use of medications generally licensed for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the pediatric population. Methods PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO® databases were searched from origin until June 2011. Studies reporting ADRs from amphetamine derivates, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and modafinil in children from birth to age 17 were included. Information about ADR reporting rates, age and gender of the child, type, and seriousness of ADRs, setting, study design, ADR assessors, authors, and funding sources were extracted. Results The review identified 43 studies reporting ADRs associated with medicines for treatment of ADHD in clinical studies covering approximately 7000 children, the majority of 6- to 12-year-old boys, and particularly in the United States of America (USA). The most frequently reported ADRs were decrease in appetite, gastrointestinal pain, and headache. There were wide variations in reported ADR occurrence between studies of similar design, setting, included population, and type of medication. Reported ADRs were primarily assessed by the children/their parents, and very few ADRs were rated as being serious. A large number of children dropped out of studies due to serious ADRs, and therefore, the actual number of serious ADRs from use of psychostimulants is probably higher. A large number of studies were conducted by the same groups of authors and sponsored by the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing the respective medications. Conclusion Reported ADRs from use of psychostimulants in children were found in clinical trials of short duration. Since ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies. The pharmaceutical companies should make all information about ADRs reported for these medications accessible to the public, and further studies are needed on the impact of the link between researchers and the manufacturers of the respective products.

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2011-01-01

9

Qualitative Studies in Special Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the many types of studies that fall into the qualitative design genre is provided. Strategies that qualitative researchers use to establish the authors' studies as credible and trustworthy are listed and defined. So that readers will recognize the important contribution qual- itative studies have made in the field of special education, a range of well-known and lesser

ELLEN BRANTLINGER; ROBERT JIMENEZ; JANETTE KLINGNER; MARLEEN PUGACH; VIRGINIA RICHARDSON

10

Illness experience in fibromyalgia syndrome: A metasynthesis of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in synthesizing qualitative research. Despite certain philosophical and methodological difficulties, such syntheses are potentially useful in enriching the insights of empirical qualitative work in a particular area. This paper reports an interpretive review of research into the subjective experience of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), utilizing principles of metasynthesis. Twenty-three separate studies were identified. Each study was evaluated

Julius Sim; Sue Madden

2008-01-01

11

Qualitative Studies in HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…

1999

12

An empirical evaluation of qualitative Hennigian analyses of protein electrophoretic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In an empirical evaluation of a qualitative approach to construction of phylogenetic trees from protein-electrophoretic data, we have employed Hennigian cladistic principles to generate molecular trees for waterfowl, rodents, bats, and other phylads. This procedure of tree construction is described in detail. Branching structures of molecular trees produced by three different algorithms were compared against those of “model” classifications

John C. Patton; John C. Avise

1983-01-01

13

Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups

Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh; Shamsaddin Niknami; Eesa Mohammadi; Ali Montazeri; Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Fazlollah Ahmadi; Shahrzad Hejazi Bazargan

2009-01-01

14

Breastfeeding Twins: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, ?nstructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care.

Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

2013-01-01

15

Principles and Practices: An Empirical Examination of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Counseling Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the 50 qualitative studies published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) over a 15-year period in light of methodological principles advocated by qualitative theorists. The match between practices and principles is not high. In the modal investigation, coders (most of whom did not interact with or observe participants) worked from transcripts of a 60-min interview conducted

William T. Hoyt; Kuldhir S. Bhati

2007-01-01

16

Qualitative Case Study in Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From case study articles drawn from four journals in gifted education, two are identified as exemplars of qualitative case study research. The works of Coleman (2001) and Hebert and Beardsley (2001) are used to illustrate how researchers can plan qualitative case studies so that the perspectives of gifted students are included. (Contains…

Mendaglio, Sal

2003-01-01

17

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative

Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

2012-01-01

18

Experience of fibromyalgia. Qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experiences of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Midsize city in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Seven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the illness experience of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analysis. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. The analysis strategy used a phenomenologic approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. MAIN FINDINGS: Themes that emerged from the interpretive analysis depict patients' journeys along a continuum from experiencing symptoms, through seeking a diagnosis, to coping with the illness. Experiencing symptoms was composed of four subcategories: pain, a precipitating event, associated symptoms, and modulating factors. Seeking a diagnosis entailed frustration and social isolation. Confirmation of diagnosis brought relief as well as anxiety about the future. After diagnosis, several steps led to creation of adaptive coping strategies, which were influenced by several factors. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the conventional medical model fails to address the complex experience of fibromyalgia. Adopting a patient-centred approach is important for helping patients cope with this disease.

Raymond, M. C.; Brown, J. B.

2000-01-01

19

Qualitative Case Study Research in Business Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

O'Connor, Bridget N.

2002-01-01

20

Qualitative Study of Nonlinear Problems in Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work was to use qualitative methods, especially fixed point theorems and topological degree, to study nonlinear problems in analysis. Existence of solutions of wide classes of abstract nonlinear functional equations are established an...

J. C. Scanlon

1979-01-01

21

Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505

Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

2014-03-01

22

Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries.

Huston, P.; Rowan, M.

1998-01-01

23

A qualitative study of phlebotomy device selection.  

PubMed

Limited research exists comparing Vacutainer versus butterfly phlebotomy devices. The purpose of this study was to examine decision processes staff use when choosing a device. A qualitative, purposive sampling was used and determined a gap between correct device use and reported practice. Applied findings can enhance employee safety. PMID:22409112

Downing, Jennifer; Yoder, Linda H; Kirksey, Kenn M

2011-01-01

24

Overexcitabilities: Empirical Studies and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ever since Dr. Dabrowski raised his theory of positive disintegration, several studies focusing on overexcitabilities (OEs) have been performed. This study reviewed previous findings on overexcitabilities and their application, focusing in particular on studies in Taiwan. Since 2001, a series of studies related to overexcitabilities has been…

Chang, Hsin-Jen; Kuo, Ching-Chih

2013-01-01

25

Listening Instruction: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Selected Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used qualitative meta-analysis to examine a set of empirical studies concerned with listening instruction. Twenty-four studies (subjects were all ages) published in communication-related journals between 1950 and 1989 were analyzed. Analysis of the papers showed conflicting results, producing no clear findings as to whether listening can…

DeWitt-Brinks, Dawn; Rhodes, Steven C.

26

An Empirical Study of Software Interface Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate through a survey of the literature on software errors that the research community has paid little attention to the problem of interface errors. The main focus of the paper is to present the results of a preliminary empirical study of error reports for a large software system. We determined that at least 66% of these errors arose from

D. E. Perry; W. M. Evangelist

1985-01-01

27

An empirical study of dynamic graph algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of this paper are both of theoretical and of experimental nature. From the experimental point of view, we conduct an empirical study on some dynamic connectivity algorithms which where developed recently. In particular, the following implementations were tested and compared with simple algorithms: simple sparsification by Eppstein et al. and the recent randomized algorithm by Henzinger and King.

David Alberts; Giuseppe Cattaneo; Giuseppe F. Italiano

1997-01-01

28

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial.

2014-01-01

29

Frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice - a systematic review of empirical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of placebo interventions outside clinical trials is ethically, professionally and legally controversial. Little is known about the frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice. Our aim was to summarize the available empirical studies addressing these issues. METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE from inception to July 2009 in order to identify cross-sectional surveys, qualitative or

Margrit Fässler; Karin Meissner; Antonius Schneider; Klaus Linde

2010-01-01

30

Discussions about preventive services: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elderly minority patients are less likely to receive influenza vaccination and colorectal cancer screening than are other patients. Communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and patients may affect service receipt. METHODS: Encounters between 7 PCPs and 18 elderly patients were observed and audiotaped at 2 community health centers. Three investigators coded transcribed audiotapes and field notes. We used qualitative

Karen E Lasser; Bridget Kelly; Jan Maier; Jennifer Murillo; Sonia Hoover; Karen Isenberg; Deborah Osber; Natasha Pilkauskas; Bayo C Willis; James Hersey

2008-01-01

31

Parasexuality in genitourinary investigations: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Genitourinary investigations are performed on a large proportion of middle-aged and older men and the majority undergo investigations for prostate issues. The effects that genitourinary disease can have on men depend on the type of problem, investigations required and treatment including impotence, gynaecomastia and urinary incontinence that have lasting devastating physical, social and psychological effects. The aim was to explore older men’s experience and views of intimate and intrusive genitourinary investigations and specifically to develop hypotheses and theories concerning gender and sexuality issues in intimate genitourinary investigations. Methods Written informed consent was obtained for this qualitative study. Data were collected through one-off, semi-structured interviews involving 15 men in the first year following patient’s last urological procedure. Initially, multiple themes were identified and when analysed further concepts were repeatedly present. As the urological investigations were limited to men, gender and sexuality became prominent issues in the data. Results On analysis, the term parasexuality appeared to explain the dynamic of the situation. Parasexuality is a modified form of sexuality which is channelled and limited to maintain propriety. This was not expressed as sexuality in its overt, explicit sense, but instead a type of covert sexuality where professional boundaries are maintained but nonetheless undercurrents remain. This managed version of sexuality created a common currency by which interactions between staff and patients could take place safely. Feeding into parasexuality were gender role stereotypes and for some of the participants this reflected their own experience, context, historical and cultural norms. Intimate contact in the form of exposure and handling of the participants' genitalia during the investigations particularly challenged the boundaries of parasexuality. In order to remain parasexual, many of the participants suppressed their sexuality. Viewing staff as professional was an additional strategy used by participants to limit any sexuality as parasexuality. Conclusion This study has contributed towards the appeal for more studies to examine privacy perceptions of patients in genitalia-related care, however, it is by no means definitive. Parasexuality goes some way to explain the dynamics of communication between older men and health care professionals during genitourinary investigations.

2014-01-01

32

Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

Ells, Carolyn

2011-01-01

33

Using qualitative studies to improve the usability of an EMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) and user satisfaction are closely associated with the systems usability. To improve the usability of a results management module of a widely deployed web-based EMR, we conducted two qualitative studies that included multiple focus group and field study sessions. Qualitative research can help focus attention on user tasks and goals and identify patterns

Alan F. Rose; Jeffrey L. Schnipper; Elyse R. Park; Eric G. Poon; Qi Li; Blackford Middleton

34

Peer Assessment in Problem-Based Learning: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer assessment provides a powerful avenue for students to receive feedback on their learning. Although student perceptions of peer assessment have been studied extensively in higher education, little qualitative research has been undertaken with medical students in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. A qualitative study of students' attitudes…

Papinczak, Tracey; Young, Louise; Groves, Michele

2007-01-01

35

An empirical study of software design practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

1986-01-01

36

Transition mixing study empirical model report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

1988-01-01

37

Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. Methods Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants were 28 male motorcyclists who never used a safety helmet during rides, and 4 male police officers. All transcripts, codes and categories were read for several times to exhaust identifiable major themes. During this process data were reduced from text to codes and themes. Results Five major themes emerged from the data analyses, including themes related to the following: (1) circumventing or dodging police officers; (2) simulating a helmet wearing behavior; (3) accepting the probability of receiving a ticket; (4) taking advantage of the police neglect and carelessness; and (5) using a cheap or convenient helmet. Conclusion Our findings suggest certain levels of reckless driving among the participating motorcyclists in this study. They also point to a system of law enforcement that operates haphazardly and fails to consistently penalize those who deviate from it. Further studies are needed to investigate how "risks" are perceived and relate to "reactions", and how a 'culture of masculinity' may encourage risk tolerance and a disposition toward lawlessness and carelessness among male motorcyclists. Also, there is a need for the development and implementation of multidimensional interventions that would offer socio-culturally sensitive educational and motivational messages to the motorcyclists and the in-service traffic-enforcement officers in Iran.

Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Bazargan, Shahrzad Hejazi

2009-01-01

38

An empirical study of scanner system parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

1976-01-01

39

Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.

Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.

1996-01-01

40

[The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study. PMID:16432800

Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

2005-12-01

41

Images of Science: an Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishIn relatively recent years, philosophical discussion of the nature of science and scientific progress has been envigorated successively by Popper's critical rationalism and by Kuhn's more radical view of ‘paradigms?separated?by?revolutions’. The brief report given here describes a limited empirical look at the extent to which those conflicting ideas have penetrated the South Australian educational system as evidenced by the responses

J. A. Rowell; E. R. Cawthron

1982-01-01

42

Experiences of habit formation: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development

Phillippa Lally; Jane Wardle; Benjamin Gardner

2011-01-01

43

Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.  

PubMed

This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment. PMID:15588012

Storr, Loma

2004-01-01

44

An Empirical Study of Infrasonic Propagation  

SciTech Connect

Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.

J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer

1999-10-01

45

Asperger Syndrome: A Qualitative Study of Successful Educational Interventions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the outcomes of a study that utilized descriptive, qualitative methods and a series of case studies to investigate how students are diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders, specifically Asperger syndrome under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The study focuses on students attending elementary schools in…

Fondacaro, Donna M.

46

Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.  

PubMed

Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside. PMID:24077096

Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

2014-05-01

47

Potential Rating Indicators for Cyberinsurance: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of an exploratory qualitative study with experts. The aim of the study was the identification of potential rating variables which could be used to calculate a premium for Cyberinsurance coverages. For this purpose we have conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with a sample of 36 experts from the DACH region. The gathered statements have been consolidated and further reduced to a subset of indicators which are available and difficult to manipulate. The reduced set of indicators has been presented again to the 36 experts in order to rank them according to their relative importance. In this paper we describe the results of this exploratory qualitative study and conclude by discussing implications of our findings for both research and practice.

Innerhofer-Oberperfler, Frank; Breu, Ruth

48

Home-School Relationships: A Qualitative Study with Diverse Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study explored how families from diverse cultural backgrounds understood family involvement in the context of early childhood care and educational settings. Participants in the study included nine members from six families who had children enrolled in three early childhood care and education programs. The primary method of…

Cardona, Betty; Jain, Sachin; Canfield-Davis, Kathy

2012-01-01

49

Advancing the theory of collective empowerment: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fully describe the construct of empowerment and to determine possible measures for this construct in racially and ethnically diverse neighborhoods, a qualitative study based on Grounded Theory was conducted at both the individual and collective levels. Participants for the study included 49 grassroots experts on community empowerment who were interviewed through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The

Belinda Matteson Reininger

1994-01-01

50

Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the…

Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

2012-01-01

51

Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Coteaching: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored preservice teachers' perceptions about coteaching. Two classes of preservice teachers in special education and social studies were paired and asked to modify a lesson plan for students with disabilities. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed, and themes were extracted. Two findings emerged: First, preservice teachers…

Arndt, Katrina; Liles, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

52

A Qualitative Study of Parental Resistance to Girls' Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons for parental resistance to girls' schooling. The study was conducted in Ordu, Giresun, Gumushane, and Sinop provinces of Turkey where school enrollment rates for girls were among the lowest in the Black Sea Region. The results showed that obstacles for female education varied and…

Alat, Zeynep; Alat, Kazim

2011-01-01

53

Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Ethiopia has made meaningful headway in improving access to HIV care and treatment but client attrition remains a daunting challenge. The objective of this study was to describe the major reasons of patient attrition from treatment at hospital and health center levels in Oromia region of Ethiopia. Methods: This qualitatively designed study was based on semistructured interview with antiretroviral

Taye T. Balcha; Anders Jeppsson; Abera Bekele

2011-01-01

54

Describing Support: A Qualitative Study of Couples Living with Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family and marital support have been shown to be associated with better treatment adherence, illness adaptation, and blood sugar control in studies of individuals with diabetes. However, the behaviors and attitudes that describe appropriate support have not been defined. This is a qualitative study which asked couples who live with diabetes to define support. Seventy-four individuals (patients and spouses) participated

Paula M. Trief; Jonathan Sandberg; Roger P. Greenberg; Keri Graff; Nina Castronova; Miyoung Yoon; Ruth S. Weinstock

2003-01-01

55

A Qualitative Study of Educator Experiences in a Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach to examine educators' experiences in the virtual world of Second Life[TM]. The rationale for this study's focus on educators using a virtual world stems from an interest in the factors that influence educational practices in virtual worlds. The researcher conducted focus groups…

Dutton, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

56

Studying Consumer Behaviour: Some Empirical and Methodological Queries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of consumer behavior are fraught with difficulties. Apart from the usual empirical difficulties, there are serious methodological ones. Some concern the way in which theories are said to explain phenomena, or to have a sound behavioral basis; othe...

I. G. Heggie

1978-01-01

57

A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed. PMID:24010560

Matteo, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

58

Qualitative Analysis In Financial Studies: Employing Ethnographic Content Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the extent that relevant variables are well-defined or readily observable, empirical studies in finance typically employ classical investigative techniques and positivistic methodologies to measure and analyze financial phenomena. Many unanswered questions in modern finance however, rely critically on insight into the behavior or intentions of various agents, for which there may be no easily discernible proxy that lends itself

Henry I. Silverman

2009-01-01

59

Exploring Consumer Adoption of Mobile Payments - A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines consumer adoption of a new electronic payment service, mobile payments. The empirical data for the explorative study was collected by establishing six focus group sessions. The results suggest that the relative advantages of mobile payments include time and place independence, availability, possibilities for remote purchases, and queue avoidance. The interviewees found mobile payments to be mostly compatible

Niina Mallat

2006-01-01

60

Oocyte donors’ experiences of altruistic known donation: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of women who had donated oocytes to a known recipient. Background: Altruistic known donation between friends or family members is the predominant form of oocyte donation in Canada due to legal prohibition of donor compensation. Methods: Data were collected from a hospital-based IVF clinic located in a Canadian

Samantha Yee; Eric Blyth; A. Ka Tat Tsang

2011-01-01

61

A Qualitative Self-Study of Retinitis Pigmentosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a retinal degenerative disease causing progressive blindness. Most research on RP is biomedical, and mostly from an observer perspective, therefore poorly reflecting the lived experience of having RP. Accordingly, the researcher conducted a retrospective qualitative self-study, to analyze reflections on his own…

Fourie, Robert James

2007-01-01

62

Ethics committees in nursing homes: A qualitative research study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of U.S. hospitals now have a committee to address the ethical issues raised by modern medicine and health care. Ethics committees (EC) are now being established in the unique setting of the nursing home. Although much has been written about Institutional Ethics Committees (IEC), few studies have engaged in qualitative research in multiple institutions and little research

Mary Ann Thompson; J. Milburn Thompson

1990-01-01

63

Shaping the Future: Writing up the Method on Qualitative Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observations on qualitative manuscripts submitted for publication identified problem areas: organization and format, relationship of concept and method, methodological issues (study type, conceptual framework, sample, data collection/analysis, integrity, data management), discussion, and data presentation. Recommendations for improving quality of…

Rocco, Tonette S.

2003-01-01

64

Volunteers' Perspective of Effective Interactions with Helpline Callers: Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study focuses on the effectiveness of interactions with callers to a helpline as perceived by the helpline volunteers. Applying a qualitative methodology, we analysed 12 descriptions of what the volunteers considered to be the most helpful calls they could reconstruct from memory, and the factors they attributed to the successful…

Gilat, Itzhak; Rosenau, Sarah

2011-01-01

65

A Qualitative Study of a Nutrition Working Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Behavioral Change Consortium (BCC) Nutrition Workgroup (NWG) is a multidisciplinary collaboration of representatives from BCC sites and federal agencies. Its mission is to improve measurement of dietary variables. This article presents findings from a qualitative study of perceived effectiveness of the workgroup collaboration. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted and examined for common themes using the constant comparison method. Themes

Geoffrey W. Greene; Linda C. Nebeling; Mary L. Greaney; Ana C. Lindsay; Cary K. Hardwick; Deborah J. Toobert; Ken Resnicow; Geoffrey C. Williams; Diane L. Elliot; Tamara Goldman Sher; Holly A. McGregor; Andrea Domas; Carol A. DeFrancesco; Karen E. Peterson

2007-01-01

66

Misunderstandings in prescribing decisions in general practice: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To identify and describe misunderstandings between patients and doctors associated with prescribing decisions in general practice. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in the West Midlands and south east England. Participants 20 general practitioners and 35 consulting patients. Main outcome measures Misunderstandings between patients and doctors that have potential or actual adverse consequences for taking medicine. Results 14

Nicky Britten; Fiona A Stevenson; Christine A Barry; Nick Barber; Colin P Bradley

2000-01-01

67

The Cult of Parenthood: A Qualitative Study of Parental Alienation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty adults who were alienated from a parent as a child participated in a qualitative research study about their experience. A content analysis was conducted on the transcripts and a comparison was undertaken to identify similarities between alienating parents and cult leaders. Results revealed that adults whose parents alienated them from their other parent described the alienating parent much the

Amy J. L. Baker

2005-01-01

68

Understanding the Nature of Spiritual Experiences: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study uses qualitative methodology to understand the "nature" of spiritual experiences that resemble self-realization or oneness, and the linguistic structures and representational knowledge used to comprehend and communicate such an experience. It draws upon Habermas' theory of communicative action to explain the nuances of communication as…

Gandhi, Punita

2009-01-01

69

Language Minority Experience: A Qualitative Study of Seven Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates language minority experiences of 7 heritage bilinguals via ethnographic interviewing and analytic induction. Themes are identified after qualitative clustering and contrasting of the data. Results are presented for all levels of participant-reported linguistic proficiency and researcher-inferred bilingual identity.…

Orlov, Leonid Y.; Ting, Siu-Man Raymond; Tyler, Richard E.

2009-01-01

70

Resident Physicians' Perspectives on Effective Outpatient Teaching: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through…

Kisiel, John B.; Bundrick, John B.; Beckman, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

71

The adoption of Internet financial services: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the case of the consumer adoption of Internet financial services, which may be viewed as an innovation in service delivery. The qualitative study employed Rogers’ model of perceived innovation attributes is augmented by Bauer’s concept of perceived risk. The perceived innovation attributes were found to be important determinants of consumers’ adoption decisions. However, two additional dimensions were found to

Nancy Jo Black; Andy Lockett; Heidi Winklhofer; Christine Ennew

2001-01-01

72

Health, ethics and environment: A qualitative study of vegetarian motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were

Nick Fox; Katie Ward

2008-01-01

73

A qualitative study of users' view on information security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Users play an important role in the information security performance of organisations by their security awareness and cautious behaviour. Interviews of users at an IT-company and a bank were qualitatively analyzed in order to explore users' experience of information security and their personal role in the information security work. The main patterns of the study were: (1) users state to

Eirik Albrechtsen

2007-01-01

74

Underage "Binge Drinking": A Qualitative Study into Motivations and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining young people's perceived motivations for "binge drinking", and the associated harmful outcomes. Sixty-four, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 14 to 17 year olds in southern England who had experience of binge drinking. Given the underage sample, most of this…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2005-01-01

75

College Housing Dissertations: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations that were published in the U.S. during the past 5 years that related to collegiate housing. The dissertations were examined using a bounded qualitative meta-analysis approach. Each dissertation was examined using three questions: What were the methods/attributes of the research? What were the…

Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda

2011-01-01

76

Interdisciplinary Hospice Team Processes and Multidimensional Pain: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews

Michele Dugan Day

2012-01-01

77

Exploring consumer adoption of mobile payments - A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative study on consumer adoption of mobile payments. The findings suggest that the relative advantage of mobile payments is different from that specified in adoption theories and include independence of time and place, availability, possibilities for remote payments, and queue avoidance. Furthermore, the adoption of mobile payments was found to be dynamic, depending on certain situational

Niina Mallat

2007-01-01

78

Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. METHODS: A qualitative research approach was used to explore how

Nahid Dehghan Nayeri; Reza Negarandeh

2009-01-01

79

Testing for qualitative interactions between stages in an adaptive study.  

PubMed

I consider the underlying structure for a test of qualitative interaction of a treatment when assessing heterogeneity between stages in an adaptive trial. Since decisions about the clinical utility of a drug are based on the balance of risks and benefits, a quantitative interaction in treatment efficacy across different groups could lead to qualitatively different decisions. Thus, the difference between quantitative and qualitative interactions is not a true dichotomy. I show that the standard tests for qualitative interactions (Gail and Simon,Biometrics 1985; 41:361-372; Piantadosi and Gail, Statist. Med. 1993; 12:1239-1248) are very conservative in this application. Theoretical calculations in a simpler situation confirm that the published criteria are very conservative, which may help explain why the tests are known to have very low power to detect interaction. I introduce the concept of 'minimum detectable effect', which is the smallest effect that a study could identify as statistically significant. I propose that important heterogeneity between stages in an adaptive trial be identified when two criteria are met. First, at least one individual stage must be below the overall study mean by at least the minimum detectable effect. Second, using an appropriate critical value based on simulations, there must be statistically significant heterogeneity between the stages. PMID:19908261

Parker, Robert A

2010-01-30

80

A qualitative and quantitative study of psychotherapists’ congruence in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the phenomenological world of 11 Satir-based Singaporean Chinese therapists with regard to their experience of congruence. A mixed qualitative-cum-quantitative research method was used in this study. A phenomenological methodology was used to explore (a) the phenomenological world of therapists with regard to their lived experience of congruence in their personal or inner lives, (b) how this congruence

Shyh Shin Wong; Vivienne Ng

2008-01-01

81

Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499

Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2011-01-01

82

Resident physicians’ perspectives on effective outpatient teaching: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative\\u000a studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics\\u000a of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through third-year internal medicine\\u000a residents at a large academic medical center were conducted to better understand

John B. Kisiel; John B. Bundrick; Thomas J. Beckman

2010-01-01

83

An Empirical Study of Operating System Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of operating system errors found by automatic, static, compiler analysis applied to the Linux and OpenBSD kernels. Our approach differs from previous studies that consider errors found by manual inspection of logs, testing, and surveys because static analysis is applied uniformly to the entire kernel source, though our approach necessarily considers a less comprehensive variety of

Andy Chou; Junfeng Yang; Benjamin Chelf; Seth Hallem; Dawson R. Engler

2001-01-01

84

An empirical study of operating systems errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of operating system errors found by automatic, static, compiler analysis applied to the Linux and OpenBSD kernels. Our approach differs from previous studies that consider errors found by manual inspection of logs, testing, and surveys because static analysis is applied uniformly to the entire kernel source, though our approach necessarily considers a less comprehensive variety of

Andy Chou; Junfeng Yang; Benjamin Chelf; Seth Hallem; Dawson Engler

2001-01-01

85

An Empirical Study of Merger Motives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focuses on the underlying motives for corporate mergers during 1970-77. The financial and product market characteristics of firms involved in mergers and acquisitions are examined. Also, the relationship between these characteristics and motives...

W. T. Carleton R. S. Harris J. F. Stewart

1982-01-01

86

An Empirical Study of Related Correlation Coefficients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New tests for comparing the strength of association between a variable and each of two potential predictor variables are proposed and compared to an existing test in a simulation study. Recommendations for use are made. (Author/JKS)

Boyer, John E., Jr.; And Others

1983-01-01

87

Reasons for relocation to retirement communities: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the reasons why elders move to retirement communities and what living in retirement communities is like from the perspective of relocated elders. Several themes emerged following qualitative analysis. The themes reflect three categories, labeled as "pushing" factors, "pulling" factors, and "overlapping" factors. Pushing factors included own or spouse's failing health, getting rid of responsibilities, not helped, facility closed out, and loneliness. Pulling factors were location, familiarity and reputation of the facility, security, and joining friends. The third category reflected both pushing and pulling factors, which overlapped and constituted their reason for moving. The findings help to inform the planning of tailored interventions to address elders' special needs or concerns associated with relocation. PMID:19246417

Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Nakhla, Wagdy E

2009-06-01

88

A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family  

PubMed Central

Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty?one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems.

2009-01-01

89

An Empirical Study of Software Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software metrics are computed for the purpose of evaluating certain characteristics of the software developed. A Fortran static source code analyzer, FORTRANAL, was developed to study 31 metrics, including a new hybrid metric introduced in this paper, and applied to a database of 255 programs, all of which were student assignments. Comparisons among these metrics are performed. Their cross-correlation confirms

H. F. Li; W. K. Cheung

1987-01-01

90

Patents and Innovation: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent would the rate of development and introduction of inventions decline in the absence of patent protection? To what extent do firms make use of the patent system, and what differences exist among firms and industries and over time in the propensity to patent? These questions are in need of much more study. This paper, which reports the

Edwin Mansfield

1986-01-01

91

Perception of Shopping Centers: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has indicated that shopping center images consist of various components and that different images are held by consumers, retailers, and mall management. The study examines the consumers’, retailers’s, and mall managements’ images of two shopping centers in the City of Waterloo. One center is Conestoga Mall; the other is Westmount Place. Responses were obtained from shoppers, retailers, and

Cathy Jean Burns

1980-01-01

92

Toward Empirical Studies on University Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a review of literature (from 1951-91) on higher education and a study of corporate ethical behavior, it is concluded that the university lacks information on its own ethical behavior. Increased institutional research on moral behavior, explicit standards, and university ethics committees to induce morally sensitive behavior are…

Counelis, James Steve

1993-01-01

93

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Knowledge: Proposing a Method of Functional Integration for the Relationship between Empirical Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative and quantitative social science research methods rather than representing opposing research methods instead are reinforcing research traditions. The ability of either research methodology to make lasting and important contributions requires the ability to synthesize and integrate with the other approach. While the assumptions of each…

Allen, Mike; Silver, Charles

94

Faculty Conduct: An Empirical Study of Ethical Activism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined ethical activism, the willingness of college professors to inquire about or report possible unethical conduct by colleagues. Using data from a national empirical study of ethics and the academic profession, characteristics of faculty who engaged in ethical activism are examined, as are the consequences of ethical activism for…

Knight, Jonathan; Auster, Carol J.

1999-01-01

95

Research on Mathematical Thinking of Young Children: Six Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume includes reports of six studies of the thought processes of children aged four through eight. In the first paper Steffe and Smock outline a model for learning and teaching mathematics. Six reports on empirical studies are then presented in five areas of mathematics learning: (1) equivalence and order relations; (2) classification and…

Steffe, Leslie P., Ed.

96

Semantic Business Process Management: An Empirical Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic technologies promise fully leveraging the content of enterprise and business process models by applying reasoning techniques to query the process space or using ontological mappings for bridging the business-IT divide. Such an approach is known as semantic business process management. We conducted an empirical case study to explore semantic business process man- agement. The case study was replicated 13

Sebastian Stein; Christian Stamber; Marwane El Kharbili; Pawel Rubach

2008-01-01

97

Model and empirical study on some collaboration networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an empirical study of a few practical systems described by cooperation networks, and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We study four non-social systems, which are the Bus Route Networks of Beijing and Yangzhou, the Travel Route Network of China, Huai-Yang recipes of Chinese cooked food, and a social system, which is the

Pei-Pei Zhang; Kan Chen; Yue He; Tao Zhou; Bei-Bei Su; Yingdi Jin; Hui Chang; Yue-Ping Zhou; Li-Cheng Sun; Bing-Hong Wang; Da-Ren He

2006-01-01

98

Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or

Carolyn B. Seaman; Victor R. Basili

1997-01-01

99

An empirical study of Chinese language networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese is spoken by the largest number of people in the world, and it is regarded as one of the most important languages. In this paper, we explore the statistical properties of Chinese language networks (CLNs) within the framework of complex network theory. Based on one of the largest Chinese corpora, i.e. People’s Daily Corpus, we construct two networks (CLN1 and CLN2) from two different respects, with Chinese words as nodes. In CLN1, a link between two nodes exists if they appear next to each other in at least one sentence; in CLN2, a link represents that two nodes appear simultaneously in a sentence. We show that both networks exhibit small-world effect, scale-free structure, hierarchical organization and disassortative mixing. These results indicate that in many topological aspects Chinese language shapes complex networks with organizing principles similar to other previously studied language systems, which shows that different languages may have some common characteristics in their evolution processes. We believe that our research may shed some new light into the Chinese language and find some potentially significant implications.

Zhou, Shuigeng; Hu, Guobiao; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong

2008-05-01

100

Social amplification of risk: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect

The social amplification of risk is a theoretical framework that addresses an important deficiency of formal risk assessment methods and procedures. Typically assessments of risk from technological mishaps have been based upon the expected number of people who could be killed or injured or the amount of property that might be damaged. The diverse and consequential impacts that followed in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident make it clear that risk assessments that exclude the role of public perceptions of risk will greatly underestimate the potential costs of certain types of hazards. The accident at Three Mile Island produced no direct fatalities and few, if any, expected deaths due to cancer, yet few other accidents in history have had such costly societal impacts. The experience of amplified impacts argues for the development of a broadened theoretical and methodological perspective capable of integrating technical assessment of risk with public perceptions. This report presents the results to date in an ongoing research effort to better understand the complex processes by which adverse events produce impacts. In particular this research attempts to construct a framework that can account for those events that have produced, or are capable of producing, greater societal impacts than would be forecast by traditional risk assessment methods. This study demonstrates that the social amplification of risk involves interactions between sophisticated technological hazards, public and private institutions, and subtle individual and public perceptions and behaviors. These factors, and the variables underlying the intricate processes of social amplification that occur in modern society, are not fully defined and clarified in this report. 19 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Burns, W.; Slovic, P. (Decision Research, Eugene, OR (USA))/(Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA)); Kasperson, R.; Kasperson, J.; Renn, O.; Emani, S. (Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (USA))

1990-09-01

101

Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…

Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

2011-01-01

102

Adoption of internet banking: An empirical study in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how customers perceive and adopt Internet Banking (IB) in Hong Kong. We developed a theoretical model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with an added construct Perceived Web Security, and empirically tested its ability in predicting customers' behavioral intention of adopting IB. We designed a questionnaire and used it to survey a randomly selected sample of

T. C. Edwin Cheng; David Y. C. Lam; Andy C. L. Yeung

2006-01-01

103

Consumer acceptance of mobile payments: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence intended to compare consumer acceptance of mobile payment systems use in comparison to other traditional online payment systems such as PayPal and conventional Credit Card methods. The study used attributes from the literature that were reported as success attributes for online payment systems. The scales used to measure these attributes were adapted for experimental simulation.

A. Thair; Luo Suhuai; Peter Summons

2010-01-01

104

Therapeutic alliance in forensic psychiatric hospitals: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first results of an application of empirical research methods of psychotherapy in forensic psychiatric hospitals in Germany. Data were collected in a study on therapeutic alliance conducted in four forensic facilities in Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse in the summer of 1994, comprising 137 patients and their therapists. Quality of therapeutic alliance was rated by therapists and

Martin Krupinski; Claudia Schöchlin; Alfred Fischer; Norbert Nedopil

1997-01-01

105

Spatial ability and visual navigation: an Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an empirical study of individuals' spatial navigation strategies and a number of performance and preference measures with regard to the design of a novel 3D visualisation. The underlying semantic space of the user interface consists of a collection of papers from the three most recent ACM SIGCHI conference proceedings, visualised as a virtual reality network.

Chaomei Chen; Mary Czerwinski

1997-01-01

106

Continued Use of a Chinese Online Portal: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…

Shih, Hung-Pin

2008-01-01

107

An Empirical Study of Fortran Programs for Parallelizing Compilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

n this paper, we report some results from an empirical study on program charac- f d teristics that are important to parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area o ata dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are also examined.

Zhiyu Shen; Zhiyuan Li; Pen-chung Yew

1990-01-01

108

Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on economic growth has exploded in the past decade. Hundreds of empirical studies on economic growth across countries have highlighted the correlation between growth and a variety of variables. Determinants of Economic Growth, based on Robert Barro's Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures, delivered at the London School of Economics in February 1996, summarizes this important literature. The book contains three

Robert J. Barro

1999-01-01

109

Whither Digital Equality?: An Empirical Study of the Democratic Divide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the access and skills divide, ICT-advanced countries pay attention to the divide in political participation online. Analyzing the Pew Internet & American Life Project's 2008 pre-election survey, this paper empirically examines the existence of the democratic divide in American online politics. The study tests whether demographic characteristics make a divide in online political involvement in campaigns. The pattern of

Taewoo Nam

2010-01-01

110

An Empirical Study of Feature Set Selection for Text Chunking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical study for improving the performance of text chunking. We focus on two issues: the problem of selecting feature spaces, and the problem of alleviating the data sparseness. To select a proper feature space, we use a heuristic and exhaustive method of evaluating the performance of models under various feature spaces. Besides, for smoothing the data

Young-sook Hwang; Yong-jae Kwak; Hoo-jung Chung; So-young Park; Hae-chang Rim

2001-01-01

111

An Empirical Study of an Online Travel Purchase Intention Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically tests a structural model of factors affecting consumers' online purchase intentions for travel products. The findings indicate that information quality, service quality, and system quality are valid measurements to evaluate the quality of travel-oriented website designs. In terms of travelers' perceptions, convenience, value, and merchandise options are three effective measurements of travelers' attitudes toward purchasing travel products

Ivan Wen

2012-01-01

112

A Qualitative Study of Advice from Bereaved Parents and Siblings  

PubMed Central

Despite a growing bereavement literature, relatively little is known about what families find helpful after a child’s death and how best to assist them during the grieving process. This qualitative study explored advice from 40 families (65 parents, 39 siblings) of children died who cancer 6–19 months earlier. Content analysis emphasized the individual nature of grief and revealed advice that fit into three temporal categories: before the death, soon after, and long-term. Findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theory and provide insight into the development and timing of grief interventions.

Thompson, Amanda L.; Miller, Kimberly S.; Barrera, Maru; Davies, Betty; Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Hogan, Nancy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

2011-01-01

113

A qualitative study of migraine involving patient researchers  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine is poorly managed in primary care despite a high level of morbidity. The majority of sufferers use non-prescription medications and are reluctant to seek help but the reasons for this are not understood. Aim The aim of this study was to develop a research partnership between migraine sufferers and healthcare professionals to synthesise tacit and explicit knowledge in the area. Building upon this partnership, a further aim was to explore what it is to suffer with migraine from patients' perspectives in order to inform health service delivery. Design Qualitative interview study involving healthcare professionals and patient researchers. Setting A purposeful sample of eight migraine sufferers who had attended a local intermediate care headache clinic. Method A consensual qualitative approach. Results Migraine had a high and unrecognised impact on quality of life. ‘Handling the beast’ was a central metaphor that resonated with the experience of all sufferers who sought to control their problem in different ways. Three major themes were identified: making sense of their problem; actively doing something about it either through self-help or professional advice; being resigned to it. Conclusion Despite a significant impact on the quality of life of migraine sufferers and their families, their needs remain largely unmet. Useful insights can be obtained when patients and professionals work together in true partnership but the time and effort involved should not be underestimated. Further research is needed to identify why there are major deficiencies in delivering care in this common problem.

Belam, Judith; Harris, Gill; Kernick, David; Kline, Frances; Lindley, Krissy; McWatt, Jayne; Mitchell, Annie; Reinhold, Debbie

2005-01-01

114

Kurdish women's preference for mode of birth: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Choosing between a normal delivery and Caesarean section is a matter of critical importance for a pregnant woman. The third trimester is the time for her to think about methods of delivery. The study aims to gain insight into Kurdish pregnant women's birth preference and their perception of factors influencing this choice. In this qualitative study, 22 pregnant Kurdish women were interviewed during the third trimester of their pregnancies. The setting for the study included three public health-care centres of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, a centre of the Kurdistan province at the western part of Iran. Study participants were recruited from maternity units of health-care centres. A purposive sample was used initially and then theoretical sampling was used towards the end of the data analysis. Sample size was not predetermined but was determined when interviewing reached saturation, that is, when no new data emerged about categories. The sample size was restricted to 22, as no new data were generated after the 20th interview. The criteria required for inclusion in the study were being Kurdish women, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, no physical disability, no history of Caesarean section and interest in the study. A qualitative design was chosen, as it is particularly suited to studying complex phenomena or processes that are less understood. This study revealed that of the 22 participants, 18 preferred vaginal delivery and only four preferred Caesarean section. The reasons for choosing the vaginal delivery method were grouped into four categories: safety of baby, fear, previous experience and social support. This finding does not support the rate of Caesarean section among Kurdish women in Sanandaj. It might reflect the effect of other factors such as social, institutional, professional and quality of care on women's choice for delivery method. PMID:24889003

Shahoei, Roonak; Rezaei, Masomeh; Ranaei, Fariba; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh

2014-06-01

115

Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was performed. The moderator asked participants to clarify the terms professionalism and professional behaviour, and to explore the questions "How do you learn the mentioned aspects?" and "What ways of learning do you find useful or superfluous?". Qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA2007) facilitated analysis using an inductive coding approach. Thirty-five fellows across eight groups participated. The themes most frequently addressed were communication, keeping distance and boundaries, medical knowledge and expertise, respect, teamwork, leadership and organisation and management. Medical knowledge, expertise and technical skills seem to become more tacit when training progresses. Topics can be categorised into themes of workplace-based learning, by gathering practical experience, by following examples and receiving feedback on action, including learning from own and others' mistakes. Formal teaching courses (e.g. communication) and scheduled sessions addressing professionalism aspects were also valued. The emerging themes considered most relevant for intensivists were adequate communication skills and keeping boundaries with patients and relatives. Professionalism is mainly learned 'on the job' from role models in the intensive care unit. Formal teaching courses and sessions addressing professionalism aspects were nevertheless valued, and learning from own and others' mistakes was considered especially useful. Self-reflection as a starting point for learning professionalism was stressed. PMID:21375100

van Mook, W N K A; De Grave, W S; Gorter, S L; Zwaveling, J H; Schuwirth, L W; van der Vleuten, P M

2011-01-01

116

Illness perceptions in Turkish migrants with diabetes: A qualitative study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES Illness perceptions are usually conceptualized using the self-regulatory model of illness. Although a few examinations of illness perceptions among Turkish language populations exist, the validity of the self-regulatory model of illness has never been confirmed for this population group. The aim of our study was to explore the validity of the self-regulatory model of illness in chronically ill Turkish migrants residing in Germany using diabetes mellitus type 2 as an example. METHODS Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 Turkish migrants with self-reported diabetes who were recruited through key persons. The core aspects of the qualitative data were extracted through a hermeneutic approach. Subsequently, a system of categories and sub-categories was developed by means of content analysis. RESULTS Seven distinct core dimensions of illness perceptions, each with a different number of sub-domains, could be identified in the sample. They comprised the perceived timeline of diabetes, its consequences, its causes, its controllability as well as the identity/coherence and the emotional response with respect to the condition. DISCUSSION As regards the conceptualization of illness perceptions, the dimensions identified are in line with the self-regulatory model of illness. Addressing illness perceptions through tailored interventions may contribute to improving health care and health outcomes in Turkish migrants. PMID:23986085

Yilmaz-Aslan, Yüce; Brzoska, Patrick; Bluhm, Martina; Aslan, Abdulselam; Razum, Oliver

2014-06-01

117

Understanding "revolving door" patients in general practice: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Revolving door’ patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners’ (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise ‘revolving door’ patients and their impact from professionals’ perspectives. Results ‘Revolving door’ patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when ‘revolving door’ patients interacted with NHS staff. Conclusions We utilise the ‘sensitising concepts’ of legitimacy by drawing on literature about ‘good and bad’ patients and ‘dirty work designations.’ We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with ‘revolving door’ patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature.

2014-01-01

118

Maternity in spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy. PMID:24512619

Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

2014-04-01

119

Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this investigation could be immediately satisfied (the need for psychological support, the need for economic aid, the need for spiritual support), while others will have to be faced in the longer term; for example, the presence of a high percentage of needs in patient-physician relationships and/or information-communication issues, could be resolved by setting up structured introductory training courses for all clinicians in the institution. On the other hand, the needs related to the living infrastructure (bathrooms, meals, etc...) could encourage the Institution to improve its services.

Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia

2003-01-01

120

Emergency room psychiatric services: a qualitative study of nurses' experiences.  

PubMed

Emergency nurses working in general emergency divisions (EDs) are primarily trained to assess and treat acute physical problems. However, ED nurses often care for psychiatric patients and the perceptions of nurses in EDs regarding their experiences with psychiatric patients have not been well-studied. Using focus groups, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe ED nurses' experiences, and feelings caring for patients with mental illness. Krueger and Casey's qualitative analysis for focus groups was utilized to code and categorize phrases and identify themes from transcribed interviews. Four themes emerged; powerlessness best captured the overarching and substantive experience of the participants. Based on the findings, implications for emergency room care of psychiatric patients are described. PMID:23566186

Plant, Larry Dean; White, Jane H

2013-04-01

121

Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

2012-01-01

122

Transfer of Shenzhen's hi-tech industries: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the transfer of Shenzhen's hi-tech industries, with particular emphasis on its motives, characteristics and influence on Shenzhen's economy and industrial upgrading. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses an empirical approach and case study methodology mainly based on a survey of 1,573 hi-tech companies in Shenzhen, in the form of questionnaires and

Dong Wang; Huiqi Pei

2010-01-01

123

Empirical study on clique-degree distribution of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The community structure and motif-modular-network hierarchy are of great importance for understanding the relationship between structures and functions. We investigate the distribution of clique degrees, which are an extension of degree and can be used to measure the density of cliques in networks. Empirical studies indicate the extensive existence of power-law clique-degree distributions in various real networks, and the power-law exponent decreases with an increase of clique size.

Xiao, Wei-Ke; Ren, Jie; Qi, Feng; Song, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Meng-Xiao; Yang, Hong-Feng; Jin, Hui-Yu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

2007-09-01

124

Incorporating Music into the Social Studies Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Secondary Social Studies Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a six-month qualitative study, this article examines how four secondary Social Studies teachers made meaning of music, and how those perspectives informed their pedagogical choices regarding music in their classrooms. Specifically, this article analyzes three ways the teachers talked about, viewed and incorporated music in their…

Mangram, Jeffery A.; Weber, Rachel L.

2012-01-01

125

Stakeholder experiences with general practice pharmacist services: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Design Qualitative study. Setting Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Participants Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Method Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. Results 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. Conclusions This is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future research should investigate the feasibility and sustainability of general practice pharmacist roles.

Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson

2013-01-01

126

The application of qualitative research methods to the study of sexually transmitted infections  

PubMed Central

Qualitative methods have gained support in health sciences research and have a role to play in STI studies. This article reviews the main techniques used by qualitative researchers, with illustrations taken from the field of STIs.

Power, R

2002-01-01

127

A qualitative numerical study of high dimensional dynamical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Poincare, the father of modern mathematical dynamical systems, much effort has been exerted to achieve a qualitative understanding of the physical world via a qualitative understanding of the functions we use to model the physical world. In this thesis, we construct a numerical framework suitable for a qualitative, statistical study of dynamical systems using the space of artificial neural networks. We analyze the dynamics along intervals in parameter space, separating the set of neural networks into roughly four regions: the fixed point to the first bifurcation; the route to chaos; the chaotic region; and a transition region between chaos and finite-state neural networks. The study is primarily with respect to high-dimensional dynamical systems. We make the following general conclusions as the dimension of the dynamical system is increased: the probability of the first bifurcation being of type Neimark-Sacker is greater than ninety-percent; the most probable route to chaos is via a cascade of bifurcations of high-period periodic orbits, quasi-periodic orbits, and 2-tori; there exists an interval of parameter space such that hyperbolicity is violated on a countable, Lebesgue measure 0, "increasingly dense" subset; chaos is much more likely to persist with respect to parameter perturbation in the chaotic region of parameter space as the dimension is increased; moreover, as the number of positive Lyapunov exponents is increased, the likelihood that any significant portion of these positive exponents can be perturbed away decreases with increasing dimension. The maximum Kaplan-Yorke dimension and the maximum number of positive Lyapunov exponents increases linearly with dimension. The probability of a dynamical system being chaotic increases exponentially with dimension. The results with respect to the first bifurcation and the route to chaos comment on previous results of Newhouse, Ruelle, Takens, Broer, Chenciner, and Iooss. Moreover, results regarding the high-dimensional chaotic region of parameter space is interpreted and related to the closing lemma of Pugh, the windows conjecture of Barreto, the stable ergodicity theorem of Pugh and Shub, and structural stability theorem of Robbin, Robinson, and Mane.

Albers, David James

128

Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457

Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

2008-01-01

129

Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs. PMID:23971307

Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

2013-05-01

130

Coparenting in kinship Families With Incarcerated Mothers: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

The number of incarcerated mothers has risen steadily in the past 20 years, with a majority of the mothers’ children being cared for by relatives, usually the maternal grandmother (Smith, Krisman, Strozier, & Marley, 2004). This article examines the unique coparenting relationship of grandmothers and mothers through qualitative individual interviews with a sample of 24 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 6, and 24 grandmothers raising their children. The study revealed many different variants of healthy coparenting alliances, achieved against often huge odds. Much variation was also discovered in dyads where coparenting alliances were not as successful. Implications for practice include performing structural family assessments, enhancing jail education programs, and offering extended coparenting treatment after discharge.

Strozier, Anne L.; Armstrong, Mary; Skuza, Stella; Cecil, Dawn; McHale, James

2011-01-01

131

Coparenting in kinship Families With Incarcerated Mothers: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

The number of incarcerated mothers has risen steadily in the past 20 years, with a majority of the mothers' children being cared for by relatives, usually the maternal grandmother (Smith, Krisman, Strozier, & Marley, 2004). This article examines the unique coparenting relationship of grandmothers and mothers through qualitative individual interviews with a sample of 24 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 6, and 24 grandmothers raising their children. The study revealed many different variants of healthy coparenting alliances, achieved against often huge odds. Much variation was also discovered in dyads where coparenting alliances were not as successful. Implications for practice include performing structural family assessments, enhancing jail education programs, and offering extended coparenting treatment after discharge. PMID:21720495

Strozier, Anne L; Armstrong, Mary; Skuza, Stella; Cecil, Dawn; McHale, James

2011-01-01

132

Australian adult consumers' beliefs about plant foods: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This exploratory qualitative study examined consumers' perceived barriers and benefits of plant food (fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds) consumption and views on the promotion of these foods. Ten focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Groups consisted of employees of various workplaces, community group members, university students, and inner-city residents. Health-related benefits predominated, particularly relating to the properties of plant foods (e.g., vitamins). Taste, variety, versatility, and environmental benefits were also considered important. The main barriers to eating plant foods were lack of knowledge and skills and length of preparation time. The poor quality of plant foods was also an issue for consumers. Awareness of the promotion of plant foods was generally high. Participants noted that promotions require a stronger practical emphasis with a focus on quick, easy-to-prepare foods and meals. These findings provide insight into effective ways to promote a higher consumption of plant foods. PMID:16267149

Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David

2005-12-01

133

Patients' perspectives on taking warfarin: qualitative study in family practice  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the well-documented benefits of using warfarin to prevent stroke, physicians remain reluctant to initiate therapy, and especially so with the elderly owing to the higher risk of hemorrhage. Prior research suggests that patients are more accepting of the risk of bleeding than are physicians, although there have been few qualitative studies. The aim of this study was to employ qualitative methods to investigate the experience and perspective of individuals taking warfarin. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 21 older patients (12 male, 9 female) who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of six months. Participants were patients at a family practice clinic situated in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. We used a semistructured interview guide with four main thematic areas: decision-making, knowledge/education, impact, and satisfaction. Data were analysed according to the principles of content analysis. Results and Discussion Participants tended to have minimal input into the decision to initiate warfarin therapy, instead relying in great part on physicians' expertise. There appeared to be low retention of information received regarding the therapy; half the patients in our sample possessed only a superficial level of understanding of the risks and benefits. This notwithstanding, participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the care provided and a low level of impact on their day-to-day lives. Conclusions Minimal patient involvement in the initial decision and modest knowledge did not appear to diminish satisfaction with warfarin management. At the same time, care providers exert a tremendous influence on the initiation of warfarin therapy and should strive to incorporate patient preferences and expectations into the decision-making process.

Dantas, Guilherme Coelho; Thompson, Barbara V; Manson, Judith A; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross EG

2004-01-01

134

Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…

Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.

135

Participant experiences in a breastmilk biomonitoring study: A qualitative assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomonitoring studies can provide information about individual and population-wide exposure. However they must be designed in a way that protects the rights and welfare of participants. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted as a follow-up to a breastmilk biomonitoring study. The primary objectives were to assess participants' experiences in the study, including the report-back of individual body burden results, and to determine if participation in the study negatively affected breastfeeding rates or duration. Methods Participants of the Greater Boston PBDE Breastmilk Biomonitoring Study were contacted and asked about their experiences in the study: the impact of study recruitment materials on attitudes towards breastfeeding; if participants had wanted individual biomonitoring results; if the protocol by which individual results were distributed met participants' needs; and the impact of individual results on attitudes towards breastfeeding. Results No participants reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of the biomonitoring study, but some responses suggested that breastmilk biomonitoring studies have the potential to raise anxieties about breastfeeding. Almost all participants wished to obtain individual results. Although several reported some concern about individual body burden, none reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of biomonitoring results. The study literature and report-back method were found to mitigate potential negative impacts. Conclusion Biomonitoring study design, including clear communication about the benefits of breastfeeding and the manner in which individual results are distributed, can prevent negative impacts of biomonitoring on breastfeeding. Adoption of more specific standards for biomonitoring studies and continued study of risk communication issues related to biomonitoring will help protect participants from harm.

2009-01-01

136

Change readiness research. A qualitative study of variations in participation.  

PubMed

The Change readiness research method (CRR) has become a well- known method in Denmark to identify issues needed to be discussed on a hospital ward before implementation of a new IT-system and to start a dialogue. A precondition for a constructive dialogue, however, is a high degree of participation. The latest experiences of the CRR method were gained from its use in eight wards in the Danish Gepka project during 2003-4 (The Gepka project was established by The Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health, The National Board of Health, the County Council Society and H:S. Its purpose is to validate the "Basic Structure for The Electronic Health Record" (B-EHR) using prototypes. http://medinfo.dk/epj/proj/gepka/). In the Gepka project the participation varied from 33.3% to 78.9%. The objective of this study is to set out themes by which this variation can be studied. A qualitative explorative research design has been applied, where four instructions from the "Instruction for use" (Instructions for using the CRR method. Can be downloaded the Internet: (http://www.epjobservatoriet.dk/publikationer/forandringsparathed.pdf)) have been studied as themes. The methods used have been telephone interviews and direct observations. The results showed that the seven wards (one was excluded) followed the "Instructions for use" to different degrees. It was found that one instruction, in particular, seems to be especially important to follow to motivate the employees on a ward to participate in the CRR; the management of the ward must be engaged/actively involved in the project, as they are key figures when it comes to motivating the other ward employees. The aim of this study is not to prove a causal relationship between the degree to which the "Instructions for use" are followed and the degree of participation--it is to suggest a qualitative relationship between the two. Neither does this study try to generalize the results, as further research on more wards would be needed to do so. This study does, however, set out themes that can be a useful tool in future CRR projects in order to maximize the degree of participation. In a modified way, these themes can probably be used as a tool in other studies of human-machine interactions. PMID:17108598

Høstgaard, Anna Marie

2006-01-01

137

Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society. PMID:24036668

Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

2014-05-01

138

Insecurities of Women Regarding Breast Cancer Research: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Only 1.2%–11% of all potential study participants participate in cancer studies. Low participation rates can result in bias or in a failure to obtain data saturation. Subject-scientific psychology assumes that reasons for acting are based on individual premises. The objective of this study was to render reproducible individual reasons of female breast cancer patients to participate or not participate in breast cancer studies using a qualitative approach. Methods Problem-based interviews were conducted with female breast cancer patients. The selection of interview partners continued until theoretical data saturation was achieved. Results As main arguments against participation emotional overload and too many medication side-effects were stated. Improvement of health-related values, long-term protection and comprehensive follow-up exams were stated as arguments for participation. Trust in the attending physician was mentioned as influencing both participation and non-participation. Conclusions A significant influential factor determining willingness to participate in studies was one's contentment with patient-physician communication. In order to guarantee an adequate patient decision-making process, keeping existing standards for patient briefings is absolutely mandatory.

Habersack, Marion; Luschin, Gero

2013-01-01

139

Understanding why GPs see pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative interview study.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Doctors are aware of the commercial bias in pharmaceutical representative information; nevertheless, such information is known to change doctors' prescribing, and augment irrational prescribing and prescribing costs. AIM: To explore GPs, reasons for receiving visits from pharmaceutical representatives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. SETTING: One hundred and seven general practitioners (GPs) in practices from two health authorities in the North West of England. RESULTS: The main outcome measures of the study were: reasons for receiving/not receiving representative visits; advantages/disadvantages in receiving visits; and quality of representative-supplied information. Most GPs routinely see pharmaceutical representatives, because they bring new drug information speedily; they are convenient and accessible; and can be consulted with a saving of time and effort. Many GPs asserted they had the skills to critically appraise the evidence. Furthermore, the credibility and social characteristics of the representative were instrumental in shaping GPs' perceptions of representatives as legitimate information providers. GPs also received visits from representatives for reasons other than information acquisition. These reasons are congruent with personal selling techniques used in marketing communications. CONCLUSIONS: The study draws attention to the social and cultural contexts of GP-representative encounters and the way in which the acquisition of pharmacological information within the mercantile context of representative visits is legitimated. This highlights the need for doctors to critically appraise information supplied by representatives in relation to other information sources.

Prosser, Helen; Walley, Tom

2003-01-01

140

Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

Krasner, Herb

1988-01-01

141

Adolescents' experience with scoliosis surgery: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This article reports a study of adolescents' narrated experiences of undergoing scoliosis surgery. Six adolescents were interviewed. Open and semistructured questions were asked, and a qualitative content analysis of the text was performed. The results are presented in three main categories followed by subcategories. The three main categories of experience were emotional, physical, and social. The emotional aspects that emerged were fear, nightmares, nervousness, and helplessness. These had a great impact on adolescents' well-being before, during, and after the hospital visit. The physical aspects were mobilization, scars, different hip levels, pain, nausea, appetite, and urinary catheter. These aspects caused much discomfort, mostly during the hospital visit. The social aspects were friends, power, coaching and comfort, and sports. Some of the social aspects had a strong negative impact on the adolescents' well-being mostly after the hospital visit. This study suggests that both before and long after the surgery adolescents have strong emotions that they should be better prepared and helped to manage. To optimize perioperative care an interdisciplinary, a holistic approach must be taken that incorporates the complexity and whole of the adolescent's experiences. The findings of this study suggest that perioperative care of adolescents during scoliosis surgery needs to be optimized. To improve patients' psychologic preparation before surgery pediatric nurses should learn more about the individual patient and make care plans from a holistic perspective. Follow-up after discharge should address emotional, social, and physical aspects of the adolescent's health. PMID:23452527

Rullander, Anna-Clara; Isberg, Stefan; Karling, Mats; Jonsson, Håkan; Lindh, Viveca

2013-03-01

142

Positive experiences of teenage motherhood: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Teenage pregnancy is seen as a cause for concern in the United Kingdom (UK). However, there has been little research from primary care looking at teenage motherhood and its implications. Aim: To investigate the experiences of teenage mothers in relation to their role as mothers and their expectations of their futures. Design of study: Qualitative study. Setting: East Devon, England. Methods: Nine women who had conceived their first child while still a teenager agreed to participate. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: The women expressed positive attitudes to being mothers and described how it had affected their lives. For some, motherhood had been the impetus to change direction and consider a career, because they had someone else for whom they were responsible. They recognised that they were still young enough to enter further education or other aspects of employment as their children grew up. Conclusions: For the women in this study, having been a teenage mother did not mean that their life and future were all over. Motherhood and bringing up children were valued in their own right. The women were realistic about their futures, often making plans to develop their careers.

Seamark, Clare J; Lings, Pamela

2004-01-01

143

Patients' expectations of osteopathic care: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that patients' expectations of health care and health-care practitioners are complex and may have a significant impact on outcomes of care. Little is known about the expectations of osteopathic patients. OBJECTIVES: To explore osteopathic patients' expectations of private sector care. DESIGN: Focus groups and individual interviews with purposively selected patients; this was the qualitative phase of a mixed methods study, the final phase being a patient survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 34 adult patients currently attending for treatment at private osteopathic practices across the United Kingdom. INTERVENTION: Focus group discussions and individual interviews around expectations before, during and after osteopathic care. OUTCOME MEASURES: Thematic analysis of text data to identify topics raised by patients and to group these into broad themes. RESULTS: Many components of expectation were identified. A preliminary conceptual framework describing the way the therapeutic encounter is approached in osteopathy comprised five themes: individual agency, professional expertise, customer experience, therapeutic process and interpersonal relationship. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The components of expectation identified in this phase of the study provided potential question topics for the survey questionnaire in the subsequent phase of the investigation. The model developed in this study may add a new perspective to existing evidence on expectations. Further research is recommended to test the findings both within private practice and the National Health Service. PMID:23718749

Cross, Vinette; Leach, C M Janine; Fawkes, Carol A; Moore, Ann P

2013-05-30

144

A Qualitative Study of the Work Environments of Mexican Nurses  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that seek to measure nursing work environments will most likely apply in Mexico and other Latin American or middle-income countries. Instruments designed to measure the work environment of nurses in these countries may prove relevant in those contexts, but require careful adaptation and systematic translations to ensure it.

Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian

2012-01-01

145

Staff's perception of abuse in healthcare: a Swedish qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aim was to apprehend staff's perception of abuse in healthcare (AHC) after an intervention based on ‘Forum Play’, and make comparisons to preintervention interviews and interviews with male and female patients. AHC can be described as a failing encounter from the patient's perspective. Design Qualitative interview follow-up study. Setting A Swedish Women's Clinic. Participants In a preintervention study 21 staff members were interviewed. Eligible for the follow-up study were 14 informants who had participated in the intervention. Four declined participation leaving ten informants for this study. Intervention During January 2008–January 2009, all staff members (N=136) were invited to participate in Forum Play workshops. Seventy-four participants took part in at least 1 of the 17 half-day workshops. Primary outcome measures Staffs perception of AHC. Results The core category, ‘a summoning stone in the shoe’, was constructed of five categories: ‘Dehumanising the patient’, ‘Unacceptable: you are bound to act!’, ‘Ubiquitous’, ‘Unintentional’ and ‘Relative’. Forum Play had demonstrated possibilities to act even in seemingly ‘impossible’ situations, and that the taboo status of AHC was altered at the clinic. When our results were compared to those in the preintervention study, we found an increased awareness about AHC, more concrete examples of AHC, a stronger empathy for patients, and fewer explanations, justifications and trivialisations of AHC. Conclusion In this follow-up study staff's perception of AHC was closer to the patient's perspective. Compared to the preintervention interviews staff showed a greater willingness not only to acknowledge AHC, but also to take on a responsibility to act in order to stop or prevent AHC. Explanations for this stance could be that Forum Play had showed staff that there were possibilities to act, and that the taboo status of AHC had been broken at the clinic.

Swahnberg, Katarina; Wijma, Barbro

2012-01-01

146

What happens when doctors are patients? Qualitative study of GPs  

PubMed Central

Background Current evidence about the experiences of doctors who are unwell is limited to poor quality data. Aim To investigate GPs' experiences of significant illness, and how this affects their own subsequent practice. Design of study Qualitative study using interpretative phenomenological analysis to conduct and analyse semi-structured interviews with GPs who have experienced significant illness. Setting Two primary care trusts in the West of England. Method A total of 17 GPs were recruited to take part in semi-structured interviews which were conducted and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis Results Four main categories emerged from the data. The category, ‘Who cares when doctors are ill?’ embodies the tension between perceptions of medicine as a ‘caring profession’ and as a ‘system’. ‘Being a doctor–patient’ covers the role ambiguity experienced by doctors who experience significant illness. The category ‘Treating doctor–patients’ reveals the fragility of negotiating shared medical care. ‘Impact on practice’ highlights ways in which personal illness can inform GPs' understanding of being a patient and their own consultation style. Conclusion Challenging the culture of immunity to illness among GPs may require interventions at both individual and organisational levels. Training and development of doctors should include opportunities to consider personal health issues as well as how to cope with role ambiguity when being a patient and when treating doctor–patients. Guidelines about being and treating doctor–patients need to be developed, and GPs need easy access to an occupational health service.

Fox, Fiona; Harris, Michael; Taylor, Gordon; Rodham, Karen; Sutton, Jane; Robinson, Brian; Scott, Jenny

2009-01-01

147

Patients' unvoiced agendas in general practice consultations: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate patients' agendas before consultation and to assess which aspects of agendas are voiced in the consultation and the effects of unvoiced agendas on outcomes. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in south east England and the West Midlands. Participants 35 patients consulting 20 general practitioners in appointment and emergency surgeries. Results Patients' agendas are complex and multifarious. Only four of 35 patients voiced all their agendas in consultation. Agenda items most commonly voiced were symptoms and requests for diagnoses and prescriptions. The most common unvoiced agenda items were: worries about possible diagnosis and what the future holds; patients' ideas about what is wrong; side effects; not wanting a prescription; and information relating to social context. Agenda items that were not raised in the consultation often led to specific problem outcomes (for example, major misunderstandings), unwanted prescriptions, non-use of prescriptions, and non-adherence to treatment. In all of the 14 consultations with problem outcomes at least one of the problems was related to an unvoiced agenda item. Conclusion Patients have many needs and when these are not voiced they can not be addressed. Some of the poor outcomes in the case studies were related to unvoiced agenda items. This suggests that when patients and their needs are more fully articulated in the consultation better health care may be effected. Steps should be taken in both daily clinical practice and research to encourage the voicing of patients' agendas.

Barry, Christine A; Bradley, Colin P; Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barber, Nick

2000-01-01

148

Treatment decisions on antidepressants in nursing homes: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore decision-making on treatment with antidepressants among doctors and nurses in nursing homes. Design and subjects A qualitative study based on interviews with three focus groups comprising eight physicians engaged full time, eight physicians engaged part time, and eight registered nurses, respectively. The interview guide comprised questions on initiating, evaluating, and withdrawing treatment with antidepressants. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed by systematic text condensation. Results The first theme was the diagnostic process. The informants expressed difficulty in differentiating between depression and sorrow resulting from loss in old age. Further, the doctors reported that they relied on nurses’ observations and rarely carried out systematic diagnostic work and follow-up of patients with depression. The second theme was treatment. Antidepressants were usually the only type of treatment provided, and patients were kept on medication even though staff felt uncertain whether this was effective. The third theme was who really determines the treatment. Registered nurses reported that unskilled and auxiliary nursing staff requested drug treatment, and doctors felt some pressure from the nurses to prescribe antidepressants. Conclusions This study suggests that the quality of diagnosis and treatment for depression in nursing homes needs to be improved in Norway. Doctors should be more available and take responsibility and leadership in medical decisions.

Iden, Kristina Riis; Hj?rleifsson, Stefan; Ruths, Sabine

2011-01-01

149

Empowerment in the service industry: an empirical study in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Employee empowerment is an essential managerial means that can be used to obtain competitive advantages from human resources in the new millennium. A comprehensive understanding of the essence of empowerment is crucial to facilitate its effective implementation. In this article, the author proposes a 4-dimensional empowerment model in an organizational setting and a matrix that incorporates the 4 dimensions and the 7S (R. H. Waterman, T. J. Peters, & J. R. Phillips, 1980) organizational factors. In addition, this study represents an empirical examination of the effects of personal and company characteristics on empowerment. The implications of the research results are discussed. PMID:12431037

Lin, Carol Yeh-Yun

2002-09-01

150

Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807.

Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

2014-01-01

151

Misunderstandings in prescribing decisions in general practice: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify and describe misunderstandings between patients and doctors associated with prescribing decisions in general practice. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in the West Midlands and south east England. Participants 20 general practitioners and 35 consulting patients. Main outcome measures Misunderstandings between patients and doctors that have potential or actual adverse consequences for taking medicine. Results 14 categories of misunderstanding were identified relating to patient information unknown to the doctor, doctor information unknown to the patient, conflicting information, disagreement about attribution of side effects, failure of communication about doctor's decision, and relationship factors. All the misunderstandings were associated with lack of patients' participation in the consultation in terms of the voicing of expectations and preferences or the voicing of responses to doctors' decisions and actions. They were all associated with potential or actual adverse outcomes such as non-adherence to treatment. Many were based on inaccurate guesses and assumptions. In particular doctors seemed unaware of the relevance of patients' ideas about medicines for successful prescribing. Conclusions Patients' participation in the consultation and the adverse consequences of lack of participation are important. The authors are developing an educational intervention that builds on these findings.

Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barry, Christine A; Barber, Nick; Bradley, Colin P

2000-01-01

152

Intergenerational learning about keeping health: a qualitative regional Australian study.  

PubMed

Understanding the conditions under which families try to influence members' health-related practices can provide information to build concepts adding to models of health promotion. This paper reports on an exploratory qualitative study examining the influences of intergenerational relationships in shaping beliefs, knowledge and practices about health and illness in a regional Australian city. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 adults with family members of other generations living in the city, all of whom had experience of asthma. We found that overall people's experience of health and illness, particularly in childhood, was taken for granted and not reflected upon. It was in the face of serious illness or death of a family member that objective knowledge about health and illness was sought and integrated within the family leading, in most cases, to significant lifestyle changes or 'doing things differently'. We drew on Bourdieu's concept of the three forms of theoretical knowledge in analysing our findings. We found the concept of knowledge as 'primary taken-for-granted experience', and the concept of praxeological knowledge as the knowledge created by the dialectical relationships between an individual subject and objectives structures were helpful. To influence individual health practices, we need to acknowledge how the family context confirms the taken-for-granted health practices of an individual and the family circumstances that might lead families to seek objective knowledge and make lifestyle changes to promote health. PMID:23232088

Taylor, Judy; Price, Kay; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Haren, Matthew T; McDermott, Robyn

2014-06-01

153

Young Dutch people's experiences of trading sex: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution. PMID:22004093

van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud

2012-01-01

154

Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early breastfeeding experience, be able to identify and claim a reliable support system supportive of breastfeeding, and gain through their experience, a belief in their own agency and competency as mothers.

2012-01-01

155

Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder. PMID:24174009

Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

2014-06-01

156

Urut Melayu for Poststroke Patients: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, had been introduced into three pioneer hospitals in Malaysia, as part of the integrated hospital program. It was introduced primarily for the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. After almost 3 years since it was first implemented, there are currently plans to extend it to other hospitals in the country. Information from this study will contribute toward a better future implementation plan. Objectives This study was conducted to gain an insight into the experiences and views of poststroke patients and their urut Melayu practitioners. Methods A qualitative study design was adopted. A total of 17 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with poststroke patients who were undergoing urut Melayu treatment at one of the three integrated hospitals. Information was solicited from their accompanying caregivers whenever necessary. The 2 urut Melayu practitioners at the hospital were also interviewed. All the interviews were carried out in Malay by the authors, at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit of the relevant hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded into categories through a constant-comparison method of data analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative descriptions of the themes. Results It was found that urut Melayu was sought by patients who had experienced stroke brought about by hypertension and postdelivery complications. They reported the unique characteristics of urut Melayu and their positive experiences with it. Conclusions Urut Melayu has potential as a complementary therapy for poststroke patients. It is recommended that the number of practitioners at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit be increased to provide the optimum care for poststroke patients.

Fadzil, Fariza; Ahmad, Norlaili; Abd Ghani, Norsuria

2012-01-01

157

Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote timely antenatal care for all women.

2014-01-01

158

Clinicians' experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary support functions are available locally, especially for early stage clinician managers.

2012-01-01

159

An evaluation of rheumatology practitioner outreach clinics: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Services for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have evolved with the development of independently led outreach Rheumatology Practitioner (RP) clinics in Primary Care (PC). Their clinical and cost effectiveness, compared with Secondary Care (SC) services, has not been assessed. The RECIPROCATE study aims to evaluate their clinical and cost effectiveness. This part of the study aimed to explore health professionals’ opinions of rheumatology outreach service. Methods Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs, practice nurses, hospital doctors and RPs, from one hospital and seven PC practices in Norfolk, to elicit their opinions of the service. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All participants agreed the service was supportive and valuable providing high quality personalised care, disease management, social, and educational support. Advantages identified included convenience, continuity of care and proximity of services to home. RPs helped bridge the communication gap between PC and SC. Some participants suggested having a doctor alongside RPs. The service was considered to be cost effective for patients but there was uncertainty about cost effectiveness for service providers. Few disadvantages were identified the most recurring being the lack of other onsite services when needed. It was noted that more services could be provided by RPs such as prescribing and joint injections as well as playing a more active role in knowledge transfer to PC. Conclusions Professionals involved in the care of RA patients recognised the valuable role of the RP outreach clinics. This service can be further developed in rheumatology and the example can be replicated for other chronic conditions.

2012-01-01

160

Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

2012-01-01

161

A qualitative study of college students' conceptions of rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored two research questions: (1) What are college students' conceptions of river topics and (2) What are the emergent patterns between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity? A basic interpretive qualitative research design was used. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 24 college students from an introductory geology class. In-depth interviews were conducted and a demographic questionnaire administered. Interview responses were analyzed using a modified version of constant comparative analysis. Between-gender patterns and between-ethnic group patterns of the type of conceptions held were investigated by calculating relative likelihood statistics. Four findings emerged. Finding 1: students held mostly scientific and incomplete scientific conceptions of the nine river topics covered in the study. Finding 2: students' conceptions were complex. In addition to scientific and alternative conceptions, students also held incomplete scientific, incomplete scientific-alternative, and scientific-alternative conceptions. Individual students held a range of conceptions across the river topics. For each topic, there was a range of conceptions held by students. Finding 3: students had more alternative conceptions for processes, causes, and difficult-to-observe features. Finding 4: patterns were observed between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity. Men held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did women. Women held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did men. White students held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did Hispanic students. Hispanic students held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did White students.

Sexton, Julie Marie

162

Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study in July 2002 was a landmark event in biomedical science related to postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of new hormone therapy recommendations on patients' attitudes and decision-making in a primary care practice. Methods A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset. Results Respondents (n = 127) were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38%) than the overall rate (26%) for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common. Conclusion Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use.

French, Linda M; Smith, Mindy A; Holtrop, Jodi S; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

2006-01-01

163

Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

2013-01-01

164

A qualitative study of women's views on medical confidentiality  

PubMed Central

Context: The need to reinvigorate medical confidentiality protections is recognised as an important objective in building patient trust necessary for successful health outcomes. Little is known about patient understanding and expectations from medical confidentiality. Objective: To identify and describe patient views of medical confidentiality and to assess provisionally the range of these views. Design: Qualitative study using indepth, open ended face-to-face interviews. Setting: Southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, USA. Participants: A total of 85 women interviewed at two clinical sites and three community/research centres. Main outcome measures: Subjects' understanding of medical confidentiality, beliefs about the handling of confidential information and concerns influencing disclosure of information to doctors. Results: The subjects defined medical confidentiality as the expectation that something done or said would be kept "private" but differed on what information was confidential and the basis and methods for protecting information. Some considered all medical information as confidential and thought confidentiality protections functioned to limit its circulation to medical uses and reimbursement needs. Others defined only sensitive or potentially stigmatising information as confidential. Many of these also defined medical confidentiality as a strict limit prohibiting information release, although some noted that specific permission or urgent need could override this limit. Conclusions: Patients share a basic understanding of confidentiality as protection of information, but some might have expectations that are likely not met by current practice nor anticipated by doctors. Doctors should recognise that patients might have their own medical confidentiality models. They should address divergences from current practice and provide support to those who face emotional or practical obstacles to self-revelation.

Jenkins, G; Merz, J; Sankar, P

2005-01-01

165

Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

2012-01-01

166

A Qualitative Study of Faculty Members' Views of Women Chairs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine.

Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

2010-01-01

167

Lesbian women's experiences with health care: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitative study based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite.

Bjorkman, Mari; Malterud, Kirsti

2009-01-01

168

Moral Responsiveness and Discontinuity in Therapy: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenological qualitative methods were used to identify and describe moral elements in therapeutic relationships. Using the relational philosophy of E. Levinas (1961/1969, 1979/1987) as a base, data in which therapists and clients identified and described morally responsive experiences in therapy sessions were analyzed. These moments were often…

Whiting, Jason B.; Nebeker, R. Scott; Fife, Stephen T.

2005-01-01

169

Primary and Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A particular framework of teachers' conceptions about assessment in school is presented. Fifty teachers of primary and secondary school were interviewed. Results of a qualitative analysis allowed building a model of conceptions of assessment. This model comprises four dimensions about the effects of assessment on: teaching, learning,…

Remesal, Ana

2011-01-01

170

Relational Theory and Intergenerational Connectedness: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relational theory encourages women to be connected in relationships. The authors used qualitative methodology to explore the interactions of a nonfamilial intergenerational group of 7 female adolescents (13-15 years) and 5 older women (62-80 years) in a structured retreat. Findings indicated that the participants experienced increased connectivity…

Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Bartlett, Jan R.; Carlson, Laurie A.

2010-01-01

171

Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

Matthews, Sarah H.

2012-01-01

172

Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

2011-01-01

173

Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.  

PubMed

The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs. PMID:17368921

Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

2008-04-01

174

Family therapy sessions with refugee families; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the armed conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s many families escaped to other countries. The main goal of this study was to explore in more detail the complexity of various family members’ experiences and perceptions from their life before the war, during the war and the escape, and during their new life in Sweden. There is insufficient knowledge of refugee families’ perceptions, experiences and needs, and especially of the complexity of family perspectives and family systems. This study focused on three families from Bosnia and Herzegovina who came to Sweden and were granted permanent residence permits. The families had at least one child between 5 and 12 years old. Method Family therapy sessions were videotaped and verbatim transcriptions were made. Nine family therapy sessions were analysed using a qualitative method with directed content analysis. Results Three main categories and ten subcategories were found - 1. Everyday life at home, with two subcategories: The family, Work and School/preschool; 2. The influence of war on everyday life, with three subcategories: The war, The escape, Reflections; 3. The new life, with five subcategories: Employment, Health, Relatives and friends, Limited future, Transition to the new life. Conclusions Health care and social welfare professionals need to find out what kind of lives refugee families have lived before coming to a new country, in order to determine individual needs of support. In this study the families had lived ordinary lives in their country of origin, and after experiencing a war situation they escaped to a new country and started a new life. They had thoughts of a limited future but also hopes of getting jobs and taking care of themselves and their families. When analysing each person’s point of view one must seek an all-embracing picture of a family and its complexity to tie together the family narrative. To offer refugee families meetings with family-oriented professionals to provide the opportunity to create a family narrative is recommended for the health and social welfare sector. Using this knowledge by emphasizing the salutogenic perspectives facilitates support to refugee families and individuals. This kind of support can help refugee families to adapt to a new system of society and recapture a sense of coherence, including all three components that lead to coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. More studies are needed to further investigate the thoughts, experiences and needs of various refugee families and how refugee receiving societies can give the most effective support.

2013-01-01

175

Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

2011-01-01

176

A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

Snyder, Catherine

2012-01-01

177

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

2010-06-01

178

Tomography by iterative convolution - Empirical study and application to interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm for computer tomography has been developed that is applicable to reconstruction from data having incomplete projections because an opaque object blocks some of the probing radiation as it passes through the object field. The algorithm is based on iteration between the object domain and the projection (Radon transform) domain. Reconstructions are computed during each iteration by the well-known convolution method. Although it is demonstrated that this algorithm does not converge, an empirically justified criterion for terminating the iteration when the most accurate estimate has been computed is presented. The algorithm has been studied by using it to reconstruct several different object fields with several different opaque regions. It also has been used to reconstruct aerodynamic density fields from interferometric data recorded in wind tunnel tests.

Vest, C. M.; Prikryl, I.

1984-01-01

179

Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions Poor and good health influence early retirement via several different pathways. To prolong working life, a dialogue between employers and employees and tailored work-related interventions may be helpful.

2013-01-01

180

Differences between male and female sport event tourists: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study, using the Zaltaman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), investigated differences between male and female sport event tourists. Study participants cited different attributes, consequences, and values with respect to the five themes that emerged from this study: loyalty, socialization, self-actualization, volunteering, and equality through sport. The use of a grounded qualitative research approach made it possible to discover that

Po-Ju Chen

2010-01-01

181

Qualitative case studies in operations management: Trends, research outcomes, and future research implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study examines the state of qualitative case studies in operations management. Five main operations management journals are included for their impact on the field. They are in alphabetical order: Decision Sciences, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Journal of Operations Management, Management Science, and Production and Operations Management. The qualitative case studies chosen were published between 1992 and

Mark Barratt; Thomas Y. Choi; Mei Li

2011-01-01

182

Cardiovascular medicine at face value: a qualitative pilot study on clinical axiology  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they have to make them. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reconsider clinical ethics and Value-Based Medicine. This study proposes a qualitative analysis of the values and the virtues of healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital in order to establish how the former impact upon the medical and ethical decisions made by the latter. Results We point out the need for strengthening the roles of healthcare personnel as educators and guidance counselors in order to meet the ends of medicine, as well as the need for an ethical discernment that is compatible with our results, namely, that the ethical values developed by healthcare professionals stem from their life history as well as their professional education. Conclusion We establish the kind of actions, communication skills and empathy that are required to build a stronger patient-healthcare professional relationship, which at the same time improves prognosis, treatment efficiency and therapeutic adhesion.

2013-01-01

183

Information security governance in Saudi organizations: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to empirically examine the existence and implementation of information security governance (ISG) in Saudi organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, is conducted to explore and evaluate the current status and the main features of ISG in the Saudi environment. The questionnaire is developed based on ISG guidelines for boards of directors

Ahmad Abu-Musa

2010-01-01

184

Evidence-based care: enhancing the rigour of a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Qualitative research methodology is a suitable approach for clinical inquiry into nursing practice, leading to theory development and advancement in clinical practice. Rigour is necessary to enhance the consistency and quality of qualitative research. It is the framework for demonstrating credibility and integrity of the qualitative research process. Methodological decisions regarding rigour can have implications for the quality, integrity and interpretability of the findings. Rigour, therefore, is a principle that should be present during all stages of the research study, from its inception to the writing of the final report. For qualitative researchers, reaching the desired goal and meeting the requirements of rigour become particularly problematic due to the considerable debate about what it means to do valid research in the field of qualitative inquiry. This article outlines methods that can be used to maintain rigour in a qualitative study, including member-checking, peer debriefing, audit trail and reflexivity. PMID:19043334

McBrien, Barry

185

[Methodological quality of qualitative studies--potential measures].  

PubMed

Methodological quality of scientific research is argumentative persuasiveness of the conclusions of the research. Aspects of methodological quality are: methodological objectivity (including reliability, validity, subjectivity and intersubjectivity), generalizability, and, regarding action-oriented research, action-rationality. Values, which are only partly of a methodological nature, are: transferability, utilization-value, implementary value and participatory value. Concerning each of these norms and values a variety of measures to promote methodological quality in qualitative inquiry are discussed. PMID:9516822

Smaling, A

1996-11-01

186

Identifying nurses' rewards: a qualitative categorization study in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature) and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher than their younger and more junior colleagues. Conclusion When trying to establish an efficient reward system for nurses, hospital managers should not concentrate on the financial reward possibilities alone. They also ought to consider non-financial and psychological rewards (in combination with financial rewards), since nurses value these as well and they may lead to a more personalized reward system.

De Gieter, Sara; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland; Caers, Ralf; Du Bois, Cindy; Jegers, Marc

2006-01-01

187

The Student Affair Organizational Dissertation: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations over the past five years that focused on student affairs organizational issues. A bounded qualitative meta-study was used and the methods, theories, and findings of the dissertations were examined. A variety of research methods were used including quantitative, qualitative and mixed designs.…

Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda

2009-01-01

188

The nature of suffering and its relief in the terminally ill: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The essential mandate of medicine is the relief of suffering. However, the quest for an integrated model towards a conceptualization of suffering is still ongoing and empirical studies are few. Qualitative inquiry using 31 in-depth interviews and content analysis was carried out between 1999 and 2001 in 26 patients diagnosed with terminal cancer. The suffering experience was described through a multiplicity of heterogenous elements from the physical, psychological, and social spheres. Systematic synthesis of interview material yielded three apparently irreducible core dimensions. Respondents defined their suffering in terms of 1) being subjected to violence, 2) being deprived and/or overwhelmed, and 3) living in apprehension. Cassell wrote, in 1991, that to know the suffering of others demands an exhaustive understanding of what makes them the individuals they are (1). Our model can be of use in structuring and eliciting this necessary information. Understanding how a particular patient feels harmed, deprived or overburdened, and overtaken by fear, provides a lever for action tailored to the specifics of that person's experience. PMID:15132070

Daneault, Serge; Lussier, Véronique; Mongeau, Suzanne; Paillé, Pierre; Hudon, Eveline; Dion, Dominique; Yelle, Louise

2004-01-01

189

Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

2014-01-01

190

An Empirical Study of Student Willingness to Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…

Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci

2012-01-01

191

Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about social learning in animals. The last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.

BENNETT G. GALEF JR. and KEVIN N. LALAND (;)

2005-06-01

192

Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study  

SciTech Connect

The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

2010-06-01

193

Lessons learned on benchmarking from the international human reliability analysis empirical study.  

SciTech Connect

The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to 'translate' the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

Lois, Erasmia (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Forester, John Alan; Dang, Vinh N. (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland); Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Bye, Andreas (OECD Halden Reactor Project, Halden, Norway)

2010-04-01

194

Empirical study of crowd behavior during a real mass event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of crowd behavior is essential for the safe organization of mass events. However, precise quantitative empirical data are insufficient due to the lack of mass event scenarios suitable for observation. In this paper, crowd behavior during a mass event in which many people go through a door and then pass a bridge is studied by a new method based on a flow field visualization algorithm widely used in fluid experiments. Two important movement phases, laminar flow on a bridge and stop-and-go waves in a bottleneck area, are investigated. The results show that the velocity profile on the bridge is similar to that of fully developed laminar flow in a pipe. Quantitative analysis of the stop-and-go wave in the bottleneck area shows that the dominant fluctuation frequencies are mainly below 0.1 Hz and the peak frequency is around 0.05 Hz the wave propagation speed is about - 0.69 m s-1. The absolute decrease in speed as the wave propagates is also indicated. By a combination of shock wave theory and a fundamental diagram, an analytical model of a shock wave in a crowd is established to theoretically investigate the stop-and-go wave, and the model can be used to explain the measurement results. This study provides a new method and fundamental data for understanding crowd behavior. The results are also expected to be useful for the design of crowd management strategies during mass events.

Zhang, X. L.; Weng, W. G.; Yuan, H. Y.

2012-08-01

195

Attitudes of Roma toward Smoking: Qualitative Study in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Aim To understand the reasons for widespread smoking behavior among Roma in Slovenia for the purpose of developing successful smoking cessation interventions. Method A qualitative focus group approach using a combination of pre-structured and open-ended questions was applied to collect the data from the representative members of the Roma community in southern Slovenia. The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and the collected data analyzed according to qualitative content analysis theory. Results The content analysis revealed that smoking was a strong part of the cultural, ethnic, and individual identity of the Roma. Even children smoked. Doctor’s advice to quit smoking was usually not followed and the attempts to quit were usually unsuccessful. Difficult financial situation was never mentioned as a possible motive to quit. Roma held a tenacious belief that the harmful effects of smoking were in the hands of destiny and did not associate the smoking-related illness with the habit. Conclusions Traditional strategies for smoking cessation are largely ineffective among the Roma because of their different attitudes toward smoking. Therefore, innovative and culturally acceptable methods need to be developed.

Petek, Davorina; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Lolic, Damir

2006-01-01

196

The Process of Coping following Child Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying the immediate and long-term coping strategies adopted by survivors of child sexual abuse, focusing on how strategies evolve over time. Qualitative findings showed that coping with child sexual abuse is not static, but changes over time. The narratives of these…

Oaksford, Karen; Frude, Neil

2003-01-01

197

Client Experiences of Counselling and Treatment Interventions: A Qualitative Study of Family Views of Family Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that personal experience and social life are inherently meaningful and that qualitative research designs can contribute to theory-building in counseling and psychotherapy. To illustrate the use of qualitative research designs and methods of analysis, a study of family members' views of family therapy is described. (RJM)

Howe, David

1996-01-01

198

Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

Murakami, Yusuke

2013-01-01

199

Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

2012-01-01

200

Survey on Seaplane Hydro-Ski Design Technology. Phase I: Qualitative Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first part of a two-phase study for the survey and analysis of hydro-ski seaplane technology. As such, it contains qualitative correlations of the results of As such, it contains qualitative correlations of the results of all data to def...

P. A. Pepper L. Kaplan

1966-01-01

201

Supervision of community peer counsellors for infant feeding in South Africa: an exploratory qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent years have seen a re-emergence of community health worker (CHW) interventions, especially in relation to HIV care, and in increasing coverage of child health interventions. Such programmes can be particularly appealing in the face of human resource shortages and fragmented health systems. However, do we know enough about how these interventions function in order to support the investment? While research based on strong quantitative study designs such as randomised controlled trials increasingly document their impact, there has been less empirical analysis of the internal mechanisms through which CHW interventions succeed or fail. Qualitative process evaluations can help fill this gap. Methods This qualitative paper reports on the experience of three CHW supervisors who were responsible for supporting infant feeding peer counsellors. The intervention took place in three diverse settings in South Africa. Each setting employed one CHW supervisor, each of whom was individually interviewed for this study. The study forms part of the process evaluation of a large-scale randomized controlled trial of infant feeding peer counselling support. Results Our findings highlight the complexities of supervising and supporting CHWs. In order to facilitate effective infant feeding peer counselling, supervisors in this study had to move beyond mere technical management of the intervention to broader people management. While their capacity to achieve this was based on their own prior experience, it was enhanced through being supported themselves. In turn, resource limitations and concerns over safety and being in a rural setting were raised as some of the challenges to supervision. Adding to the complexity was the issue of HIV. Supervisors not only had to support CHWs in their attempts to offer peer counselling to mothers who were potentially HIV positive, but they also had to deal with supporting HIV-positive peer counsellors. Conclusions This study highlights the need to pay attention to the experiences of supervisors so as to better understand the components of supervision in the field. Such understanding can enhance future policy making, planning and implementation of peer community health worker programmes.

2010-01-01

202

An empirical study of FORTRAN programs for parallelizing compilers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some results are reported from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important in parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are examined. The major findings are included. Many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods of determining their values at compile time are evaluated. Array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently; these subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms. Nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. This allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays. Dependencies with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.

Shen, Zhiyu; Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung

1990-01-01

203

An Empirical Study of Structural Constraint Solving Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural constraint solving allows finding object graphs that satisfy given constraints, thereby enabling software reliability tasks, such as systematic testing and error recovery. Since enumerating all possible object graphs is prohibitively expensive, researchers have proposed a number of techniques for reducing the number of potential object graphs to consider as candidate solutions. These techniques analyze the structural constraints to prune from search object graphs that cannot satisfy the constraints. Although, analytical and empirical evaluations of individual techniques have been done, comparative studies of different kinds of techniques are rare in the literature. We performed an experiment to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of some key structural constraint solving techniques. The experiment considered four techniques using: a model checker, a SAT solver, a symbolic execution engine, and a specialized solver. It focussed on their relative abilities in expressing the constraints and formatting the output object graphs, and most importantly on their performance. Our results highlight the tradeoffs of different techniques and help choose a technique for practical use.

Siddiqui, Junaid Haroon; Khurshid, Sarfraz

204

Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students’ study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies\\u000a used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study\\u000a at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period from\\u000a November 2007 to December 2008. We

Hanan M. F. Al Kadri; Mohamed S. Al-Moamary; Margaret Elzubair; Mohi Eldien Magzoub; Abdulrahman AlMutairi; Christopher Roberts; Cees van der Vleuten

2011-01-01

205

Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach

Karen Daniels; Simon Lewin

2008-01-01

206

Patient perspectives on information and choice in cancer screening: a qualitative study in the UK.  

PubMed

The principle of informed choice has been recently incorporated into cancer screening policy. However, there is limited empirical or theoretical work on informed choice in this particular context. The main aim of the study reported here was to explore the information needs of people invited for screening, and to gain insights into the relationship between the information they wanted and the choices they made. A qualitative study (nine focus groups and 15 individual interviews) was undertaken with people who had contrasting experiences (and outcomes) of either breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening at two locations in Scotland, UK. Findings suggest that lay people define and conceptualise informed choice differently from policy makers. The study also found that information about the disease was as important to people as information on the risks and limitations of screening. However, information may have little part to play in the choices people make. Rather, it may have more impact on outcomes such as satisfaction and anxiety. An explicit policy aim in promoting informed choice is to enhance patient autonomy and to prevent people from being deceived or coerced. However, this research shows that the provision of evidence-based information alone does not necessarily mean that an informed choice is made. People may not read, want, or understand the information, and, additionally, they may not be able to carry out their intended choice. There may be personal barriers, such as physical or mental health problems and language, or organisational barriers, such as the availability of the service/intervention and access. Therefore, the term 'informed choice' might not be useful in this context. PMID:17507131

Jepson, Ruth Gillian; Hewison, Jenny; Thompson, Andrew; Weller, David

2007-09-01

207

Administrative Values of the American Women State Public Administrators: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the administrative qualities held by women who are state public service personnel. The value sectors identified in the study are political acuity, professional efficiency and managerial competency. Primary empirical data was collected through survey. The empirical data analysis of the study conclude that though many women have…

Rath, Sharada

208

Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine.

Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

1998-01-01

209

Qualitative study of influences on food store choice  

PubMed Central

Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice.

Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

2012-01-01

210

Qualitative study of employment of physician assistants by physicians  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore the experiences and perceptions of Ontario physician assistant (PA) employers about the barriers to and benefits of hiring PAs. Design A qualitative design using semistructured interviews. Setting Rural and urban eastern and southwestern Ontario. Participants Seven family physicians and 7 other specialists. Methods The 14 physicians participated in semistructured interviews, which were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Main findings Physician-specific benefits to hiring PAs included increased flexibility, the opportunity to expand practice, the ability to focus more time on complex patients, overall reduction in work hours and stress, and an opportunity for professional fellowship. Physicians who hired PAs without government financial support said PAs were affordable as long as they were able to retain them. Barriers to hiring PAs included uncertainty about funding, the initial need for intensive supervision and training, and a lack of clarity around delegation of acts. Conclusion Physicians are motivated to hire PAs to help deal with long wait times and long hours, but few are expecting to increase their income by taking on PAs. Governments, medical colleges, educators, and regulators must address the perceived barriers to PA hiring in order to expand and optimize this profession.

Taylor, Maureen T.; Wayne Taylor, D.; Burrows, Kristen; Cunnington, John; Lombardi, Andrea; Liou, Michelle

2013-01-01

211

Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required.

Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

1997-01-01

212

Qualitative study of influences on food store choice.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (three African-American and two Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques-content analysis and constant comparison-were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, non-food merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

Krukowski, Rebecca A; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

2012-10-01

213

After objectivity: an empirical study of moral judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an empirical argument that the rejection of moral objectivity leaves important features of moral judgment intact. In each of five reported experiments, a number of participants endorsed a nonobjectivist claim about a canonical moral violation. In four of these experiments, participants were also given a standard measure of moral judgment, the moral\\/conven- tional task. In all four

Shaun Nichols

2004-01-01

214

Philosophy of science: an empirical study of teachers' views  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical survey of science teachers’ views about scientific knowledge from a philosophical?epistemological perspective was carried out by means of a questionnaire specially developed for the purpose. The themes investigated were views concerning the nature of scientific method, the criteria of demarcation of science from non?science, the nature of change in scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Individuals

Vasilios Koulaidis; Jon Ogborn

1989-01-01

215

An empirical study of smoothing techniques for language modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the most widely-used algorithms for smoothing models for language n -gram modeling. We then present an extensive empirical comparison of several of these smoothing techniques, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980); Katz (1987); Bell, Cleary and Witten (1990); Ney, Essen and Kneser (1994), and Kneser and Ney (1995). We investigate how factors such as training data

Stanley F. Chen; Joshua Goodman

1999-01-01

216

Predicting Attitudes toward Knowledge Sharing by Email: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social influence factors in sharing knowledge by email are important issues in developing and understanding successful knowledge management (KM) systems and human-computer interaction. This paper investigates important factors in shaping attitudes toward knowledge sharing by email, based on social influence theory and self determination theory. An empirical test of the proposed model using an online survey was conducted with a

Yujong Hwang

2011-01-01

217

Improving Dynamic Decision Making Through Debriefing: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence suggests that people perform poorly in dynamic tasks. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping people to develop more accurate mental models of the task stems through training with debriefing supported computer simulation-based interactive learning environments (CSBILEs). I report a laboratory experiment in which subjects managed a dynamic task by

HASSAN QUDRAT-ULLAH

218

An empirical study about the status of business process management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recently, business process management (BPM) is among the most important managerial topics because it allows companies an agile adaptation to changing business requirements. Consultants and researchers are regularly proposing new methods and concepts based on BPM for further increasing the efficiency of corporate processes. However, from an empirical point of view it is crucial to determine the current

Thomas Neubauer

2009-01-01

219

Startup valuation by venture capitalists: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to value a new venture is critical in entrepreneurial financing. This article develops an integrated theoretical framework to examine whether venture capitalists' valuation of a new venture can be explained by factors identified in the strategy theories as important to firm performance. Empirical results from the analyses of 184 rounds of early-stage venture capital investments in 102 new ventures

Tarek Miloud; Arild Aspelund; Mathieu Cabrol

2012-01-01

220

Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation.

2013-01-01

221

An empirical study evaluating the usefulness of dynamic graphical display in decision support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid advance of computer technology, especially computer graphics, has fostered the use of dynamic graph ical display in decision support systems (DSS). However, empirical evidence on the usefulness of dynamic graphics in decision support is limited. This paper presents an empirical study investigating this important issue. Results of the study offer moderate support to using dynamic graphics in DSS.

Patrick Y. K. Chau

1995-01-01

222

Integration of devices into long-term condition management: a synthesis of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Understanding peoples' responses to and ability to incorporate technology for managing long-term conditions into their everyday lives is relevant for informing the development and implementation of new technologies as part of future long-term condition management in domestic environments. Future research and theory building can be facilitated by the synthesis of existing qualitative studies.Methods: A systematic search for qualitative studies

Claire Gately; Anne Rogers; Susan Kirk; Rosalind McNally

2008-01-01

223

International medical graduates in the USA: a qualitative study on perceptions of physician migration  

PubMed Central

Objectives Physician migration from low-income to high-income nations is a global concern. Despite the centrality of understanding the perspectives of international medical graduates (IMGs) who have experienced migration to understanding the causes and consequences of this phenomenon, empirical literature is limited. The authors sought to characterise the experiences of IMGs from limited resource nations currently practicing primary care in the USA, with a focus on their perspectives on physician migration. Design The authors conducted a qualitative study utilising in-depth, in-person interviews and a standardised interview guide. The sample comprised a diverse, purposeful sample of IMGs (n=25) from limited resource nations (defined as having ?2 physicians per 1000 population). Results Analyses revealed four recurrent and unifying themes reflecting the perspectives of IMGs in the USA on physician migration: (1) decisions to migrate were pragmatic decisions made in the context of individual circumstance; (2) the act of migration ultimately affected participants' ability to return home in multiple, unpredictable ways; (3) the ongoing process of acclimation was coupled with inherent conflicts surrounding the decision to remain in the USA; and (4) the effects of policies in both the home country and in the USA occurred at multiple levels. Conclusion The perspectives of IMGs who have migrated to the USA are an important addition to the ongoing discussion surrounding the global health workforce. Our findings highlight the effects of workforce policies which are often developed and discussed in abstraction, but have real, measurable impacts on the lives of individuals. Future efforts to address physician migration will need to acknowledge the immediate needs of the health workforce as well as the long-term needs of individuals within health systems.

Nunez-Smith, M; Berg, D; Gozu, A; Rulisa, S; Curry, L A

2011-01-01

224

[Empirical study of inpatients viewed from the individual psychotherapy].  

PubMed

There are very few empirical studies which address the effect of psychotherapy in inpatient settings. The author extracted 45 inpatient cases which could withstand detailed statistical analysis among patients who had been admitted to the psychiatric ward of the Tokai University Hospital between 1975 and 1981. Therapists of the cases were interviewed individually and the cases were evaluated retrospectively based on the criteria proposed by the study of Menninger Foundation. Significant statistical improvements were found on every items of evaluation. Furthermore, patients who had shown good interpersonal relationships and motivation at the time of admission showed positive conditions at the time of discharge. Factor analysis of therapeutic variables yielded five factors which delineated the following characteristics of the therapists: 1) having a psychoanalytic orientation, 2) viewing the improvement of symptoms as the goal of therapy, 3) utilizing one's experiences and skills, 4) utilizing a supportive approach, and 5) giving careful attention to the structuring of the psychotherapy sessions. As for the situational variables of the patients, factor analysis yielded only one factor, and multiple regression analysis revealed no significant therapeutic effects. Two types of multiple regression analysis were conducted to determine therapeutic effects and therapeutic variables, but no significant factors were found. Thus, the cases were classified into five groups according to interpersonal relationships factors and were analyzed according to "quantification method II" (Hayashi, C.). The following results were obtained: 1) the structuring of inpatient therapy should correspond with the patient's level of responsibility, 2) as for the structure of psychotherapy, the quality of improvement depended on the closeness to the psychoanalytic structure, i.e., the closer to the psychoanalytic structure, the higher the improvement, 3) the quality of improvement was poor when transference issues (in the sessions) were not brought up during the psychotherapy sessions, 4) the quality of improvement rose according to the degree that dreams and fantasies were dealt with, 5) hospital admission periods of 101 to 120 days showed the highest of improvement, 6) the frequency of sessions did not determine the quality of improvement, 7) the personality of therapist had strong effects when it worked in a negative way, and 8) the quality of improvement corresponded to the degree of the permissive atmosphere in the therapeutic relationship. PMID:1946797

Hashimoto, M

1991-01-01

225

An empirical study of TCP\\/IP performance over ATM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines some basic performance characteristics of the Transmission Control Protocol\\/Internet Protocol (TCP\\/IP) over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). It also discusses a few solutions to assure acceptable TCP\\/IP performance over ATM which are implemented by the industry during the last couple of years. The conclusions in this paper are based on empirical TCP\\/IP performance test results collected on a

Isil Sebüktekin; Tony J. Bogovic; Padma Krishnaswamy

1998-01-01

226

Which Is the Best Multiclass SVM Method? An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiclass SVMs are usually implemented by combining sev- eral two-class SVMs. The one-versus-all method using winner-takes-all strategy and the one-versus-one method implemented by max-wins vot- ing are popularly used for this purpose. In this paper we give empirical evidence to show that these methods are inferior to another one-versus- one method: one that uses Platt's posterior probabilities together with the

Kai-Bo Duan; S. Sathiya Keerthi

2005-01-01

227

Employees' Adherence to Information Security Policies: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key threat to information security is constituted by careless employees who do not comply with information security policies.\\u000a To ensure that employees comply with organizations’ information security procedures, a number of information security policy\\u000a compliance measures have been proposed in the past. Prior research has criticized these measures as lacking theoretically\\u000a and empirically grounded principles to ensure that employees

Mikko T. Siponen; Seppo Pahnila; Adam Mahmood

2007-01-01

228

Empirical Study on Credibility of Electronic Word of Mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the popularity of internet, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has become a major information source for consumers' purchase behavior. The influence of eWOM depends on its credibility. Therefore, it is very important to research on the credibility of eWOM. By empirical research, it's found that the site trustworthiness, the sender's expertise and the receiver's disposition to trust have positive

Xiufang Cheng; Meihua Zhou

2010-01-01

229

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

230

Pupils' Experience of Being Motivated to Learn in School: An Empirical Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the essence of pupils' experiences of motivation in school. The empirical material has been gathered in Sweden through self-reports and focus groups and analysed by means of an empirical phenomenological method. The research results show that two constituents--interest and progress--are…

Szklarski, Andrzej

2011-01-01

231

What happened to remote usability testing?: an empirical study of three methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of conducting usability tests remotely emerged ten years ago. Since then, it has been studied empirically, and some software organizations employ remote methods. Yet there are still few comparisons involving more than one remote method. This paper presents results from a systematic empirical comparison of three methods for remote usability testing and a conventional laboratory-based think-aloud method. The

Morten Sieker Andreasen; Henrik Villemann Nielsen; Simon Ormholt Schrøder; Jan Stage

2007-01-01

232

How to separate conceptual issues from empirical ones in the study of consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern consciousness studies are in a healthy state, with many progressive empirical programmes in cognitive science, neuroscience, and related sciences, using relatively conventional third-person research methods. However not all the problems of consciousness can be resolved in this way. These problems may be grouped into problems that require empirical advance, those that require theoretical advance, and those that require a

Max Velmans

2007-01-01

233

The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…

Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2010-01-01

234

Flexibility in Research Designs in Empirical Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem outline: It is common to classify empirical research designs as either qualitative or quantitative. Typically, particular research methods (e.g., case studies, action research, experiments and surveys) are associated with one or the other of these types of design. Studies in empirical software engineering (ESE) are often exploratory and often involve software developers and development organizations. As a consequence, it

Tore Dybå

235

Democratizing Qualitative Research: Photovoice and the Study of Human Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses the possibilities of photovoice as a method to advance the study of human communication. Via a democratizing of the research process, photovoice can significantly affect the study of communication. Originally proposed by Wang and Burris (1994), photovoice traditionally has been used to study the social worlds of marginalized persons (e.g., rural, learning disabled, people without homes). Photovoice

David R. Novak

2010-01-01

236

Empirical Study of Turbulent Diffusion in Flare Plasma Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocity fields in the hot (>10 MK) plasma sheets above post-eruption flare arcades have the hallmarks of turbulent flow. Tracking and measuring these velocity fields enables empirical estimation of transport parameters, e.g. turbulent diffusivity, that are important for determining the spectrum of length scales present in the plasma sheet. These transport parameters thus help to set the rate of magnetic reconnection, and may help us to understand how reconnection can be triggered, accelerated, and prolonged in eruptive flares. In this work we show measurements, for the first time, of transport parameters in flare plasma sheets, enabled by high-resolution observations from SDO and local correlation tracking.

McKenzie, David Eugene; Freed, Michael

2014-06-01

237

Feature Evaluation for Building Facade Images - AN Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

Yang, M. Y.; Förstner, W.; Chai, D.

2012-08-01

238

Critical Elements of Student Assistance Programs: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student assistance programs (SAPs) are one approach for using teams to respond to student needs, but there is little research on SAP implementation and whether SAPs function as intended. The authors present findings from a study of two SAPs that use a model developed by Connecticut's Governor's Prevention Partnership. The study focused on…

Torres-Rodriguez, Leslie; Beyard, Karen; Goldstein, Marc B.

2010-01-01

239

Employees' Perceptions of Cycle Commuting: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…

van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

2011-01-01

240

EXPRESSIONS OF CHILDREN’S GRIEF: A QUALITATIVE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore the use of guided imagery as a tool to facilitate the expression of children’s grief. The children in the study were participating in open-ended, age specific, grief groups. Nine children participated in pre and post drawings. The Rosebush drawing itself and the feelings engendered by drawing appeared to be the most

Hilda R. Glazer

1998-01-01

241

LEISURE AND SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING RELATIONSHIPS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purposive intensity sampling (Patton, 1990) was used in this study to select those people who had a more active and expressed interest in spirituality, and therefore, who were information-rich sources for the purposes of this study. An attempt was made to obtain a sample which included participants who had an active and expressed interest in traditional forms of spirituality and

Paul Heintzman

242

A Qualitative Study of Student Responses to Body Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study conducted studying focus groups to determine whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Outcomes discussed surround the following themes that emerged from the data. (1) body painting as a fun learning activity, (2) body painting promoting retention of knowledge, (3) factors contributing to the memorability of body painting, (4) removal from comfort zone, and (5) the impact of body painting on students' future clinical practice.

Gabrielle Finn (Durham University); John McLachlan (Durham University Medicine)

2009-11-16

243

Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

Johnson, Megan Patricia

2011-01-01

244

Critical Thinking in Respiratory Care Practice: A Qualitative Research Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Recent publications indicate that critical thinking should be an integral part of respiratory care education. However, we know very little about critical thinking in the context of respiratory care. The critical thinking abilities and decision-making characteristics of practicing respiratory therapists have not been studied. PURPOSE: Identify and describe the critical thinking skills and traits of respiratory therapists, using a

Shelley C Mishoe

245

Consumers' views of pharmacogenetics—A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAdverse drug reactions are recognized as a significant public health issue. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) provides a potential means of preventing some adverse drug reactions by predicting the optimal medication dose for an individual; however, PGx is rarely used in clinical practice. Thus far, there have been few studies investigating consumers' perceptions of the barriers to the implementation of PGx in clinical

Catherine A. Haddy; Helena M. Ward; Manya T. Angley; Ross A. McKinnon

2010-01-01

246

Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and

Lorna A Ward; Owen L Cain; Ryan A Mullally; Kathryn S Holliday; Aaron GH Wernham; Paul D Baillie; Sheila M Greenfield

2009-01-01

247

The lived experience of alopecia areata: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored experiences of individuals living with alopecia areata (AA) and alopecia universalis (AU) and investigated their accounts of adjusting to, and coping with, such conditions. Whilst previous research has primarily focused on the adverse psychosocial impact of alopecia, this investigation used Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis to provide a more holistic perspective. Biographical interviews were undertaken with 12 participants (7

Nina Welsh; Alison Guy

2009-01-01

248

Entrepreneurial Community College Presidents: An Exploratory Qualitative and Quantitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the entrepreneurial, nontraditional fundraising behaviors and activities of 23 community college presidents using interview and survey data. The institutional characteristics that facilitate entrepreneurial action and how presidents are raising these new revenues were explored. "Best practices" and implications for future…

Esters, Lorenzo L.; McPhail, Christine Johnson; Singh, Robert P.; Sygielski, John J.

2008-01-01

249

Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

2014-01-01

250

A Qualitative Study of Resilient Latina\\/o College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted with 11 Latina\\/o college students in order to provide insight into how these students develop a sense of resilience. Five factors from J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed's (1994) concept of resiliency appeared to play an important role in these students' high academic achievement: high educational goals, support and encouragement from parents, intrinsic motivation, internal

Javier Cavazos Jr; Michael B. Johnson; Cheryl Fielding; Alyssa G. Cavazos; Veronica Castro; Luti Vela

2010-01-01

251

Social Support in Family Reunification: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When children are removed from their parents due to child maltreatment, the goal remains to reunite families whenever possible. Although extensive research exists regarding barriers to reunification, little is known about the families who are successfully reunited. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths families found helpful in the…

Lietz, Cynthia A.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.; Cacciatore, Joanne

2011-01-01

252

Information Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although increasingly recognized as a future skills issue, the use of information in the workplace is a little studied area within library and information research. A substantial "pedagogic" literature of learning in the workplace exists, however, and this was critically reviewed to generate a repertoire of issues which could in turn be used to…

Crawford, John; Irving, Christine

2009-01-01

253

Teaching in Virtual Worlds: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the speed at which Second Life has been adopted by universities and schools to teach courses, little educational research and theory addresses this multiplayer online "world." This case study explored undergraduate university instructors' teaching methods and tools within a virtual environment. It also considered whether instructors are…

Kramer, Steven H.

2010-01-01

254

Emergent themes in the writing of perfectionists: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an initial step toward uncovering the therapeutic potential of expressive writing for treating perfectionism, the current study utilized an emotional writing prompt to penetrate the inner world of 14 maladaptive perfectionists. The major question driving the inquiry was whether informative themes would emerge when perfectionists were prompted to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings. Procedures derived from Consensual

Robert S. Merrell; David J. Hannah; Amy C. Van Arsdale; Matthew P. Buman; Kenneth G. Rice

2011-01-01

255

A Qualitative Study of Resilient Latina/o College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted with 11 Latina/o college students in order to provide insight into how these students develop a sense of resilience. Five factors from J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed's (1994) concept of resiliency appeared to play an important role in these students' high academic achievement: high educational goals, support and…

Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Johnson, Michael B.; Fielding, Cheryl; Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Castro, Veronica; Vela, Luti

2010-01-01

256

Therapists’ experiences of relational depth: A qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore therapists’ experiences of meeting their clients at a level of ‘relational depth’. This was defined as a feeling of profound contact and engagement with another, in which the therapists experienced high levels of empathy, acceptance and transparency towards their clients, and experienced their clients as acknowledging their empathy and acceptance in a

Mick Cooper

2005-01-01

257

The lived experience of alopecia areata: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study explored experiences of individuals living with alopecia areata (AA) and alopecia universalis (AU) and investigated their accounts of adjusting to, and coping with, such conditions. Whilst previous research has primarily focused on the adverse psychosocial impact of alopecia, this investigation used Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis to provide a more holistic perspective. Biographical interviews were undertaken with 12 participants (7 women; 5 men) diagnosed with alopecia for periods ranging between 2 and 49 years. Results revealed that strategies used by participants evolved over time and that there were clear gender differences. In the early stages, participants did not want to contemplate that their hair loss would be lasting and managed the condition via concealment. Later coping strategies reflected an embodied acceptance with participants managing the effects of AA/AU and becoming more optimistic about living with the condition. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as implications for patient care. PMID:19409867

Welsh, Nina; Guy, Alison

2009-06-01

258

Psychological Problems Derived from Mastectomy: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Advances in treatment of breast cancer have not avoided using mastectomy in all cases, and when this happens, we are dealing with a woman who is suffering from psychological problems. In order to study this issue we have carried out a research with the collaboration of The Andalusian Association of Women with Mastectomies (AMAMA) in Seville, which provided us with a sample of 46 mastectomized women. The objective of this study is to analyze in depth the psychological reaction of women to mastectomy through its different stages from diagnosis to surgical treatment. We chose a cualitative method so as to explore the subjective components of psicologycal respons. As a result, we found in studied women: (a) The “fracture” of the “corporal imaginary” related to the disappearance of a valuable organ, linked to the feeling of loss of personal attractiveness, low self-esteem and avoidance of social relationships. (b) The problem with “femininity” has been linked to the issue of “desirability”, something innate in the “feminine position”. (c) Many of them keep in mind the idea of mutilation, as a “hole” which is impossible to integrate. (d) Finally, we demonstrate how certain features of personality made them especially vulnerable to the explained phenomena.

Arroyo, Jose Manuel Garcia; Lopez, Maria Luisa Dominguez

2011-01-01

259

The sociology of Qi Gong: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This paper presents an in-depth, idiographic study of how individuals experience others during Qi Gong practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Qi Gong groups to collect research data. These data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content and thematic analysis across and within groups. The analysis indicates extraordinary experiences of Qi Gong practitioners at various levels of their social functioning. Qi Gong influences their social health in complex and \\dimensional ways. The author compares and contrasts his results with those of recent research. Implications for practice are briefly outlined and possible strategies for future research are presented. PMID:20430291

Posadzki, Paul

2010-04-01

260

Response to written feedback of clinical data within a longitudinal study: a qualitative study exploring the ethical implications  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing ethical imperative to feedback research results to participants but there remains a striking lack of empirical research on how people respond to individualised feedback. We sought to explore longitudinal study participants' response to receiving individual written feedback of weight-related and blood results, and to consider the balance of harms against benefits. Methods A qualitative study with face-to-face and telephone interviews conducted with 50 men and women who had participated in the fifth and most recent wave of the cohort study 'West of Scotland Twenty-07' and received a feedback letter containing body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) results. Results Expectations of, and response to, the feedback of their individual results varied. Whilst half of the participants were on the whole 'pleased' with their results or held neutral views, half reported negative responses such as 'shock' or 'concern', particularly in relation to the weight-related results. Participants who were overweight and obese used the most negative language about their results, with some being quite distressed and reporting feelings of powerlessness, low self-image and anxiety over future health. Nevertheless, some people reported having implemented lifestyle changes in direct response to the feedback, resulting in significant weight-loss and/or dietary improvements. Others reported being motivated to change their behaviour. Age and gender differences were apparent in these narratives of behaviour change. Conclusions The potential harm caused to some participants may be balanced against the benefit to others. More evaluation of the impact of the format, content and means of individualised feedback of research findings in non-trial studies is required given the growing ethical imperative to offer participants a choice of receiving their results, and the likelihood that a high percentage will choose to receive them.

2011-01-01

261

Hearing protection use in manufacturing workers: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Occupational noise is a significant contributor to disabling hearing loss worldwide. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has resulted in huge human and economic consequences costing New Zealand approximately $53M annually and rising. A high proportion of hearing loss claims are made by workers in the manufacturing sector. Hearing protection devices (HPDs) are used together with engineering and administrative controls to minimize noise exposure and to prevent hearing loss. Unfortunately, inconsistent and improper use of HPDs has hindered efforts to prevent NIHL. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence the use of HPDs amongst a group of manufacturing workers in New Zealand. A purposive sample of twenty-five workers was recruited to take part in semi-structured interviews. The open-ended questions were aimed at exploring the participants' knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and behavior towards noise and HPDs. The data were analyzed using conventional content analysis and key themes emerged in relation to HPD use. Themes that emerged from the interviews either supported good hearing protection behavior or acted as barriers against it. Five major themes, (perception of noise, hearing preservation, reluctance to use HPDs, workplace interaction, and value of hearing) and sub-themes described various factors that influence hearing protection use. Both personal and environmental factors influence the use of HPDs. Based on this study, personal and environmental factors need to be targeted for further research using ecological models to develop interventions that promote HPD use amongst workers. PMID:22918151

Reddy, Ravi K; Welch, David; Thorne, Peter; Ameratunga, Shanthi

2012-01-01

262

Coping with multimorbidity in old age - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Comparatively few studies address the problems related to multimorbidity. This is surprising, since multimorbidity is a particular challenge for both general practitioners and patients. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing the way patients aged 65–85 cope with multimorbidity. Methods 19 narrative in-depth interviews with multimorbid patients were conducted. The data was analysed using grounded theory. Of the 19 interviewed patients 13 were female and 6 male. Mean age was 75?years. Participating patients showed a relatively homogeneous socio-economic status. Patients were recruited from the German city of Hamburg and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Results Despite suffering from multimorbidity, interviewees held positive attitudes towards life: At the social level, patients tried to preserve their autonomy to the most possible extent. At the emotional level, interviewees oscillated between anxiety and strength - having, however, a positive approach to life. At the practical level, patients aimed at keeping their diseases under control. The patients tended to be critical in regards to medication. Conclusions These findings might have implications for the treatment of multimorbid patients in primary care and further research: The generally presumed passivity of older individuals towards medical treatment, which can be found in literature, is not evident among our sample of older patients. In future, treatment of these patients might take their potential for pro-active cooperation more strongly into account than it is currently the case.

2012-01-01

263

Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs. PMID:16252678

Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige

2005-01-01

264

Supporting adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Without sufficient support, type 1 diabetes mellitus often disturbs patients' normal lives. This study describes and explores the support that Iranian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus experienced. Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten adolescents, seven family members, one dietitian, one nurse, and one school nurse. Participants were chosen using purposive sampling from two teaching hospitals and one high school in two urban areas of Iran. Using standard procedures for content analysis, three main themes were identified: maintaining a normal life; receiving tangible, informational, and emotional support from the family and society; and advancement of life toward normalization. The cornerstone of maintaining a normal life for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus is to adopt an active role in taking care of themselves within their systems of support. PMID:23692212

Rostami, Shahnaz; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Vanaki, Zohreh

2014-03-01

265

What Instills Trust? A Qualitative Study of Phishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the highlights of a user study which gauges reactions to a variety of common "trust indicators" - such as logos, third party endorsements, and padlock icons - over a selection of authentic and phishing stimuli. In the course of the think-aloud protocol, participants revealed different sensitivities to email messages and web pages. Our principal result is the analysis of what makes phishing emails and web pages appear authentic. This is not only of interest from a pure scientific point of view, but can also guide the design of legitimate material to avoid unnecessary risks. A second result of ours are observations of what makes legitimate content appear dubious to consumers. This is a result with obvious applications to online advertising.

Jakobsson, Markus; Tsow, Alex; Shah, Ankur; Blevis, Eli; Lim, Youn-Kyung

266

Practicing nurses perspectives of clinical scholarship: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a scarcity of research published on clinical scholarship. Much of the conceptualisation has been conducted in the academy. Nurse academics espouse that the practice of nursing must be built within a framework of clinical scholarship. A key concept of clinical scholarship emerging from discussions in the literature is that it is an essential component of enabling evidence–based nursing and the development of best practice standards to provide for the needs of patients/clients. However, there is no comprehensive definition of clinical scholarship from the practicing nurses. The aim of this study was to contribute to this definitional discussion on the nature of clinical scholarship in nursing. Methods Naturalistic inquiry informed the method. Using an interpretative approach 18 practicing nurses from Australia, Canada and England were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories and the components of clinical scholarship described by the participants compared to the scholarship framework of Boyer [JHEOE 7:5-18, 2010]. Results Clinical scholarship is difficult to conceptualise. Two of the essential elements of clinical scholarship are vision and passion. The other components of clinical scholarship were building and disseminating nursing knowledge, sharing knowledge, linking academic research to practice and doing practice-based research. Conclusion Academic scholarship dominated the discourse in nursing. However, in order for nursing to develop and to impact on health care, clinical scholarship needs to be explored and theorised. Nurse educators, hospital-based researchers and health organisations need to work together with academics to achieve this goal. Frameworks of scholarship conceptualised by nurse academics are reflected in the findings of this study with their emphasis on reading and doing research and translating it into nursing practice. This needs to be done in a nonthreatening environment.

2013-01-01

267

Managing Depression Among Ethnic Communities: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Clinical care for depression in primary care negotiates a path between contrasting views of depression as a universal natural phenomenon and as a socially constructed category. This study explores the complexities of this work through a study of how family physicians experience working with different ethnic minority communities in recognizing, understanding, and caring for patients with depression. METHODS We undertook an analysis of in-depth interviews with 8 family physicians who had extensive experience in depression care in 3 refugee patient groups in metropolitan Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. RESULTS Although different cultural beliefs about depression were acknowledged, the physicians saw these beliefs as deeply rooted in the recent historical and social context of patients from these communities. Traumatic refugee experiences, dislocation, and isolation affected the whole of communities, as well as individuals. Physicians nevertheless often offered medication simply because of the impossibility of addressing structural issues. Interpreters were critical to the work of depression care, but their involvement highlighted that much of this clinical work lies beyond words. CONCLUSIONS The family physicians perceived working across cultural differences, working with biomedical and social models of depression, and working at both community and individual levels, not as a barrier to providing high-quality depression care, but rather as a central element of that care. Negotiating the phenomenon rather than diagnosing depression may be an important way that family physicians continue to work with multiple, contested views of emotional distress. Future observational research could more clearly characterize and measure the process of negotiation and explore its effect on outcomes.

Furler, John; Kokanovic, Renata; Dowrick, Christopher; Newton, Danielle; Gunn, Jane; May, Carl

2010-01-01

268

Perspectives on Schizophrenia Over the Lifespan: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal data suggest heterogeneity in the long-term course of schizophrenia. It is unclear how older adults with schizophrenia perceive changes in their experience of schizophrenia over the lifespan. We interviewed 32 adults aged 50 years and older diagnosed with schizophrenia (mean duration 35 years) about their perceived changes in the symptoms of schizophrenia and functioning over the lifespan. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison. The study was conducted by a research partnership involving a multidisciplinary team of academic researchers, community members, and mental health clients engaged in all aspects of study design, interviewing, and analysis and interpretation of data. Results revealed that, in regard to early course of illness, participants experienced confusion about diagnosis, active psychotic symptoms, and withdrawal/losses in social networks. Thereafter, nearly all participants believed that their symptoms had improved, which they attributed to increased skills in self-management of positive symptoms. In contrast to consistency among participants in describing illness course, there was marked heterogeneity in perceptions about functioning. Some participants were in despair about the discrepancy between their current situations and life goals, others were resigned to remain in supported environments, and others working toward functional attainments and optimistic about the future. In conclusion, middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia believed that their symptoms had improved over their lifespan, yet there was substantial variability among participants in how they perceived their functioning. Functional rehabilitation may need to be tailored to differences in perceptions of capacity for functional improvement.

Shepherd, Sally; Depp, Colin A.; Harris, Gloria; Halpain, Maureen; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2012-01-01

269

Exploring Patient Values in Medical Decision Making: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient decisions are influenced by their personal values. However, there is a lack of clarity and attention on the concept of patient values in the clinical context despite clear emphasis on patient values in evidence-based medicine and shared decision making. The aim of the study was to explore the concept of patient values in the context of making decisions about insulin initiation among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings We conducted individual in-depth interviews with people with type 2 diabetes who were making decisions about insulin treatment. Participants were selected purposively to achieve maximum variation. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews which were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. We interviewed 21 participants between January 2011 and March 2012. The age range of participants was 28–67 years old. Our sample comprised 9 women and 12 men. Three main themes, ‘treatment-specific values’, ‘life goals and philosophies’, and ‘personal and social background’, emerged from the analysis. The patients reported a variety of insulin-specific values, which were negative and/or positive beliefs about insulin. They framed insulin according to their priorities and philosophies in life. Patients’ decisions were influenced by sociocultural (e.g. religious background) and personal backgrounds (e.g. family situations). Conclusions This study highlighted the need for expanding the current concept of patient values in medical decision making. Clinicians should address more than just values related to treatment options. Patient values should include patients’ priorities, life philosophy and their background. Current decision support tools, such as patient decision aids, should consider these new dimensions when clarifying patient values.

Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

2013-01-01

270

A checklist for integrating student empirical studies with research and teaching goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of empirical studies with students in software engineering helps researchers gain insight into new or existing techniques\\u000a and methods. However, due mainly to concerns of external validity, questions have been raised about the value of these types\\u000a of studies. The authors of this paper draw on their experiences of conducting a large number of empirical studies in university

Jeffrey C. Carver; Maria Letizia Jaccheri; Sandro Morasca; Forrest Shull

2010-01-01

271

Adult Financial Literacy Education and Latina Learners: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study used a case study design to explore the teaching and learning that takes place in an adult Latino financial literacy education that was aimed specifically at Latina single mothers. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by a blend of critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives, as well…

Sprow, Karin Millard

2010-01-01

272

General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to recommend smoking cessation services: qualitative and quantitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: General practitioners' (GPs) negative beliefs about smoking cessation services may act as barriers to them recommending such services to smokers motivated to stop smoking. METHODS: In Study 1, 25 GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes in GPs' beliefs about smoking cessation services. In Study 2,

Florian Vogt; Sue Hall; Theresa M Marteau

2007-01-01

273

A Qualitative Study on the Use of Summarizing Strategies in Elementary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an "Evaluation…

Susar Kirmizi, Fatma; Akkaya, Nevin

2011-01-01

274

Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students. PMID:22090156

Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J

275

Patients' perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In Canada waiting lists for bariatric surgery are common, with wait times on average > 5 years. The meaning of waiting for bariatric surgery from the patients’ perspective must be understood if health care providers are to act as facilitators in promoting satisfaction with care and quality care outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery, the meaning and experience of waiting, the psychosocial and behavioral impact of waiting for treatment and identify health care provider and health system supportive measures that could potentially improve the waiting experience. Methods Twenty-one women and six men engaged in in-depth interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis between June 2011 and April 2012. The data were subjected to re-analysis to identify perceived health care provider and health system barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. Results Thematic analysis identified inequity as a barrier to accessing bariatric surgery. Three areas of perceived inequity were identified from participants’ accounts: socioeconomic inequity, regional inequity, and inequity related to waitlist prioritization. Although excited about their acceptance as candidates for surgery, the waiting period was described as stressful, anxiety provoking, and frustrating. Anger was expressed towards the health care system for the long waiting times. Participants identified the importance of health care provider and health system supports during the waiting period. Recommendations on how to improve the waiting experience included periodic updates from the surgeon’s office about their position on the wait list; a counselor who specializes in helping people going through this surgery, dietitian support and further information on what to expect after surgery, among others. Conclusion Patients’ perceptions of accessing and waiting for bariatric surgery are shaped by perceived and experienced socioeconomic, regional, and waitlist prioritization inequities. A system addressing these inequities must be developed. Waiting for surgery is inherent in publicly funded health care systems; however, ensuring equitable access to treatment should be a health system priority. Supports and resources are required to ensure the waiting experience is as positive as possible.

2013-01-01

276

Qualitative and quantitative study on drainage networks at laboratory scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although simulated drainage networks at the laboratory scale would represent highly-simplified models of natural drainages, they would provide a significant contribute to the comprehension of the complex dynamics governing the fluvial systems. Laboratory experiments also give the advantage to detect transient growth phases shedding some light on the knowledge of temporal and spatial landform evolution. Perhaps, pioneering laboratory experiments on drainage network evolution were carried out in 1977 at REF (Rainfall Erosion Facility) of Colorado State University by Schumm and co-workers. This study deals with an analysis of physical experiments simulating the evolution and the development of drainage networks. To this purpose, some experiments were carried out at University of Basilicata by using a 1.5 m by 1.5 m box-basin-simulator with an outlet incised in the middle of the downslope-end side. The experimental landscape was made of a weakly cohesive soil mainly constituted by clay and silt. A system of microsprinklers generated an almost uniform artificial precipitation. Simulations were performed at a constant rainfall rate with intensity of 100 mm/h. In total four experiments were carried out. Three of those were conducted by ensuring consistent initial conditions except for the initial landscape planar slope of 9%, 5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The remaining experiment was performed with a landscape slope of 9% again, but with the (surface) base-level coinciding with the base of the outlet (i.e. streams could not erode below the base-level). Despite the central outlet constraint, the generated stream system for the 9% plane exhibited trellis-like drainage patterns with many short tributaries joining the main stream at nearly right angles. For the 5% experiment still sub-parallel drainage patterns were formed but mainly in the centre of the watershed. Channels were clearly shallower than those of the 9% experiment. For the gentler slope of 0.6% dendritic drainage patterns developed with tributaries entering the main channel at acute angles (less than 90Ë? ). Digital elevation models (DEM) of the evolving landscape were achieved through detailed soil surveys with a laser pointer or a laser scanner. Then, the drainage networks were extracted from the DEMs by using the D8 algorithm. Based on the data collected, the scaling properties of the simulated networks are analysed and compared with those of natural basins. Findings are provided mainly in terms of Hortonian laws, fractal dimensions and informational entropy. Scaling properties and space filling tendencies are discussed and peculiar differences between quasi-equilibrium and transient stages are also highlighted. Experimental evidences are also provided on the interaction between the base-level and growing mechanisms.

Oliveto, G.; Palma, D.; di Domenico, A.

2009-04-01

277

Empirical Studies of Procedural Flaws, Impasses, and Repairs in Procedural Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents the results of several extensive empirical studies. 925 students who were in the process of learning subtraction were tested using highly diagnostic tests developed by DEBUGGY. Some students were retested two days later to measure t...

K. VanLehn

1982-01-01

278

Relationship between Financial Measures and Contractor Pricing Strategy: Empirical Studies in the Defense Aerospace Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes two separate but related empirical studies of the relationship between financial measures for defense aerospace contractors and pricing strategies adopted by contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified: skimming and penetration...

O. D. Moses

1987-01-01

279

Health Status, Medical Care Utilization, and Outcome: An Annotated Bibliography of Empirical Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography enumerates empirical studies of the interrelationships between health status and medical care utilization for the purpose of assisting health service researchers in identifying and reviewing pertinent literature. The entries are arranged ...

J. R. Lave L. B. Lave L. C. Freeburg S. Leinhardt

1978-01-01

280

Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports  

PubMed Central

Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

2014-01-01

281

Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

Ruan, Lian J.

2011-01-01

282

Does breast cancer genetic counselling meet women's expectations? A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high demand exists in the United Kingdom for breast cancer genetic counselling. Due to the disease's high incidence, many women who received such counselling are eventually assessed as not being at high genetic risk. This study elicits the experiences and perceptions of such women, as little research has been conducted. A qualitative interview-based study was conducted in the north-east

Aileen M. Grant; Edwin R. van Teijlingen; Karen Forrest-Keenan; Nicola Torrance; Brenda J. Wilson; Neva E. Haites

2006-01-01

283

First Entry: Report on a Qualitative Exploratory Study of Novice User Experience with Online Finding Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of those now accessing archives through online finding aids are encountering primary materials (albeit virtually) for the first time. These users are often unfamiliar with finding aid structure, terminology, and principles. This article reports on a qualitative, exploratory study of a subset of these novice users. The study concentrated on…

Scheir, Wendy

2005-01-01

284

Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

2010-01-01

285

A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

Mathis, Regina

2011-01-01

286

"Creating Pictures in My Mind": A Qualitative Study of Children's Responses to Storytelling in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research exists that examines how children experience listening to stories, and few studies have been done that ask students to discuss their own experience with storytelling. A qualitative grounded study designed to focus upon children's responses and experiences to storytelling in the classroom was conducted in a public middle school in a…

Mello, Robin

1997-01-01

287

Reflective visual journaling during art therapy and counselling internships: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative multiple case study explored four art therapy students’ and four counselling students’ responses to visual journaling during their internships. They maintained their journals throughout one 15?week academic semester, and were interviewed four times over the course of the study. Data consisted of transcribed interviews and photographs of participants’ journal imagery. Data analysis yielded three overarching patterns: The Internship

Sarah P. Deaver; Garrett McAuliffe

2009-01-01

288

Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access Among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

2005-01-01

289

Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

2005-01-01

290

Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

2011-01-01

291

Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls

Paula Denise Johnson

2004-01-01

292

Indigenous Crisis Counseling in Taiwan: An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study of an Expert Therapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…

Kuo, Ben C. H.; Hsu, Wei-Su; Lai, Nien-Hwa

2011-01-01

293

Those Who Were Born Poor: A Qualitative Study of Philippine Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated the psychological experience of poverty among 2 groups of Filipinos who were interviewed about the effects of being raised poor, 12 who became rich, and 13 who remained poor. Using constructivist and critical theories as research paradigms and grounded theory as methodology, the results of the study illustrated…

Tuason, Ma. Teresa G.

2008-01-01

294

Barriers and facilitators to patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Zambia: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective medical treatment of HIV\\/AIDS. We conducted a qualitative interview study in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia in 2006. The aim of the study was to explore patients' and health care professionals' perceived barriers and facilitators to patients' adherence to ART. Based on data from individual interviews and focus group interviews

Nawa Sanjobo; Jan C Frich; Atle Fretheim

2008-01-01

295

Caregiver Burden and Coping in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caregivers of people with severe mental disorders suffer from having a considerable burden as a result of their caregiving role. They develop different kinds of coping strategies to deal with this burden. There has been a lack of qualitative studies on caregiver burden and coping, especially from non-Western populations. The present paper reports findings of a longitudinal study of burden

K. K. Ganguly; R. K. Chadda; T. B. Singh

2010-01-01

296

The Impact of Prompted Narrative Writing during Internship on Reflective Practice: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…

Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.

2008-01-01

297

Cultural encounters in reflective dialogue about nursing care: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title. Cultural encounters in reflective dialogue about nursing care: a qualitative study. Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore how students developed reflective nursing practice through cultural encounters between students from Tanzania and Norway. Background. Nursing students need to develop cultural care competence to care for patients in a globalized world. One way to achieve this

Malvin Torsvik; Marianne Hedlund

2008-01-01

298

On Qualitative Differences in Learning: III--Study Skill and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention in this research was to collect instances of study skill in different situations, and to relate study activity to levels of understanding and academic performance. Also reanalyzes data described by Marton and Saljo (1976a) which led to the concepts of deep-level processing and surface processing as explanations of qualitative

Svensson, L.

1977-01-01

299

The relations between qualitative theory and scientometric methods in science and technology studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue ofScientometrics originated from a Workshop of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST). In this introduction the relations between qualitative theory and the use of scientometric methods is placed in the historical perspective of the emergence of science and technology studies over the last decades. The differences among various theories in terms of dimensions,

Loet Leydesdorff

1989-01-01

300

A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

2007-01-01

301

Understanding Self-Harm and Suicide Websites: A Qualitative Interview Study of Young Adult Website Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm and suicide websites have been heavily criticized both in the literature and the wider media, despite the fact that very little is known about them. To date, no study has interviewed users of these sites about them. This qualitative study aims to explore the accounts of young adults who engage in self-harming and suicidal behaviors and use websites dedicated

Darren Baker; Sarah Fortune

2008-01-01

302

Physical activity in pregnancy: a qualitative study of the beliefs of overweight and obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women; and (ii) inform interventions which

Zoe Weir; Judith Bush; Stephen C Robson; Catherine McParlin; Judith Rankin; Ruth Bell

2010-01-01

303

Poverty of Opportunity Forcing Women Into Prostitution—A Qualitative Study in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim for this study was to explore the factors influencing women to initiate and continue as sex workers and to explore their perceptions about human immuno deficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and health seeking behavior. We conducted a qualitative study based on interviews with 20 purposively selected women selling sex. Content analysis of data

Mohsin Saeed Khan; Eva Johansson; Shakila Zaman; Magnus Unemo; Naveed I. Rahat; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

2010-01-01

304

Socio-Cultural Contexts for Talent Development: A Qualitative Study on High Ability, Hispanic, Bilingual Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined personal (socio-emotional, linguistic, and cognitive aspects) and cultural characteristics of 12 high ability, Hispanic, bilingual students in an urban elementary school, their educational experiences, and their home, school, and community environments. Case study research methods, including ethnographic interviews,…

Kloosterman, Valentina I.

305

Mexican "Curanderismo" as Ethnopsychotherapy: A Qualitative Study on Treatment Practices, Effectiveness, and Mechanisms of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of "curanderos," the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The patients had…

Zacharias, Steffi

2006-01-01

306

A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

2012-01-01

307

Sustaining Programs of School, Family, and Community Partnerships: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study of Two Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws from 4 years of qualitative case study data to describe how programmatic and district factors interacted to affect reform sustainability in two school districts--one urban and the other suburban. These districts have been implementing a reform developed by the National Network of Partnership Schools (NNPS) for over a decade. NNPS…

Sanders, Mavis G.

2012-01-01

308

Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented.

Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

2012-01-01

309

Case studies of patient interactions, care provision and the impact of emotions: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Caring is a complex phenomenon. Nurses aim to relieve patient suffering, acknowledge subjective experiences, display empathy but also manage emotions related to care provision. This study explored nurses' perceptions, experiences and emotions related to caring for cancer patients. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore the emotions management of 32 nurses working in a cancer hospital in Pakistan. Data saturation occurred after 20 interviews. Three themes emerged from the data related to caring, acknowledgement of patients' feelings, professional behaviour, patient involvement and emotional control. Some nurses repressed their emotions and feelings over patients who had difficulties sustaining hope. In such cases nurses require supportive networks to assist their emotions management and intra-personal skills. Educational support is needed to help nurses express their views in relation to emotional contagion, significance of repressed emotions and to identify supportive ways to assist nurses to communicate their experiences. PMID:23893852

Banning, Maggi; Gumley, Virginia

2013-12-01

310

A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

Tyler, Kimberly A.

2006-01-01

311

On Being Jewish: A Qualitative Study of Identity among British Jews in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a qualitative study of Jewish identity in emerging adults between ages 18 and 27, drawn from across the mainstream British Jewish community. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviews covered three main areas, focusing on the participants' developmental history…

Sinclair, Jennifer; Milner, David

2005-01-01

312

Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Nursing Homes: Results from a Qualitative Event Reconstruction Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite its prevalence and negative consequences, research on elder abuse has rarely considered resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes. This study employed a qualitative event reconstruction methodology to identify the major forms of RRA that occur in nursing homes. Design and methods: Events of RRA were identified within…

Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Lachs, Mark S.

2012-01-01

313

Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

2013-01-01

314

Hot or not: a qualitative study on ecological impact of social media & fashion consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, social media and social networking systems have become increasingly popular and have become immersed into people's lives in many ways. In this paper, we investigate how social media influence people in making decisions about fashion consumption of digital artifacts, especially from the perspective of sustainability. As a way to investigate, we conducted a qualitative study

Yue Pan; John Thomas

2012-01-01

315

Stories of Six Successful African American Males High School Students: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…

Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra

2014-01-01

316

Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

2012-01-01

317

Promotion Criteria, Faculty Experiences and Perceptions: A Qualitative Study at a Key University in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this micro-level, detailed qualitative study of a university faculty in a large city in China are threefold: to identify the sources of institutional promotion criteria, to illustrate the experiences of frontline faculty members with these criteria and their perceptions of them, and to discuss the possible bearings of the findings…

Jingning, Zhang

2013-01-01

318

Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

2009-01-01

319

Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study of computerised evidence based guidelines in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand the factors influencing the adoption of a computerised clinical decision support system for two chronic diseases in general practice. Design Practice based, longitudinal, qualitative interview study. Setting Five general practices in north east England. Participants 13 respondents (two practice managers, three nurses, and eight general practitioners) gave a total of 19 semistructured interviews. 40 people in practices

Nikki Rousseau; Elaine McColl; John Newton; Jeremy Grimshaw; Martin Eccles

2003-01-01

320

Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples in Open Adoption Arrangements: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…

Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

2011-01-01

321

A Qualitative Case Study Exploring the Impact of Experienced Teachers' Stories on Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the impact of experienced teachers' stories on pre-service teachers. Specifically, it examines what stories pre-service teachers hear and remember, if/how those stories impact thoughts or actions, and what factors influence impact. Analyzing pre-service teachers' reactions to stories and utilizing their direct…

Smith, Kristi Johnson

2010-01-01

322

Participant perspectives on an individualised self-awareness intervention following stroke: A qualitative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research investigating the efficacy of neurorehabilitation has focused upon pre- versus post-intervention functioning, which is important for evidence-based practice but overlooks the therapeutic process. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to investigate a participant's perspective of experiences in therapy throughout an awareness rehabilitation intervention. The participant (CP), a young male with awareness deficits following a right thalamic stroke, had repeatedly

Tamara L. Ownsworth; Merrill Turpin; Brooke Andrew; Jennifer Fleming

2008-01-01

323

Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

2011-01-01

324

Creating and Sustaining Community College-University Transfer Partnerships: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study of the factors influencing the creation and maintenance of a community college-university transfer partnership. Using an organizational perspective known as network embeddings theory, the researcher interviewed faculty, staff, and administrators at a university and three community colleges…

Kisker, Carrie B.

2005-01-01

325

The Role of Spirituality in Christian School Leadership: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and Newton (2001) and Creswell's (1998) method of…

Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve

2005-01-01

326

Human Trafficking and Education: A Qualitative Case Study of Two NGO Programs in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative, ethnographic case study, I examine two Thai NGO shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18. The two NGOs had a residential component, meaning that children live at the shelter, and an educational component, meaning that children are taught academic and vocational…

Spires, Robert Weber

2012-01-01

327

A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate themes", each…

Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

2008-01-01

328

Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

James, LaNora Marcell

2011-01-01

329

Time Management, Passion, and Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Highly Research Productive Counseling Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

2013-01-01

330

A qualitative study exploring how mothers manage their teenage children's diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that an unhealthy diet is a risk factor for the development of a range of chronic conditions, including obesity, cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Dietary habits formed in childhood persist into adulthood. Previous research on dietary habits has focused on families with young children. This qualitative study extends the literature by exploring how mothers manage their teenage

Katarzyna Chapman; Jane Ogden

2009-01-01

331

A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Students' Learning Outcomes during a Cooperative Education Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…

Krejci, Katherine T.

2010-01-01

332

Searching for competitive advantage through sustainability : A qualitative study in the New Zealand wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Sustainability is becoming increasingly important in supply chains, particularly in those that function in highly competitive industries. The purpose of this paper is to understand more deeply the role sustainability plays within supply chains based on a qualitative study conducted in the New Zealand wine industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research followed a grounded theory methodology which used in-depth

Daniel J. Flint; Susan L. Golicic

2009-01-01

333

Experience of mindfulness in people with bipolar disorder: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore experiences of practising mindfulness and how this related to living with, and managing, bipolar disorder. Qualitative methodology was used to explore the experiences of 12 people with bipolar disorder who had been practising mindfulness for at least 18 weeks. Semi-structured interviews exploring how mindfulness practice related to living with bipolar disorder were

Paul Chadwick; Hardeep Kaur; Maged Swelam; Susan Ross; Lyn Ellett

2011-01-01

334

Dreams Deferred but not Deterred: A Qualitative Study on Undergraduate Nursing Student Attrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to examine the reasons that a sample of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students withdrew from their nursing programs. The sample consisted of 11 nursing students who left generic baccalaureate nursing programs located in an urban area of a southeastern state. A semi-structured interview…

Wells, Marcia I.

2007-01-01

335

Managing multiple morbidity in mid-life: a qualitative study of attitudes to drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine attitudes towards drug use among middle aged respondents with high levels of chronic morbidity. Design Qualitative study with detailed interviews. Setting West of Scotland. Participants 23 men and women aged about 50 years with four or more chronic illnesses. Main outcome measure Participants' feelings about long term use of drugs to manage chronic multiple morbidity. Results Drugs

Anne Townsend; Kate Hunt; Sally Wyke

2003-01-01

336

Illness representations in patients with multimorbid long-term conditions: Qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on illness representations explores how patients view single conditions, but many patients report more than one long-term condition (known as multimorbidity). It is not known how multimorbidity impacts on patient illness representations. This exploratory qualitative study examined patients’ representations of multimorbid long-term conditions and sought to assess how models of illness representation might need modification in the presence

Peter Bower; Elaine Harkness; Wendy Macdonald; Peter Coventry; Christine Bundy; Rona Moss-Morris

2012-01-01

337

Barriers to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) completion after rape: a South African qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual violence and HIV are two serious public health problems in South Africa. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV after rape was introduced into the South African public health services in 2002 but many questions on the completion of PEP medication remain. A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews was conducted with 29 women attending sexual assault services in an

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes

2010-01-01

338

Reasons for illicit drug use in people with schizophrenia: Qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Drug misuse is an important clinical problem associated with a poorer outcome in patients who have a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Qualitative studies have rarely been used to elicit reasons for drug use in psychosis, but not in schizophrenia. METHODS: Seventeen people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and who had used street drugs were interviewed and asked to describe, in

Carolyn J Asher; Linda Gask

2010-01-01

339

Barriers to acceptance and adherence of antiretroviral therapy in urban Zambian women: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa contains over 60% of the world's HIV infections and Zambia is among the most severely affected countries in the region. As antiretroviral programs have been rapidly expanding, the long-term success of these programs depends on a good understanding of the behavioral determinants of acceptance and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The study used qualitative methods to gain local

Laura K. Murray; Katherine Semrau; Ellen McCurley; Donald M. Thea; Nancy Scott; Mwiya Mwiya; Chipepo Kankasa; Judith Bass; Paul Bolton

2009-01-01

340

Starting on haemodialysis: A qualitative study to explore the experience and needs of incident patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialysis can be very stressful with the initial months onto treatment being highly critical in terms of both adaptation and mortality. This qualitative study aimed to explore the lived experiences of incident haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Topics related to the end-stage renal disease diagnosis and haemodialysis treatment were raised with 13 incident haemodialysis patients in the form of semi-structured interviews,

Alden Yuanhong Lai; Angela Ping Ping Loh; Nandakumar Mooppil; Deby Sarojiuy Pala Krishnan; Konstadina Griva

2012-01-01

341

ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF HEPATITIS C: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF NON-PROBLEMATIC DRINKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Little is known about how non-problematic drinkers respond to advice to reduce alcohol consumption as part of dis- ease management. In this article, we examine patient reports of drinking behaviour after being diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C, a condition for which alcohol consumption is contraindicated. Methods: In this qualitative study, we analyzed transcripts of semi- structured interviews with hepatitis

ELEANOR PALO STOLLER; ANDREW J. HUND; NOAH J. WEBSTER; CAROL E. BLIXEN; ADAM T. PERZYNSKI; RICHARD A. MCCORMICK; STEPHANIE W. KANUCH; NEAL V. DAWSON

2006-01-01

342

Barriers to optimal antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia at hospitals: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physician adherence to key recommendations of guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not optimal. A better understanding of factors influencing optimal performance is needed to plan effective change. METHODS: The authors used semistructured interviews with care providers in three Dutch medium-sized hospitals to qualitatively study and understand barriers to appropriate antibiotic use in patients with CAP. They discussed

J. A. Schouten; M. E. J. L. Hulscher; S. S. Natsch; B.-J. Kullberg; R. P. T. M. Grol

2007-01-01

343

The quest for well-being: a qualitative study of the experience of taking antipsychotic medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antipsychotic medication is integral to the treatment of severe and enduring mental health problems (e.g. schizophrenia). Such medication is associated with significant adverse side effects that can affect treatment adherence. To date there have been few attempts to analyse qualitatively service users' experience of taking antipsychotic medication. This study, conducted in Exeter, South West England, investigates the subjective experience of

Rachael Carrick; Annie Mitchell; Richard A. Powell; Keith Lloyd

2004-01-01

344

Integrating Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Into Children’s Daily Lives: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. To acquire a deeper under- standing of factors that influence adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a pediatric pop- ulation. Methods. We performed a qualitative study of adher- ence in children who receive HAART in a Belgian pedi- atric acquired immune deficiency syndrome referral cen- ter. Eleven primary caregivers were interviewed to assess their child’s adherence

Tyl Jonckheer; Patrick Kolsteren

345

The Usefulness of Reflexive Photography for Qualitative Research: A Case Study in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the usefulness of reflexive photography for qualitative research in the human and social sciences. The investigation was done in the context of how male academics construct their world in a university during transformation. A group of white, male academics in the human sciences were provided with a camera and were requested to…

Schulze, S.

2007-01-01

346

A Qualitative Case Study of Cultural Competency among Advanced Placement Teachers in Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of cultural competency, its application, and impact on K-12 learning have not received much attention in the literature. Teachers need to understand the connection between culture and pedagogy when teaching minority and underrepresented students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine whether the skill sets in…

Hayes, Monica G.

2010-01-01

347

Kaiser Permanente's experience of implementing an electronic medical record: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine users' attitudes to implementation of an electronic medical record system in Kaiser Permanente Hawaii. Design Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews. Setting Four primary healthcare teams in four clinics, and four specialty departments in one hospital, on Oahu, Hawaii. Shortly before the interviews, Kaiser Permanente stopped implementation of the initial system in favour of a competing one.

J Tim Scott; Thomas G Rundall; Thomas M Vogt; John Hsu

2005-01-01

348

Becoming Grown-Ups: A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Peer Mentors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer mentoring is the most common type of peer support framework used in English secondary schools, involving a one-to-one supportive relationship between pupils. Interpersonal benefits have been found for pupils who provide support to others, but there has been little exploration of the experience of being a peer mentor. This qualitative study

James, Alana I.; Smith, Peter K.; Radford, Lorraine

2014-01-01

349

Ten Steps for Conceptualizing and Conducting Qualitative Research Studies in a Pragmatically Curious Manner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of methodological pluralism and mixed-methods, qualitative researchers can take a pathway of pragmatic curiosity by exploring their research interests and the possible design and methodology choices to create studies that not only allow them to pursue their investigative curiosities, but also result in coherent and effective systems of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

350

Viewing University Leadership Transition through a Socialization Lens: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the organizational socialization process of a university football team that had a new coach. This qualitative examination, rooted in the socialization work of Van Maanen and Schein (1979), lends insight into the personal and organizational characteristics that universities must consider when hiring new…

Miller, Pete

2006-01-01

351

Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion.

W. T. Tong; W. Y. Low; Y. L. Wong; S. P. Choong; R. Jegasothy

2012-01-01

352

The Self-Worth, Physical and Social Activities of Graduate Students: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore graduate students' perspectives of how graduate school affected their participation in physical and social activities and their self worth. Seven focus groups (n = 47) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Finances and quality of interactions were among the main social…

Longfield, Amanda; Romas, Joanne; Irwin, Jennifer D.

2006-01-01

353

New Counselors' Leadership Efforts in School Counseling: Themes from a Year-Long Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership requires long-term commitment and a long-range vision of the future. As school counselors are called on to provide leadership, it becomes important to understand the temporal context of school counseling leadership. To accomplish this, a year-long qualitative study was designed in which the authors interviewed five new counselors who…

Dollarhide, Colette T.; Gibson, Donna M.; Saginak, Kelli A.

2008-01-01

354

A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

2013-01-01

355

Qualitative study of interpretation of reassurance among patients attending rheumatology clinics: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine commonly used methods of reassurance by clinicians and explore their effect on patients. Design Qualitative study of tape recordings of in›depth, semistructured interviews with patients before and after consultation and of their consultations with doctors. Setting NHS specialist rheumatology clinics in two large British cities. Participants 35 patients selected by consultant rheumatologists from general practitioner referral letters

Jenny L Donovan; David R Blake

2000-01-01

356

Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila

C. Fraustoreyes; C. Medinagutierrez; R. Satoberru; L. R. Sahagún

2005-01-01

357

What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and

Genevieve M Dwyer; Joy Higgs; Louise L Hardy; Louise A Baur

2008-01-01

358

Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

Ras, Gerard J. M.

2011-01-01

359

Experience of Career-Related Discrimination for Female-to-Male Transgender Persons: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, the authors examined the experience of discrimination and its relationship to the career development trajectory of 9 female-to-male transgender persons. Participants were between 21 and 48 years old and had a variety of vocational experiences. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone and analyzed…

Dispenza, Franco; Watson, Laurel B.; Chung, Y. Barry; Brack, Greg

2012-01-01

360

Finding Self: A Qualitative Study of Transgender, Transitioning, and Adulterated Silicone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…

Wallace, Phyllis M.

2010-01-01

361

Hypermedia Learning and Evaluation: A Qualitative Study of Learners' Interaction with the Perseus Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study provides a qualitative report on the integration of the extensive use of a large-scale hypermedia information system (Perseus) on CD-ROM in university class settings. Examines how the learners use Perseus to create their projects, and what their affective attitude and cognitive perceptions are towards hypermedia. (Contains…

Yang, Shu Ching

2000-01-01

362

The Social Dimension of Distance Learning by Interactive Television: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined instructors' and students' perceptions of social relationship in distance learning. Interview and observational data were collected and analyzed to generate theories. Convenient sampling was used. Factors influencing a sense of distance were analyzed. Findings revealed greater difficulty establishing a social…

Zhao, Liang

2011-01-01

363

Understanding the Experiences of Latina/o Students: A Qualitative Study for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study with nine Latina/o college students was conducted to determine their experiences with their high school teachers. After careful data analysis, the following themes emerged: (a) some Latina/o students receive high expectations and others receive low expectations, (b) low expectations for non-AP students exist, and (c) some…

Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.

2010-01-01

364

A Qualitative Study of School Social Workers' Clinical and Professional Relationships when Reporting Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored school social workers' relationships during instances of abuse and neglect reporting, focusing on reports made for children and adolescents already receiving school social work services. Although school social workers frequently file abuse and neglect reports, little is known about how they manage clinical and…

Chanmugam, Amy

2009-01-01

365

In Their Own Voices: A Qualitative Study of Men Abused as Children by Catholic Clergy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…

Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert

2008-01-01

366

A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

2012-01-01

367

A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

2007-01-01

368

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

369

Identifying Strategies for Native American Student Success in Community Colleges: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…

Baxter, Paula Jean

2009-01-01

370

Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

Rath, Jean

2008-01-01

371

Re-focusing the ethical discourse on personalized medicine: a qualitative interview study with stakeholders in the German healthcare system  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, personalized medicine (PM) has become a highly regarded line of development in medicine. Yet, it is still a relatively new field. As a consequence, the discussion of its future developments, in particular of its ethical implications, in most cases can only be anticipative. Such anticipative discussions, however, pose several challenges. Nevertheless, they play a crucial role for shaping PM’s further developments. Therefore, it is vital to understand how the ethical discourse on PM is conducted, i.e. on what – empirical and normative – assumptions ethical arguments are based regarding PM’s current and future developments. Methods To gather this information, we conducted a qualitative interview study with stakeholders in the German health care system. Our purposive sample included 17 representatives of basic research, clinical research, health economics, regulatory authorities, reimbursement institutions, pharmaceutical industry, patient organizations, as well as clinicians and legal experts involved in PM developments or policy making. We used an interview guide with open-ended questions and analyzed transcriptions of the interviews by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The respondents addressed a multitude of concerns in the context of research on as well as application of personalized preventive and therapeutic measures both on the individual and on the societal level. Interestingly, regarding future developments of PM the ethical evaluation seemed to follow the rule: the less likely its application, the more problematic a PM measure is assessed. The more likely its application, on the other hand, the less problematic it is evaluated. Conclusions The results of our study suggest re-focusing the ethical discourse on PM in Germany towards a constructive ethical monitoring which ensures to include only, nevertheless all of the actual and/or potential concerns that are ethically relevant in order to allow balancing them against the actual and potential ethically relevant benefits of PM measures. To render this possible, we propose a strategy for evaluating ethical concerns in the context of PM.

2013-01-01

372

Implementation of case studies in undergraduate didactic nursing courses: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of unfolding scenario-based case studies in the didactic classroom is associated with learner-centered education. The utilization of learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies, removes the focus from the instructor and instead places it on the student. Learner-centered pedagogies are believed to improve students’ levels of cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine how nurse educators are implementing the pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The goal was to examine, document, report, and, ultimately, implement the strategies. Methods Purposeful sampling was utilized in this qualitative, multisite-designed study. For each of the four participants, three separate site visits were completed. Observations and post-observational interviews took place at each site visit. Transcribed data from interviews, observations, and course documents were imported into the computer program Nvivo8. Repetitive comparative analysis was utilized to complete the data coding process. Results The guiding research question of this study sought to investigate the implementation strategies of case studies in didactic nursing courses. The implementation of case studies by the participants reflected two primary patterns: Formal Implementation (FI) and Informal Implementation (II) of case studies. The FI of case studies was further divided into two subcategories: Formal Implementation of case studies used Inside the Classroom setting (FIIC) and Formal Implementation of cases studies used Outside of the Classroom (FIOC). Conclusion Results of this investigation have led to an increased understanding of implementation strategies of unfolding scenario-based case studies in undergraduate nursing didactic courses. Data collected were rich in the description of specific methodologies for utilization of case studies and may serve as a resource for faculty in development of creative strategies to enhance the didactic classroom experience.

2013-01-01

373

Should we exclude inadequately reported studies from qualitative systematic reviews? An evaluation of sensitivity analyses in two case study reviews.  

PubMed

The role of critical appraisal of qualitative studies in systematic reviews remains an ongoing cause for debate. Key to such a debate is whether quality assessment can or should be used to exclude studies. In our study, we extended the use of existing criteria to assess the quality of reporting of studies included in two qualitative systematic reviews. We then excluded studies deemed to be inadequately reported from the subsequent analysis. We tested the impact of these exclusions on the overall findings of the synthesis and its depth or thickness. Exclusion of so-called inadequately reported studies had no meaningful effect on the synthesis. There was a correlation between quality of reporting of a study and its values as a source for the final synthesis. We propose that there is a possible case for excluding inadequately reported studies from qualitative evidence synthesis. PMID:22865107

Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy

2012-10-01

374

General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications: qualitative and quantitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: General practitioners' (GPs) negative beliefs about nicotine dependence medications may act as barriers to prescribing them. METHODS: Study1: Twenty-five GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes. Study 2: A convenience sample of 367 GPs completed an internet-based survey. Path-analysis was used to examine the relations between

Florian Vogt; Sue Hall; Theresa M Marteau

2006-01-01

375

Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.

Krasner, Herb

1988-01-01

376

An empirical study of static program slice size  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a study of all slices from 43 programs, ranging up to 136,000 lines of code in size. The study investigates the effect of five aspects that affect slice size. Three slicing algorithms are used to study two algorithmic aspects: calling-context treatment and slice granularity. The remaining three aspects affect the upstream dependencies considered by the

David Binkley; Nicolas Gold; Mark Harman

2007-01-01

377

An Empirical Review of Internet Addiction Outcome Studies in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…

Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.

2012-01-01

378

How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2007-01-01

379

Indigenous Crisis Counseling in Taiwan: An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study of an Expert Therapist  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling\\u000a in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were\\u000a conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences counseling a grief-stricken Taiwanese\\u000a family in crisis (as the context). Using

Ben C. H. Kuo; Wei-Su Hsu; Nien-Hwa Lai

2011-01-01

380

Unlocking the GATE to Differentiation: A Qualitative Study of Two Self-Contained Gifted Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this qualitative study was to examine and describe the differentiation strategies implemented in 4th- and 5th-grade gifted classrooms, both self-contained, at a public elementary school located in California. This study documented, described, and captured the daily practice of two teachers and the teaching and learning experiences that occurred in a self-contained gifted program. Findings illuminated strategies

Robin Linn-Cohen; Nancy B. Hertzog

2007-01-01

381

A qualitative study of persons who are 100% adherent to antiretroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined the medication-taking behaviors and attitudes of participants determined to be 100% adherers to antiretroviral therapy from a NIH-funded study testing a 12-week telephone adherence intervention. Using open-ended questions, interviewers collected data on a sample of 13 informants, whose medication adherence to a randomly selected antiretroviral medication was 100%, based on a 30-day data collection using electronic

M. P. Lewis; A. Colbert; J. Erlen; M. Meyers

2006-01-01

382

Qualitative and quantitative comparison of heat separated epidermis and dermatomed skin in percutaneous absorption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), mainly regulated by the stratum corneum, was quantitatively correlated to percutaneous absorption\\u000a of compounds in human and suggested for the ex vivo assessment of skin integrity. The present study investigated qualitatively\\u000a and quantitatively the relevance of 100-?m heat separated epidermis (HSE) in percutaneous absorption studies as compared to\\u000a 500-?m dermatomed skin by dual complementary approaches. Percutaneous

Nicolas Atrux-Tallau; Fabrice Pirot; Françoise Falson; Michael S. Roberts; Howard I. Maibach

2007-01-01

383

An Empirical Test of an Inventory Model of Student Study Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an empirical evaluation of the relationship between study time and achievement. Discusses a model describing student determination and allocation of study time in a given period. Concludes that test results fail to support the theory that college students identify and use study time in order to maximize achievement. (KO)

Gleason, Joyce P.; Walstad, William B.

1988-01-01

384

Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

Stanwick, Peter A.

2010-01-01

385

Online Behavior in Virtual Space: An Empirical Study on Helping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies have acknowledged that helping behavior has many potential benefits, little research has aimed at understanding which factors would possibly enhance helping behaviors among team members in CSCL environment. Accordingly, this study was intended to identify underlying factors leading learners to collaborate in virtual CSCL…

Hsu, Jung-Lung; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Jui-Jung

2011-01-01

386

Perceptions of Contemporary Governance in Community Colleges: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study to determine and analyze the most predominant mode of governance in community colleges as perceived by college presidents, deans, chairpersons, and faculty. Includes a literature review, a discussion of the use of the "transformational model" as the study's theoretical framework, and suggestions for further research. (CBC)

Reyes, Pedro; Twombly, Susan B.

1987-01-01

387

An empirical study of secure MPEG video transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group) is an industrial standard for video processing and is widely used in multimedia applications in the Internet. However, no security provision is specified in the standard. We conducted an experimental study of previously proposed selective encryption schemes for MPEG video security. This study showed that these methods are inadequate for sensitive applications. We discuss the

Iskender Agi; Li Gong

1996-01-01

388

Using ERP and WfM Systems for Implementing Business Processes: An Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software systems mainly considered from enterprises for dealing with a business process automation belong to the following two categories: Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. The wider diffusion of ERP systems tends to favourite this solution, but there are several limitations of most ERP systems for automating business processes. This paper reports an empirical study aiming at comparing the ability of implementing business processes of ERP systems and WfMSs. Two different case studies have been considered in the empirical study. It evaluates and analyses the correctness and completeness of the process models implemented by using ERP and WfM systems.

Aversano, Lerina; Tortorella, Maria

389

Website Service Quality in Ireland: An Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that service quality is a critical determinant of website success, studies show that consumers frequently view the service quality delivered through websites as unsatisfactory. This paper outlines a study that investigated the dimensions of website service excellence valued by Irish customers of a small-to-medium enterprise specialising in gifts. The E-S-QUAL measurement instrument was applied to the customers who purchase products online from this retailer, in order to determine their purchasing patterns and the dimensions of e-service quality that they value. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of the instrument in determining gaps in e-service quality. The findings will be of benefit both to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute towards the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction in Irish online transactions.

Connolly, Regina

390

Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS) is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props) and those that hinder (burdens) behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological), social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis) and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative) hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600)

Penn, Linda; Moffatt, Suzanne M; White, Martin

2008-01-01

391

Student Stress in an FE College: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted of student stress in a further education (FE) college in northwest England. In collaboration with the college, two questionnaires were developed, one for the teaching staff and the other for the students. Questionnaires were distributed to 69 staff and 1,100 students, with a response rate of 94 percent from staff and 84…

Hayward, Abbe; Stott, Clare

1998-01-01

392

An Empirical Study of Collaborative Acoustic Source Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field biologists use animal sounds to discover the presence of individuals and to study their behavior. Collecting bio-acoustic data has traditionally been a difficult and time-consuming process in which researchers use portable microphones to record sounds while taking notes of their own detailed observations. The recent development of new deployable acoustic sensor platforms presents opportunities to develop automated tools for

Andreas Mantik Ali; Shadnaz Asgari; Travis C. Collier; Michael Allen; Lewis Girod; Ralph E. Hudson; Kung Yao; Charles E. Taylor; Daniel T. Blumstein

2009-01-01

393

An Empirical Study of Occupational Stress Transmission in Working Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between work demands, supports, and levels of psychological and physical health have been clearly established by research. There is growing evidence that occupational stressors are transmitted to spouses, with a possible subsequent effect on disease risks and life expectancy of both marital partners. The present study investigates the extent and direction of occupational stress transmission and the possible

Fiona Jones

1993-01-01

394

Factors Affecting Softlifting Intention of Computing Students: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses softlifting as a form of software piracy and describes a study that analyzed the softlifting intentions of computing students in Brunei Darussalam. Considers student attitudes; gender; family income; personal computer ownership; experience; faculty remarks; institutional monitoring; and implications for attempts to curb software piracy.…

Rahim, Md. Mahbubur; Seyal, Afzaal H.; Rahman, Mohd. Noah Abd.

2001-01-01

395

An Empirical Study of Bugs in Machine Learning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many machine learning systems that include various data mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing code and libraries have being used in real world applications. Search engines, internet advertising systems, product recommendation systems are sample users of these algorithm intensive code and libraries. Machine learning code and toolkits have also been used in many recent studies on software mining and

Ferdian Thung; Shaowei Wang; David LO; Lingxiao JIANG

2012-01-01

396

Note-Taking and Information Recall: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of recorded information from a medical interview by note-taking was compared with that received with no note-taking. The study with 46 medical students suggests that note-taking facilitates recall and that there is a progressive decay of memory recall with the passage of time between the physician-patient interview and the recording of…

May, Jerry R.; Miller, Paul R.

1977-01-01

397

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN PANIC DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Panic disorder is present in 2.9% of females and 1.3% of males in the Mexican urban population; about two thirds of these pa- tients have an associated depressive disorder. Genetics and psy- chosocial factors are intertwined in the etiology of this disorder. There are several studies related to the role of defense mecha- nisms in the pathogenesis of psychiatric

Enrique Chávez-León; María del Carmen; Lara Muñoz; Martha Patricia; Ontiveros Uribe

2006-01-01

398

Green space, soundscape and urban sustainability: an interdisciplinary, empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two typically separate issues contributing to urban quality of life: increasing noise levels and declining quality of public green space. Drawing from environmental psychology, ecology and acoustical methods, this interdisciplinary research studied the soundscapes of three green spaces in a UK city through interviews with 70 park users, the measurement of habitat and recording of sound levels.

Katherine N. Irvine; Patrick Devine-Wright; Sarah R. Payne; Richard A. Fuller; Birgit Painter; Kevin J. Gaston

2009-01-01

399

An empirical study of dynamic customer relationship management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the Gönül and Shi (1998) approach to the analysis of the optimal messaging and pricing policy mix by studying the past transaction patterns between a local supermarket and its consumers. We develop a dynamic customer relationship management model and investigate the relationship between customer utility and purchasing frequency by modifying the return function of the model discussed in

Chunqing Li; Yinfeng Xu; Hongyi Li

2005-01-01

400

Intellectual capital disclosure and intangible value drivers: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to study the relationship between intellectual capital disclosures (ICDs) and the relative importance of intangible assets as company value drivers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Annual reports of Swedish, British and Danish firms are analysed to measure the extent of ICD. The level of intellectual capital (IC) in firms, measured with proxies for the categories of human, structural

Philip Vergauwen; Laury Bollen; Els Oirbans

2007-01-01

401

The Depth and Breadth of Google Scholar: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this investigation are tests for Google Scholar publication

Chris Neuhaus; Ellen Neuhaus; Alan Asher; Clint Wrede

2006-01-01

402

Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between creativity and tolerance of ambiguity. Participants were parents and their adolescent children. Three measures of creativity were used: a divergent thinking task, a story-writing task and self-evaluation of creative attitudes and behavior. Participants completed two self-report measures of tolerance of…

Zenasni, Franck; Besancon, Maud; Lubart, Todd

2008-01-01

403

Who will buy electric cars? An empirical study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study forecasts the market potential of electric vehicles by looking at 14 categories of vehicle. It weighs the individual priorities against social preferences and a selection process is used to analyse priorities and barriers to allow individuals considered potential electric vehicle buyers to be identified.

Theo Lieven; Silke Mühlmeier; Sven Henkel; Johann F. Waller

2011-01-01

404

An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

2008-01-01

405

Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

Toker, Boran

2011-01-01

406

Combined model of empirical study for credit risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we studied the two most commonly used artificial intelligence methods (Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function network) to build the credit scoring model of applications, and analyzed the most important restraining factors of the applications of neural network which is the exponential increase in the variables bringing the model over-complex. On this basis, the author combines econometric

Han Lu; Han Liyan; Zhao Hongwei

2010-01-01

407

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Practicum Instruction: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practicum instructors play a strategic role in assisting students gain competence essential to effective practice. A study comparing the effectiveness of traditional and experimental competency-based/task-centered practicum instruction methods is reported. Students taught under the latter method performed better overall and had more confidence in…

Larsen, Jo Ann; Hepworth, Dean H.

1982-01-01

408

College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

2008-01-01

409

Corporate governance and firm performance in Russia: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the agency and institutional perspectives, this study advances several hypotheses about the board structure–firm performance relationship within Russia. We tested these hypotheses using survey data. Despite a relatively small sample size, predictions from both theoretical perspectives were supported. Specifically, we found a negative relationship between “informal” CEO duality and firm performance. This finding is noteworthy given the 1996 Russian

William Q. Judge; Irina Naoumova; Nadejda Koutzevol

2003-01-01

410

Analyzing the Decision to Get Flu Shot: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza vaccination has been shown to be cost effective in reducing morbidity and mortality and in decreasing work absenteeism and use of health-care resources. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and beliefs regarding people's vaccination decision against the influenza. It was hypothesized that Health Belief Model (HBM) categories, such as severity of illness, vaccine effectiveness and side

Yoshiro Tsutsui; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din

2008-01-01

411

An Algorithmic Approach to Error Correction: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated the effectiveness of using an algorithmic approach to error correction to help Hong Kong English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners overcome persistent lexico-grammatical problems. Ten error types were selected for the experiment, and one set of remedial instructional…

Chan, Alice Y. W.

2006-01-01

412

Exploring Tai Chi in rheumatoid arthritis: a quantitative and qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory and systemic disease which affects the musculoskeletal system. Exercise programmes are reported to improve physical functioning in patients with RA. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese martial art which combines slow and gentle movements with mental focus. The purpose of this study was to study in which way Tai Chi group exercise impacted on disease activity, physical function, health status and experience in RA patients, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (13 females, age 33-70 years) were recruited from a rheumatology department into a single group study. The patients were instructed in Tai Chi exercise twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 12 weeks follow-up were performed with a wide range of measures, including disease activity, self-reported health status, physical performance tests (Walking in Figure of Eight, Timed-Stands Test, and Shoulder Movement Impairment Scale). Qualitative data were obtained from a focus group interview conducted after completed intervention with taping and verbatim transcription. Review of the transcripts identified themes important to patients practicing Tai Chi. Results Within the group, Tai Chi practice lead to improved lower-limb muscle function at the end of intervention and at 12 weeks follow-up. Qualitative analyses showed that patients experienced improved physical condition, confidence in moving, balance and less pain during exercise and in daily life. Other experience included stress reduction, increased body awareness, confidence in moving and indicated that Tai Chi was a feasible exercise modality in RA. Conclusions Improved muscle function in lower limbs was also reflected when patient experiences with Tai Chi were studied in depth in this explorative study. The combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods shows that Tai Chi has beneficial effects on health not related to disease activity and standardised health status assessment, and may contribute to an understanding of how Tai Chi exerts its effects. Trial registration NCT00522054

2010-01-01

413

Examining e-travel sites: an empirical study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – For the internet to realise its full marketing potential, travel agencies need a well-designed e-travel site. Yet the attributes that affect customers' perceptions leading to acceptance of e-travel sites are still unclear. This study seeks to focus on why users accept or reject e-travel sites and how users' acceptance is affected by three widely recognised features of sites

Ching-Torng Lin

2010-01-01

414

A Formulative and Empirical Study of Black Families. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study on the black family was based on the position that black culture in the U.S. is the result of a special admixture of the continuation of an African world-view or cultural perspective which operates within the perspective of an Anglo-American world-view. Because this research is guided by this position, it is viewed as a…

Nobles, Wade; And Others

415

Electronic Government Services Integration Degree: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiative and development of e-Government (e-Gov) is a kind of national strategy and a systemic engineering. As a way to locate its progress, the evaluation to e-Gov platforms, Web sites, and service capabilities is critical and meaningful for their further development deeply. However, the studies in service capability evaluation also need more efforts. This article proposes the conception of

Guangwei Hu; Mingxin Lu; Wenwen Pan; Jie Wang

2008-01-01

416

Women's perceptions of homebirths in two rural medical districts in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts.

2011-01-01

417

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Proximal Goal Setting of Two Introductory Modeling Instruction Physics Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proximal goal setting has been strongly linked to self-efficacy and often occurs in successful problem solving. A qualitative study, using both observations and interviews, investigated the problem-solving processes and the self-efficacy of two students enrolled in an introductory physics course that implemented Modeling Instruction at Florida International University. We found that the problem solving process could be divided into two main phases: the goal setting process and the self-efficacy feedback loop. Further, from the qualitative data, the goal setting process could not be isolated from its impact on the self-efficacy of the students. This relationship between the goal setting strategies within the problem-solving process and self-efficacy may be linked to the retention of students in physics. We present results of the study and its possible link to student retention.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

2009-11-01

418

Professional Development for Teachers Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: A Qualitative Study of Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study, "Professional development for teachers working with culturally and linguistically diverse students: A qualitative study of teacher perceptions," was to investigate general educators' perceptions of existing professional development activities in order to identify program attributes they perceive as likely to…

Rice Doran, Patricia

2010-01-01

419

HRD Learning Participation: An Empirical Study of E-Learning Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers empirical evidence in HRD e-learning completion. Based on the Learning Participation Theory (LPT) (Wang & Wang, 2004), a study was conducted with U.S. corporate e-learners to explore the determinants of e-learning completion. The results generally confirmed the hypothesis by the LPT that individual, learning process, and…

Wang, Greg G.; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris

2006-01-01

420

An empirical study on parameter selection for multiobjective optimization algorithms using Differential Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an empirical study on multiobjective optimization algorithms based on Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is performed. The study focuses on getting good initial choices for evolutionary parameters for DE algorithm to tackle the multiobjective problem of PI controller tuning. This is an important issue in the field of control engineering, because the PI-PID controller remains a reliable digital

Gilberto Reynoso-Meza; Javier Sanchis; Xavier Blasco; Miguel Martinez

2011-01-01

421

Language Interdependence between American Sign Language and English: A Review of Empirical Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…

Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks

2012-01-01

422

A systematic review of empirical software engineering studies that analyze individual changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding, managing and reducing costs and risks inherent in change are key challenges of software maintenance and evolution, addressed in empirical studies with many different research approaches. Change-based studies analyze data that describes the individual changes that are made to software systems. This approach can be effective in order to discover cost and risk factors that are hidden at more

Hans Christian; Bente Anda; Erik Arisholm

2008-01-01

423

Evaluation research in occupational health services: general principles and a systematic review of empirical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empirical studies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on

C. T. J. Hulshof; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; F. J. van Dijk; W. E. van der Weide; I. T. J. Braam

1999-01-01

424

An Empirical Study of the Roles of Affective Variables in User Adoption of Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is built upon prior research and is an attempt to explore the roles of affective variables in user technology adoption. Two different affective variables, computer playfulness and perceived enjoyment, were examined and their relationships with each other and with cognitive and behavioral variables were hypothesized. An empirical study using survey method was conducted. Analyses with the PLS

Heshan Sun; Ping Zhang

2004-01-01

425

Measuring the Business Impact of E-Learning: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study fills a gap in the current HRD [human resource development] literature of return on investment (ROI) analysis of technology-based learning interventions. Using a Type IV control group method as defined by Wang (2002), the study empirically analyzed and measured the learning effectiveness and the business impact of an e-learning system…

Wang, Greg; Von Der Linn, Robert; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris; Sceiford, Erin

2003-01-01

426

Comparative analysis of experience-oriented customer needs based on the Kano model: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the concept of experience economy, this study starts off by proposing that goods, services, and experiences are dimensions of experience-oriented service functions, illustrating an integrated approach which adopts the basic Kano model and customer satisfaction coefficients matrix to categorize and prioritize experience-oriented service functions. An empirical study was then conducted to explore customer need attributes for digital television

Hsien-Tang Ko; Hsi-Peng Lu; Hueiju Yu

2012-01-01

427

Comparative analysis of experience-oriented customer needs based on the Kano model: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the concept of experience economy, this study starts off by proposing that goods, services, and experiences are dimensions of experience-oriented service functions, illustrating an integrated approach which adopts the basic Kano model and customer satisfaction coefficients matrix to categorize and prioritize experience-oriented service functions. An empirical study was then conducted to explore customer need attributes for digital television

Hsien-Tang Ko; Hsi-Peng Lu; Hueiju Yu

2011-01-01

428

Predicting and explaining the adoption of online trading: An empirical study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how stock investors perceive and adopt online trading in Taiwan. We developed a research model which integrates perceived risk, perceived benefit and trust, together with technology acceptance model (TAM) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspectives to predict and explain investors' intention to use online trading. The model is examined through an empirical study involving 338 subjects

Ming-chi Lee

2009-01-01

429

Sibling conflict in a single-parent family: An empirical case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rivalry and conflict among siblings are common problems that affect many contemporary families. This article presents an empirical case study of sibling conflict in a single-parent family. A theoretical perspective on sibling conflict is presented as well as the treatment plan employed and the results derived therefrom. As is standard for intensive, single case study research, the data were subjected

F. Donald Kelly; Frank O. Main

1979-01-01

430

CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AUCTIONS: POSITIVE EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS, INCENTIVE MECHANISM DESIGN, AND EMPIRICAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how poor quality of institution, such as corruption in public procurement auction, could hurt welfare. We show how competition effect could improve the cost-efficiency but not the quality of a public procurement auction with corruption. In fact, no incentive mechanism can be efficient in this auction if qualities are non-contractible. An empirical study suggests that increasing the number

Maria M. Wihardja

2010-01-01

431

A preventative approach to plagiarism: an empirical study of a first-year unit for undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an empirical study into the communications of academic values, codes and conventions within a large-scale foundation studies unit for first-year undergraduates at a regional Australian university in first semester 2005. In this unit, one of the foci was teaching students about issues of plagiarism and assessing how students reflected upon and took up those ethics. The

Sandy Darab

2006-01-01

432

Industrial alliances in aerospace and defence: An empirical study of strategic and organizational patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical study of seventy inter?firm alliances in the aerospace and defence industries reveals the importance of organizational factors in the construction of a typology of such ventures. Three types of alliances are identified. The study also suggests a link between each type and patterns of evolution of the partnerships over time.

Pierre Dussauge; Bernard Garrette

1993-01-01

433

On the Impact of Kanban on Software Project Work: An Empirical Case Study Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pertinent mission of software project man- agement is to continuously achieve more and more successful projects. In the field of software development, the Kanban method has gained momentum recently, mostly due to its linkages to Lean thinking. However, only a few empirical studies investi- gate the dynamics and impacts of Kanban on projects. The aim of this study is

Marko Ikonen; Elena Pirinen; Fabian Fagerholm; Petri Kettunen; Pekka Abrahamsson

2011-01-01

434

PostPartum Depression in the Community: a Qualitative Study From Rural South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Post-partum depression, although heterogeneous, is often considered a medical disease when viewed from the biomedical perspective. However, recent reports from the Indian subcontinent have documented psychosocial causal factors.Method: This study employed qualitative methodology in a representative sample of women in rural South India. Women in the post-partum period were assessed using the Tamil versions of the Short Explanatory Model

R. J. S. Savarimuthu; P. Ezhilarasu; H. Charles; B. Antonisamy; S. Kurian; K. S. Jacob

2010-01-01

435

Chinese older adults’ resilience to the loneliness of living alone: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate resilience factors that help Chinese older adults living alone cope with senses of loneliness.Method: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted on 13 older adults living alone in the community who did not show severe loneliness. Trained research assistants conducted interviews guided by semi-structured interview guidelines. The analysis followed a five-step interpretive approach.Results:

Vivian W. Q. Lou; Jimmy W. Ng

2012-01-01

436

Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved.Design: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews.Setting: Australian gynaecology clinics.Subjects: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist.Main outcome measures: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs.Results: Most

Anne M Kavanagh; Dorothy H Broom

1997-01-01

437

Making decisions for people with dementia who lack capacity: qualitative study of family carers in UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify common difficult decisions made by family carers on behalf of people with dementia, and facilitators of and barriers to such decisions, in order to produce information for family carers about overcoming barriers.Design Qualitative study to delineate decision areas through focus groups and complexity of decision making in individual interviews.Setting Community settings in London.Participants 43 family carers of

Gill Livingston; Gerard Leavey; Monica Manela; Deborah Livingston; Greta Rait; Elizabeth Sampson; Shilpa Bavishi; Khodayar Shahriyarmolki; Claudia Cooper

2010-01-01

438

The Long-Term Effects of Parental Alienation on Adult Children: A Qualitative Research Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative retrospective study was conducted on 38 adults who experienced parental alienation as a child. Individuals participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and submitted to a content analysis for primary themes and patterns. Findings pertaining to the long-term effects of parental alienation were analyzed for this article. Results revealed seven major areas of impact: (1) low

Amy J. L. Baker

2005-01-01

439

Communication about Children's Clinical Trials as Observed and Experienced: Qualitative Study of Parents and Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecruiting children to clinical trials is perceived to be challenging. To identify ways to optimise recruitment and its conduct, we compared how parents and practitioners described their experiences of recruitment to clinical trials.Methods and FindingsThis qualitative study ran alongside four children's clinical trials in 11 UK research sites. It compared analyses of semi-structured interviews with analyses of audio-recordings of practitioner-family

Valerie Shilling; Paula R. Williamson; Helen Hickey; Emma Sowden; Michael W. Beresford; Rosalind L. Smyth; Bridget Young

2011-01-01

440

Overcoming obstacles for adherence to phosphate binding medication in dialysis patients: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aim of this study was to explore obstacles to adherence to phosphate binding medication and to describe the measures\\u000a taken by dialysis patients to overcome these obstacles. Setting A Swedish renal unit. Method Ten patients undergoing dialysis were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and were analysed according to qualitative\\u000a content analysis. Main outcome measure Statements about barriers and

Magnus Lindberg; Per Lindberg

2008-01-01

441

Challenges in chronic illness management: a qualitative study of Australian pharmacists’ perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore pharmacists’ views on managing patients with chronic illness; to understand the incentives and barriers they perceive\\u000a and the solutions they propose to overcome these barriers. Setting Hospital pharmacists, with experience in managing people with chronic illnesses, working in western Sydney, Australia, were\\u000a interviewed during June and July 2008. Method A qualitative study involving group and individual interviews

Elin C. LehnbomJo-anne; Jo-anne E. Brien

2010-01-01

442

Prevention of type 2 diabetes in British Bangladeshis: qualitative study of community, religious, and professional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand lay beliefs and attitudes, religious teachings, and professional perceptions in relation to diabetes prevention in the Bangladeshi community.Design Qualitative study (focus groups and semistructured interviews).Setting Tower Hamlets, a socioeconomically deprived London borough, United Kingdom.Participants Bangladeshi people without diabetes (phase 1), religious leaders and Islamic scholars (phase 2), and health professionals (phase 3).Methods 17 focus groups were run

Clare Grace; Reha Begum; Syed Subhani; Peter Kopelman; Trisha Greenhalgh

2008-01-01

443

Patients' decisions about whether or not to take antihypertensive drugs: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe the ways in which patients taking antihypertensive drugs balance reservations against reasons for taking them.Design: Qualitative study using detailed interviews.Setting: Two urban general practices in the United Kingdom.Participants: Maximum variety sample of 38 interviewees receiving repeat perscriptions for antihypertensives.Main outcome measures: Interviewees' reservations about drugs and reasons for taking antihypertensives.Results: Patients had reservations about drugs generally and

John Benson; Nicky Britten

2002-01-01

444

Decision making processes in people with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To identify the themes that influence decision making processes used by patients with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction.Design: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews.Setting: Two district hospitals in North Yorkshire.Participants: 22 patients admitted to hospital with confirmed second, third, or fourth acute myocardial infarction.Main outcome measure: Patients' perceptions of their experience between the onset of symptoms and the decision to

Jill Pattenden; Ian Watt; Robert J P Lewin; Neil Stanford

2002-01-01

445

General practitioner management of intimate partner abuse and the whole family: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective To explore management by general practitioners of victimised female patients, male partners who abuse, and children in the family.Design Triangulated qualitative study comparing doctors' reported management with current recommendations in the literature.Participants 28 general practitioners attending continuing medical education about management of domestic violence.Results Doctors perceived partner abuse in diverse ways. Their gender, perceptions, and attitudes could all affect

Angela Taft; Dorothy H Broom; David Legge

2004-01-01

446

The Use of NUDIST, a Computerized Analytical Tool, to Support Qualitative Information Systems Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept

Anne Rouse; Martin Dick

1994-01-01

447

An empirical study of flight control software reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a laboratory experiment in flight control software reliability are reported. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of a pitch axis control law for a PA28 aircraft with over 14 million pitch commands with varying levels of additive input and feedback noise. The testing which uses the method of n-version programming for error detection surfaced four software faults in one implementation of the control law. The small number of detected faults precluded the conduct of the error burst analyses. The pitch axis problem provides data for use in constructing a model in the prediction of the reliability of software in systems with feedback. The study is undertaken to find means to perform reliability evaluations of flight control software.

Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

1986-01-01

448

Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during pregnancy. Electronic databases and journals were searched with seven articles included in this review. The findings demonstrated that women were aware of the health risks to the foetus associated with smoking; however knowledge of potential health risks was not sufficient to motivate them to quit. Several barriers to quitting were identified which included willpower, role, and meaning of smoking, issues with cessation provision, changes in relationship interactions, understanding of facts, changes in smell and taste and influence of family and friends. A further interesting finding was that cessation service provision by health professionals was viewed negatively by women. It was concluded that there is a shortage of qualitative studies that concentrate on the specific difficulties that pregnant women face when trying to quit smoking. PMID:19879206

Ingall, Georgina; Cropley, Mark

2010-06-01

449

Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Among Three Ethnic Subgroups of US Blacks: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently associated with one of the highest burdens of morbidity and mortality among American men and women. Racial/ethnic disparities are well documented and the subject of intense research and intervention. Our understanding of disparities related to awareness and perceptions about causes, risk, factors, and screening for CRC among subgroups of blacks in the United States is limited. This may be in part because grouping. US-born blacks and foreign-born blacks as one homogeneous group obscures possible within-group differences. This study aimed to explore the cultural perceptions of CRC among 3 ethnic subgroups of blacks: African Americans (US born), foreign-born blacks from English-speaking Caribbean countries, and Haitian-born blacks. The study was informed by a community-based participatory research approach, using a cross-sectional mixed qualitative and quantitative methods design. A total of 62 individuals from the 3 ethnic subgroups participated in semistructured, in-depth qualitative and structured quantitative interviews. Qualitative findings revealed no stark differences among the 3 ethnic subgroups in their overall perceptions of cancer as well as their attitudes related to barriers, motivation, and resources for CRC screening. However, there were subtle differences in perceptions of curability, preventive practices, and preferred sources of information among the three ethnic subgroups of US blacks. The study has important implications for the design of educational materials and targeted interventions for diverse groups of US blacks.

Gwede, Clement K.; Jean-Francois, Emmanuel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Tarver, Will L.; Thomas, Kamilah B.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.

2014-01-01

450

Perceptions of colorectal cancer among three ethnic subgroups of US blacks: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently associated with one of the highest burdens of morbidity and mortality among American men and women. Racial/ethnic disparities are well documented and the subject of intense research and intervention. Our understanding of disparities related to awareness and perceptions about causes, risk factors, and screening for CRC among subgroups of blacks in the United States is limited. This may be in part because grouping US-born blacks and foreign-born blacks as one homogeneous group obscures possible within-group differences. This study aimed to explore the cultural perceptions of CRC among 3 ethnic subgroups of blacks: African Americans (US born), foreign-born blacks from English-speaking Caribbean countries, and Haitian-born blacks. The study was informed by a community-based participatory research approach, using a cross-sectional mixed qualitative and quantitative methods design. A total of 62 individuals from the 3 ethnic subgroups participated in semistructured, in-depth qualitative and structured quantitative interviews. Qualitative findings revealed no stark differences among the 3 ethnic subgroups in their overall perceptions of cancer as well as their attitudes related to barriers, motivation, and resources for CRC screening. However, there were subtle differences in perceptions of curability, preventive practices, and preferred sources of information among the three ethnic subgroups of US blacks. The study has important implications for the design of educational materials and targeted interventions for diverse groups of US blacks. PMID:22046844

Gwede, Clement K; Jean-Francois, Emmanuel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Wilson, Shaenelle; Tarver, Will L; Thomas, Kamilah B; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Meade, Cathy D

2011-08-01

451

Violence and abuse among HIV-infected women and their children in Zambia: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16909070

Murray, Laura K; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Bolton, Paul A

2006-08-01

452

An empirical study of modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to validate the feasibility of modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy using animal experiments. The glottic area before and after surgery of 6 excised canine larynges and 10 canine larynges in vivo were compared to observe whether the glottic area following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy is adequate for breathing. Significant differences were observed between the glottic areas of the excised larynges in the initial state and following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy with the cartilage closed. However, no significant differences were observed between the glottic areas of the excised larynx in the initial state and following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy with the cartilage open. The glottic area of the larynges in vivo in the initial state and following right chordectomy via laryngofissure were not observed to be significantly different. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between the glottic areas of the larynges in vivo in the initial state and following modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy. In conclusion, modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy without tracheotomy is a feasible and efficacious means of eradicating early and selected invasive carcinomas of the larynx, which is supported by animal experiments. PMID:23407890

Xu, Hongming; Dong, Pin; Sun, Zhenfeng; Xie, Jin

2013-02-01

453

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01

454

An Empirical Study of Different Approaches for Protein Classification  

PubMed Central

Many domains would benefit from reliable and efficient systems for automatic protein classification. An area of particular interest in recent studies on automatic protein classification is the exploration of new methods for extracting features from a protein that work well for specific problems. These methods, however, are not generalizable and have proven useful in only a few domains. Our goal is to evaluate several feature extraction approaches for representing proteins by testing them across multiple datasets. Different types of protein representations are evaluated: those starting from the position specific scoring matrix of the proteins (PSSM), those derived from the amino-acid sequence, two matrix representations, and features taken from the 3D tertiary structure of the protein. We also test new variants of proteins descriptors. We develop our system experimentally by comparing and combining different descriptors taken from the protein representations. Each descriptor is used to train a separate support vector machine (SVM), and the results are combined by sum rule. Some stand-alone descriptors work well on some datasets but not on others. Through fusion, the different descriptors provide a performance that works well across all tested datasets, in some cases performing better than the state-of-the-art.

Nanni, Loris

2014-01-01

455

An empirical study of gender differences in online gambling.  

PubMed

Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions. PMID:23097131

McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

2014-03-01

456

A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia.  

PubMed

Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are high rates of smoking among Burmese men in Wollongong, Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the beliefs and experiences of Burmese refugees in Wollongong on smoking to guide the development of smoking cessation interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with Burmese refugees. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers involved with Burmese refugees. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants were aware of the health effects of tobacco smoking but had little knowledge of support for quitting. Many participants chewed betel quid and were unaware of the health consequences. Service providers noted the lack of resources on smoking and betel quid use for Burmese people. Smoking cessation interventions for Burmese people should consider the co-related use of betel quid due to the possibility of inadvertently encouraging use of betel nut as an alternative to tobacco. PMID:23892575

Furber, Susan; Jackson, Janet; Johnson, Keryn; Sukara, Radmila; Franco, Lisa

2013-12-01

457

Developing psychotherapists' competence through clinical supervision: protocol for a qualitative study of supervisory dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees’ practice and their clients’ outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 16–20 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research.

2013-01-01

458

Analytical and Methodological Issues in the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software: A Description of Three Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents perspectives on the use of data analysis software in the process of qualitative research. These perspectives were gained in the conduct of three qualitative research studies that differed in theoretical frames, areas of interests, and scope. Their common use of a particular data analysis software package allows the exploration…

Margerum-Leys, Jon; Kupperman, Jeff; Boyle-Heimann, Kristen

459

An Empirical Study of Software Reuse vs. Defect-Density and Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes results of an empirical study,where some hypotheses about the impact of reuse ondefect-density and stability, and about the impact ofcomponent size on defects and defect-density in thecontext of reuse are assessed, using historical data (\\

Parastoo Mohagheghi; Reidar Conradi; Ole M. Killi; Henrik Schwarz

2004-01-01

460

University-Industry Collaboration, Knowledge Management and Enterprise Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study is concerned with university-industry collaboration from a knowledge management perspective. The authors introduce the concepts of "enterprise-level core elements" to define the principle status of an enterprise during university-industry collaboration, and "network embeddedness" as an indication of the closeness of the…

Chen, Jin; Wei, Shiyang

2008-01-01

461

European criteria for assessing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems: Preliminary results from multiple empirical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research report provides preliminary results in terms of ERP system selection criteria across five European Union countries based on empirical studies. The paper provides a structured list of decision making criteria considered in ERP decisions and contrasts weights as well as achievement levels across countries. Research was guided by the Delone & McLean Information Systems (D&M IS) success model

Edward W. N. Bernroider; Frantisek Sudzina

462

The influence of family responsibilities, career fields and gender on career success : An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to analyze empirically the consequences of family responsibilities for career success and the influence of career context variables and gender on this relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The sample consists of 305 business school graduates (52 percent male) from a major Central European university who finished their studies around 2000 and who were in their early career

Wolfgang Mayrhofer; Michael Meyer; Michael Schiffinger; Angelika Schmidt

2008-01-01

463

Insider Trading Effects on Stock Returns around Open-Market Stock Repurchase Announcements: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we empirically examine the effects of insider trading activities, the percentage of common shares outstanding authorized for repurchase, and management ownership on stock returns around open-market stock repurchase announcements. The study is conducted on a sample of 204 firms that announced open-market stock repurchases between 1982 and 1990. Results show that insider trading activities during the month

Elias Raad; H K Wu

1995-01-01

464

Chinese Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustments to Britain: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an empirical study of the psychological and sociocultural adjustments of two cohorts of Chinese students taking a foundation course in English language at a British university. Using Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale and a modification of Ward and Kennedy's (1999) Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, quantitative data were…

Spencer-Oatey, Helen; Xiong, Zhaoning

2006-01-01

465

Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: Empirical Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning--analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of…

Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2007-01-01

466

An Empirical Study of the Impact of Complexity on Participation in Horserace Betting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research reported in this paper was to explore empirically whether levels of participation in horserace betting are affected by the complexity of the betting task. The study employed a systematic random sample of 1161 betting decisions made in UK offcourse betting offices during 1987. The research was conducted in a naturalistic setting where it was possible

Johnnie E. V. Johnson; Alistair C. Bruce

1997-01-01

467

Strategic Capabilities and Radical Innovation: An Empirical Study in Three Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines strategic capabilities as drivers of the development and launch of radical innovations. We construct a theoretical framework relating five strategic capabilities (marketing, market linking, technology, information technology, and management-related capabilities) to radical innovation. From this framework, we derive hypotheses concerning a division's propensity to engage in radical innovation. Using empirical data derived from a research study of

C. Anthony Di Benedetto; Wayne S. DeSarbo; Michael Song

2008-01-01

468

The uses of personal networked digital imaging: an empirical study of cameraphone photos and sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in networked digital imaging promise to substantially affect the near-universal experience of personal photography. Designing technology for image capture and sharing requires an understanding of how people use photos as well as how they adapt emerging technology to their photographic practices, and vice versa. In this paper, we report on an empirical study of the uses made of a

Nancy A. Van House; Marc Davis; Morgan Ames; Megan Finn; Vijay Viswanathan

2005-01-01

469

Model Selection for Equating Testlet-Based Tests in the NEAT Design: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those tests solely composed of testlets, local item independency assumption tends to be violated. This study, by using empirical data from a large-scale state assessment program, was interested in investigates the effects of using different models on equating results under the non-equivalent group anchor-test (NEAT) design. Specifically, the…

He, Wei; Li, Feifei; Wolfe, Edward W.; Mao, Xia

2012-01-01

470

Empirical study herd behavior of corporation financing in China’s listed firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are so many factors effecting the financing decision of the listed firm. Using the result of behavior finance research about herd behavior in stock market, this paper firstly constructs the herd behavior index of the financing decision of the listed firm, and then studies herd behavior of corporation financing in Chinapsilas listed firms empirically with the methods of panel

Huang Bing-yi; Li Hui-hong

2008-01-01

471

Transfer From Offline Trust to Key Online Perceptions: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has provided little evidence that trust in an offline bank can encourage adoption of the bank's online business. Yet, more and more brick-and-mortar banks and other businesses are investing in online Web sites that supposedly ldquoleveragerdquo positive consumer impressions of their offline business. The main purpose of this study is to test empirically whether or not trust in an

Kun Chang Lee; Inwon Kang; D. Harrison McKnight

2007-01-01

472

An empirical study of relationship between informal groups and perceived job satisfaction from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job satisfaction is receiving an increasing attention in China since early 1990s. However, some factors under current Chinese economical and political systems that have an impact on job satisfaction are empirically largely unknown. This study investigates the relationship between informal groups and perceived job satisfaction in the context of Chinese firms. It finds that the usage of informal groups significantly

Xu Bi-lin; Zhao Tao

2008-01-01

473

Impact Fees and the Price of New Housing: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development exactions in the form of impact fees are being used increasingly by local governments to fund the cost of providing public services necessitated by growth and development. This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to ascertain the extent to which impact fees are capitalized into the price of new, single-family dwellings. On June 3, 1974, the

Charles J. Delaney; Marc T. Smith

1989-01-01

474

Empire Express: Case Study of a New York State Resource Sharing Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of Empire Express, a resource sharing network among the libraries of the State University of New York (SUNY) University Centers at Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook, along with Syracuse University. The network involves an expedited interlibrary loan service. (Author/LRW)

Irving, Suzanne; Senglup, Karen

1997-01-01

475

An Empirical Study on Influencing Factors of Trade Credit Risk Management Performance in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firstly, the author has analyzed some relative papers of Jianmin Jia, Allen N. Berger, Xiao-jun Shi and Robert Culla, etc, and found out mistakes existing in these papers. On the basis, the author has conducted an empirical study on influencing factors of Trade Credit Risk management performance by using the method of Factor Analysis and Pearson Correlation Analysis. Research shows:

Dai Bin; Liu En-hua

2010-01-01

476

Person-Item Distance and Response Time: An Empirical Study in Personality Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the hypothesis that the response time to an item increases as the positions of the item and the respondent on the continuum of the trait that is measured draw closer together. This hypothesis has previously been stated by several authors, but so far it does not seem to have been empirically assessed in a rigorous way. A…

Ferrando, Pere J.

2006-01-01

477

Integrating Muslim Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty and Retention in the Tourism Industry: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, customer value has been the favorable theme for numerous tourism studies and reports. However, although Muslims make up one of the largest tourist markets in the world, perceived value of tourism offering oriented toward this market has not been clearly defined. Furthermore, there is a lack of systematic empirical evidence regarding the effects of Muslim Customer Perceived

Riyad Eid

2013-01-01

478

Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

2010-01-01

479

From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies On Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveys the literature examining the privatization of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) We review the history of privatization, the theoretical and empirical evidence on the relative performance of state owned and privately owned firms, the types of privatization, if and by how much privatization has improved the performance of former SOEs in non-transition and transition countries, how investors in privatizations

William L. Megginson; Jeffry M. Netter

2001-01-01

480

Increasing the utility of quantitative empirical studies for meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the long history and consistent use of quantita- tive empirical methods to evaluate information visualization techniques and systems, our understanding of interface use remains incomplete. While there are inherent limitations to the method, such as the choice of task and data, we believe the utility of study results can be enhanced if they were amenable to meta-analysis. Based on

Heidi Lam; Tamara Munzner